Department of Energy
Fuel Cell Technologies Office

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal
DLA Worldwide Energy Conference Director
National Harbor, MD Fuel Cell Technologies Office
April 12, 2017 U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel Cells Introduction Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 2

The Basics: Highlights

Electricity produced

No combustion

No pollution from

In Cars: >2X as efficient as today’s gasoline engine Water and Heat
60 MPG vs. <30 MPG
Fuel Cell only byproducts
Fuel Cell Gasoline Engine

Similar to batteries producing electricity without combustion

Market Growth in Fuel Cell Sales Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 3

Fuel Cell Systems Shipped Worldwide by Application
60,000 >60,000 Fuel Cells Shipped in 2015





2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Portable Transportation Stationary

Capacity shipped Approximately the capacity
in 2015 300 MW & ~2X in 2014
Source: Navigant Research (2008-2013) & E4tech (2014-2015)

Consistent ~30% annual growth since 2010

Many Fuel Sources and Applications for Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 4 Fuel cells can be supported by different fuels and used in many applications .

versatile. and efficient energy carrier .Advantages of hydrogen as an energy carrier Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 5 A multitude of Many applications sources can be used rely on or could Very High Specific Energy to produce H2 benefit from H2 About three times more energy by mass than most other fuels! Hydrogen is a clean . sustainable.

2% 2% 1% 1% 4% Petroleum recovery & Refining Ammonia Production ~65M metric tons of H2 46% Methanol Production Metal Production & Fabrication produced annually* Electronics 45% Food Industry Other 10 million metric tons of H2 produced every year in the U.50/gge delivered) .S.H2 Production & Infrastructure: Current Status Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 6 Global Annual H2 Centralized H2 production Production/Demand facilities in the U. Steam methane reforming of natural gas (SMR): currently most cost-competitive process to produce H2 Near-Term Strategy *CryoGas International.Competitive H2 Fuel Current H2 Infrastructure: • H2 from Natural Gas through SMR 1. Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the US. Cost.600 miles of H2 pipeline • At-scale production ~50 H2 Stations (~25 public) • <$2/gge produced ($4.S.the last 25 years (Sep 2015).

Source: hybridcars.000 800 600 400 Toyota Mirai 200 - Note: Cumulative number of vehicles sold/leased.200 1.500 fuelcell cars 1.600 1.400 by February 2017 Hyundai Tucson 1.Commercial Fuel Cell Cars are Here Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 7 Fuel Cell Cars Sold/Leased in the U.com Honda Clarity .S 3 Models on the Road 1.

Performance & Petroleum-Free Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles can: Refuel in minutes Have a 366 driving range Get more than 66 miles per gallon (equivalent) High power (torque and acceleration) And all with no gasoline on board and zero pollution from the tailpipe.only clean water vapor And the cars don’t need to be plugged in to charge . Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 8 Power.

Fuel Cells: Recent Progress Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 9 ZH2: TARDEC and GM collaboration First of its kind .

Jan 2017 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) 78% of executives Absolutely or partly agree that FCEVs will be the real breakthrough for electric mobility Source: KPMG. Global Automotive Executive Survey 2017 (Jan. Executive Opinions Worldwide. 2017) .

Fuel Cells: Recent Progress Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 11 Fuel cell buses surpass 15 million passengers .

000 fuel cell forklifts ~ 5 million H2 refuelings .Fuel Cells: Material Handling Applications Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 12 Over 10.

pdf) .hydrogen.Example Annualized Cost Example • Commercial warehouses • Operation of 2-3 shifts per day Benefits • Lower total cost of ownership than comparable battery forklifts • Can operate for more than 12 hrs. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell –Powered MHE (2013) (https://www.Fuel Cell Benefits .Forklifts Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 13 Value Proposition .Examples • Over 100 forklifts deployed in Defense Logistics Agency distribution warehouses* • Over 700 forklifts cost-shared through DOE (Recovery Act) led to more than 11. Type I and II **Source: DOE Program Record #1602 *Source: NREL.energy. • No performance degradation • Fuels in minutes • No emissions Performance Validation.000 forklift orders from industry** MHE: Material Handling Equipment (MHE).gov/pdfs/16012_industry_deployed_fc_powered_lift_trucks..

Fuel Cells: New Applications Demonstrated Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 14 World’s first hydrogen fuel cell train in Germany .

Fuel Cells: Global Progress Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 15 World’s first 4-seater fuel cell plane takes off at German Airport .

Fuel Cells: New Applications Demonstrated Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 16 1st fuel cell cargo tow trucks at U. airport .S.

Aircraft and Ship Auxiliary Power Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 17 Reduced Acquisition & Life Cycle Costs • Increased efficiency • Greater System Efficiencies • Reduced Maintenance Costs • Reduced emissions • Enables Spiral Development • On-board water generation Enhanced Survivability • Reduced IR & Acoustic Signature • Combined-heat-and-power • Distributed Power Generation opportunities Design Flexibility • Reduced generator size & weight • Modular Approach to Ship Power • Multi Platform Applicable .

Fuel Cells: New Applications Demonstrated Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 18 World's first fuel cell for maritime ports .

Fuel Cells: New Applications Demonstrated Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 19 Fuel cell powered lights at the Super Bowl .

Fuel Cells: Stationary Power Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 20 Fuel cells for back up and emergency power for hospitals. supermarkets and more! . telecommunications towers.

Stationary Fuel Cells. State of the States Report (2016) Data centers require non-stop electrical power Reliable power is vital at hospitals Photo credit.growing interest for reliable power New World Trade Center using fuel cells . Installations Top States More than • By unit size: DE (30 235 MW MW) and CT (14.com Supermarkets.9 MW) in at least • By number of units CA 43 states (480 systems) Source: DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office. Time.Opportunities Emerging Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 21 Fuel Cell Stationary Power in the U.S.

Fuel Cell Cost $40/kW $1.8 kWh/L. development and innovation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies that enable energy security.3 kWh/kg <$4/gge H2 Cost at Pump <$7/gge (early market) *For Natural Gas **For Biogas Strengthening U.000/kW* $1.S.500/kW** Durability 5. and a strong domestic economy in emerging markets.DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 22 Focus 2020 Targets by Application Applied research. energy security and the economy through R&D on hydrogen and fuel cells . resiliency. 1.000 hrs 80.000 hrs H2 Storage Cost $10/kWh (On-Board) 1.

002 1.926 11.000 fuel cell units 6.The Role of the Government Enabling Progress Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 23 Technology Innovation Market Impact • Cut fuel cell cost by 80% • Jumpstarted early markets by magnitude of more than 11X 18. >2X efficiency of Investment gasoline vehicles .713 • Validated Research Advances WITH DOE FUNDING (COST SHARE DEPLOYMENTS) WITHOUT DOE FUNDING (ADDITIONAL PURCHASES) – More than 220 fuel cell cars – Driving over 6 million miles • Catalyzed Additional Private More than – >360 mi range.907 More than 0.600 fuel cell units • Quadrupled fuel cell durability 0.

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Impact Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 24 .

DOE Cost Status and Targets Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 25 Fuel Cell System H2 Production. not drawn to scale . Delivery & Onboard H2 Storage Dispensing (700-bar compressed system) $230/kW $33/kWh $16/gge to $13/gge 59/kW $100K/yr $17/kWh 100K/yr $53/kW $7.5*/gge 500K/yr to $15/kWh $5**/gge 500K/yr $40/kW <$4/gge $10/kWh 2020 Targets High-Volume Projection Low-Volume Estimate *Based on Electrolysis **Based on NG SMR *For illustration purposes only.

MEA Frames/Gaskets GDLs Alkaline Membranes H2 Station Storage Cooling Advanced Dispensing Compression Other Compression Alternate $1.Techno-Economic Analysis Guides R&D Portfolio Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 26 Focusing on… s Low and Non PGM Fuel Cells Bipolar Plates Membranes BOP Catalysts.54 Approaches H2 Storage Low Cost Carbon BOP/Assembly Other processing Fiber (CF) Resin Long term Materials Approaches .

5B covered by FC 2 JU. including EU contribution of up to $800M Source: European Union 2014 http://ec.pdf Preliminary Need to strengthen efforts and enable domestic leadership .Examples Japan: $850M (total) including $350M to showcase H2 and FCs at the 2020 Olympics Source: 2014 HTAC Report EU: $1.eu/research/press/jti/factsheet_fch2- web.Global Landscape: Recent Trends Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 27 Growth in Foreign Manufacturing in Just one Year International RD&D Commitments in H2 and Fuel Cells.europa.

Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 28 Collaboration is Critical .

HFCnexus.com Supplier engagement & collaboration & information readily and publicly accessible . Models and Databases Online Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 29 Resources “Toolbox” online: • HyRAM • HDSAM • H2FAST • H2A • JOBS and more Available now at: http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-analysis-toolbox H2Tools.org Hydrogen Safety Resources www.Tools.

(Interagency • Army/AF (Joint Base Lewis Working Group) McCord) – Biogas reforming and material September 2010 handling equipment.DOE . *http://www.DOD Coordination Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 30 Coordination DOD Partners • Interagency Task Force • Defense Logistics Agency • Interagency Action Plan – Nearly 100 FC lift trucks deployed • Interagency Working Group • Office of Naval Research – Grid management and utility scale • Workshops renewable hydrogen generation for transportation fuel • Hawaii Hydrogen Initiative (H2I) • Army/Marine Corps – Soldier power: battery rechargers for forward operation bases Developed Interagency Action • Navy. Army. Air Force Plan* with 10 – Deploy fuel cell vehicles and Federal Agencies infrastructure at bases in Hawaii.gov/pdfs/hydrogen_fuelcell_interagency_action_plan.hydrogen.pdf .

Interagency Collaborations: Technology Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 31 Completed: Validation of fuel cell forklifts Ongoing: Analysis and Testing of Emergency urban power and fuel cell buses Collaboration: Dept.Pipeline Management .Federal Logistics Agency (DLA) Transit Administration (FTA) Potential: Light duty vehicles Potential: Unmanned Potential: Unmanned for military applications Underwater Vehicles (UUV) Aviation Vehicles (UAV) Potential Collaboration: DOT Potential collaboration: Army Potential collaboration: Navy . of Defense.The Defense Collaboration: NREL and Dept. of Transportation.

back up power. battery hydrogen storage • Broader impact: portable power.52 lbs Actual Image of WPS20 System Over 70% weight savings with fuel cells System cartridge containing alane Source: AEWE 2016 Enabling low cost alane-based hydrogen storage for military portable power devices .DOD-DOE R&D Collaboration: Portable Power Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 32 • Application: Wearable Soldier Power Soldier portable power weight: • R&D Focus Low cost alane-based fuel cells vs.4 lbs • Collaboration: Ongoing US Army- DOD FCTO Hydrogen Production and Storage R&D Initiative 3. UAVs and vehicles 14.

pdf Funding for: 100 Vermont To find a H2 station near you: afdc.Status Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 33 California Northeast 70 Newly Awarded 60 Site Acquisition 16 Pre-Permit Application 50 In Permitting 3 2 1 40 3 Planning Approval 2 5 Approved to Build 30 Open .Non- 26 H2 Stations Massachusetts 10 Maryland Retail Open-Retail 26 retail New York Approx.gov/locator/stations/ .Retail Open Non-Retail In Progress Hub 5 Green icons indicate Under Open Retail Stations ~ 12 to 25 Retail H2 Stations (planned) Construction 20 California Commissioning Connecticut Open .energy. 60 underway Oregon 0 FCV Rhode Island As of November 30 (Data from CaFCP June 2016 status report- http://cafcp.Hydrogen Infrastructure Activities.org/sites/default/files/h2_station_list.

Dec. 2014 • Hydrogen produced via electrolysis • Testing phase completed. 2017 • 700 bar refueling .Oct.org Competition Timeline System Details • Launched.Jan.Complementing Retail Stations: H2 Refuel H-Prize Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 34 $1M Competition: On-site H2 fueling Winner Announced: More at hydrogenprize. 2016 • Up to 10 kg H2 per day • Winner announced.

Conceptual H2 at Scale Energy System Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 35 Geothermal *Illustrative example. not comprehensive Source: NREL .

Conceptual H2 at Scale Energy System Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 36 Geothermal .

Increasing outreach and visibility… Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 37 Celebrate National Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Day on 10/8 (Held on its very own atomic.gov/eere/fuelcells .weight- day) Learn more: energy.

Washington DC 2018 Summer: AMR + Industry Expo! . and enable infrastructure • Strengthen supply chain. States • Strengthen collaboration on safety and information sharing Save the date: Annual Merit Review (AMR) June 5-9. fuel cells & hydrogen R&D. H2USA. 2017.infrastructure components • Leverage activities to maximize impact • U.Strategic Direction Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 38 • Early R&D innovation and accelerate Tech to Market • Key Focus: H2@Scale.S. and global partnerships. technology advancement • Safety.

Satyapal@ee.doe. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy hydrogenandfuelcells.gov Peter.energy.Devlin@ee. Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 39 Thank You Sunita Satyapal Peter Devlin Director Interagency Coordination and Market Fuel Cell Technologies Office Transformation Lead Sunita.gov .doe.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Office.