Detailed lesson plan for Day 3

I. Objectives
(1) Knowledge and skill objectives: knowing the probabilities of events, and the
enumeration method for calculating probabilities of some similar probability events.
(2) The target process and methods: create situations by introducing practical life
problems. These life problems can construct possibility event models, which can help
build students’ critical thinking ability. Definitions need to be taught and memorized in
order to begin solving the problems. Through enumeration, diagramming, and basic
knowledge of permutations, students will be able to easily calculate the likelihood of
permutations; students will be able to easily calculate the likelihood of events.
Conclusively, students will have a more profound understanding of introductory
probability and statistics.
(3) Emotional and attitudinal objectives: The primary objective is to create a warm and
harmonious learning atmosphere along with further developing students’ awareness and
ability to cooperate with one another. Understanding some mathematical history,
knowing that random events occur both randomness and regularity, to understand the
dialectical thought of contingency in inevitability, and to train students' overall quality.

II. Teaching focus
The meaning of probability, its solutions and purpose

III. Teaching difficulties
The judgment of an equal possibility event and how to find the core number of events
contained in an event

IV. Teaching methods
Heuristic method

V. Materials
PowerPoint
Handouts
Boxes
White balls and red balls (depends on students number)

VI. Teaching process
Introduction activity – True or False
Me: Welcome back to our class! Let’s play a new game today. On my left hand, you see
the poster said “True,” and on my right hand, you see the poster said “False.” I will ask
you all few questions and you will have to pick one of the choices as your answer for the
questions. Are you ready?
Questions:
 At standard atmospheric pressure, water boils when heated to 800C.
 It’s always heads when you throw a coin.
 The absolute value of a real number is not less than zero
 Design purpose:
To cultivate students the ability to express thoughts accurately, train the student to
analyze the possibility of events, and to move the class smoothly to the next step.

Definitions
The probability of a random event can generally be approximated by a large number of
repeated tests. However, for certain random events, the probability of a test can be
calculated only by repeated analysis of the possible results in a test. This method of
calculating the probability of random events has a simpler operation than the probability
of a large number of repeated tests, and has a more realistic calculation method. The
study of this course has a higher requirement for basic knowledge and basic thinking
about permutations and combinations.

Discussion 1
A box contains five balls, two red balls, and three white balls. Allen and Mary will pick
balls from this box. If the picked ball is red, Allen wins, otherwise, Mary wins.
Question: Is this a fair game? Students play the same game and discuss their results.
Question: Did you get the same results as the pervious question? Why?
 Design purpose:
Through PowerPoint, students will have mastered the basic definitions of probability.
But they may not be ready enough to translate those definitions into problem solving
tools.
So an open discussion will be conducted for students to freely work with others to
reach the correct conclusion. This particular example will help pique the students’
interest in probability and give them a general idea of how probability and statistics
can be applied in almost any real life setting.

Game
Students play the same game and discuss their results.
Question: Did you get the same results as the previous question? Why?
 Design purpose:
Students will reach a conclusion via group cooperation and discussion.
This particular activity will deepen students' understanding of applied statistics. To
elaborate, it will lay a solid foundation and assist in transitioning into learning
concrete methods in the upcoming topics. It is beneficial to grab students’ interest in
learning mathematics. Through group activities and discussions, students will be
more engaged in class, absorb materials more effectively, and learn the importance
of teamwork.

Discussion 2
Students will discuss in groups about why we need to know about probability.
(After discussion)
Me: Probability is essentially a study of random events. Probability theory is an integral
part of mathematics and has many practical uses of applications in various fields. They
can be utilized in physics, medicine, biology, sports, and even video games. As part of
the general public, we are always surrounded by probability on a daily basis. Some
examples include weather forecasting, medicinal discovery, elections, and even the
lottery.
 Design purpose:
As a class, we will converse about how mathematics is intrinsic to all aspects of
our lives. Whether we realize it or not, we are always using numbers to make
decisions in life.

Closing activity – Grade Ourselves
Me: Before I dismiss the class, I am asking all of you to do me a favor. You all will be
the graders for your and my performance of today’s class. On a scale from 1 to 5, how
many points will you give to yourself and me, and list your reasons.

VII. Reflection