International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013)

Intelligent Mechatronic Braking System
G.V. Sairam1, B. Suresh2, CH. Sai Hemanth3, K. Krishna sai4
1, 4
Department of electronics and communication engineering, Kl University, A.P, India.
3
Department of mechanical engineering, Kl University, A.P, India.
2
Asst. prof. Electronics and communication engineering, Kl University, A.P, India.
Abstract— Currently, vehicles are often equipped with Section 3 presents the measurement principle and
active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, many of effective use of ultrasonic sensor. Section 4 presents
which occur in the urban environments. The most popular methodology of the system. Section 5 discuss about errors.
include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control Section 6 gives the information about the conducted
and Stability Control. All these systems employ different types
experiments and finally section 7 concludes the paper.
of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle,
and respond in an emergency situation. In this paper the use
of ultrasonic sensors in safety systems for controlling the II. LITERATURE REVIEW
speed of a vehicle is proposed. An intelligent mechatronic The existing approaches in preventing accidents are:
system includes an ultrasonic wave emitter provided on the Honda’s idea of ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) which
front portion of a car producing and emitting ultrasonic
helps the rider get a hassle free braking experience in
waves frontward in a predetermined distance. An ultrasonic
receiver is also placed on the front portion of the car muddy and watery surfaces by applying a distributed
operatively receiving a reflective ultrasonic wave signal. The braking and prevents skidding and wheel locking.
reflected wave (detected pulse) gives the distance between the Volvo is all set to launch its new XC60 SUV which will
obstacle and the vehicle. Then a microcontroller is used to sport laser assisted braking which will be capable to sense a
control the speed of the vehicle based on the detection pulse collision up to 50 mph and apply brakes automatically.
information to push the brake pedal and apply brake to the
car stupendously for safety purpose. Drawbacks in the existing approaches:
• ABS can only help if the rider applies it in the right
Keywords— ABS, Microcontroller, Piezo electric effect, time manually and maintains the distance
Stupendous braking, Ultrasonic sensor, XC60 SUV calculations. ABS has its own braking distance.
• Moreover many commuter bikes in India don’t have
I. INTRODUCTION the option of ABS because it’s very expensive.
Driving is a compulsory activity for most people. People • Volvo’s laser assisted braking could not work
use cars to move from one place to another. The number of effectively in rainfall and snowfall season and laser is
vehicles is increasing day by day. It is produced tacked easily affected by atmospheric conditions.
tightly and risk to accident. Nowadays, the numbers of In our project we are using Ultrasonic sensors and
accident is so high and uncertainly. Accidents occur Microcontroller using which the speed of the vehicle is
frequently and cause worst damage, serious injury and automatically reduced and voice alarms are given to the
death. These accidents are mostly caused by delay of the user when it approaches an object by automatically sensing
driver to hit the brake. This project is designed to develop a the position of the object/vehicle.
new system that can solve this problem where drivers may
not brake manually but the vehicles can stop automatically III. PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF ULTRASONIC SENSOR
due to obstacles.
The main target for this project is, cars can run Ultrasonic ranging and detecting devices make use of
automatic braking due to obstacles when the sensor senses high-frequency sound waves to detect the presence of an
the obstacles. The braking circuit function is to brake the object and its range.
car automatically after received signal from the sensor. These systems either measure the echo reflection of the
The primary objective of this paper is to develop a safety sound waves from objects or detect the interruption of the
car braking system using ultrasonic sensor and to design a sound beam as the objects pass between the transmitter and
vehicle with less human attention to the driving .The paper receiver.
is organized as follows: section 2 describes the principal An ultrasonic sensor typically utilizes a transducer that
components of ultrasonic sensors. produces an electrical output pulse in response to the
received ultrasonic energy.

100

Fig.1.ijetae. waves through a medium such as air. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.000 hertz. Piezoelectric materials are generally used in transducers. Such type of solids typically resonates within narrow frequency ranges. MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE AND EFFECTIVE USE OF that are outputs from the transducer.2 typical view of sensor detect the returning signals.2. it detects the distance and hence the position of the object. On the other hand when a voltage is applied across certain surfaces of a solid that exhibits the piezoelectric effect. Transducers generally These energy bursts travel from the ultrasonic sensor. By measuring the length of time output from an electrical input. Targets can have any kind of reflective form. and are returned towards the sensor as materials such as certain forms of crystal or ceramic echoes. they are used in earphones sensor head and again receives the ultrasonic waves and ultrasonic transmitters that produce a mechanical reflected from an obstacle. Transducers are the devices that convert electrical polymers.3. transmitted in a conical shape. These signals propagate through a sensing medium and the same transducer can be used to Fig.1 Operation of sensor For example.Ultrasonic sensor the "echoes" can be interpreted. and microphones that produce an electrical output Ultrasonic sensor transmits ultrasonic waves from its from a mechanical input. Some variables which can affect the operation of ultrasonic sensing include. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal. Even round objects can be targets. Most of the industrial processes. an output signal is produced to perform some kind of indicating or control function. or vice versa. ULTRASONIC SENSOR The piezoelectric effect refers to the voltage produced between surfaces of a solid dielectric (no conducting substance) when some mechanical stress is applied to it. except that the frequencies are much higher than them. the solid undergoes a mechanical distortion. The ultrasonic transducer produces ultrasonic signals. Ultrasonic sound waves are the sound waves that are above the range of human hearing capability and. create ultrasonic vibrations with the use of piezoelectric bounce off objects. reflective surface roughness or changes in temperature or humidity. are reflected from a target back to the transducer. so have a frequency above 20. April 2013) The normal frequency range for hearing of humans is roughly around 20 to 20. energy to mechanical energy. Ultrasonic sensors usually have a piezoelectric ceramic transducer that converts an Ultrasonic transducers operate to radiate ultrasonic excitation electrical signal into ultrasonic energy bursts. Any frequency which is above 20. A certain minimum distance from the sensor is required to provide a time delay so that Fig: 2. target surface angle. The below illustration shows how sound waves. 101 .com (ISSN 2250-2459. Also. they are used in phonograph cartridges. The transducer converts the received echoes into analog electrical signals IV. Our ultrasonic transducers have piezoelectric crystals which resonate to a desired frequency and convert electric energy into acoustic energy and vice versa. including almost all the sources of friction. Accordingly. Ultrasonic signals are like audible sound waves.000 hertz may be considered as ultrasonic. create some ultrasonic noise. Volume 3. strain gauges.000 hertz. from the transmission to reception of the ultrasonic wave. Issue 4.

Wait for 15uS 6. Make the I/O line high. The distance was varied At the braking circuit. 11. Finally we have the time required for the wave to go hit the obstacle and come back to the module. with the sensor at rest and no obstacles in the front. Wait for 10uS 4. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal. the distance of the obstacle from the vehicle can be Calculated by the following formula: Distance in cm = Pulse width/58 Distance in inches = Pulse width/148 Fig. After calculating the distance of the obstacle we will define variable speeds according to the distance of V. was within the range of the ultrasonic sensor.1 Measurements made with the sensor at rest and no obstacles soon as that becomes high start the timer. After this. For this project. ahead 102 . it was 1. (By using the correctly detected always. Volume 3. microcontroller vehicles was higher than the range of the ultrasonic sensor that used is ATMEGA32. In contrast to this. DDR x Register in AVR or TRIS x Register in PIC) 2. METHODOLOGY approach of the obstacle and store them in three flags.3. a hundred echoes were recorded in a range of 11 meters. April 2013) 10. 9. Issue 4.4. meaning that no objects are detected even if they are actually there and therefore causing possible collisions. showing only the signal and give the instruction to the output based on one false echo that occurred when the distance between the condition of the signal.ijetae.2 Timing diagram 13. The I/O line is made low (this may be the default state of I/O pin) 3.1 Model block diagram placed in a vehicle which approaches and moves away from another vehicle which is at rest.5. Wait for 20uS 8. the distance was measured hundred times. The processed signal will be send to the braking circuit. If the pulse width obtained is in microseconds. Braking Circuit experiment. During the A. Now make it input (by using the DDR x Register in the obstacle and come back to the module. wait till pulse is high and as soon as that becomes low copy the timer value and stop the timer. To adjust the threshold level. showing the results in Figure 5. No detection failures occurred and when the obstacle distance and controlling the speed of a vehicle are:. Module will keep it low. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. this threshold level has been used in a second experiment. Wait when the pulse is low. there is a controller that can process from about 2 meters to more than 11 meters. The threshold has been reduced slowly. Microcontroller makes the I/O line output. Make the I/O line low 7. as Fig. The steps required to read the used. Figure 4 shows the measurements resulting from this experiment. in which the sensor is Fig. which make the control system act on the brakes unnecessarily. After this.com (ISSN 2250-2459. then detection failures can occur. 12. if the threshold is too high. 5. 0   1 (1) VI. until at a final value of 2 × 10−4 a false echo has been detected. ANALYSIS OF ERRORS An insufficiently high threshold level causes the detection of false echoes produced by turbulences and irregularities in the road.

there is an ultrasonic wave generator which generates an ultrasonic wave. In that part.5. the maximum spread of the ultrasonic sound waves as they leaves the transducer. the ultrasonic transmitter transmits the Fig. An ultrasonic receiver is used for receiving the ultrasonic waves reflected from the road a) Target Angle surface to generate a received signal. This signal will be sent to an ultrasonic wave generator for generating ultrasonic waves based on the instruction signal from the timing instruction (transform electrical energy into sound wave). April 2013) Fig. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. The range in which the obstacle detected is depends on the range of ultrasonic sensors used.5. This shows reference signal. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal. there is timing instruction which generates an instruction signal for intermittently providing ultrasonic waves. the surface target object. The magnitude of the reference signal or the amplification factor of the amplifier is controlled to This term is defined as the area in which a round wand maintain a constant ratio between the averages of the will be sensed if passed through the target area.ijetae. There is an ultrasonic This term refers to the "tilt response" limitations of a transducer which will transform back the sound wave to particular sensor. it will front of a parked vehicle produce a reflected wave.4Ultrasonic transmitter d) Ultrasonic Receiver Fig. This signal is amplified by an amplifier.5. Since ultrasonic sound waves reflect from electrical energy. detect components in the amplified signal due to obstacles b) Beam Spread on the road surface. the obtained target angles indicate The amplified signal is compared with a reference signal to acceptable amounts of tilt for a given sensor. 103 .3 Test of performance c) Ultrasonic Transmitter Before transmitting the ultrasonic waves.5.6 Transmit/Receive Waveform ultrasonic waves towards a road surface to detect the obstacle. Issue 4.5 Ultrasonic receiver Fig. Volume 3. Fig.5. After the ultrasonic wave is produced.2 Measurements made with the sensor placed in a car moving in If the ultrasonic wave detects the obstacle.com (ISSN 2250-2459.

1 Circuit diagram for speed control of a vehicle Fig. April 2013) VII.com (ISSN 2250-2459.9 Wave forms of transmitted and received waves Fig. EXPERIMENTAL DISTANCE MEASUREMENT CIRCUIT Fig 5. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal.ijetae.5.7 Receive circuit output voltage and comparable voltage wave form Fig 6.2 Experimental connection for speed control for a vehicle 104 . Issue 4.8 Comparable circuit output waveforms Fig 5. 6. Volume 3. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.

3390/s100605872.htm. IET Intel. J. T. Transp. This matter. Iberoam.ijetae. a prototype of an ultrasonic distance REFERENCES measurement for stationary obstacle is obtained. This link refers to controlling the speed of vehicle accordingly to technical document that contains information about electronic predetermined distance is shown. V. The relative speed of the 1999. Syst. De Pedro. Fernando Saco. between vehicle and the obstacle. of obstacle. coupled with the fact of lower cost of measure the distance of the obstacle and it is displayed on ultrasonic sensors compared with other kinds of sensors.2009. Ind. Gonzalez. N. April 2013) Different sensors are installed in the vehicle to check Since the control system does not use the absolute speed different automotive applications. Rev. In this case. adjust the speed in order to maintain a safe distance to [5] Van NE’s. doi: 10. Pearson education. Here we used ultrasonic sensor to brake. Antonio Jiménez. computer vision or radar . or can at least reduce the injuries of Velocidad Adaptativo para Entornos Urbanos Congestionados. Perez. 15872 5888. An ultrasonic sensor. the interaction with automotive order to compare it with the distance obtained via the electronics is limited to actions on the accelerator and ultrasonic sensor. such as the sensors based on books and manuals that help us find what’s wrong with our vehicle and what needed to fix it. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. Volume 3. van SC Hagen. CONCLUSIONS reduced cost. SENSORS actions on both the accelerator and also the brake. automat. As ultrasonic sensors can detect any kind Credibility. 2008. an RFID based Intelligent quantities are used by the control system to calculate the Vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals. According to that distance we can perform could facilitate the application and mounting of the system PWM. Vicente MI lanes. occurring.com/pbanders/ecu. Onieva. this system can also prevent collision of the [6] MI lanes. In the present work. 323-330. Issue 4. control unit. cheaper and less demanding of hardware than other types [2] http://www. C. we have to calculate the safety distance as done by the currently only used the sensors to obtain the vehicle’s positioning in existing systems. is used to measure the distance [3] David Epsilon. These two Julio C. the screen. vehicle with respect to the obstacle is estimated using [4] Joshua Pérez. And [1] http://members.com (ISSN 2250-2459. M. Control vehicle with pedestrians. of sensors presently used. Informat. E. 66-73. I: Improving Speed behavior: The Potential of In-Car Speed Assistance and Speed Limit prevent accidents. Houtenbos. Diaz and Teresa de Pedro. An embedded software premier. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal. consecutive samples of the distance calculated.com/ this website contains technical articles.aa1car.rennlist. helping to improve comfort and safety and offer a hassle free driving experience at a VIII. 105 . 2. thus to 2010. in many low-end vehicles.