CMOS INVERTER

VINOD PATIL

VIT UNIVERSITY

VELLORE

Aim: Performing CMOS inverter using cadence simulator and observe the following plots and
interpretations

a) Variation of switching threshold VM for different strength of PMOS.

b) Variation of gain for the VTC of an inverter

CMOS Inverter:

CMOS Inverter charactristics:

. Vtn Vdd/2 Vdd-|Vtp| Vdd condition PMOS NMOS O/P 0 < Vin < Vtn resistive cutoff Vout=Vdd Vtn ≤ Vin < Vdd/2 resistive saturation Vout>Vdd/2 Vin=Vdd/2 saturation saturation Vout drops sharply Vdd/2<Vin≤Vdd-|Vtp| saturation resistive Vout<Vdd/2 Vin > Vdd-|Vtp| cutoff resistive Vout=0 Switching threshold: the switching threshold VM is defined as the point where Vin=Vout.in this region both nmos and pmos are always saturated. its value can be obtained graphically from the intersection of the VTC with line.

e ( Vsatp. r = (kp. To move VM upwards.Vdsatn) i. states that the switching threshold is set by the ratio r. VM2 . VM An analytical expression for VM is obtained by equating the currents through the transisters.Vtn-VDSATn/2) + kp VDSATp( VM . VM =( rVdd/1+r) (3) Equation 3.Vdsatp/Kn.Wp/Vsatn.here we ignore channel length modulation kn VDSATn (VM .which means making the pmos wider.Vtp . VM = (Vtn + Vdsatn/2)+ r(Vdd + Vtp + Vdsatp/2) (2) 1+r Where.Wn) For large values of Vdd eq (2) simplified as.VDSATn/2) = 0 (1) Solving.Vdd.a larger value of r is required .

VM3 .

Increasing the width of the PMOS or the NMOS moves VM towards VDD or GND respectively. This means that small variations of the ratio do not disturb the transfer characteristic that much. . 2)The effect of changing the Wp /Wn ratio is to shift the transient region of the VTC.moves the VM closer to ground 1) VM is relatively insensitive to variations in the device ratio. On the other hand .increases the strength of the nmos .

4kT/q Transient analysis: .b) Variation of gain for the VTC of an inverter Scaling of supply voltage: Reducing the Vdd improves the gain but at the same time at very low supply voltages gain detoriates. Vdd>2….so set the lower bound on supply scaling and lower bound is.

Properties of CMOS inverter: 1. Low output impedance 4. and seen important properties of CMOS inverter . We also seen effect of changing Vdd or pmos width on characteristics. Voltage swing is equal to supply voltage 2. High noise margin 3. High input resistance Conclusion: from this experiment we studied CMOS inverter and its characteristics.