Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-003
LINK – GAP ELEMENT

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
This example uses a single-bay, single-story rigid frame to test the gap link
element. This link element carries compression loads only; it has zero stiffness
when subjected to tension. The gap element is paced at the bottom of the right-
hand column in the frame. The frame is then loaded with a gravity load P (10
kips) at the center of the beam. Once the full load P is applied, a lateral load V
(20 kips) is applied, pushing the frame from right to left. The compression load
in the gap element after the full load P has been applied and the uplift at the gap
after the full load V has been applied are compared with independent hand
calculated results.

The model is created in the XZ plane. Only the Ux, Uz and Ry degrees of freedom
are active for the analysis. The gap element is modeled as a single-joint link
element at joint 2. This means that one end of the gap element is connected to the
ground and the other end is connected to joint 2. The gap element is oriented
such that its positive local 1 axis is parallel to the positive global Z axis. This is
the default orientation of single joint link elements. Only U1 degree of freedom
properties are defined for the gap element.

All three frame elements have identical properties. The compression stiffness of
the gap element is chosen to be approximately 100 times the axial stiffness of the
frame element directly above it, frame element 2. The initial gap element
opening is zero inches.

The loading is applied as follows. First the full load P is applied. Then, while the
load P is maintained, the full load V is applied. The analysis is run several times
using different types of load cases. Nonlinear static, nonlinear modal time history
and nonlinear direct time history load cases are used. See the subsequent section
titled Summary of Load Cases for more information.

Two different models are used in this example. In Model A the linear effective
stiffness of the gap element is set equal to zero. In Model B the linear effective
stiffness of the gap element is set equal to the nonlinear stiffness of the gap
element.

EXAMPLE 6-003 - 1

000 k/in Linear Ce = 0 k-sec/in 3 3 4 Nonlinear K = 200.: 0 The gap linear effective stiffness is only used for the linear load cases. then apply full load V Active Degrees of Freedom Ux.3 0.3 Z G = 11. V and MODAL. The gap linear effective stiffness is not used in the other load cases and thus has no direct effect on them. it does indirectly affect the nonlinear modal time history cases named NLMHIST1 and Joint Mass kip-s2/in NLMHIST2 because those cases are solved Joint DOF Ux DOF Uz using the modes from the load case named MODAL. 4 0.1 GEOMETRY. Uz.500 k/in2 1 2 Y Frame Section Properties Single-joint link element (gap) A = 10 in2 X with compression stiffness I = 100 in4 defined for the U1 degree of Av = 2 in2 (shear area) freedom Loading First apply full load P.2 .3 0.000 k/in Nonlinear Open = 0 in Frame Material Properties 144" 1 2 E = 29. which in this example are load cases P. Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000 REVISION NO.001 The lumped joint masses shown in the table 3 0.900 k/in2 ν = 0.1 to the right are used for the modal and modal time history analyses. PROPERTIES AND LOADING 144" Link Properties (Gap U1 DOF) P = 10 k Linear Ke (Model A) = 0 k/in V = 20 k Linear Ke (Model B) = 200. 2 0 0. however. Ry EXAMPLE 6-003 .

This load case uses default nonlinear parameters (tolerances).  20 output steps and a 2 second output time step (40 seconds of output total).9% modal damping for all modes. EXAMPLE 6-003 . A nonlinear static case starting from zero initial conditions and applying NLSTAT1 the load P. A nonlinear modal time history starting from the conditions at the end of NLMHIST1 and using a ramp load to apply the load V. except in Model B the Force Convergence Tolerance is reduced from the default 1E-05 to 1E-11.  40 second ramp load rise time. A linear static load case with a 20 kip lateral load applied in the negative V global X direction at joint 2. load V MODAL and the link element.: 0 SUMMARY OF LOAD CASES The following table summarizes the load cases that are used in this example. A ritz-type modal load case with starting loads defined for load P. A nonlinear modal time history starting from zero initial conditions and using a ramp load to apply the load P.  20 output steps and a 4 second output time step (80 seconds of NLMHIST2 output total).  Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances).3 . A nonlinear static case starting from the conditions at the end of NLSTAT1 NLSTAT2 and applying the load V.  Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances). Load Case Description A linear static load case with a 10 kip gravity load applied in the negative P global Z direction at the center of frame element 3. Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000 REVISION NO.9% modal damping for all modes.  99.  20 second ramp load rise time. NLMHIST1  99. This load case uses default nonlinear parameters (tolerances).

 Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances) except for the Maximum Iterations per Substep and the Iteration Convergence Tolerance. NLDHIST2  Mass and stiffness proportional damping is used with damping set to 99. The Maximum Iterations per Substep item is increased from the default 10 to 100.  400 output steps and a 0. The Maximum Iterations per Substep item is increased from the default 10 to 100. EXAMPLE 6-003 . NLDHIST3 except it starts from the conditions at the end of nonlinear static case NLSTAT1 instead of nonlinear direct integration time history NLDHIST1. A nonlinear direct integration time history that is the same as NLDHIST2. Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000 REVISION NO.9% at periods of 1 and 3.  Default values for all nonlinear parameters (tolerances).: 0 Load Case Description A nonlinear static case starting from the conditions at the end of the direct NLSTAT3 integration time history NLDHIST1 and applying the load V. This load case uses default nonlinear parameters (tolerances).1 second output time step (40 seconds of output total). The Iteration Convergence Tolerance is reduced from the default 1E-04 to 1E-06.4 .4 seconds.4 seconds.  800 output steps and a 0. A nonlinear direct integration time history starting from zero initial conditions and using a ramp load to apply the load P.9% at periods of 1 and 3. NLDHIST1  Mass and stiffness proportional damping is used with damping set to 99.  40 second ramp load rise time. The Iteration Convergence Tolerance is reduced from the default 1E-04 to 1E-06.1 second output time step (80 seconds of output total). except for the Maximum Iterations per Substep and the Iteration Convergence Tolerance.  20 second ramp load rise time. A nonlinear direct integration time history starting from the conditions at the end of NLDHIST1 and using a ramp load to apply the load V.

The load V is applied after load P and it causes the gap element to eventually uplift. Gap Effective Stiffness for Modal (Linear) Analysis Mode 1 Period Model k/in sec A 0 3.9% damping is applied to those modes. which is the period when the gap stiffness is 0 k/in. which is approximately 10 times the period of interest. EXAMPLE 6-003 . the period lengthens.42 sec period. Load case NLMHIST2 in Model B also requires a force convergence tolerance of 1E-11 rather than the default 1E-05. Load case NLMHIST2 in Model B requires 200 output steps (800 seconds total) instead of the 20 output steps (80 seconds total) required in Model A. which is the period when the gap stiffness is 200.5 .000 k/in and the 99. Because the modal damping coefficient is held constant. which is approximately 10 times the period of interest. The ramp rise time for this load is chosen as 20 seconds. The following table shows the first mode period obtained for the two models. which is equation of motion used to solve nonlinear modal time history analyses. helps explain the rationale for the change in the convergence tolerance.90 sec period. thus over-damping the system. is taken as the period of interest for application of the load P. Thus the 1.: 0 The ramp times for the load cases are selected using the rule of thumb that the ramp loading time should be approximately 10 times the period of interest. This over-damping that initiates when the gap opens is the reason that it takes so long for analysis to reach its final value in case NLMHIST2 for Model B.000 1. When the gap opens and the gap effective stiffness becomes zero. The following equation. The period of interest is assumed to be the period of the first mode.000 k/in. is taken as the period of interest for application of the load V. Thus the 3. This occurs because in Model B the modes are calculated using the gap effective stiffness of 200. Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000 REVISION NO.42 B 200.90 The load P is applied first and it causes the gap element to always be in compression. the percent of critical damping increases in proportion to the period lengthening. The ramp rise time for this load is chosen as 40 seconds.

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED  Gap element links  Force-controlled nonlinear static analysis  Nonlinear modal time history analysis  Nonlinear direct time history analysis  Frame point loads  Joint force loads  Joint mass assignments  Ramp loading for time histories EXAMPLE 6-003 . The nonlinear direct integration load cases need the maximum number of iterations per substep set to 100 rather than the default 10 and the iteration convergence tolerance set to 1E-06 rather than the default 1E-04. Reducing the iteration convergence tolerance to 1E-06 eliminates the slight fluctuations (high frequency chatter) in the results. In the preceding equation. r is the vector of applied loads. the program does not have to reduce the time step size below 0. .1 second to as low as approximately 1E-07 second to solve the problem. KLu(t) + KNu(t) + Cu(t) +Mu(t) + rN(t) = r(t) + KNu(t) In the preceding equation KL is the stiffness of all the linear elements. This is why the 1E-11 force convergence tolerance is required for load case NLMHIST2 in Model B.6 . Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000 REVISION NO. the relative force convergence tolerance needs to be very small to capture an accurate representation of rN. including the linear degrees of freedom of the link elements. Using the default 10 maximum iterations per substep causes the program to have to cut the time steps from the initially specified 0. and rN is the vector of forces from the nonlinear degrees of freedom of the link elements that is computed by iteration at time t. M is the diagonal mass matrix. if the KN term is very large compared to the other terms. When 100 maximum iterations per substep are allowed.: 0 . increasing the maximum allowed number of iterations per substep to 100 decreases the running time of the problem by several orders of magnitude.. For this particular example.1 second to solve the problem. C is the proportional damping matrix. KN is the linear effective stiffness matrix for all link element nonlinear degrees of freedom.

534 0% full load P is applied NLSTAT1 -4.: 0 RESULTS COMPARISON Independent results are hand calculated using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985.917 0% Link NLSTAT2 3. Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000 REVISION NO.917 0% V is applied NLDHIST2 3.917 0% inch NLDHIST3 3. The results are presented separately for Model A and Model B Results for Model A (Gap Ke = 0 k/in) Output Percent Parameter Load Case SAP2000 Independent Difference Link force after NLMHIST1 -4.534 -4.917 0% deformation after full load NLSTAT3 3.917 3.917 0% EXAMPLE 6-003 .534 0% kip NLDHIST1 -4.534 0% NLMHIST2 3.7 .

534 0% NLMHIST2 3. Ke.000 k/in) Output Percent Parameter Load Case SAP2000 Independent Difference Link force after NLMHIST1 -4. Ke.000 k/in.917 0% Link NLSTAT2 3.534 0% full load P is applied NLSTAT1 -4. Example 6-003b CONCLUSION The SAP2000 results show an acceptable comparison with the independent results both for Model A where the gap linear effective stiffness. EXAMPLE 6-003 .534 -4.534 0% kip NLDHIST1 -4. is 200. is 0 k/in and for Model B where the gap linear effective stiffness. This example illustrates that solution of nonlinear problems using gap elements can be sensitive to the convergence and iteration tolerances that are used.917 0% COMPUTER FILE: Example 6-003a. For this verification example.917 0% V is applied NLDHIST2 3.: 0 Results for Model B (Gap Ke = 200. In other situations it is helpful to run the analysis two or more times using tolerances that are different by an order of magnitude or more and verify that the results are the same.917 3.917 0% inch NLDHIST3 3. This is a good check that the tolerances used are sufficient. Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000 REVISION NO.8 .917 0% deformation after full load NLSTAT3 3. it is easy to determine if the tolerances used are sufficient because the hand calculated results were available. The comparison is exact when sufficiently small convergence tolerances are used.

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