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Aggregates
VDB2013CivilEngineeringMaterials
2015 INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PETRONAS SDN BHD
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.

WhatisAggregate?
Aggregate is Granular mineral material (such as sand, gravel, crushed stone) used with a
bonding medium (such as cement or clay) to make concrete, plaster, or terrazzo mixture.
Aggregatesareinertmaterialsmixedwithabindingmateriallikecementorlimeinthe
preparationofmortarorconcrete.Granularmaterialofmineralcompositionsuchassand,
gravel,shale,slagorcrushedstone.

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DefinitionsandImportanceofAggregates
AggregateisarocklikematerialUsedinmanycivil
engineeringandconstructionapplicationsincluding:

1. Portlandcementconcrete
2. Asphaltconcrete
3. Basematerialsforroads
4. Ballastforrailroads
5. Foundations
6. Plaster,mortar,grout,filtermaterials,etc.

AggregatesTypes Gravel
GRAVEL

1. Naturallyoccurring,waterbornpiecesofrock,inburiedorcurrentstream
beds
2. Normallyroundedwithsmoothsurfaces,otherpropertiesdependenton
parentrock
3. Crushedgravelislargergravelparticlesthathavebeenreducedinsizebya
crusher
4. Maybewashedtoremoveundesirablematerial
5. Maybescreenedtodivideintodesiredsizegroupings

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UsesofAggregates
Filler material
Dimensional Stability:
shrinkage,
thermal changes
Strength and Stiffness
Economy
To make the concrete denser

OtherTypesofaggregates
There are other uses for aggregates in highway construction. The
requirements are somewhat different from the ones already discussed;
however, in most cases, gradation as a controlling factor is common to
all applications.

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AggregatesTypes Sands
SANDS
Naturallyoccurring,waterorwindbornpiecesofrockinburiedor
currentstreambedsordunes.
Oftenroundedwithsmoothsurfaces,otherpropertiesdependenton
parentrock.
Maybewashedtoremoveundesirablematerial.
Maybescreenedtodivideintodesiredsizegroupings.

AggregatesTypes
CrushedStoneorManufacturedMineralAggregate
Rocklayersquarriedandprocessedthroughacrushingandscreenplanttoreducetodesiredsizeanddivide
intodesiredsizegroupings
Limestones anddolomites(~70%,HardtoSoft)
Granites(~15%,Hard)
Sandstones(~2%,Soft)
NormalWeight
Gravels,Sands,NormalCrushedStone,BulkSpecificGravity 2.4to2.9,BulkDensity(ofBulkUnitWeight)
1520to1680kg/m3(95to105pcf),Mostcommonlyused

LightWeight
ManufacturedorNatural,BulkDensityLessthan1120kg/m3(70pcf),
Mostcommonlyusedinlightweightconcrete,manymustbescreened
togetthedesiredsizedistribution,andsomemustbecrushed

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AggregatesforPortlandCementConcrete
AggregatesinPortlandcementconcretearerequiredtoalwaysbephysically
andchemicallystable.Otherfactorstobeconsideredinclude:

1) Thesize,distribution,andinterconnectionofvoidswithinindividual
particles
2)Thesurfacecharacterandtextureoftheparticles
3)Thegradationofthecoarseandfineaggregates
4)Themineralcompositionoftheparticles
5)Theparticleshape
6)Soundnessabrasionresistance
7)Waterabsorption

PropertiesofAggregate
Althoughsomevariationinaggregate
propertiesisexpected,characteristicsthatare
consideredinclude:

Grading.
Durability.
ParticleShapeAndSurfaceTexture.
AbrasionAndSkidResistance.
UnitWeightsAndVoids.
AbsorptionAndSurfaceMoisture.

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ClassificationofAggregate
a) AccordingtoProductionMethods

NaturalAggregates:
Takenfromnativedepositswithoutanychangeintheirnaturalstates
duringproductionexceptforcrushing,gradingorwashing.
Example:sand,gravel,crushedstone,limerock.

ByProductAggregates:
Compriseblastfurnaceslagsandcinders,flyash,etc.Cindersare
residueofcoalorwoodafterburning.

ClassificationofAggregate

ProcessedAggregates:
Heattreated,expanded
materialswithlightweight
haracteristics.
Example:Perlite,burntclays,
shales,processedflyash.
Colored Aggregates:
Glass,ceramics,manufactured
marblefordecorativeand
architecturalpurposes.

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ClassificationofAggregate
b)AccordingtoPetrological Characteristics
IgneousRocks:
Solidificationofmoltenlavaformsigneousrocks.
Example:Quartz,granite,basalt,obsidian,pumice,tuff.
SedimentaryRocks:
Obtainedbythedepositionofweatheredandtransportedpreexisting
rocks.
Example:Sandstone,limestone,shale.
IMPORTANT:Ifthesearehardanddense,OK.Ifnot,highabsorption
capacitygivesunsatisfactoryresults.

ClassificationofAggregate
SedimentaryRocks

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ClassificationofAggregate

MetamorphicRocks:
Formedatadepthunderhighheatandpressureby
thealterationsofeitherigneousrocksor
sedimentaryrocks.
Example:Marble,slate,schist.
IMPORTANT:Ifhardanddense,OK.
Iflaminated,undesirable.

ClassificationofAggregate
c)AccordingtoParticleSize
1) FineAggregate(sand):

Fineaggregateincludestheparticlesthatallpasses
through4.75mmsieveandretainon0.075mmsieve.
2)CoarseAggregate(gravel):
Coarseaggregateincludestheparticlesthat
retainon4.75mmsieve.
Silt:sizes0.0020.075mm
Clay:sizessmallerthan0.002mm

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ClassificationofAggregate
d)AccordingtoTheirUnitWeights:
1)NormalWeightAggregates:
Sand,gravelandcrushedstone.
Concreteproducedbytheseaggregates:2160to2560kg/m3

2)LightWeightAggregates:
Slag,slateandotherlightstones.
Concreteproducedbythem:240to1440kg/m3

Thisconcreteisnormallyusedforinsulationpurposes.
3)HeavyWeightAggregates:
Hemotite,baritemagnetite,steelandironpunchings.
Concreteproducedbythem:2800to6400kg/m3

ClassificationofAggregate
Weight ExamplesofAggregatesUsed UsesfortheConcrete

canbesawedornailed,alsousedforits
ultralightweight vermiculite,ceramic, diatomite,pumice,scoria,perlite,
insulatingproperties(250to1450kg/m3).

usedprimarilyformakinglightweightconcrete
lightweight expandedclay,shaleorslate,crushedbrick forstructures,alsousedforitsinsulating
properties(1350to1850kg/m3).

crushedlimestone,sand,rivergravel,
normalweight usedfornormalconcreteprojects
crushedrecycledconcrete

barlite,magnetite,steelorironshot;steeloriron usedformakinghighdensityconcretefor
heavyweight
pellets shieldingagainstnuclearradiation

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PhysicalProperties
SpecificGravity

It is formally defined as the ratio of the


mass of a unit volume of aggregate,
including the water permeable voids, at a
stated temperature to the mass of an
equal volume of gasfree distilled water at
the stated temperature. Bulk Saturated
Surface Dry (SSD) Specific Gravity.

PhysicalPropertiesofAggregate
Absoprtion,Porosity,andPermeability
SurfaceTexture
StrengthandElasticity
DensityandSpecificGravity
AggregateVoids
Hardness
ParticleShape
Coatings
UndesirablePhysicalComponents

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ChemicalProperties
ChemicalProperties
Composition
ReactionswithAsphaltandCement

AggregateSpecificGravities

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PorosityandAbsorptionofAggregates

Definition:Thepenetrationofaliquidintoaggregateparticleswithresultingincreaseinparticle
Weight.

Aggregatesarelikesponges,amountofwaterabsorbedintoporesofaggregateparticles expressedas
percentageofwatertodryweight

MechanicalPropertiesofAggregates
BondofAggregate

Bondistheinterlockingoftheaggregateandthepasteowingtothe
roughnessofthesurfaceoftheformer.

Aroughsurface,suchasthatofcrushedparticles,resultsinabetter
bond;betterbondisalsousuallyobtainedwithsofter,porousand
mineralogically heterogeneousparticles.

Noacceptedtestexists.

Generally,whenbondisgood,acrushedconcretespecimenshould
containsomeaggregateparticlesbrokenrightthrough,inadditionto
themorenumerousonespulledoutfromtheirsockets.

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StrengthofAggregate
Thecrushingstrengthofaggregatecannotbetestedwithanydirecttest.Thereare
someindirectteststoinformusaboutthecrushingstrengthofaggregate.

Testmethod:Crushingvaluetest

OtherMechanicalPropertiesofAggregates
a)Impactvalue:Impactvalueofaggregatesmeasuresthetoughness
ofparticlesbyimpact.

b)Abrasion:Abrasionofaggregatesmeasurestheresistanceof
aggregatesagainstwearing.

Itisanimportantpropertyofconcreteinroadsandinfloorsurfaces
subjectedtoheavytraffic.Themostfrequentlyusedtestmethodis
theLosAngelesAbrasionTest.

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IntroductiontoAggregates

Aggregatesgenerallyoccupy65
80%ofaconcretes volume.
Thecharacteristicsimpact
performanceoffreshand
hardenedconcrete.

AggregateSize
Twocategories:
Fine(sand)=passing#4sieve
Coarse(stone)=retainedon#4sieveorlarger

MaximumAggregateSize:
1/5minimumdimensionofnonreinforcedstructuralmember.
3/4clearspacingbetweenbarsorbetweenreinforcingbarsandforms
1/3depthofslabsongrade

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Highermaximumaggregatesizelowerspasterequirements,increases
strengthandreducesw/cratio

Excessively largeaggregatesreducestrengthduetoreducedsurface
areaforbonding.

Aggregate:ShapeandSurfaceTexture
Idealaggregates:

sphericalorcubical
roundshape,fineporoussurface
reducedparticleinteraction(friction)
resultsingoodworkabilityandgoodsurface
areaforbonding
naturalsandsaregoodexamplesofthis

Substandardaggregates:
angular
elongated
flakyorrough
highparticleinteraction
requiresmorecementpastetoachieve
workability
resultsinincreasedcost

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AggregateSoundness
Aggregate is considered unsound when volume changes in the aggregate are
induced by weather:

Alternate cycles of wetting and drying freezing and thawing results in concrete
deterioration

CharacteristicsofQualityAggregate

Shouldbeclean,hard&
freeofchemicals

Shouldretainshape,
strength&texture

Moderatetolowabsorption

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GoodGradation
Concrete with good gradation will have
fewer voids to be filled with cement paste
( economical mix)

Concrete with good gradation will have


fewer voids for water to permeate
( durability)

Particle size distribution affects:


Workability
Mix proportioning
Freezethaw resistance ( durability)

MoistureInAggregates
Aggregateshavetwotypesofmoisture:

1. Absorbedmoisture retainedinpores
2. Surfacemoisture waterattachedtosurface

Aggregateshavefourmoisturestates:
Ovendry:allmoistureremoved
Airdry:internalporespartiallyfull&surfacedry
Saturatedsurfacedry:poresfull&surfacemoisture
removed
Wet:poresfullandsurfacefilm

SSDaggregatedoesnotaddorsubtractwater
Noteasilyobtainedinthefield

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Diagrammaticrepresentationofmoistureinaggregate

MoistureStatesofAggregates

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Absorption
Wemustdeterminehowmuchwaterdry aggregatewill
consumeintoitsvoids

Thistakeswaterawayfromthemixandreduces
workability&W/Cratio

Weadjustmixproportionsforabsorption

Wewantto:

provideaggregateswaterforabsorption
maintainworkabilityofthemix

QualityControlofAggregates

Pastperformancerecordsfromsource

Laboratoryfreezethawtesting

Cyclicfreeze/thawtestingoflabbeamspecimens
Damagemeasuredbyreductioninthedynamic
modulusofelasticityofspecimens

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Maximumsizeofaggregate:thesmallestsievethatallofaparticular
aggregatemustpassthrough.

Nominalmaximumsizeofanaggregate:thesmallestsievesize
throughwhichthemajorportionoftheaggregatemustpass(90%
100%).

Example:Aggregatesizenumber7hasamaximumsizeof19mm,and
anominalmaximumsizeof12.5mm.

Strength
Generally, strength of aggregate does not influence the strength of
conventional concrete as much as the strength of the paste and the
pasteaggregate strength. However, aggregate strength becomes
important in high strength concrete.

Aggregate tensile strengths range between 2 to 15 MPa, and


compressive strengths range between 65 to 270 MPa.

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The shape and surface texture affect the properties of fresh concrete
more than the properties of hardened concrete.

Roughtexture, and angular particles require more water to produce


workable concrete than do smooth, rounded and compact particles.
For both crushed or noncrushed aggregate, proper gradation gives
the same strength for the same cement factor.

BulkDensity(ASTMC29)
Defined as the weight of the aggregate particles that would fill a unit
volume. The term bulk is used since the volume is occupied by both
the aggregates and voids. The typical bulk density used in making
normal concrete ranges from 1200 to 1750 kg/m3.

The void contents range between 30% to 45% for coarse aggregate
and 40% to 50% for fine aggregate. Void content increases with
angularity and decreases with well graded aggregate.

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RelativeDensity(SpecificGravity)
The relative density of an aggregate (ASTM C 127 and C 128) is
defined as the ratio of its mass to the mass of an equal volume of
water. It is used in certain computations for mixture proportioning
and control. Most natural aggregates have relative densities between
2.4 and 2.9 (2400 and 2900 kg/ m3).

The density of aggregate used in mixture proportioning computations


(not including the voids between particles) is determined by
multiplying the relative density of the aggregate times the density of
water (1000 kg/m3).

AbsorptionandSurfaceMoisture
Theabsorptionandsurfacemoistureofaggregatesshouldbe
determinedusingASTMC70,C127,C128,andC566sothatthe
totalwatercontentoftheconcretecanbecontrolledandthebatch
weightsdetermined.Themoistureconditionsofaggregatesare:
Ovendry
Airdry
Saturatedsurfacedry(SSD)
Damporwet

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Moistureconditionsofaggregate

FireResistanceandThermalProperties
The fire resistance and thermal properties of concrete depend on the
mineral constituents of the aggregates. Lightweight aggregates are
more fire resistance than normal weight aggregates due to their
insulation properties.

Concrete containing calcareous coarse aggregates performs better


under fire exposure than siliceous aggregate (granite or quartz).

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DurableAggregate
Durability refers to the ability of concrete to resist deterioration
from the environment or service in which it is placed.
The durability of aggregates can be conveniently divided into
physical and chemical causes. Chemical durability problems are
concerned with various forms of cement-aggregate reactions.

DurabilityofAggregates
1. Anylackofdurabilityoftheaggregatewillhavedisastrous
consequencesfortheconcrete.
2. Durabilitycanbedividedintophysicalandchemicalcauses.
3. Physicaldurability exposuretofreezingandthawing,wettingand
drying,physicalwear.
4. Chemicaldurabilityvariousformsofcementaggregatereactions
(alkalisilicaattack).

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DurabilityofAggregates
Physical Durability
Soundness: if volume changes accompanied with environmental
changes lead to the deterioration of concrete unsoundness.
Volume changes: alternate freezing and thawing, repeated
wetting and drying internal stresses volume increase.
Wear resistance: resistance to surface abrasion and wear.
Chemical Durability
It results from a reaction between reactive silica in aggregates and
alkalis compounds contained in the cement

Gradationofaggregates
Gradation describes the particle size distribution of the aggregate. The
particle size distribution is an important attribute of the aggregates.
Large aggregates are economically advantageous in Portland cement
and asphalt concrete, as they have less surface area and, therefore,
require less binder. However, large aggregate mixes, whether asphalt or
Portland cement concrete, are harsher and more difficult to work into
place. Hence, construction considerations, such as equipment
capability, dimensions of construction members, clearance between
reinforcing steel, and layer thickness, limit the maximum aggregate
size.

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Grading
Gradingisthedistributionofparticlesamongvarioussizes.Gradingis
usuallyexpressedintermsofcumulativepercentagepassingeachsieve.
Differentstandardsandspecificationsspecifygradinglimitsforbothfine
andcoarseaggregates.
Thereareseveralreasonsforspecifyinggradinglimits,theyaffect:

Cementandwaterrequirement
Workability
Economy
Shrinkageanddurabilityofconcrete

Grading
Properselectionofvarioussizeswillbeveryeffectiveinreducingthe
totalvolumeofvoidsbetweenaggregates.Thecementpaste
requirementisrelatedthevoidcontentofthecombinedaggregates.
Productionofsatisfactory;economicalconcreterequiresaggregates
oflowvoidcontent,butnotthelowest.

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SieveAnalysis
Sieveanalysisisthenameoftheoperationofdividingasampleof
aggregateintofractions,eachconsistingofparticlesofthesamesize.
Inpracticeeachfractioncontainsparticlesbetweenspecificlimits,
thesebeingtheopeningsofstandardtestsieves.

Sieves Sieveshaker

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Thefollowingtermsarerelatedtothesievingmethods:

Individual retained the mass or percentage retained on one


sieve after test
Cumulative retained sum of the mass or percentages
retained on the sieve and on all coarser sieves.
Cumulative passing sum of the mass or percentage
passing the sieve (e.g. sum of the retained on all finer sieves
and pan)
Test sieves set of sieves with given aperture sizes and
shape. The basic series of sieves (according EN 9332) are:
0.063; 0.125; 0.250; 0.500; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 63; 125 mm.

Gradingofaggregatesusingsievingmethod.

Sievingmethod
Inasieveanalysis:

Asampleofdryaggregateofknownweightisseparatedthroughaseriesofsieveswith
progressivelysmalleropenings.
Onceseparated,theweightofparticlesretainedoneachsieveismeasuredandcomparedtothe
totalsampleweight.
Particlesizedistributionisthenexpressedasapercentretainedbyweightoneachsievesize.
Resultsareusuallyexpressedintabularorgraphicalformat.
Thetestconsistsofdividingupandseparating,bymeansofseriesofsieves,amaterialinto
severalparticlesizeclassificationofdecreasingsizes.
Theaperturesizesandthenumberofsievesareselectedinaccordancewiththenatureofthe
sampleandtheaccuracyrequired.
Themassoftheparticlesretainedonthevarioussievesisrelatedtotheinitialmassofthe
material.
Thecumulativepercentagespassingeachsievearereportedinnumericalformoringraphical

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Sievingmethod

Principleofthesieveanalysismethod.

MaximumSizevs.NominalMaximumSizeof
Aggregate

Maximumsizeisthesmallestsievethatallofapar cular
aggregatemustpassthrough.
Nominalmaximumsizeisthestandardsieveopening
immediatelysmallerthanthesmallestthroughwhichallof
theaggregatemustpass.
Thenominalmaximumsizesievemayretain5%to15%

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BSandASTMGradingRequirements
forFineAggregate

GradingRequirementsforCoarse
AggregateAccordingtoASTMC3308

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RelativeValuesofSurfaceArea
andSurfaceIndex

TraditionalAmericanandBritishSieveSizes

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MinimumMassofSampleforSieveAnalysis
AccordingtoBS812103.1:1985(2000)

ExampleofSieveAnalysis

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Exampleofagradingcurve(seeTable3.18) Influenceofmaximumsizeofaggregateon
mixingwaterrequirementforaconstantslump

MinimumMassofSamplesforTesting(BS812
:102:1989)

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ParticleShapes
The shape of aggregate particles can be classified as either angular, subangular,
subrounded or rounded. Each shape has advantages and disadvantages depending
on the desired properties of the finished product.

SurfaceTexture

Howdoesitfeelwhenrubbedbetweenfingers?

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ParticleShapeClassificationofBS
8121:1975

Influenceofangularityofaggregate
onvoidsratio

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SurfaceTextureofAggregates(BS
812:1:1975,withExamples

SpecificSurfaceofAggregateandStrengthofConcrete
fora1:6MixwithaWater/CementRatioof0.603.21

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Finenessmodulus
Fineness Modulus (FM) is used in determining the degree of uniformity of the
aggregate gradation. It is an empirical number relating to the fineness of the
aggregate. The higher the FM is, the coarser the aggregate is. Fineness Modulus is
defined as the sum of the cumulative percentages retained on specified sieves
divided by 100.

According EN 12620 Aggregates for concrete, the FM is calculated on the


following sieves: 4mm; 2 mm; 1 mm; 0.5 mm; 0.25 mm; and 0,125 mm. An
example of sample calculation of Fineness Modulus is shown in XX

SamplecalculationofFinenessModulus

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LabtestforAggregate
1. SieveAnalysis 10. ResistancetoFreezing&Thawing
2. WaterAbsorption 11. ShapeIndex
12. ShellContent
3. AggregateImpactValue
13. SlakeDurability
4. AggregateAbrasionValue 14. Soundness
5. AggregateCrushingValue 15. UniaxialCompressiveStrength
6. PetrographicAnalysis
7. ParticleSizeDistribution
8. PointLoadTest
9. PolishedStoneValue(PSV)

THANK YOU
2015 INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PETRONAS SDN BHD
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.

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