BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material

Microbes - The Dreadful Virus
grasp it

• A Number of diseases are being caused by harmful Microbes.
• In recent decades, man is facing a big threat from dreadful viruses such as HIV
and HBV.
• The Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) is the cause for the dreadful disease
namely ‘AIDS-Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome’.
• The Hepatitis–B(HBV) Virus causes a severe disorder of liver.
• Immunity is the capacity of the body to defend itself against the disease.
• AIDS is a condition in which the in built defence system of the body completely
break down in a gradual manner.
• AIDS is identified as ‘Syndrome’ rather than any particular type of disease.
• AIDS is associated with two main diseases namely pneumonia and Skin Cancer.
• In India the first AIDS patient was officially identified at Chennai in 1987.
• A HIV particle is spherical in shape containing RNA as its genetic material.
• HIV belongs to the retrovirus group of Viruses.
• There are ‘B’ and ‘T’ lymphocytes which provide the protection against infection.
• If a person is infected by HIV then he is termed as HIV Positive.
• AIDS is an infectious disease but is not transmitted through air, water, food etc.
• Hepatitis means inflammation of Liver.
• Hepatitis spreads through polluted water and food.
• Hepatitis B is generally spread through blood plasma.
• China and India are the two countries seriously affected by Hepatitis-B.
• Vaccines for Hepatitis-B is given three times from birth to next six moths.
• It is important to vaccinate sex workers newborn babies, hospital workers, nurses
as precautionary measure.

Multiple Choice Questions and answers:

1. Name the Virus Which causes a) Acquired Immuno Deficiency
dreadful disease namely AIDS Syndrome.
a)HIV b)HBV b) Attained Immuno Deficiency
c)HAV d)HCV Syndrome.
c) Added Immuno Deficiency
2. AIDS Stands for d) Acquired Immuno Dangerous


In India the first AIDS patient was c) Meningitis d) Jaundice officially identified in the year 1976 at 18. White patches in the mouth is one of the symptoms of the disease 5. Duration of incubation period of the c) Meningitis d) Cancer HIV adult is a) 10 to 15 years b) 2-4 years 6. In a HIV. inside the membrane a core a) AIDS b) Hepatitis B of c) Tuber Culosis d) Herpes 229 . Colour of the Skin sclera of eye and b) Pneumonia & Lungs Cancer urine turns yellow. Name the disease in which the inbuild defence system of the body a) Hepatitis B b) AIDS completely breaks down in a c) Skin Cancer d) Diarrhea gradual manner.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN 3. The condition is c) Pneumonia & Blood Cancer termed as d) Pneumonia & Bone Cancer a) Herpes b) Tuberculosis 9. AIDS is identified as ‘syndrome’ c) 8-10 years d) 1-2 years rather than any particular a) Disorder b) Disease 15. The year in which National Aids c) Deficiency d) Damage control organization in India was established 7. The most dangerous Hepatitis Virus a) Bombay b) Chennai is c) Delhi d) Calcutta a) Hepatitis A b) Hepatitis C c) Hepatitis B d) Hepatitis G 10. In a HIV ‘Reverse Transcriptase ‘ is called as an 4. AIDS was recognized with two main c) Liver d) Kidney diseases namely a) Pneumonia & Skin Cancer 17. Immunity is the capacity of the body a) Membrane b) enzyme to defend against the c) Particle d) Fatty material a) Cold b) Fever c) Disease d) Deficiency 13. Name the disorder caused by the a) Vitamins is found virus HBV b) Proteins is found a) Disorder of kidney c) Carbohydrates is found b) Disorder of Liver d) Fats found c) Disorder of Lungs d) Disorder of Heart 12. a) Hepatitis B b) AIDS 14. The disease which Spreads among c) Spherical d) Cylindrical drug addicts and patients who undergo frequent dialysis is 11. The Shape of a HIV Particle is a) Elongated b) Square 19. AIDS was recognized for the first time a) 1982 b) 1992 in USA in the year c) 1980 d) 1972 a) 1980 b) 1981 c) 1982 d) 1983 16. Hepatitis means inflammation of a) Heart b) Oesophagus 8.

24. Persistent body pain. Name the diseases in which the a) Jaundice b) Blood Cancer defense mechanism of the body c) Hepatitis-B d) Blood Clotting destroyed. Blood Donor’s should under go tests B. the year. Answer the following questions: for 1. 11) b) Proteins is found f) White patches on the mouth. 3) b) Disorder of Liver b) There will be considerable weight 4) c) Disease loss. 12) b) enzyme g) Ulcers in oesophagus. Ans: In AIDS the defense mechanism of 23.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material 20. 9) b) Chennai d) Profuse sweating. Name the countries which are 17) d) Jaundice seriously affected by Hepatitis-B 18) c) Hepatitis B a) India & Japan 19) b) Hepatitis B b) India & America 20) d) India &China c) India &Australia 21) b) Antibodies d) India &China 22) c) Hepatitis-B 23) c) 1981 21. 7) b) 1981 cough with sputum will be 8) a) Pneumonia & Skin Cancer present. 5) b) AIDS c) Itching of the Skin. Which are the precautions taken to 16) c) Liver prevent infection of HIV? 230 . a) HAV b) HBV Ans: AIDS is Acquired Immuno Deficiency c) HCV d) HIV Syndrome. What is the expansion of HIV? c) 1981 d) 1992 Ans: HIV is Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. AIDS was first recognized in USA in the body is destroyed. Hepatitis-B vaccines stimulate the 24) d) HIV body to produce a) Secretions b) Antibodies TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS c) RBC d) Plaletes 22. burning 6) b) Disease sensation in the respiratory tract. 10) c) Spherical e) Fever. Answers: 4. a) 1990 b) 1980 2. 14) c) 8-10 years 15) b) 1992 5. 3. Give the expansion of AIDS. Which of the following is the virus responsible causing AIDS. What are main symptoms of AIDS? 1) a) HIV Ans: The main symptoms of AIDS are the 2) a) Acquired Immuno Deficiency following: Syndrome a) There is total loss of immunity. 13) b) AIDS h) Memory is affected.

used by others. 6. One rather than any Particular type of of the main functions of Liver is to disease. • Induced (transplantation). rather than any particular type of a) Sexual Contact with HIV infected disease because AIDS patients show people should be avoided. Name the three types of Immuno implements used on infected person. through frequent dialysis the disease deficiency. carry out them. during acupunctures through surgical 4. with it? e) Drug-addition should be avoided. Sharing the razor suggested the name HIV. with two main diseases namely Pneumonia and Skin Cancer. Ans: AIDS was recognized for the first Needles and syringes used by drug-addicts can transmit HIV time in USA in 1981. appetite. of infected person. 7. Who discovered the AIDS Virus? Ans: Hepatitis-B Spreads through polluted Who suggested the name HIV? food and water. 231 . Ans: • Genetic (Parents to off springs). Hepatitis-B spreads. syringes and unprotected sexual The International committee on contacts and through the infected the nomenclature of viruses mother to baby. b) Cold and Flue Symptoms Ans: a) ELISA. Additional questions with answers (2 marks) Ans: Liver is considered to be the 1. French Scientists discovered transfused through unsterilized the AIDS virus. Name the tests to detect HIV. How does the infection HEPATITIS- B Virus Occur? 3. recognized for the first time? Name d) Mother infected with HIV should the two main diseases associated not breast-feed the child. c) Only HIV-free blood should be 2. Ans: The main symptoms of Hepatitis-B are:- a) Fever of mild type 5. and blood plasma.Enzyme Linked Sorbent c) Indication of Jaundice Assay. 6.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN Ans: Following precaution can be taken Ans: AIDS is identified as ‘ Syndrome’ to prevent the infection of HIV. Where and when was AIDS used for blood transfusion. What are the Symptoms of HEPATITIS. Give reason. It was associated from person to person.Polymerize chain Reaction. AIDS is identified as ‘Syndrome’ chemical factory of the body. What is main function of Liver? III. several symptoms which occur b) The needles and syringes used by HIV infected person should not be together at the same time. e) Vomiting sensation and loss of c) Western Blot. d) Severe weakness b) PCR. • Acquired (Sexually transmitted B? diseases). It happens when inflected blood is Ans: In 1983.

HIV b) Pneumonia gets adopted to the host body so c) Herpes well that the body cells tail to identity d) Meningitis this virus as intruder. patients. precautionary measure. Additional questions with answers provide the protection against (3 Marks) diseases. the Symptoms take years to appear. Why it has become difficult to intruders and try to destroy them.BANDHU PRAKASHAN Science Study Material 7. capable of giving rise to provide immunity against diseases. These should be Ans: • By shaking hands with AIDS taken. Write a few measures that can be taken to prevent Hepatitis-B. tumbles & food. How do AIDS viruses destroys the c) Sharing toilets and Bathrooms. b) Blood should be screened before • By hugging each other. 9. As and when a new DNA is 10. How do HIV get transmitted from DNA. 13. capable of giving rise to DNA. Name the methods by which Ultimately HIV destroys the natural Hepatitis-B is not transmitted. develop a vaccine for HIV? Entr y of viruses stimulates the Ans: HIV belongs to retrovirus group of production of lymphocytes which viruses. Name the two Lymphocytes which IV. Retrovirus changes its genetic HIV positive mother to her Infant? sequence frequently and hence it Ans: • To the embr yo. immunity of the body. bathrooms & should be vaccinated as swimming pools. 1) How does HIV destroys the natural Ans: There are ‘B’ and ‘T’ Lymphocytes immunity of the body? which provide protection against Ans: HIV belongs to the retrovirus group infection. 8. of viruses. it becomes difficult to develop Ans: a) Tuberculosis a vaccine to control the disease. • During delivery of the child. Name the methods by which AIDS Ans: a) Vaccines are available for is not transmitted (any 4 methods) Hepatitis-B. nurses • By using toilets. Ans: a) By shaking hands b) Eating together 2. 232 . • Breast feeding. Thus. Sex workers. transfusion. c) Babies. through the has become difficult to evolve a Placenta. ‘T’ Lymphocytes leading to d) By Mosquito bite. breaking of defence system? Ans: The white blood cells attack the 12. 11. hospital personnel lab technician. vaccine for HIV. • By sharing plates. Name any four secondary infections formed by these viruses in the host of AIDS patient? cells.

Protein cover. drugs. Due to this colour of the skin. alcoholism etc. toxic food items. a core breaking the defence system soon made up of proteins is found. Fatty layers 2. the viral diseases till his death. thus there is no stimulation of • It is covered by a membrane Lymphocytes to counter the viruses.. V. What is meant by ‘Jaundice’? • This enzyme acts as a catalyst on Ans: Liver cells are likely to be damaged RNA helping the synthesis of DNA due to intruding micro organisms. the AIDS viruses material. in the host cell. destroy the ‘T’ Lymphocytes • Inside the membrane. 3. a pigment in RBC bilirubin is released in the liver.Science Study Material BANDHU PRAKASHAN There are ‘B’ and ‘T’ lymphocytes Structure:- which provide the protection against • A HIV particle is spherical in shape infection. the patient is exposed to various • In the center of core. Draw a labeled diagram of a HIV and explain its structure. made up of two layers of a fatty At the first stage. Structure of HIV 1. the body fails to identify and material. RNA 233 . 4. sclera of eye and urine turns yellow such a condition is termed as ‘ Jaundice ‘. (4 marks) 1. Reverse Transcriptase 3. Additional questions with answers. But when the liver cells are severely damaged. When the HIV enters the containing RNA as its genetic body. during this process. This pigment gets destroyed in the liver itself. RNA along with enzyme reverse transcriptase is present. bilirubin is not diffused and its level in blood increase.