# SMK PAHI-PRA-U

PHYSIC 960
amimo edu
Document1

Chapter 9 Kinetic Theory Of Gases

9.1 Ideal gas equation
9.2 Pressure of a gas
9.3 Molecular kinetic energy
9.4 The r.m.s. speed of molecules
9.5 Degrees of freedom and law of equipartition of energy
9.6 Internal energy of an ideal gas

Introduction
Ideal gas will obey all the gas laws (Boyle's Law, Pressure Law, Charles' Law and Ideal gas
equation) exactly. Real gas at high pressure and low temperature will behave differently.

9.1 Ideal Gas Equation
Learning Outcome:
(a) use the ideal gas equation pV  nRT

Boyle's law
1. For a fixed mass of gas, pressure is inversely proportional to volume if the temperature is
constant. Boyle's law can be written as:
1
P or pV = constant or p1 V1 = p2 V2
V

Figure 9- 1

Pressure law
2. For a fixed mass of gas, pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature if the volume is
constant. Pressure law can be written as:
P P P
pT or = constant or 1  2
T T1 T2

1

SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 Figure 9.31 J K-1 mol-1 n = number of moles of the gas 2. volume and temperature). For a fixed mass of gas. volume is proportional to the absolute temperature if the pressure is constant.3 Ideal gas equation 1. we need to use ideal gas equation pV PV P V PV = nRT or = constant or 1 1  2 2 T T1 T2 where R1 = molar gas constant = 8.2 Charles’s law 3. Charles' law can be written as: V V1 V2 VT or = constant or  T T1 T2 Figure 9. The number of moles of the gas can also be expressed as: m N n or n  M NA where m = mass of gas M = molar mass of gas N = number of gas molecules 1 Calculator casio Fx570: “const 27” 2 . when all three variables present (pressure. For a fixed mass of gas.

What will be the pressure if the temperature is 60°C? Solution: P2 P1  T2 T1 P2 450  60  273 30  273 P2  495 KPa Note: Convert temperature to absolute temperature before substituting into formula Example 9 .02 x 1023 mol-1 Note: At s.2 What is the pressure of 8. (a) How many moles of gas are there in the vessel? (b) How many molecules of gas are there in the vessel? Solution: 2 Boltzman constant: “const 25” 3 .31 J mol-1 ] Solution : PV  nRT P (0. the volume of one mole of any gas = 22.16  10 5 Pa Example 9 .3 A vessel with volume 2. Relationship between Boltzmann constant and molar gas constant R k NA Boltzmann constant k2 = gas constant for 1 molecule of gas Molar gas constant R = gas constant for 1 mole of gas or = gas constant for NA molecules of gas Example 9 .t.1 An ideal gas has been placed in a tank at 30°C.4 x 10-3m3.31)(77  273) P  1. (standard temperature and pressure) i.0 litre contains an ideal gas at temperature 300 K and the pressure of the gas is 110 kPa.20 m3? [R = 8.e at 273 K and 101 kPa. The gas pressure is initially 450 kPa.0 mole of a gas at temperature 77°C occupying a volume of 0.p. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 NA = Avogadro number (number of molecules in 1 mole of gas) = 6.2)  8(8.

31 10 22 Example 9 .0882 mole (b) No.4 Two gases occupy two containers. A and B. The gas in B.16) nB  RT P (0.2 Pressure of Gases Learning Outcomes: (a) state the assumptions of the kinetic theory of an ideal gas. exerts a pressure of 450 kPa.12) (150  10 3 )(0. 1 (b) derive and use the equation for the pressure exerted by an ideal gas p   c 2  3 4 . of molecules n N A  0. What is the final pressure in the container if the temperature remains constant? Solution: The Number of moles of the gases remains constant after mixing .31)(300)  0. The gas in A.16 m3.16) Final n  RT P (0.16) ( 450 10 3 )(0. The two containers are united by a tube of negligible volume and the gases are allowed to intermingle.12  0.02  10 23  5.16)   RT RT RT P  279 kPa 9.0 litre  2000 cm3  2000 10 6 m 3 PV  nRT PV n RT (110 10 3 )(2000 10 6 )  (8.12) nA  RT (150  10 3 )(0.12 m3.0882 6. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 (a) V  2. of volume 0. PV Using Formula PV  nRT and n  RT 3 ( 450  10 )(0. of volume 0. exerts a pressure of 150 kPa.12  0. let the final pressure be P.

Forces between molecules are negligible except during collision. Consider the component of the velocity u in the x-direction. ii.4 1. Brownian movement and diffusion provide the most direct evidence for the kinetic theory. u 5 . The components of the velocity c along x. The time of collision between molecules is negligible compared with the time between collision. v. 2. However certain assumptions have to be made to simplify the mathematical theory. The gas molecules collide with one another and the walls of the containing vessel elastically. Consider a gas molecule of mass m moving with velocity c. iv. 2. Kinetic theory of gases (a)Particles in gases are relatively far apart and their interactions are consequently simplest. Kinetic theory of matter (a) all matter is made up of small particles. free and random motion. iii. the time taken for the molecule to collide with the surface X again is 2L t . t is the time taken between two opposite surface. The volume of the gas molecules is negligible compared with the volume of the gas. v and w respectively.The gas molecules are in continuous. (b)Assumptions made i . y and z directions are u.(-mu) = 2mu 3. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 1. Change of momentum on striking surface X. Pressure of A Gas Figure 9. P = mu . Assuming there is no collision between molecules as the molecule travels between two opposite surfaces. (b) these particles are in a state of continuous motion.

.....   then P   c 2  V 3 1 Nm 2 1 We can also express P  3 c as P  nm c 2 because.. + uN2) A L But component-x mean square speed (average square speed ).. Px = u Since N is large and the molecules have random L3 motion Then it’s assume that mean square speed of <u2> = <v2> = <w2> .. n = 3 . if not the particle will only drifting in one direction only 9... ...s) Speed and Mean Speed Root Mean Square Speed Root mean square speed is the square root of the mean speed-squared of the molecules in a gas... Fx = L m 2 6.  c N2 c rms   c 2   N Mean (average) Speed 6 . Pressure on x-axis. And total mean square speed : <c2> = <u2> + <v2> + <w2> = 3<u2> 1 2 Therefore <u2> = <c > 3 1 Nm 2 Hence P c 3 L3 Nm 1 Since density.... number of 3 L 3 N molecules per unit volume.. The pressure exerted by N molecules on surface X..m... Hence the rate of change of momentum due to one molecule = = t  2 L  L   u  mu 2 5. The force exerted by N molecules on surface X.. u12  u 22  u 32 ...  u N2 u 2  N mN 2 8... Px = = 3 (u12 + u22 + u32 + .. L F = (u1 + u22 + u32 + .. Therefore the Force exerted by the molecule on surface X. L Root Mean Square (r.... SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 2 p 2mu mu 4. Therefore.. c12  c 22  c 32 .. + uN2) N F m 7..

find: (a) The root mean square speed.0 4..n 1 4 2 1 1 1 Using the data in the table.6  187500 c rms  c 2   433 ms-1 Example 9 ...0 6.6 The speed of 10 particles are distributed as follows: Speed. of particles.5 Calculate the rms speed of the atoms in a sample of argon which has a density of 1. c   nc n 1(1)  4(2)  2(3)  1( 4)  1(5)  1(6)  1 4  2  1 1 1  3.. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 Mean speed is the total speed of molecules devide by number of molecules.0 2.... Solution: 1 P   c 2  3 3P c 2    3(100  10 3 )  1.0 3. (b) The mean speed of the particles.0 5.N c1  c2  .6 kg m-3 and a pressure of 100 kPa.0 No.00 ms-1 7 .  c N <c> = N Example 9 . Solution: (a) rms speed.c / ms-1 1.. c   2  nc 2 n 1(1) 2  4(2) 2  2(3) 2  1( 4) 2  1(5) 2  1(6) 2  1 4  2  1 1 1  3.35 ms-1 (b) Mean speed ...

From p = <c2> and  = = A 3 Vm Vm where M = mass of 1 mole of gas Vm = volume of 1 mole of gas NA = Avogadro number m = mass of 1 molecule 1 N AM so P= <c2> 3 Vm 1 PVm  N AM c 2 3 2. m <c2> = 0 for an ideal gas.7 In a mixture of two monoatomic gases P and Q in thermal equilibrium. 8 . 1 At T = 0 K. the molecules of Q have twice the mass of those of P. 2 Example 9 .3 Molecular Kinetic Energy Learning Outcomes : (a) state and use the relationship between the Boltzmann constant and molar gas constant R k NA (b) derive and use the expression for the mean translational kinetic energy of a molecule.2 x 10-21 J. From ideal gas equation: p Vm = RT 1 Hence N A m <c2> = RT 3 2 1 N A ( m <c2>) = RT 3 2 1 3 RT 3 m <c2> = = kT 2 2 NA 2 where k = Boltzmann constant 1 3 Mean translational kinetic energy (Kinetic Energy) of a molecule = m <c2> = kT 2 2 This mean that: Mean molecular kinetic energy  T where T is the thermodynamic temperature of the gas. 1 2 3 mc  kT 2 2 1 M N M 1. The mean translational kinetic energy of the molecules of Q is 6. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 9.

2  10 21 J 1 2 1 2 (c) m P c P   m Q c Q  2 2 2 c P  m Q 2  c Q  m P 2 2 c P  2  2 c Q  Example 9 .38 10 .67  10 27  2.2  10 21  kT 2 3  (1.67 x 10-27 kg. (ii) Its rms speed. calculate: (i) Its mean kinetic energy.38x10-23J K-1] Solution: 1 3 (a) Kinetic Energy Of Molecules m c 2   kT 2 2 3 6.8 Free neutrons in the core of a fission reactor are sometimes referred to as a `neutron gas'.23 )(310) (ii) rms speed. The mass of He atom is 4 times the mass of neutron.42  10 J 3 3(1. (a) For a free neutron of mass 1. c 2   kT  2 1. assumed to be an ideal gas. (b) Determine the temperature of helium gas. Solution: 1 3 3 (a) (i) MeanKinetic Energy  m c 2   kT  (1.77  10 3 ms-1 9 . SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 (a) What is the equilibrium temperature? (b) What is the mean translational kinetic energy of the molecules of P? (c) What is the ratio of rms speed of P to rms speed of Q? [k=1. These free neutrons may be assumed to behave as molecules of an ideal gas at a temperature of 37°C.38  10 23 )(273  23) 2 2 2  21  6.38  10 23 )T 2 T  300 K (b) The kinetic energy is proportional to T Therefore mean translational kinetic energy of molecules of P equal to mean translational kinetic energy of molecules of Q  6. whose molecules have the same rms speed as the free neutrons.

SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 1 3 (b) m c 2   kT 2 2 1 3 m He c 2  kTHe 2  2 1 3 m n c 2  kTn 2 2 m He THe  mn Tn THe  1240 K Example 9 . speed of gas molecules.s speed of the molecules is given by: 3RT  c2   M 10 . (b) sketch the molecular speed distribution graph and explain the shape of the graph (description)of the experiment is not required). (c) predict the variation of molecular speed distribution with temperature.9 At what temperature is the rms speed of gaseous hydrogen molecules (molecular weight = 2) equals to that of oxygen molecules (molecular weight = 32) at 27°C? Solution: 1 3 m c 2   kT 2 2 1 3 m H 2 c 2  kTH 2 2  2 1 3 m O2  c 2  kTO 2 2 2 m H 2 TH 2  m O2 TO2 2 THe  32 (273  27 T  19 K 9.4 RMS (root mean square) speed of molecules Learning Outcomes : (a) calculate the r.m.s speed of gas molecules =  c2   m In terms of the molar mass of the gas. From m <c2> = kT 2 2 3kT R. the r.m.m. 1 3 1.s.

the speeds M of its molecules increases. The distribution that explained about the molecular speed is Maxwellian Distribution (Maxwell- Boltzmann). 2. (c)The speed for which the number of molecules is a maximum is called the most probable speed. the area under the graph remains the same Maxwellian distribution 1. Since the total number of molecules in the gas remains constant. from the figure 9-5 above : (a)The graph is not symmetrical. It is a probability distribution for the speed of a particle constituting the gas Figure 9. and speed of the particle. 11 . where the particles move freely without interacting with one another.5 3. the mass of the particle. The speed distribution graph will thus be shifted towards higher speeds. From  c2   we can say when the temperature of the gas increases. but do not change their respective states of intramolecular excitation. 2. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 Distribution of molecular speeds at different temperatures 3RT 1. except for very brief elastic collisions in which they may exchange momentum and kinetic energy. vp. as a function of the temperature of the system. Maxwell distribution describes particle speeds in gases. (b)The lowest possible speed is zero and the highest is infinity.

A gas molecule of mass m has mean translational kinetic energy.Molecules of polyatomic gas have 3 degrees of freedom of rotational motion.6 A degree of Freedom Learning Outcomes: (a) define the degrees of freedom of a gas molecule. Vrms > v > vp (e)The area under the graph = total number of molecules in the sample. Translational energy . 12 . Therefore rotational kinetic energy is negligible. (d) state and apply the law of equipartition of energy. Diatomic . SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 (d)The mean speed is v . Degree Of Freedom The degree of freedom of a gas molecule is the number of independent ways by which energy is absorbed by the gas molecule. There are 2 degrees of freedom of rotational motion. Monoatomic . diatomic or polyatomic molecule at room temperature. (b) identify the number of degrees of freedom of a monatomic. 1 1 1 1 m <c2> = m <u2> + m <v2> + m <w2> 2 2 2 2 2. 9. Polyatomic .Molecules of a diatomic gas is regarded as a 'dumb-bell'. 1 1 1 1 I <2> = Ix <x2> + Iy <y2> + Iz <z2> 2 2 2 2 3. there are maximum three degrees of freedom. 1. The 3 independent components of its translational motion gives it three degrees of freedom. 4.Molecules of a monoatomic gas is regarded as a point. Rotational energy -In rotational motion. 5. Its moment of inertia is very small. (c) explain the variation in the number of degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule ranging from very low to very high temperatures.

The energy of vibration = kinetic energy + potential energy. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 6. From kinetic theory for gases.1 Maxwell's Law of Equipartition of Energy 1. about 50 K about 300 K about 1000K Monoatomic 3 translational 3 translational 3 translational gas 3 translational 3 translational + 2 rotational + Diatomic gas 3 translational 2 rotational = 2 vibrational = 5 degrees of freedom 7 degrees of freedom 3 translational + 3 translational + 3 rotational + Polyatomic 3 translational 3 rotational = (n x 2) vibrational gas 6 degrees of freedom where n depends on the type of molecules Table 9 . Vibrational energy . temperature. f and atomicity of gases Number of degrees Number of degrees Number of degrees Atomicity of of freedom at very of freedom at room freedom at very high gases low temperature. vibrational motion has 2 degrees of freedom. Number of degrees of freedom. temperature. 1 3 Mean translational kinetic energy of a molecule = m <c2> = kT 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 Or m <c2> = m <u2> + m <v2> + m <w2> = kT 2 2 2 2 2 13 . 7.

the internal energy of an ideal gas = kinetic energy of the molecules of the gas. the internal energy of the gas is the total kinetic energy and potential energy of the molecules of the gas. 3. For real gas. the potential energy of the molecules = 0.6 Internal Energy of An Ideal Gas Learning Outcomes: (a) distinguish between an ideal gas and a real gas. So. U= n RT 2 Example 9 . (b) explain the concept of internal energy of an ideal gas. calculate: 14 . of molecules) x (No. The mean internal energy of an ideal gas. U = total kinetic energies of the molecules in the gas 1 = (No. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 3 i. 1. for a gas with f degrees of freedom: 1 f The mean energy per molecule of the gas = f ( kT ) = kT 2 2 f f The mean energy for one mole of the gas = (NA)( kT ) = RT 2 2 f The mean energy for n mole of the gas = n RT 2 9. U= RT 2 f For n moles of gas. there is no intermolecular forces between the molecules of the gas.e energy associated with 3 degrees of freedom = kT 2 1 Therefore. energy associated with one degree of freedom = kT 2 The law of equipartition of energy The law of equipartition of energy states that the energy supplied to a system is distributed equally among all the effective degrees of freedom. (c) derive and use the relationship between the internal energy and the number of degrees of freedom. For an ideal gas. 2.10 Assuming oxygen behaves as an ideal gas. 1. of degrees of freedom per molecule) x kT 2 1 =Nf kT 2 f For 1 mole of gas. In general.

42  10 21 J 15 .02  1023  4. SMK PAHI-PRA-U PHYSIC 960 amimo edu Document1 (a) The root-mean-square speed of its molecules.61 102 ms-1 Note: (1) Root Mean Square Speed only involves translational motion. (2) The temperature of gas directly proportional to the translational kinetic energy of the molecules only (3) Rotational and vibrational kinetic energy of molecules do not affect the temperature of the gas (b) Oxygen is a diatomic gas. At T  273K.it has 5 degrees of freedom 1 T otalKinetic Energy of gases. (b) The average kinetic energy of a molecule at 273 K.U  f ( kT ) 2 5  kT 2 5  (1.8  10 23 )(273) 2  9. [1 mole of oxygen has a mass of 32 g] Solution: 1 3 (a) m c 2   kT 2 2 3kT  c2   m 3kT  M NA 3(1.38  10 23 )(273)  32  10 3 6.