Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN

Life Processes - Control
and Co-ordination
3
GRASPING POINTS
• Property of responding to changes in the environment is called Irritability.
• Nervous system consists of receptors, effectors and conductors.
• The three basic components of Nervous system are
a) Central Nervous system (CNS),
b) Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
c) Automatic nervous system (ANS).
• Brain and spinal cord are the components of Central Nervous System.
• Brain is divided into three parts - forebrain, mid brain and hind brain.
• Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain.
• Parts of the brain below the cerebrum are together known as ‘dienchephalon’.
• Spinal Cord is a long and cylindrical structural passing through vertebral column.
• Peripheral Nervous System includes twelve pairs of cranial nerves and thirty
one pairs of spinal nerves.
• Eyes are the organs of sight and are stimulated by light.
• Diabetic retinopathy, Astigmation, Glaucoma are the disorders of eye.
• The human ears are the sense organs meant for hearing and maintenance of
body balance.
• The Nose is the organ of smell and breathing.
• Exocrine glands discharge their secretions through the ducts to their largest
organs.
• Endocrine glands discharge their secretions directly into blood system.
• Pituitary gland is a tiny gland of the size of a ‘pea’ situated at the base of the
brain.
• Thyroid gland is located close to the trachea in the neck.
• There are four very small parathyroid glands embedded in the tissues of the
thyroid gland.
• There are two adrenal glands - one on the upper part of each kidney.
• Pancreas is a mixed gland with a portion functioning as an exocrine gland and
another portion functioning as endocrine gland.
• The testis secrete the male sex hormones called androgens.
• The ovaries secrete female sex hormones called estrogens.
• Deficiency of estrogens causes infertility.
• Deficiency of estrogens may cause sterility.

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The largest part of the fore brain is a) Cerebrum 7. sweet taste is at c) 1400 gms. Both brain and spinal cord are covered 2. a) Spinal Cord b) Meninges c) Cranium d) duramater 4. The hind brain continues as c) Lateral rides a) Cerebrum b) Spinal Cord d) Anterior region. Brain and Spinal cord are the 1. c) 110 m/sec d) 140 m/sec. The outer surface of the eye ball is by covered by a membrane called. a) Posterior region b) Central region 13. b) 1600 gms. b) 120 m/sec. d) Spinal cord. d) 1300 gms. 212 . a) Brain b) Skin c) Bones d) Heart. 11. 16. a) Two membranes a) Fovea b) Conjunctiva b) three membranes c) Pericardium d) Tympanum. In nervous system the organ which b) Cerebellum shows visible response is : c) Dienchephalon a) Receptor b) Effector d) Medulla oblongata. c) four members d) None of the above 3. c) Sense organs d) Nerves. The supremacy of men is due to a c) Mid brain well developed d) None of the above.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material Multiple Choice Questions and answers: A) Choose the correct answer: 9. The fastest nerves can transmit 8. c) Cortex d) Medulla 5. The structure that controls reflex components of actions is a) Autonomic Nervous system a) Medulla oblongation b) Peripheral Nervous system b) Cerebrum c) Central Nervous system c) cortex d) Endocrine system. 14. Brain is protected by a bony case a) Auditory canal b) Eustachian tube called c) Windpipe d) Oesophagus. Cerebrum and Dienchephalon are a) Parathyroid b) Pituitary the parts of c) Gonad d) Adrenal a) Hind brain b) Fore brain 6. The passage which connects middle ear to throat. A gland embedded in another gland. The part of the tongue where we 12. 10. 15. c) Conductors d) Nerves. The brain of adult man weight about find the taste buds responsible to feel a) 1500 gms. In higher animals the receptors are messages at over a) Muscles b) glands a) 130 m/sec.

c) Muscles d) Glands. 18. The high degree of intelligence of the 24. c) Will power d) Memory power. This passing through vertebral column is a) Cerebrum is called b) Medulla Oblongata a) Reasoning Power c) Spinal Cord b) Emotional power d) Cerebellum. Name the part which transmits the nerve fibres connecting cerebrum to impulse from he sensory neuron to cerebellum. a motor neuron during reflex action. c) Three meter long d) None of the above. cerebellum and medulla oblongata are the parts of 29. Pons.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN 17. Name the part of brain which is a small region of brain made up of 28. The longest nerve fibres are about originate from the pons Varoli is a) Two meters long a) Five pairs b) Four pairs b) One meter long c) Twelve pairs d) Eleven pairs. The region which is responsible for the maintenance of equilibrium and 31. 26. Number of cranial nerves that 30. Cranial Nerves take their origin from a) Spinal Cord b) Cerebrum a) Brain b) Sense organs c) Hind brain d) Fore brain. 21. a) Fore brain b) Hind brain a) Receptor c) Mid brain d) Cerebellum. d) Autonomic Nervous System 213 . Number of pairs of nerves arising from the spinal Cord is 19. Name the part of Dienchephalon that a) 30 pairs b) 31 pairs controlls autonomic nervous system c) 33 pairs d) 34 pairs. The posterior most part of the brain human being due is to the result of is great development of a) Cerebrum a) Medulla b) Cortex b) Cerebellum c) Cerebellum d) Pons. Name the centre of reflex actions b) Medulla oblongata a) Spinal Cord c) Lower thalamus b) Medulla oblongata d) Pon Varoli c) Cerebrum d) Cerebellum. and pituitary gland. b) Motor neuron c) Association neuron d) Effector. 22. Sympathetic system and para posture of the body is sympathetic system are the parts of a) Cerebrum a) Sensory nerves b) Cerebellum b) csentral Nervous system c) Pons c) peripheral Nervous system d) Medulla oblongata. The long and cylindrical structure cells and is used when necessary. 23. c) Medulla oblongata d) Pons. 20. The information gained through the sense organs is stored in the cerebral 25. a) Hypothalamus 27.

The bulged. Each eye ball is held by 41. c) The tongue d) The Eye. Fovea is the part opposite to the 37. Name the part of an eye which 35. c) Iris to form the image d) Cornea to form the image. The cells of Iris contain pigments 46. Night blindness is known as a) Cornea b) Retina a) Myopia b) Cataract c) Iris d) Choroid. A transparent biconvex lens is located behind the 47. 40. The light rays reflected from the which are responsible for the object are focussed on the a) Shape of the eye b) Colour of the eye a) Retina to form the image c) Size of the eye b) Pupil to form the image d) Vision of the eye.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material 32. three layers of d) Deflection of light and maintain the a) The Nose b) The Skin shape of the eye. d) None of the above. The nature of image formed on the a) Two pairs of muscles retina is b) Three pairs of muscles a) Erect b) Inverted c) four pairs of muscles c) Enlarged d) reduced. c) Retina d) Iris. choroid and Retina are the shape of the eye. transparent front portion 44. 39. a) Myopia b) Hyper metropia c) Presbyopia d) Cataract. Cones are sensitive to of the sclerotic layer is a) Dim Light b) Bright light a) Pupil b) Cornea c) Yellow light d) Green light. A layer of tissue binding the pupil pupil where most clear and sharp above and below is called image is formed is also known as a) Iris b) Pupil a) Black spot b) Red Spot c) cornea d) Retina c) Yellow Spot d) White Spot 38. c) Thyroid gland b) Reflection of light and maintain the d) Pituitary gland shape of the eye. receptors. The other name of short sightedness a) Retina b) Iris is c) Conjunctiva d) Choroid. c) Nyctalopia d) Presbyopia 214 . c) Diffraction of light and maintain the 34. Conjunctiva is a thin membrane which protects 48. c) Pupil d) Iris 36. a) Sclerotic layer b) Choroid layer a) Retina b) Cornea c) Retina d) Pupil. Fluids present in the area between 33. Name the middle layer of the wall contains numerous nerve fibres and of the eye. 42. Sclerotic. The gland present in our eye is cornea and lens help in a) Salivary gland a) Refraction of light and maintain the b) Lacrymal gland shape of the eye. 45. 43.

At the inner end of the auditory 62. Name the organ which maintains the body balance 60. Gland that acts as exocrine gland as b) Posterior margin of the tongue well endocrine gland is c) Front part of the tongue a) Pancreas b) Parathyroid d) Side part of the tongue. Name the gland situated in the brain c) reduces d) Widens a) Thyroid b) Pituitary c) Adrenal d) Pancreas 51. The part of the ear which is 61. In the disorder of eye called c) Thyroid glands d) Adrenal glands glaucoma the eye ball gradually a) Bulges b) Hardens 59. The Nasal cavities are lined by a) Asthama b) Diabetics a) Squamous epithelium c) Skin disorder d) Kidney failure. The hormone which controls the d) Stapes amount of calcium salts in blood and bone is 54. Identify the odd gland out a) Salivary glands b) Pituitary gland 50. a) Utriculus b) Sacculus c) Perilymph d) Cochlea 64. The inner ear is a delicate organ a) Parathormone b) Thyroxin surrounded by a fluid called c) Cortisone d) Adrenaline. Synthetic Adrenaline is widely used in the treatment of 55. Hormone which is called ‘ d) Columnar epithelium Emergency Hormone’ is a) Adrenaline b) Thyroxin 56. c) Thyroid d) Pituitary 215 . “Personality Hormone’ is the name cartilagenous and covered with skin given to a) Ear Pinna b) Auditory Canal a) Thyroxin b) Cortisone c) Ear drum d) Tympanum c) Dopamine d) Adrenaline 53. distributed in the a) Anterior margin of the tongue 66. pain receptors people have been severely blinded and touch receptors are the receptors by the disease called of a) Astigmatism a) Eye b) Ear b) Myopia c) Tongue d) Skin c) Diabetic Retinopathy d) Glaucoma 58. Pressure receptors. Excess secretion of growth hormones a) Skin b) Ear in adults results in a disease called c) Eye d) Skin a) Dwarfism b) Gigantism c) Acromegaly d) Goitre. The taste buds of sweetness are c) Cortisone d) Parathormone. 52. A small proportion of diabetic 57.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN 49. The disease ‘Goitre’ is caused due to passage there is an obliquely placed deficiency of membrane called a) Sodium b) Iodine a) Tympanum c) Calcium d) Iron b) Pinna c) Eustachian tube 63. b) Olfactory epithelium c) Cuboidal epithelium 65.

One of the symptom of Diabetes 34 d) The Eye mellitus is 35 b) Choroid layer a) Thirst b) Fatigue 36 b) Cornea c) Fever d) Cold 37 a) Iris 38 b) Colour of the eye 70. 43 a) Retina Answers: 44 b) Bright light 1 d) Spinal cord 45 c) Yellow Spot 2 b) Conjunctiva 46 a) Retina to form the image 3 c) Windpipe 47 a) Myopia 4 c) Lateral rides 48 c) Nyctalopia 5 b) Pituitary 49 c) Diabetic Retinopathy 6 a) Brain 50 b) Hardens 7 b) Effector 51 b) Ear 8 c) Sense organs 52 a) Ear Pinna 9 c) Central Nervous system 53 a) Tympanum 10 b) three membranes 54 c) Perilymph 11 c) Cranium 55 b) Olfactory epithelium 12 c) 1400 gms. Diabetes is identified by the presence 29 a) Brain of 30 b) One meter long a) Salt in Urine b) Blood in Urine 31 d) Autonomic Nervous System c) Sugar in Urine d) Water in Urine 32 b) Three pairs of muscles 33 b) Lacrymal gland 69.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material 67. Deficiency of estrogens causes 39 a) Retina a) Pregnancy 40 a) Cornea b) Sterility 41 b) Inverted c) Low pitch voice 42 a) Refraction of light and maintain d) Development of mammary glands. 56 c) Front part of the tongue 13 b) Spinal Cord 57 d) Skin 14 b) Fore brain 58 a) Salivary glands 15 a) Cerebrum 59 b) Pituitary 16 b) 120 m/sec 60 c) Acromegaly 17 b) Cortex 61 a) Thyroxin 18 d) Memory power. 62 b) Iodine 19 a) Hypothalamus 63 a) Parathormone 20 c) Mid brain 64 a) Asthama 21 c) Hind brain 65 a) Adrenaline 22 b) Four pairs 66 a) Pancreas 23 b) Cerebellum 67 c) Increases 216 . If sufficient insulin is not produced. 24 c) Medulla oblongata glucose level in blood 25 c) Spinal Cord a) Decreases b) Doubles 26 b) 31 pairs c) Increases d) Controlled 27 a) Spinal Cord 28 c) Association neuron 68. the shape of the eye.

5. 1.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN 68 c) Sugar in Urine A: Vertical Section of the human eye.) A: Automatic response to a stimulus is called the reflex action. 69 a) Thirst 70 b) Sterility TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS B. How is human eye adapted for close and distant visions? A: While seeing the hereby objects the 2. While nervous system in human being. What is irritability? A: The property of responding to stimulus is called irritability. c) Inner ear. A: The three main parts of the ear are : 2. Answer the following questions. 217 . seeing the distant objects the A: The nervous system in the human convexity of the lens decreases. 7. b) Middle ear material. body has the following three divisions. A: The semi circular canals and the endolymph present in the inner ear help in maintaining the balance of the body. a fluid called the peri lymph. Name the three divisions of the convexity of the lens increases. is called the power of accommodation of the lens of the eye. 6. What is reflex action? Write two the distance of the object from the eye examples. Thus by increasing or decreasing a) Central nervous system the convexity of lens human eye b) Peripheral nervous system adapts for close and distant visions. Salivating on seeing desired food a) Outer ear. Withdrawing the fingers on ear? contact with a hot object. Which are the three main parts of the Eg:1. Mention the functions of the parts of vertical section of the human brain the inner ear? A: The inner ear remains surrounded by and label the parts. Draw a neat diagram showing the Auditar y ner ve carries sound vertical section of the human eye and impulses in the form of electrical label the parts. c) Autonomic nervous system. (This power of the lens of the eye to change the convexity depending on 3. Receptor cells present at the tip of the organ of Corti in the inner ear convert sound impulses into electrical impulses and sends them to the auditory nerve. Draw a neat diagram showing the 8. 4.

14. A: Human Ear and its parts. thermo receptors in the Excess of paratharmone removes skin enabled the skin to be a sense calcium from the bones making them organ. hormone called the paratharmone. Deficiency of iodine in soil. What is simple goitre? How does it cerebrum. Utriculus has The two types of glands present in the three semicircular canals and these human body are : help in maintaining the balance of the a) Ecocrine glands. water and food generally causes simple goitre. What is a gland ? Which are the two 16. body. Where are parathyroid glands reach the nose through the air. 12.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material impulses to the auditory regions of the 13. Ovaries secrete the harmones estrogens. chemo receptors. soft and spongy. Thus Parathyroid glands secrete the nose helps in smelling the objects. organ which has specialised in b) Utriculus: Utriculus is the upper secreting chemical/s having specific/s. These situated? Write the effects of the particles dissolve in the mucous hormone secreted by the parathyroid present on the olfactory epithelium glands. Draw a neat diagram of the human condition. Name the hormones secreted by gonads. A: Testes are the male gonads. Write the functions of the following types of glands present in the human A: a) Optic nerve: Optic Nerve carries body? light stimuli in the form of electrical A: Gland may be a cell or a tissue or an impulses from the eye to the brain. receptors. part of the inner ear. Which structures present in skin amount of calcium salts in blood and have made the skin a sense organ? bone. occur? A: Simple goitre a hypothyroid 9. Olfactory nerve embedded inside the tissues of the carries these stimuli in the form of thyroid glands. A: The presence of touch receptors. c) Ear drum: Ear drum separates outer 218 . electrical impulses to the brain. pain A deficiency of paratharmone leads receptors. Ovaries are the female gonads. pressure to painful muscle cramps. Paratharmone controls the 11. 10. Testes secrete the hormones androgens. In simple thyroid gland ear and label the parts. How is nose helpful in sensing smell? A: Odorous particles from the objects 15. and stimulates the receptor cells of A: Four parathyroid glands remain olfactory epithelium. b) Endocrine glands. enlarges and swelling occurs in neck.

These membranes are Additional questions and answer. The system are Brain and Spinal cord. A: Receptors: The organ which receives (b) Inner medulla: Medulla is the stimulus is called receptor. A: The largest part of the human brain is the cerebrum of fore brain. present in it. duramatar. Region of 5) What are the components of central cerebrum. are (a) Outer cortex: Cortex is composed 4) What are receptors and effectors? of cytons and forms the grey matter. visible response is effector 10) Write about cortex. brain? Write the names of the major Running away from it is the divisions of the fore brain? ‘Response’. Ear drum 6) What are meninges? Name the fluid vibrates to the sound waves. 219 . nervous system? What is the weight A: The cortex is deeply folded into ridges of an adult brain? called convolutions which increase A: The components of central Nervous the surface area of the cerebrum. hind brain. The major 3) Which are the two systems which divisions of the forebrain are (1) bring about control and co- Cerebrum (2) Dienchephalon. stimulus inside the organism is called A: The three parts of Brain are fore brain. (2marks) The space between the meninges is 1) What is stimulus and Response? filled with a water y fluid called A: Stimulus: Any external (or) internal cerebra-Spinal fluid factor that causes change in the organism is called the ‘stimulus’. midbrain. the ‘Response’. high degree of intelligence of the The weight of an adult brain is about human being is supposed to be result 1400 grams. called ‘meninges’. d) Eustachian tube: Eustachian tube A: Both brain and spinal cord are covered equalises air pressure on either side by three membranes called outer of the tympanum. Which Response: The change caused by the part continues as Spinalcord. of the great development of cortex. composed of nerve fibres and forms Effectors: The organ which shows the white matter. 8) Which is the largest part of human A: Snake is the ‘stimulus’. a co- ordination between various organ 9) What are the two major regions of systems is brought about in two cerebrum? What are they composed general ways namely control by of? ner vous system and control by A: The two major regions of Cerebrum endocrine system. The hind brain continues as spinal 2) Pick out the stimulus and response cord. middle arachnoid and inner piameter. ordination between systems A: In multicellular organism.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN ear from the middle ear. 7) Name the three parts of Brain. in the given example A person runs away from the snake.

What is Mid brain? Write its body does it connect? functions ! A: One of the most important cranial A: Mid brain is a small region of brain ner ve is Vagus (Wandering ner ve) made up of nerve fibres connecting forms the part of the autonomic nerve cerebrum to the cerebellum. 18. water balance. A: The nerves origination from the brain b) Hypothalamus : The are called its cranial nerves. the right cerebral hemisphere. What are its functions? A: The three parts of Hind Brain are A: Spinal Nerves take their origin from a) Pons Varoli Spinal Cord. Which part of the brain is brain? What is its function? affected in this cause? Give reasons A: Cerebellum is a region which lies for your answer. The nerves coming from the right side of 16. It has to the organs of the right side and grey matter in the centre surrounded vice-versa. What is the origin of Spinal Nerves? 14. Sensor y fibres carr y 220 .The nerves coming from the movements of muscles in actions like left side of the body are connected to walking or running. A: a) Thalamus : Thalamus receives ner ve impulses from many sense 17. and slap. This is due to the injury to the equilibrium and posture of the body. the organs on the right side. It co-ordinates and controls the Reasons:. Any injury It composed of a large number of to left hemisphere result in paralysis nerve cells and nerve fibres. Name the three parts of Hind Brain. 19.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material 11) A person is affected by paralysis of 15. system. reach several parts of the body. by white matter. Thirty one pairs of nerves arise from 12) Mention any one function of : the spinal cord and these branches a) Thalamus b) Hypo thalamus. All of them are mixed b) Cerebellum ner ves having both sensor y and c) Medulla oblongata motor fibres. behind and below the cerebrum. What is Spinal Cord ? What is it the body cross over and enter the left composed of? cerebral hemisphere. motor temperature. left hemisphere. Hence right A: Spinal cord is a long and cylindrical hemisphere controls the organs of the structure passing through vertebral left side and left hemisphere controls column. Where is cerebellum situated in the right side. hind brain to the forebrain. It is A: A person is affected by paralysis of right responsible for the maintenance of side. It ser ves mainly as relay station It connects to heart. appetite or mixed nerves. hypothalamus regulates body Cranial nerves may be sensory. What is Vagus? Which parts of the 13. What are cranial nerves? Write the organs and sends them to upper structure of cranial nerves? region. lungs and through which impulses move from digestive organs.

fibres and receptors. 23. smell. A: For example the sympathetic system stimulates the pupil in the eye to dilate 26) Where is the lens situated in the eye? where as para sympathetic system How is the image formed? causes it to constrict. 221 . image of the object is formed on the A: The organs through which we sense retina. What are the main functions of the 28) What is (a) optic Nerve (b) Blind spot. 24) Mention the three major layers of the • Periodic check up after 40 years of eye. We have five 27) Where is Retina found in the eye ? sense organs namely eyes. What does it contain ? tongue and skin by means of which A: Retina lines the inner surface of the we are able to see. early detection of the disease. ears. an object with the help of eyes. transparent front portion 20. layer. Which is the outer most layer? age. Motor fibres supply information required for the movement of the 25) Where is cornea found? How is it muscles. shape and distance of ‘Optic Nerve’. What is the function of the following No image is perceived at this spot Eyebrows hairs of eye brows:. Give an example for the contra of the sclerotic layer is called cornea. protected? A: The bulged. called conjunctiva. 22. functions of Sympathetic and para It is protected by a thin membrane sympathetic nervous system. What are sense organs? Name the light rays on Retina hence an inverted five sense organs of man. A: A transparent biconvex lens is located behind the Iris. human Eyes? A: a) Optic Nerve: The sensory fibres of A: Eyes are the organs of sight and are the retina form a bundle of nerves stimulated by light we can get to know and emerge from the eye ball as the the colour. hear. the objects in our environment are known as sense organs. particles that fall from above to the eye. and it is therefore called the ‘blind A: The eye brows protect eye from small spot’. eye gradually loses transparency and eye ball gradually hardens. It contains numerous ner ve and touch. size. b) Blind Spot: The cones and rods are absent at the exit of the optic nerve. prevented? Eye lids: Eye lids with the eye lashes A: • Glaucoma is a very serious disease prevent the dust particles from of the eye in which the lens of the entering eyes. nose. damage due to glaucoma. taste eye. The lens focuses the 21.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN information from organs to Spinal Sclerotic layer is the outermost white Cord. Eye brows help to shade the eyes 29) What is Glaucoma? How it can be from bright illumination. A: The three major layers of the eye are medicine and surgery can reduce (a)sclerotic (b) choroid (c) retina.

39) What is a gland ? Name any two A: Sharp objects may injure the ear glands ? drum. is detected. 34) Give reasons a) Sharp objects should not used to remove hardened wax. How do they help in hearing? 38) Draw a neat labelled diagram of a A: The middle ear consists of three small taste bud bones called the malleus. give a pinch of snuff to the person. 31) What are the different parts of outer 36) What first aid can be administered if ear? What is the function of pinna? a bead gets into the nose accidently. Incus and A: Taste bud stapes. tympanic membrane. 37) Which part of the tongue are the 32) How do the following help the ear? following taste buds situated? (a) hairs present in ears. The receptors eye. cavity. Two types of glands are :- 35) Where is olfactor epithelium a) Exocrine glads (with ducts) situated? What is its function? b) Endocrine glands (without ducts). secretion. They are connected with the • It can be removed by keeping the olfactory nerve. of smell are situated in the epithelial A: • The foreign body can be removed lining of the upper part of the nasal by causing the flow of tears. auditory canal. d) of bitter taste A: posterior region. The vibrations of the tympanum are transmitted across the middle ear by the movements of these three bones. A: A gland is an organ whose cells are b) Loud noises must be avoided. a) of Sweetness A: Hairs present in ears prevents tiny A: Front part particles entering the ear. auditory canal. 33) Mention the 3 small bones present in the middle ear. This nerve carries eye in a clean bowl of cold water impulses to the brain whenever smell or boric lotion. It The ear pinna collects the sound causes a violent sneezing and the bead waves and directs them into the will be thrown out. specialised for producing a particular A: Loud noises may damage the hearing. 222 . A: If a bead gets into the nose accidently. b) of salt taste (b) Wax cells A: anterior margin A: The wax cells on the inner lining of c) of sour taste the auditory canal produce wax which A: sides of the tongue entangle small organisms and dust.? A: The outer ear consist of pinna.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material 30) Mention any two ways by which a A: Olfactor epithelium is present in the foreign body is removed from the lining of Nasal cavities.

of it. glucose levels are low. Salivary stream. the human body? Write the structure Each adrenal gland has two parts. gland. hormone is more prior to puberty.g.hence endocrine glands are called thyroxin is called the personality ‘Hormones’. 43) What are the following : It regulates the rate of metabolism a) Gigantism and the concentration of salts in the A: If the secretion of the growth blood. A: Glucagon is secreted when the blood It secretes a hormone called thyroxin. 41) What are Hormones ? How do they A: Thyroxin influences the rate of reach respective organs ? metabolism in the body and indirectly A: Chemical substances secreted by the affects the growth of the body . 45) Why thyroxin is called personality This glucose is released into the blood Hormone? and supplied to the tissues. Exocrine glands Endocrine glands A: Exocrine glands discharge their Endocrine glands discharge their secretions through the ducts to secretions directly into blood their target organs.. respective organs through the blood and control and co-ordinates the 46) Where are adrenal glands situated ? activities of the organs. Pituitary gland is differentiated into 47) Name the hormone secreted by the two lobes namely anterior lobe and adrenal cortex ? What is its functions? posterior lobe. body? b) Dwarfism A: Insulin promotes the conversion of A: If the growth hormone is secreted less glucose to glycogen for storage in prior to puberty the growth rate is liver and muscle. They reach the hormone. 44) Where is thyroid gland situated ? Which is the hormone secreted by thyroid gland? 49) When is glucagon secreted ? What is A: Thyroid gland is situated close to the its function ? trachea in the neck. the growth rate will be high results in 48) What is the function of Insulin in the gigantism. Thyroid gland. Insulin is liberated retarded and this condition is called when the blood glucose levels are Dwarfism. Name its parts. usually when food is digested and absorbed. A: The Pituitary gland is situated at the base of the brain. 223 . It influences the conversion of glycogen into glucose. E. high. A: There are two adrenal glands one on 42) Where is pituitary gland situated in the upper part of each kidney.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN 40) Distinguish between exocrine glands endocrine glands with example. A: Cortisone is the hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. a) Outer cortex b) Inner medulla. Eg.

A: Cross section of spinal cord A: This fluid flows from brain to spinal cord and back to brain. 3) Briefly explain the structure of human cerebrum. filled with a uratery fluid called urebra . middle arachnoid and cortex is deeply folded into ridges inner piameter. Cerebral medulla is made up of white b) Name the fluid present in meninges. Cerebral hemispheres are separated from one another by a groove. matter composed of ner ve fibres A: The space between the meninges is namely axons and dendrites. Draw a flow chart showing components of human nervous system. 2(a)What are meninges ? outer cortex and inner medulla. the surface area of the cerebrum.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material Additional Questions and Answers. Cerebrum has two equal halves called the cerebral hemispheres. Cerebrum has two regions namely 224 . These membranes are called corwolutions which increase called meninges. A: Nervous system ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Central Peripheral Automic Nervous Nervous Nervous system (CNS) system(PNS) system(ANS) ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Brain Spinal Cranial spinal sympathetic para- cord nerves nerves nervous sympathetic system nervous system (Components of human nervous system). 4) Draw a neat diagram of cross section of spinal cord. c) What is the function of it. It protects brain and spinal cord from injuries and provides nutrients to the cells in brain and spinal cord. 5) Draw a neat labelled diagram A: Cerebrum is a part of the forebrain.spinal fluid. showing reflex arc Cerebrum is the largest part of the A: Reflex arc brain. Cerebral duramatar. A: Both brain and spinal cord are covered Cerebral cotex is made up of grey by three memberanes called outer matter consisting of cytons. (3 marks) 1.

nerves and these nerves are called the auditor y canal and the tympanic spinal nerves. It contains dust entering into the ear. the auditory canal. numerous nerve fibres and receptors. This are rods and cones. understand the column. mixed nerves. Cones are a) Receptor sensitive to bright light and can A: A receptor ( sense organ) that receives distinguish colours. Spinal nerves reach Pinna is a cartilagineous organ different organs of the body namely covered with skin. A: An effector where the action takes Lens focuses an inverted image on the place in response to the stimulus. sensory neuron to a motor neuron. b) Association neuron (4 marks) A: An association neuron which 1) Briefly explain how the human eye transmits the impulse from the functions. urinar y sound causes and directs them into bladder and sox glands. structure of the spinal cord. spinal cord originates 31 pairs of A: The outer ear consists of pinna. Retina lines the wax entangles small organisms and inner surface of the eye.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN 6) What are the functions of the Rods are sensitive to dim light and following in a reflex arc cannot distinguish colours. Medulla oblongata is a part impulses result in the perception of an of the nervous system. Spinal cord has white matter 2) Brief explain the structure of the out side and grey matter inside. All spinal nerves are membrane. oblongata inside the vertebral Cerebral cells analyse. Optic nerve carries the light impulses A: Spinal cord is the backward in the form of electrical impulses to continuation of the medulla the optic regions of the cerebrum. The Auditory canal has hairs at its 8) Name the two types of receptor cells opening these hairs present tiny found in retina? How are they particles entering the ear. The wax different in their function? secreting cells on the inner lining of A: The two receptor cells found in retina the auditory canal produce wax. Pinna collects the heart. The photosensitive cells of the retina convert light impulses into 7) What is spinal cord? Briefly write the electrical impulses. stomach. Additional Questions with Answers. retina. A: Light rays reflected from the objects reach the lens after passing through c) Effector the cornea and the aqueous humour. stimulus. From outer ear and its functions. At the inner end of the auditory canal 225 . Spinal cord is erect image of correct size. lungs. a long and cylindrical structure passing through the vertebral column.

4) List the import functions of the A: Location of endocrine glands in the cerebrum. middle ear. The stirrup is close to the oval window • Eyes should be washed at least (fenestra ovals) of the inner ear. human body. This air passage the eyes consult an eye specialist. • Watching television (TV) from a Incus (anvil. tasting and speaking. A: a) Cerebrum is the seat of consciousness.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material will be present a membranous e) Specific areas of cerebrum are structure called the tympanum or the associated with specific functions. location of the endocrine glands in the human body and label them. 5) Mention any four measures that can be taken to take care of the eyes. Tympanum separates the Thus there are separate centres for outer ear from the middle ear. ear drum.) and stapes (stirrup). The middle ear is connected through • Whenever you feel any trouble in a tube to the throat. is called the eustachian tube. Eustachian tube equalises air pressure 6) Draw a neat diagram. 3) Explain the structure of the middle A: Do not strain your eyes by reading in ear and write the functions of the dim light. b) Cerebrum is the seat of intelligence. twice daily. by closing them or looking off into the inner ear. distance for a few minutes. bones called the malleus (hamoner). Middle ear bones transmit the • Rest your eyes every half an hour vibrations of the tympanum to the when you are doing close work. • You should avoid bright light that A: The middle ear consists of three small shines directly into your eyes. reasoning and will power. 226 . d) Cerebrum stores the information collected through the sense organs and helps in using the same in future this is called memory. analysing them. short distance or for a long time is harmful. c) Cerebrum helps in sensing the environment by receiving impulses through sense organs. interpreting them and then understanding. tympanum vibrates to the sound waves. Showing the on the two sides of the tympanum. hearing. imagination. seeing.

adrenal gland. A: Layers of Retina showing rods and A: Location and the structure of cones. 227 .Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN 7) Draw diagrams showing the 8) Draw a neat diagram of Layers of location and the structure of Retina showing rods and cones. adrenal glands in the human body.