 What would be convincing?
 Determine your audience  What kinds of evidence are normally
The writer should try to answer the used for this type of audience?
following:  Statistics
 To whom will I be writing for?  Previous studies
- 1 person?  Case studies
- Several people?  Shared experiences
 What do I know about my reader’s  Documentaries
professional background?  Word Choices
 What do I know about their personal  Should you use jargons, slang, or formal
preference? professional language?
 What will the readers be doing with the  Sentence type/length
document?  Can you use fragments (used in
Audience will influence the way you posters/brochures)
produce the material  Can you use long, complex sentences?
 Who are my target readers?  How about shorter ones?
 PARTICULAR  Can you use a combination of short and
 Homogenous group long sentences?
with similar background
 Common and familiar TONE & STYLE
terms and concepts for
Tone in writing refers to the writer’s
this group
attitude toward the reader and the subject of
 E.g. audience with an
the message. The overall tone of a written
academic background;
message affects the reader just as one’s tone of
se of jargons
voice affects the listener in everyday exchanges
 Diverse audience
 Different background TONE
and different levels of
knowledge  Personal
 Simple terms  Friendly
 Avoidance of jargons  Distanced, etc

Audience affects the features of the text Avoid judgmental language
you se
 I believe
 Message  I feel
 What do readers care about?  Conclude
 What are they likely to act upon?  I thinks
 Will they read it?  It seems

황희영 1

2NUR-6 Avoid emotional language (It should be  Redundant: A pleasant afternoon impersonal and objective) top each and everyone  Improved: A pleasant afternoon to  Flowery everyone  Loaded with feelings and emotions  E. WENN JOYRENZ U. he find  Unparallel: water skiing is as the speech meaningful challenging as to dive  Sentences with misplaced  Parallel: Water skiing is as challenging as diving modifier  Misplaced: the father is usually a man of few words in the Filipino  Redundant family  Redundant: Please repeat the  Improved: In the Filipino family.)  Vague: the patient was not feeling well STYLE  Specific: the patient complained of abdominal pain.g. the sentence again father is usually a man of few words  Improved: Please repeat the sentence 황희영 2 .  A writer’s way of writing pale and moist  A manner of which he expresses his  Fragmented (do not express a complete thoughts and feelings thought)  “How” a material is written  Involuntary shaking Avoid sentence which are  Run-on (when a comma/ semicolon is used between two sentences instead of  Wordy period)  Wordy: The patient has difficulty of  Run-on: Chart notes are informal or breathing formal: physicians take them when  Concise: The patient has dyspnea they see a patient. His skin was cool.  Conscise: The team did their best  Sentences with dangling for the patient modifiers (beginning or end of a  Wordy: We received the balance In sentence with no grammar…) full amount  Although bored by the speaker the  Concise: We received the balance in speech was meaningful full  Correct: Although the audience  Unparallel were bored ny the speaker. the team did all they and formal and physician take them could do for the patient when they see a patient. ENGLISH III:ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING MANECLANG.  Wordy: to the best of my  Improved: Chart notes are informal knowledge. I first saw the light of day (which  Vague means that I was born in….

g. Intermittently then What are the significant features of language Immediately At once State/inform Tell in research? Repeatedly Again & again  Brevity Obtained Get Complete Whole  Direct to the point. not beating around Fortunate Lucky the bush. like. more or less) sentence  Impartiality  Sensitive situations that require tact  Take sides and diplomacy may dictate the use of  Formality passive voice FORMAL INFORMAL E.  burned Active: The doctor will give you the  Rise up instructions  rise  In this day and age PASSIVE VOICE  Today  Clarity  Useful when the user doesn’t need to  Organized clearly.g. Active: The engineers created the Opportunity Chance defective plane parts Deficiency Lack Therefre So Active: The plane parts were created On and off/ now & defectively. no hedging words name the doer of the action in the (seems. ENGLISH III:ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING MANECLANG. abbreviations &  Call up on the plane contractions  Call up 황희영 3 .  This morning at 10:00 am  Accuracy  At 10:00 am  Correct or proper  Small in size  Use of passive/ active voice  Small  Free from colloquial words and jargons ( in  Of great importance certain conditions)  Important  Non-usage of acronyms. 2NUR-6 THE LANGUAGE OF RESEARCH  At the present time  Now ACTIVE VOICE  Personal friend  Friend  Doer of the action  Attached hereto  Used for conciseness and objectivity  Attached (direct)  Duties & responsibilities  More factual  Duties E.  responsibilities Passive: Instruction will be given to you by the  Destroyed by fire doctor. somehow. brief/short Responsible In charge  E. WENN JOYRENZ U.g.

 Formal: Modern houses have so many labor-saving devices that it is difficult for the person at home. 2NUR-6 Eliminating Informal words/ expressions  Informal: After 6 months. WENN JOYRENZ U. cooking and looking after the family. ENGLISH III:ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING MANECLANG. the dieter is behaving according to all twenty-six goals and she has achieved a considerate reduction in sugar consumption.  Informal: Adequate exercise by doing chores.  Doesn’t lie  lies not  Looked into  investigated  Carry out  conduct 황희영 4 .  Informal: Modern houses have so many labor-saving things that it is difficult for the person at home.  Formal: Adequate exercise by doing routines. cooking and taking care of the family. the dieter is behaving according to all twenty-six goals and she has achieved a big reduction in sugar intake  Formal: After 6 months.