Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Building energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: A review

Pervez Hameed Shaikha,b, , Nursyarizal Bin Mohd. Norb, Anwer Ali Sahitoa,c,
Perumal Nallagowndenb, Irraivan Elamvazuthib, M.S. Shaikhc
a
Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan
b
Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
c
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan

A R T I C L E I N F O A BS T RAC T

Keywords: Malaysia is located in Southeast Asia near the equator within the typical tropical climatic zone. The efficient use
Malaysia of energy is vital due to the dependency on fossil resources that are being exhausted, which ultimately cause CO2
Building emissions. Economic development and population growth are deemed to affect the growing energy demand in
Energy efficiency the country. Therefore, sustainability, energy security, and climate change are crucial challenges for the power
Sustainability
sector in Malaysia. The aforementioned issues can be tackled with energy efficient measures in the building
Review
sector. Buildings in Malaysia consume 14.3% of the overall energy and 53% of only electrical energy is being
consumed in residential and commercial sectors. Therefore, energy efficiency in buildings is crucial in order to
reduce the energy use and improve the local environmental sustainability. This paper discusses a review on the
building energy scenario, the policy perspectives, building energy efficiency programs along with landmark
buildings and their characteristics. Besides, the potential of renewable energy resources in buildings and various
prospective issues and challenges faced by the country have also been discussed. The significant review content
thus benefits researchers, scientists and practitioners for a better understanding on energy efficiency and the
sustainable measures that have been so far taken. The review also puts forward some actions to promote
building energy efficiency and conservation.

1. Introduction energy resources, and consequently alleviates the growing energy
demand. Moreover, in 2009, Malaysia ranked 52 on the climate change
Energy is a lifeline and crucial element for the social, economic and performance index, an instrument that evaluates and compares 90% of
sustainable development of various countries. Due to rapid infrastruc- the global CO2 emissions of 57 countries [2]. One of the potential
ture development and economic growth, this continues to affect the sectors that appear to be tackling these aforementioned challenges is
growing energy demand in Malaysia. This energy demand is influenced the building sector. Since buildings and the built environment con-
by population growth, per capita income, and demographic changes tribute significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
(such as increasing urbanization and economic growth). The increase Malaysia is located in Southeast Asia near the equator with
in energy consumption recorded in 2012 was 7.5% and expected to rise coordinates of 2° 30′ N and 112° 30′ E, and a total area of 329,750
in the range of 6–8% in subsequent years [1]. However, challenges of sq. km. It is divided into two parts by the South China Sea; named as
sustainability, energy security, rapid exhaustion of indigenous fossil Peninsular Malaysia bordering the south of Thailand, and East
resources and climate change have made the country to take into Malaysia bordering northern Singapore and the Indonesian islands.
account the building energy efficiency in its policy road map. Hence, Its climate is generally hot and humid (tropical) throughout the year
efficient usage of energy is significant for preserving the available with an average rainfall of 250 cm a year, and an average temperature

Abbreviations: ACEM, Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia; ASHRAE, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers; BIPV, Building
Integrated Photovoltaic; EE, Energy Efficiency; EQ, Environment Quality; FiT, Feed-in-Tariff; GBC, Green Building Council; GBI, Green Building Index; GEF, Global Environment
Facility; GGC, Green Grading and Certification; GHG, Green House Gas; GWp, Giga Watt Peak; GoM, Government of Malaysia; IEM, Institution of Engineers Malaysia; IN, Innovation;
MBIPV, Malaysia Building Integrated Photo-Voltaic; MEWC, Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications; MEGTW, Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water; MoW,
Ministry of Works; MR, Materials and Resources; NGO, Non-Government Organization; PAM, Malaysian Institute of Architects; PTM, PusatTenaga Malaysia; PWD, Public Works
Department; RE, Renewable Energy; SSPM, Sustainable Site Planning and Management; UNDP, United Nations Development Program; WE, Water Efficiency; WGBC, World Green
Building Council

Corresponding author at: Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
E-mail address: engr.pervezhameed@gmail.com (P.H. Shaikh).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.128
Received 27 May 2015; Received in revised form 26 August 2016; Accepted 4 November 2016
Available online xxxx
1364-0321/ © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Shaikh, P.H., Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.128

it will increase in the future due to climate changes and economic developments. Whereas the percentage building energy consumption was reported elsewhere [4]. 4 [1].9%. These typical subtropical climatic conditions of Malaysia closely affect the indoor environmental comfort conditions in build- ings. Furthermore. the rest is being supplied through renewables at 3. Singapore. as depicted in Fig. and USA have been consuming highest per capita electricity consumption in buildings. This scenario leads Malaysia towards sustainable and environment friendly future of buildings. residential 21.2% and hydro 7. commercial & residential 14%. The chronic electrical energy consump- tion in Malaysia's residential and commercial sectors is shown in Fig. only Fig. 4. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx Fig. 1. Since. 2. the developing indus- trialized countries are taking the lead in medium per capita consump- tion. Of which 53% of electrical energy is being consumed in residential and commercial sectors. 5. In addition.2% and hydro 15. which mainly com- prise of buildings. 3. The developed countries such as Canada. Malaysia's overall energy demand for the year 2014 is shared by various sectors. energy consumption in kilo watt hour (kWh) per capita for normalized population has been depicted in Fig. industrial building- related facilities have not been taken into account. Malaysia's per capita electricity consumption falls in Fig. which shows a linear increase in consumption over the years. Since.3% of the overall energy. Chronological building energy consumption in Malaysia [1]. 80. of 27 °C [5]. this may include some non-buildings that are relatively small contributors. renewables 0.0%. The fuel mix has been comparatively diversified as compared to the year 2012 that is 92. Fuel mix of Malaysia electricity generation [1].P.H. This represents nearly 14. Sectorial final energy consumption of Malaysia [1]. 2.4%.3%. Building energy consumption in Kwh per Captia for various Countries. The electrical energy consumption in Industry is 45. Further. Fig. Shaikh et al. the kWh per capita energy consumption in building has been computed. which may surely increase the percentage of energy consumed in buildings.4% fossil fuel. commercial 32. such as water and sewage treatments. transport 0. as shown in Fig.9%.2%. building Fig.4% [1] in the year 2014 as shown in Fig. therefore. it is a leading contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the country according to resources utilized to generate electrical energy. 1. 3 [1]. agriculture 2% and non-energy 12.9% of energy is being supplied through fossil resources.2% and agriculture 0. the industrialized state having 2434 kWh/capita consumption in 2 . and has continued to increase yearly till date. Thus. street out-door lightings and losses. transport 47%. Whereas. Sectorial electrical energy consumption of Malaysia [1]. such as Industry 25%. it has almost reduced its dependency on fossil fuel by 10%. Qatar. This also depicts the growing energy demands in contrast to the industrial sector which was surpassed in the year 2006. The total electricity consump- tion in kWh per population has been obtained from the key energy statistics 2015 report from the international energy agency [3]. 5. besides almost doubled its hydroelectric and solar resources and added the use of biomass and biogas as renewable resources. Moreover.

reviewed energy resources in an energy supply mix. wind and mini-hydro Electricity Supply Act (ESA). Malaysian of oil and gas reserves. Shaikh et al. [13]. Energy policy perspectives building and their characteristics. 5. provides the regulation and for ensuring energy security and reliability [11]. This also offers a fuel diversity plan for the Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV) program and Biomass [10]. degradation of environmental concern in 2001. hence it is challenging for practitioners and 1981. formulated an energy strategy the green initiatives along with their progress and development. promotes sus- in Malaysia. National Malaysia's building energy. reduction of oil dependency and emphasis on hydro and coal in an Ong et al. Fuel Diversification Policy (FDP) - scattered in the literature. studied the current energy scenario and exploration of energy mix. the behavior of energy in have been reviewed and critically discussed. reported licensing of the generation. The objective of energy aspects [8]. It also presented a framework for putting into practice a Malaysian energy deals with energy efficiency and renewable energy challenges. reported five major initiatives. provides the regulation and licensing and reported the energy policy issues. analyze and assess the Malaysia (GoM) introduced renewable energy into the energy mix with building energy scenario. and economic. solutions for selecting Malaysia's future energy [12]. energy in Malaysia. thus they are policy matters in Malaysia. Section 5 presents the issues and challenges major challenge for the research community. programs. 2006. Besides. considering air conditioning. and renewable energy resource integration. The contents of this paper are organized as follows. Moreover. The underdeveloped and developing countries have lowest discussed. Section 3 discusses the showcase buildings the central and most dynamic part of indoor building envelope. however. 1990. efficiency award considering the current energy situation and issues National Biofuel Policy (NBP). energy efficiency and management. presented the outlook of feed-in-tariff (FiT) from the Fifth Fuel Policy (FFP). a clear gap is identified for the energy environmental degradation. National Depletion Policy (NDP).1980.1979. This would help alleviate the anthropogenic effects details of previous reviews have overlapped with elements of energy of human activities. these include energy ment. Therefore. aimed at fuel diversification relevant to the implementation of energy efficiency [16]. the potential of renewable energy resources in per capita consumption in buildings as demonstrated in Fig. appliances and safety. and objectives for the long-term ensuring secure. solar. 1980. Moreover. In this paper. Section 6. Besides. challenges and their intricacy of gas for its consumers.2000. low carbon technology and conserving resources and research breakthroughs along with joint co-operations for the and environment (development and application of products. safety and potential by the Government of Malaysia (GoM) [15]. Manan et al. and renewable energy 90% of people spend most of their time inside buildings.H. Section 2 struction material and location. Its supply objective offers the provision of building index (GBI) [7]. The sector in the world.1. lighting for sustenance of occupants comfort [6]. consumption profile. The information on building energy is quite Depletion Policy (NDP) . presented National Energy Policy (NEP). appliances used inside the building. equip- promotion of green energy management have been outlined. Foo policy at reducing dependency on fossil fuels and promoting palm oil [17] has addressed the energy security and green developments demand. ShingChyi et al. The ment and systems). and coping strategies National Green Technology Policy (NGTP). 2001. promotes the potential of renewable perspective of the renewable energy (RE) policy [14]. efforts of various energy efficiency programs and carbon trading Energy Commission Act (ECA). user's behavior. alternative energies considering biomass. the landscape Section 4 discusses the potential of renewable energy and its integra- of energy in a building and its indoor environment seem to be the tion in buildings. operational manage- So far various reviews have been conducted. social and environmental safety concerns for the efficiency in buildings. its regulations. as follows [8] and as depicted in Fig. buildings of Malaysia and various prospective issues and challenges Besides outdoor environment conditions. utilization is to be efficient and overcome waste and a non-productive ment of renewable energies over the past decade [9]. Hashim and Shin have studied the progress and develop. Chua et al. an attempt has been made to review. the policy perspectives. Kyoto protocol. 1975. development are comprehensively discussed in the chronological order. specifically in Malaysia. efficient and envir- mainly. Fifth Fuel Policy . In addition. Motivation of review National Petroleum Policy (NPP). transmission and distribution of electrical the main sources of alternative energies and their potential with their supplies. the building energy gas (GHG) emissions. dynamic pressure. the national green technology policy (NGTP) and green onmental sustainability. 2009. Four Fuel Diversification Policy. and artificial petroleum industry. the Government of Therefore. performance regulations for electrical energy and gas supplies. Oh et al. examined Gas Supply Act (GSA). 2000. The paper has been organized systematically in order to conduct the literature review on building Policy trends have evolved since the discovery of fossil petroleum. limits the over exploitation energy efficiency in commercial buildings. This analyzes and identifies various aspects that are promoting the awareness of the significance of energy efficiency (EE) in useful for the research community at large. adequate and cost-effective energy resources considering both development considering renewable energy and energy efficiency conventional and non-conventional resources. occupancy pattern. such as con. supplies. building energy efficiency programs healthy environment for quality of life. 6: 1. The MED framework is holders to get in-depth and systematic knowledge on the case of primarily tied to the National Energy Policy (NEP) . buildings is significantly influenced by various factors. and discusses the policies. 1993. offering various opportunities. and Malaysia for sustainable future of buildings primitive history of several energy acts and policies in national energy energy demands. and are providing low/zero greenhouse situation in Malaysian buildings. and identify the key factors to mobilize this a significant concern on energy efficiency and sustainability. and landmark 2. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx buildings. safe usage and promotion of an improved scenario. the renewable and non-renewable scenario tainable development. its reviews the various energy policy perspectives considering energy specific use and type. This paper aims to review the current scenario on building energy in Malaysia. Due to in the country for promoting energy efficiency measures. which included renewable energy. Hawl et al. Chua et al. the building's energy consumption has water management. studied Malaysia's energy secure. waste and the rising quality of life. practitioners. increased dramatically over a few decades. installations. represents the optimal utilization of petroleum resources. Oh et al. Conservation of natural along with landmark buildings and their characteristics have been resources and the utilization of energy and encouragement of renew- 3 . government and society concerning buildings and finally the conclusion has been presented in in the country. 1979. with the rising oil prices and ments in building energy projects in the world.P. Malaysia's Energy Development (MED) goals. The NGTP's satisfactory criteria are reducing efficiency in buildings. provides technical. and stake. Ahmad et al. and Renewable Energy and the policy makers to identify the key factors for the purpose of advance.

demolition and management in buildings. efficiency and environmental impacts to meet the growing energy demand of the country. followed by subsequent electrical energy. Building energy efficiency programs and developments 3. 3. Water and Communication (MEWC) to transmission and distribution were highlighted. Thus. In relation to that. The building design was supported under the Moreover. Thus. growing trends over a decade. gas supply and renewable energies. dency and exploit alternate resources. development and its commercialization through the appropriate mechanism. industrial and governmental m2/year but the prediction has been shown to have an energy index buildings. wood and biomass co- generation projects. Ministry of Energy. its products. The Government of Malaysia (GoM) over the past three decades has developed its key policy and strategies in order to attain the nation's planned objectives. it also broadened its EE vision to various sectors includes was supposed to have an energy consumption of less than 135 kWh/ transport sector. The Green Energy and demand side management (DSM) programs along with the Office (GEO) is another energy efficient building built by the adoption and application of green technology in the construction. Thus. focus was given on the existing strategy of the 7th MP Danish International Development Assistance (DINIDA) program that during the eighth MP (2001–2005) for sustainable energy resources. reliability and security of energy supplies for the continuous progression in economy and society.1. coal. is momentous for being depleting fossil energy resources and its diversification were ensured a national demonstration project. Besides that. It strengthens the expansions of research. the development of the Diamond Building. The ninth MP (2006–2010) reinforced the EE initiatives in the achieved within the building sector of Malaysia. Alternative energy display their building for energy efficiency and conserve the overall sources and efficient utilization of energy were also a part of the plan. In the 21st century. it also intended to decrease fossil fuel depen- that is approximately 100 kWh/m2/year. it has displayed energy efficient buildings of which the Low Energy Office (LEO) is the ables in the country's energy diversity are additional benefits. quality and adequacy of energy supply the building have been confirmed with its design and building tender. It is currently focusing on alternative energy objectives to lessen the energy depen- dency on fossil resources that ultimately leads to mitigate the environ- mental challenge. Landmark building models The Government of Malaysia (GoM) is leading in the energy efficiency measures through setting up of the state‐of‐art energy Fig. national economic development has been aligned and envisioned in the Malaysian Plan (MP) and policies. gas.1. Development flow chart for Malaysia energy efficiency legal frameworks. Furthermore. the first green building in Malaysia and was followed by maintenance. adding to the vital credibility for significant plan also promoted incentives for EE. In relation to that. Malaysia is supposed to face various dynamic challenges as it moves through the uncharted pathway of globalization. efforts were strengthened. Currently. sustainable development of oping capacity of Malaysian building industry. the various renewable energy projects have been embarked to materialize. the infrastructure for needs their Ministry of Energy. com- mitment and advocacy programs. and penetration mechanisms have been incorporated with concerted efforts by the Government of Malaysia (GoM) policy initiatives and various stakeholders’ interest. along with commercial. Government. majorly. 6. emphasis was first given Besides that. the simulation modeling with the Energy-10 tool has in this plan on energy efficiency (EE) for encouraging efficient usage of predicted more than 50% energy savings. These buildings serve as The economic planning unit (EPU) of Malaysia is continuously landmark projects to encourage more energy efficient and green striving for its economic and social development.P.1. This has offered the boost in utilizing renewable energy technologies and biomass including palm oil. Additionally. wind. Others first energy efficient building that was built in the country. In view of the rapidly buildings to be built in the future especially in the private sector. hydro The 10% extra cost target for the energy efficiency measures inside and renewables. Renewable energy and EE The energy efficiency measures that contribute to the aforemen- 4 . Shaikh et al. This has been encouraged especially through the private sector for small power generation projects that includes mini- hydro. This building aimed at promoting the energy efficiency and devel- During the seventh MP (1996–2000). solar. innovation. The Government of Malaysia (GoM) for an adequate generation capacity. In addition. the rising energy trends and the national economic developments are considered to be aligned in the Malaysian Plan (MP). 3. environmental impact.H. Green technology and Water. the tenth MP (2011–2015) conferred green technology. this energy monitoring. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx incentives strategy have been intensified and elaborated for the attainment of MED targets. was requested and granted. with five fuels for the energy mix including oil. making possible to attain sustainability. rice husk. keeping in view. These have been primarily designed to alleviate the challenges of energy security. renewable energy and supply energy savings and environmental benefits that can be predicted and quality. The building design 8th MP. biogas and biomass etc. Low energy office (LEO) The energy development has been the key emphasis of the country. The security. appliances and systems along with their applications and adoption through public awareness. efficient and green buildings. housing the are the utilization of energy and its application of green technology.

During building operations. this has resulted in a simple payback period of light.H. the occupants are encouraged to was developed in 2005 and was planned to be displayed as the most utilize LED task lights and efficient T5 lighting tubes. maintenance and operation in the include reduction in fossil fuels. Besides that.673 metric tons per annum. floor has a light trough. The construction of the building utilized which is significant in contrast to conventional solar PV that is advanced green technologies with the combination of energy efficiency 1150 kWh/kWp [20]. insulated building roof and facades. serve car pool and fuel-efficient vehicles. Thus. Furthermore. The GEO The building employs recycled materials that represent 31% of the building does not consume electricity more than the generated material cost employed in the content in dry walls. varying window size and reflective aluminum panels along with reflected roof light. This non-profit and non-governmental organization (NGO) was a energy efficient thus utilizing little fossil fuel with an energy index of 65 rigorous effort to guide and spur the building industry towards kWh/m2 year in contrast to conventional office buildings of 250 – 300 sustainable built solutions. The efficiency of these cells is 1400 kWh/kWp. it also features a rainwater-harvesting system used for topping-up the The like-minded group of companies was coined the green building condenser cooling system. excluding PV solar ment is followed by an energy management system to meet the energy. 200–300 kWh/m2/year.1. the energy monitoring systems workspaces. and The Association of Consulting 5 . Building Energy Index (BEI) of 85 kWh/m2/year. the building industry.3. Moreover. indoor environment gies. Green tech Malaysia building used to optimize the daylight into the deepest floor space area. ceiling boards. consumption by 10%. Thus. it is officially efficient strategies of day lighting. 2013. designing. which respects the Malaysian environmental the intended design of the façade cladding appears like a diamond ring. of 135 kWh/m2/year or lower. In forming that. now. Optimized day lighting along with EE and renewable energy use for non-residential buildings of the automated and efficient artificial lightings is controlled based on Malaysian Standard (MS) 1525: 2001. Moreover.2. sustainable measures. Radiantly cooled floor-slabs are embedded in the floors. waste reduction. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx tioned energy index include green environment creation around and on technology award. and renewable energy utiliza. Thus. and grey 120. The built have been incorporated into the building design at an extra cost of 6% design faces both north and south utilizing 100% of the natural day of the base building cost. electricity from its renewable energy sources on site. tion and demolition plans. this is according to code of practice on tion. The design features planning. Malaysia green building confederation (MGBC) more efficient than pumping air around the building. and the ASHRAE Institute of Architects (PAM). It also promotes green building programs. natural ventila. The building has also won several awards. This is the only carpet and floor finishes. It is the first building to obtain the highest Platinum rating of both The MGBC technical committee on rating tools commenced and green building certifications. thus. reflective ceilings and mirrored lighted shelves along with add credibility to the substantial energy savings and achieve indoor sky lighting and tunneling. renewable energy and rainwater harvesting system. which are 3. supported by the world green building council (WGBC). effects on their indoor climate comfort. Orientation optimization was with preference to the the fulfillment of the lowest energy consumption building in South East north and south window facing and the minimum solar radiation. namely. council (GBC) for Malaysia in their very first meeting on May 05. tions of the Green Building Index (GBI). Shaikh et al. artificial lamps have been installed in the building where required. technolo- sustainable building materials. automated blinds. and thorough construc. Moreover.1. radiant floor cooling and efficient Malaysia's first GBI certified and green rated office building. besides considering other requirements of social. construction. compared to typical new office buildings in Malaysia and the occupants’ comfort index with minimum energy costs. 2007 The design of the GEO building is considered sustainable and [21]. which are 3. in 2nd place.P. It possesses water usage. It also constitutes water efficient fittings that building in Malaysia that has integrated EE and renewable energy both save around 67% of the portable water compared with the conventional in one working demonstrator building. Thus. thin film solar panels building was first project of its kind in South East Asia. in compliance to the kWh/m2 year. various energy saving features aesthetically and architecturally into the building design. which have energy indices within the range of that. formerly called the zero energy office (ZEO) building optimal usage of daylight. secure bicycle racks and crystalline. building sector. In addition. not compromising user environmental comfort and safety. initial benchmarks and classifica- and Singapore's Green Mark. and within the reach of all 3. water conservation. management of traffic and transport. the energy efficient office equip.2. and efficient cooling system. poly. Moreover. policymakers and society that embrace green practices in pyramid and sharp pointed corners demonstrating its name. 000 kWh/year that fulfills 50% of its energy needs. the Malaysian such as the ASEAN Energy Awards (AEA). artificial lightings possess the capability to reduce CO2 emissions up to commonly known as the green energy office (GEO) building. irrigation and general cooling purposes [19]. Diamond building Malaysians. the LEO building also exhibits the use of renewable energy as a 3. irrigation. The building has photovoltaic water fittings. an inverted professionals. provides electricity around saved from harvesting the rainwater for toilet. Its vision is to make buildings and communities green. the Green Building Index (GBI) established the inventive framework. The energy energy efficient office building in Malaysia. the name was conse- innovation in order to minimize energy demand. The building normally focuses on green technology Malaysian Registrar of Societies’ requirement. The GEO 1. 2012. The building has a targeted daylight and occupancy. Besides that. 35% of the portable water consumption is (BIPV) panels integrated into the design. pendent of the grid supply. 10% of the parking spaces are designated to four different types of solar cells (including mono-crystalline. Furthermore. it has reformed the way of its certified by GBI to showcase its sustainable design. However. semi-transparent and amorphous) which are integrated public transportation services. It was planned (suitable for tropical climate zones) have been integrated on the roof to display a sustainable energy efficient office building in Malaysia and with the capacity of 71. (EE). efficient usage of quently altered to the Malaysian Green Building Confederation fossil fuel considering climate concerns. design practices and processes. maintaining the criterion. it optimizes sunlight through strategically positioned 12. energy efficiency. reducing the building energy in ASEAN countries and that the commercial building can be inde. Light Malaysia Energy Center (MEC) locally known as Pusat Tenaga sensors are also incorporated inside the building to encourage the Malaysia (PTM). Asia. Its core objectives are to involve design of the building with four self-shading slanting sides. the highest [18]. Moreover. (MGBC) and is the only building organization in Malaysia that is tion. The building design captures natural daylight kWp grid connected photovoltaic system is installed on the roof top abundantly from both the façade and atrium. In addition to Southeast Asian region.3 years. Its diamond shape view affects the climatic economic and environmental benefits. This promotes green buildings for sustainable built The Diamond Building was constructed in 2010 and has been environments for one and all. Energy efficient or sensor controlled environmental benefits. Green labels for liable and quality. This building was designed for top of the building. which is a building energy index space planning.4 kWp.

taking advantage of the embarked for green building practices for cutting edge benefits of perception of involving participants from these two organizations has energy savings and reduction in greenhouse gas target attainments. to reduce negative environmental impacts by transforming the Institute of Architects (MIA) and the Association of Consulting built environment. ensuring regular and proper maintenance. Green Grading and Certification (GGC) of improvement of building stock throughout the country. BREEAM is primarily materials. Generally. designers. sustainable site planning building sector.P.H. voluntary adoption of building codes and development of a green building rating tool catered to the specific guidelines and standards or a mix of all. is Malaysia's leading green building NGO that encourages the launch of The GBI has been specifically developed considering Malaysia's building industry products and services with an eco-label framework tropical environmental and developmental context with social and and green pages in Malaysia. promoting the use of renewable technology. healthier ratings including Certified. MGBC plays an active role in outcomes of security of energy supplies. It has been formed to establish a common language and measurement standards that define green buildings. development progressions and buildings. Engineers (ASHRAE) Malaysia. acoustics. Consequently. It ensures future relevancy of new buildings. Relatively. infrastructure capacity are also considered. the assessments from these tools are also shown in Table 1. In critical evaluation. environment and ecological sustainable techniques and are the criteria that can deal with the challenging objectives of GBI policies are been offered by CASBEE. various benchmarks for three years opportunity to the building developers. such as indoor air quality. Built Green Canada is a voluntary program for supporting the green implementation of suitable waste collection and a recycle management practices in building sector for attaining green future. China's 3-star framework are yet other considerations. attaining Furthermore. transforming their building envelopes on opportunities for the developers. various links with public unbiased and impartial Green Building Assessment and Certification and private sector universities have been established with a diverse Scheme. such as the Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) as well (MEGTW) along with the Public Works Department (PWD) under as the American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning the Ministry of Works (MoW) is compassionate of an objective. Promotion of sustainable mance targets that measures and rate the building energy utilization. appropriate control of air temperature. Silver. It also offers environmental leadership by recognition and GBI was launched in April 2009. involving low volatile organic istic within their building industry. However. LEED offers the certification for buildings to and management (SSPM) with easy access to public transportation. practitioner not only to implement in their countries but also may thus less priority have been given. water efficiency. In addition. with the help of the Malaysian reward. and environment friendly use of materials and resources (MR). MGBC works in partnership with other professional orga. customized for the country. more than 550 buildings have signed up professional institutions. The GBI rating cling. tool has various benchmarks that include enhanced energy efficiency Malaysia's GBI rating tool is like LEED in the USA. These aforementioned factors make for tropical climate but the score preferences have been have been Malaysia on the cutting edge for the transformation of building sector. Besides. This only includes energy and water Ultimately. Gold and Platinum depending on the indoor environment. while transport has already been up to mark. Furthermore. In that. Green Technology and Water nizations. Moreover. It aims to provide 3. and sustainability for building practices to utilize less energy resources. natural light harvesting. Of-which Malaysia's GBI and Singapore's environment. scores achieved through the energy efficiency measures. Thus. the innovative (IN) design initiatives of energy. It proposes Energy efficiency. practitioners and stake- 6 . adoption of recy. good indoor environment quality (EQ). enhanced competitiveness GBI with the support. academicians. A survey of various rating tools have been studied shows operation of the buildings for overall impact analysis of the built moderate climatic zones. quality air filtration. community services and open spaces. focusing on environmental assessments and technological research in movement and humidity levels. The development and promotion also considered. through the support of the Moreover. testing and commis- shown in Table 1. Along with their comparative benchmark analysis of sioning along with adopting the best practices in building services and the surveys. manufacturers to be certified under the GBI and only 214 have achieved their GBI and others related to the building and construction industry. perform environment friendly in both indoor and outdoor climate of landscaping. The harvest and reuse of rating tool encourages the stakeholders for green developments of rainwater and water saving fittings to attain water efficiency (WE) are envelopes and attains sustainability. visual and thermal comfort. Engineers Malaysia (ACEM) supported by MGBC along with the refurbishes. promotion and channeling of the industry input among stakeholders and success towards green developments. Provisionally. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx Engineers Malaysia (ACEM) funded and provided resources in the either regulated entirely. MGBC certifications as of March 31. these designs and developments lead the researchers and efficiency preferences. and the reduction of the inhabitant's carbon footprints. contractors. turned out to be the best fit providing the acquaintance and expertise of The widespread adoption of green building practices could realize the the local building industry. Though the operational factors of GREENMARK are and resources and innovation. public transport connectivity. indoor environmental quality. Shaikh et al. the green tool indexing for building due to KGBC focuses on the facilitation for transforming best practices in their roles and nature are highly dependent on location and environ- building sustainability.3. The Malaysian Government (GoM). stakeholders and owners for after which the building will be reassessed for its efficient and the design and construction of sustainable green buildings. cultural needs. The design and construction of buildings to attain conserving environmentally sensitive locations. GBI differs markedly advance those ideas for further enhancements may be obtained in the depending on local climatic variations. GBI provides buildings in Malaysia through the GBI rating tool provides an certification after assessing points. however primitively NABERS focuses on the operation perfor. and Green Mark in Singapore and BREEAM in the UK as gain. the Malaysia has needs of the Malaysian landscape. These buildings are awarded with four types of buildings must be able to provide energy and water savings. professed and pursued by the MGBC through its continued representation of stakeholders including governmental organizations. These sustainable operation. materials within the region. indoor solar heat Australia. sustainable site and GREENMARK have been designed for the tropical climate zone so far management. considering holistic approach these rating tools with. feasible construction sustainability is offered by both green star (GS) and the green mark for storm water management and reduction of the strain of existing (GM). 2013 [21]. Green Star in (EE) through orientation. striving for a cleaner environment. in their respective countries proposes the specific targeted character. avoiding and building envelope. thus. support of the GBI. GBI looks for the design and ment. existing resources. These countries have embarked for sustainable development trends The GBI existence within the country pose a positive sign provides in green buildings. MGBC by its Ministry of Energy. HKBEAM offers eco-efficiency [34]. However. Green building index (GBI) a better environment for all by promoting integrated whole building designs. In addition. and upgrades existing buildings for the overall quality building industry [22]. for the improvement of locally grown green building rating tools.

H. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx Table 1 GBI rating tool for building with their benchmark in various Countries. fit- management and innovation outs and communities. energy. indoor environmental resource use that include. land use. 5 [27] 2009 Malaysia Green Building Index GBI Energy efficiency. ecology. indoor This is an industry oriented voluntary program. maintenance. designers and builders when they start project conception and design. t ransport. savings. waste management. Materials introduction of the rating system in the country. high quality. 7 [29] 2006 China Three Star System 3-Star Land savings and outdoor environment. transport. This deal with the buildings. emissions. The motto of the Green Buildings Indexis to design and operate buildings that can reduce the overall impact of the built environment on its surroundings. efficiency. water. to act instantly for the development Efficiency and promotion of techniques and policies that are capable to assist the drive towards energy. efficiency. 8 [30] 2004 Japan Comprehensive CASBEE Energy use and GHG emissions. turned toeco-efficiency and sustainability. land use. Besides. It sets standards for Method sustainable building design construction and operation. and quality. water and This tool primarily focuses on environmental Council waste management best practices to facilitate the transformation of (continued on next page) 7 . durable and efficient working and living environments for building occupants. minimizing energy demands within the building. materials. indoor construction industry towards more environmental quality. and the environment. water LEED certification provides independent. sustainable site. and offer everyone an prospect to choose a “green” future. which in turn limit greenhouse gas emissions. provide a healthy work environment and are profitable 3 [25] 2003 Australia Green Star GS Energy. It focuses on low carbon and impact designs. It has also grown into a comprehensive rating system for various types of projects. and construction of sustainable buildings. third Environment Design efficiency. buildings on human health and the environment during its lifecycle. construction. China's nascent green building market is the Energy savings. sustainable site and This tool focuses on enhancing the efficiency of management. material Green buildings use less energy and reduce Environmental Assessment usage. water use. materials and materials. environmental assessment method and rating Environmental Assessment materials. that consume and Assessment System for materials and their safety. emissions. health and wellbeing. water which promotes “green” building practices in recycle. Shaikh et al. Water savings. buildings. reduce water. design. life cycle analysis water and material usages than conventional Method buildings. It is the trusted mark of quality for the design indoor environmental quality. operation and construction of high performance green buildings. with the better placement. decreasing the impact of resources and innovation. identification of opportunities for improvement and realize the many benefits of sustainable building operations 4 [26] 2005 Singapore Green Mark GM Energy efficiency. 9 [31] 1996 Hong Kong Hong Kong Building HKBEAM Lessen energy. ecology. Sr. as well as during construction. comfort. use and measures building environmental performance. provide healthier. Thus. environment quality. The Performance measures of your building's. water efficiency.P. waste and management system for buildings. biodiversity. water efficiency. design and order to reduce the environmental impact of construction innovation. benefits the homebuilder. It is intended green features to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise environmental awareness among developers. design. the community. Indoor environmental quality. indoor party verification that the building project is an environmental quality. Thus ensures buildings are environmentally compatible. university buildings. 6 [28] 2003 Canada Built Green Canada BuiltGreenCan Energy conservation. and removal. innovation and environment-friendly buildings. innovation in design and building certification that recognizes best-in- construction class building strategies and practices. shopping malls and industrial facilities. discard resources and energy in enormous Built Environment land use and indoor environment. # Ref. The tool presents the world's foremost Establishment pollution. 2 [24] 1998 USA Leadership in Energy and LEED Energy and atmosphere. Year Country Rating tool Abbreviation Benchmark Observations 1 [23] 1990 UK Building Research BREEAM Energy. environmental Green Mark is an initiative to drive the protection. thus. It provides green resources. The purpose is to create a voluntary rating Operations and management system that will encourage green developments and ensure energy sustainability. quantities. water. 10 [32] 2000 Korea Korea Green Building KGBC Energy conservation. hospitals. offices. materials and environmentally responsible. from apartment buildings to schools. Thus. operation. environment sustainability and ecological quality of the buildings.

market penetration challenges. The project of MBIPV was officially launched on July 25th. local bio-diversity. geothermal etc. However. (ii) technical skill and of buildings. able market for BIPV that would generate widespread application. the BIPV plan was to grow its capacity by Renewable energy in buildings has been designed to enhance the 30% annually with an average cost reduction of 30% from the year energy security and interdependence on utility supplies whilst reducing 2010–2020. which could curtail 20% of the current energy dependent. combining the latest technology and sustainable design will provide a ated per unit floor area of the building. greenhouse gas emissions. Transforming solar energy as a system that caters to the needs of the hot water requirements in the viable alternative supplement for the electricity grid and buildings in buildings. The various handful practices in Malaysia. Malaysia's energy potential renewable energy in urban regions where the bulk of efficiency strategy constitutes environment friendly solutions that will Malaysia's energy is consumed. this project was supposed to establish market development landscaping. Therefore. It provides the comfort of a warm shower during rainy days renewable energy in the country's planning documents. facades of the residential as well as non-residential buildings (offices. integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and help to increase the power gener. the reality is so far fairly BIPV technology and enhancement of the national capacities on three convincing. It targets at least 1. embracing the best energy effi. the major renewable energy technologies that are commonly adopted funds the project. Thus. Renewable energy potential in buildings have a reduction of the BIPV unit cost by 20%. photovoltaic systems are mounted and installed on rooftops or The Solar Water Heating (SWH) System is the ultimate solution. Set operational performance targets and Built Environment Rating Water. meaning that the energy can be reproduced in a short new market. The project will provide direct opportunities to the and are feasible to be easily integrated into buildings include solar public and industry to be involved in renewable energy and environ- photovoltaic (PV). # Ref.H. So far. it of CO2 emissions from primarily the power sector. electricity demand of Malaysia [35]. both against the baseline [36].P. the project will facilitate the creation achieving sustainable development. within the building envelopes. This was along with the development of the sustain- recycling and green landscaping their societies and projects. that it will avoid 65. These allow buildings to generate their own elec- and animal waste. Waste. Year Country Rating tool Abbreviation Benchmark Observations the global sustainable building industry. hydropower. it has been conceptualized to create a smooth integration financer Global Environment Facility (GEF) and was distributed between the functional and aesthetic parts of your roof.). This can offer energy and water the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions via its integration within the savings. indoor environment comfort. It also encourages the harvesting rain water. Moreover. Since. Moreover. or cold mornings and eliminates the potential of electrical hazards. (c) Policies and a financing mechan- ism. thus. contributing is suggested that GBI tool should be entirely accessible to attain the towards the objectives of the national energy policy [34]. the target was to increase the BIPV capacity to 330% and 4. and (d) Industry development and technology localization. fulfilling the energy needs for hot water and space heating that requires malls. There are through the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). community services obligations. rooftops as the collector tank that can be installed both above and 2005. solar. The Government of Malaysia (GoM) with the support of period. Shaikh et al. 11 [33] 1998 Australia The National Australian NABERS Energy use. market implementation. The Government of Malaysia (GoM) initiated this project with the co. Moreover. Moreover. various awareness programs for convincing results from the built awareness and a capacity-building program. Technically. This potential capability would produce 12. toxic materials transport. During several advantages of SWH systems for buildings including the the span of the 9th Malaysian Plan (MP) from 2006 to 2010. holders to build sustainable buildings. expected over the lifetime of the BIPV project. The objective was to induce Building Integrated Photovoltaic Hence. a significant proportion of the building's energy consumption. minimizing the impact on the environment through the efficient (BIPV) technology for the long-term cost reduction and decrease of 8 . limited budgets. for heat islanding effect the green rating promotes open spacing and Moreover. This could be due to unawareness. the practice has been obliged by the limited number major areas included (i) education and policy. real. comfort. schools etc. thus. measure that can rate the actual performance System and water flows. In Malaysia's urban and suburban of a sustainable BIPV market upon the completion of the program [35]. Besides. recognizing the long-term potential of solar energy specifically in cient measures in buildings available so far is not enough. which will develop a resources. These systems are termed as building. mental facility (GEF). Suruhanjaya Tenaga and the private sector. under the roof. It is government in-effective policies. Renewable energy includes energy that has been derived from SURIA 1000 is another of Malaysia's national BIPV programs natural processes that do not involve the consumption of exhaustible targeting the residential and commercial sectors. such as the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This project has offered synergy to not only help reduce building energy costs but also provide the tools to various demand side management and energy efficiency programs. biofuel. This depending on the available roof spaces of residential and commercial can be achieved with building integrated renewable energy resources to buildings in Malaysia.000 power the building for its operation for making the building zero or low GWh of peak electricity. areas.000 kWp of building hybrids. global environ- biomass. accessible public transport and building design. the energy buildings. by the Ministry of Energy. tricity from solar energy and effectively reduce reliance on conventional PV is one of the most promising renewable energy technologies in electricity from the utilities.1 kt estate worth of building. MBIPV technology is significantly contributing to the long-term energy costs and environmental impact. solar water heaters (SWH). BIPV is able to generate 11GWp of electricity would still be required to power day-by-day building operations. giving a choice to have a trendy roof design. The main national five year development targets set by the government and offer components of the MBIPV project were to ensure (a) Services. the minimization of electricity use by just utilizing the natural resource MBIPV project was the last for the promotion and development of of the sun. Water and Communications (MEWC). Thus. various renewable resources are available. (b) Market enhancement sector. In spite of and set targets for the follow-up in the 10th Malaysian Plan (MP). wind. The SWH system is designed to fit naturally onto building Malaysia. wind turbines and their mental protection initiatives. hotels. reduce carbon footprints. and (iii) technology development support. and infrastructure development. Besides that. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx Table 1 (continued) Sr. biomass can be utilized for some specific remote integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installations in residential and com- area buildings subject to the availability of organic materials like plant mercial buildings.

the tropical climate sudden change can be observed in the building industry. for buildings integrated with wind turbines. The promising factors making possible tool has been found inevitable to significantly improve building building sector sustainability includes rating tool. The iconic PETRONAS mobilize resident's behavior for attaining long term socio-economic Twin Towers. This bounded rationality among consumers argues about the energy regulations for buildings within the country as a result of human actions and decide partly on rationale basis such as tendency to 9 . availability of the wind resource that varies with location. use of efficient appliances thus targeting effort for renewable energy options in buildings.1. enhanced knowledge and building energy savings would offer considerable part in Malaysia's awareness dissemination campaigns among public. Behavioral aspect for green choice In Malaysia. ments would be associated with the roles and habits of the consumers. in making green choices for Malaysia's building industry. population. In addition. sensitivity and simultaneously project cost and construction players’ awareness. codes and other Malaysian Plans also support the utilization of renewable energies and mandatory requirements lead them with push strategy. The implementation terms of human health. Besides. enhance reliability and support added market value of the building. smart and sustainable designs penetration and acceptability from the society is quite unsupportive and use of renewable energy technologies. The rapid boosts various sectors to take charge. These installation of various renewable technologies that ultimately motivates push and pull strategic forms leads to noticeable environmental the consumers for their interests in these technologies and particularly benefits along with safeguard consumers from rise in energy prices. practice in the built environment has huge potential for advanced awareness. of Malaysia (GoM) proposes their 5-year plans for up gradation and However. the Government due to the lack of awareness of long term benefits of these technologies. green buildings have the potential for business Putrajaya are the landmark symbols for its development in the transition at the corporate level. the most liability sector would turned out to be energy efficient and potential for wind energy generation in Malaysia depends on the conserve huge amount of energy and costs. enhance comfort level. However. Towards effective learn- The iconic green buildings so far did not attract much of the ing process for the needs of occupants and their changing attitudes consumers towards the adaptation of the technology. significant benefits. there is a gradual increase of awareness campaigns for innovations that have been penetrated within the local market. The impact can be quantifiable in the energy regulation practices within buildings. However. Building sustainability throughout the delivery Malaysia (GoM) interests and sustenance. funding attitude have been developed and ultimately educating the effective for research and development in this field of renewable energy should system. but unfortunately. owners and tenants. Government of construction industry. perception for green building industry has sought out holding various mance. public awareness campaigns. Thus. However. Shaikh et al. ment friendly attitude. transforming gener. campaigns have to be conducted about global be allocated with the objectives of solving fundamental problems and climate challenges for building a society with mentally more environ- product development. This is one of the significant barriers for application of ging. This also alternative energies in the generation mix. so far the directed efforts have been initiated towards The behavior among the users. Therefore. status quo in rules and regulations. alleviate capital cost of ownership. fast and sustained economic growth and building users. mance evaluation helps enhance quality. Kuala Lumpur international airport and township in benefits. Therefore. The bounding them with energy efficient practices. of energy standard strategies and opportunities are usually overlooked higher costs for buying efficient equipment usually unpersuasive by the and changing attitudes and behaviors of consumers are quite challen- consumers. However. developers. it must require generation has grown with the exponential rise in population. the unpromising factors include public interests and de. Wind energy is considered as a green power young generation for keeping their environment green. It also attracts the customers and international arena. Besides that. 5. The implementation of various renewable energy policies and adopted to promote green aspects in building sector includes. meager funding opportunities that has lagged behind for technical The renewable wind energy conversion in Malaysia is a serious expertise attainment.1 m/s [37]. technology and performance rating sustainable building industry. performance. The unprecedented transitions in the urban landscape have been So far these green practices are primarily government driven to experienced in Malaysia since half a century. Thus. and technological advancements ac- developments and transitions have been observed. depending on their level of understanding and aware- determination for the sustainable development within the country ness regarding social. it is highly recommended for wind energy systems positive and negative views of the stakeholders. the a detailed study of on-site wind potential for estimating its perfor. The utmost Malaysia's impact on extensive development of infrastructure and potential is in east peninsular Malaysia with an annual vector resultant buildings has been primarily on the environment. contributes towards domestic wealth.2. living quality and climate change. Moreover. Discussion and viewpoints Thus. environmental and economy savings. Despite the less energy consumption. Considering that the tropical weather for energy efficient and cost-effective products and services along with of Malaysia is normally influenced with monsoon climate conditions their implementation. the behavioral aspects are crucial in order to attain sustainability targets. Rationale impact of green buildings 5. cost savings. incentives on increased the awareness of the sustainable energy system. The building sector wind speed of 4. In addition. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx and environmentally friendly use of energy. vesting building users as benchmark for building perfor- mands. Malaysia (GoM) needs to promote the maximum of its potentials. showcase programs in buildings by the Government of Malaysia (GoM) has energy efficient buildings. cepted by the consumers. Buildings in Malaysia are yet heavily dependent on utility supply It has been observed through the literature regarding the strategies systems. the country's throughout the year gives hot summers with light winds.H. the includes energy efficiency measures. support from the local process and its lifecycle assessment in improving functional require- manufacturers and suppliers and competitive market based approach. If due to its coordinates along latitude and longitude.P. the Government of general public and private sector with pulling strategy. the effective in commercial tourist resorts and hotels or nearby shore locality ways have been under consideration. due to the would be sophisticated in attaining sustainability. Besides. This wind potential varies with location. In context to that sustainable transition can be expected once the complete life cycle assessments. purposeful awareness among the building consumers and the capital Individuals and organizational behavioral characteristics impede investment for their retrofitting. the crucial hindrance in production ability consideration by the government. initiated through motivating buildings to be studied. stipulation and compliance has been observed. Thus study regarding attitude of consumers towards ous ownership from the stakeholders. improve technical performance of this sector. property investments and assets Therefore. The positive technology with minor impacts on the environment. 5.

Government of Malaysia (GoM) has a stronger focus on energy supply and its use in buildings. • Conventional fuel price volatility 5. the benefits of refurbishing and creating new emerging economy. • Encourage communities activities of citizens and • Climate and environment protection • Landscape Thus. humidity. it would 6. This in terms of short term incentives that are • Simple. involved for entire resources efficiency of building's life cycle are awareness. the trialization. Prospective issues and challenges require a specific building envelope design [39]. the development process of the country building designs should be evaluated for the entire life cycle analysis has been quite unsustainable so far. Efforts should the potential benefits and significance of building energy efficiency be taken considering the standards like ASHRAE-55 [40] and EN15251 hence. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx ignore small energy opportunities. thus. # Corporate Characteristics etc. fragmented characterized in green structures. and a significant spurt in CO2 emission due to its window size etc. The Government of Malaysia (GoM) has already recognized assessment and measurement of building sustainability. such as environmental sustainability in connection with energy within the thermal. • Increase policies the stakeholder base supporting RE Besides. impact. traditions. economic growth. inadequate research and develop- of the consumers. The building energy efficiency can play a vital Moreover. Tactlessly.H. they can be leased or sold more grated renewable energy options as well as their policy. Besides. cost spending on energy and technology availability etc. the emphasis on the possibility its determination towards attaining energy efficiency overall in energy for stakeholders and developers to alleviate expenditures. They • Create mechanism for achieving RE and emissions reduction • targets usually focus on efficiency due to rising prices for energy. organizational letdowns. poses the adverse impact on energy regulation practices within 1 Economic • Creation of green jobs the country. life styles. Considering the aforementioned scenario of Malaysia. orientation. there is a need for Socially these building structures quality living and working efficiency attention to this area. whereas. These environment friendly struc- and dispersed building energy programs.P. with 5–9% annual growth. Malaysia should strive to enhance and increase 10 . transaction price enhancements and interests 2 Political • Demonstrate commitment to RE deployment • Increase energy security and autonomy in energy performance would allure to consumers for investment in the business. environmental. In general. striving for the effective measurements to ensure economic and [41] in order to establish indoor environmental parameters. Socio-economic benefits • Security investor provision for renewable energy • Economic development drive This is significant to consider the building energy performance can • Market conditions growth for creation of stable be observed as an owner or tenant energy consumer and a real-estate business developer. these challenges disregard the voluntary agreements that parameter are assumed to promote energy efficiency and conservation practices. This in most countries a common barrier due to the • Create foreign direct investments (FDIs) for export and manufacturing political instability. operation and demolition phases. political and resource efficiency. Thus. 5. theft and Table 2 non-payment of bills. standards of occupant's indoor comfort. air quality and air speed that aid building buildings sector. transparent policy structure helps encourage new start-ups and innovators energy and cost savings. follows the market demand to remain competitive and up-to-date property stakes within the country instead of obsolete structures. competitiveness and maintenance of future generation needs. transmission and utilization. In context to that Malaysian con- • Enhanced disclosure to renewables struction industry plan for the year 2005–2015 states the mandatory changes to drive the local construction market within the country [38]. energy exper. In order to cater to local prevailing climatic conditions. benefit to • Reduction on fossil fuel dependency the environment. materials conversion. it seems that the cost and increase future profits. inadequate measures to ensure quality services. market rapidly due to their attributes offering the possibility of huge profits. thus. corruption etc. some focus should be made to establish standardized role towards sustainable energy and alleviating the environmental requirements for building assessment tools for the investigation. energy managers to allow environmental conditions acceptable to the In relation to that. profitable returns. visual. frameworks. It has been challenging for the building industry in 4 Environmental • Carbon emission and pollution reductions Malaysia to make certain of financial affordability to the owners/ • Energy efficiency measures Encouragement tenants and businesses. an attempt to track sustainability for long terms and also ensure and cityscape must comprise of sustainable capabilities of the stakeholders has been proposed to renewable energy enhance. Shaikh et al. there is a need for a holistic (LCA) from its construction. thus.4. sustainable approach. lack in legal and regulatory tures buildings implicates favorable impacts on society and economy. penetration. living • electricity system standard.3. there are listed companies stakeholders that have to look 3 Social • Impartial distribution of wealth for corporate social responsibility (CSR) that not only includes • Empowerment of citizens and communities sustainability and environmental aspects but energy conservation and • Public support enhancement for renewable resource utilization through direct stake efficiency as prime responsibility. sustainable transport and waste management are economic viability of building envelopes as shown in Table 2. Corporate parameters and their characteristics for green buildings. various other factors that affect The country has undergone over 50 years of fast growing indus- the final energy demand in buildings are its shape. The owners in such a case may be fascinated with other • Promote a more decentralized and democratized form of reasons for attaining energy performance may include there. Corporate transitions of green buildings reliability and competitiveness in the industry. the economically it saves life cycle costs to ment progress and more importantly the appropriate building inte- the owners and consumers. Hence. tise transition. this is based on energy supply security. corruption. It has a relatively high rate of ratio between the external building surface and building volume. Moreover. Besides that. promotion and funding matters along with energy and The corporate transition involves social. The practice of developing structures and processes that are such as the lack of incentives for promoting demand side management. Although in the presence of various obstacles in securing building energy efficiency. traditional knowledge and non-suitability of technology Sr. paramount challenges and need to be stepped-up. employment prospects in the sector.

Ismail AZ. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews xx (xxxx) xxxx–xxxx majority of the users.P. sustainable buildings.14:2279–89. Chua SC. The number of opportunities is available such as large x) Promote suitable financial instruments such as tax relief. Tokyo. Review of energy efficiency potentials in tropical buildings – of strategies to minimize the need of energy in buildings. [19] PutrajayaPerdanaBerhad. scope of the Malaysian Standard MS1525 code for inclusion of new there is further potential of research to be conducted in the building buildings. pp. Malaysia's building industry heading towards the comprehensive [12] Ahmad S.php? 11 . under: Climate Change. Kannan KS. Energy Commission.html〉. 2010. [13] Oh TH. 446–53. Energy efficiency and carbon trading potential in Malaysia. Wan Alwi SR. Goh WW. Renewable energy policy and initiatives in Malaysia. 2005. "Energy Indicators for 2013".15:2850–61. Nor NBM.15:4780–7. Broadly. [2] Dixon J. 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Acknowledgment Energy audits can play a significant role and it has been demon- strated that energy savings of about 10% or more can readily be The authors are thankful to Universiti Teknologi Petronas. [11] Ong HC. a kick-start activity for Government of Malaysia (GoM) and may be subjected to government buildings at their early stages. In addition.about. country. Mahmood AR. Renew Sustain Energy Rev through energy efficiency measures and integration of renewable 2011. Salleh E. in: Proceedings of the World v) Public awareness for building energy wastage and its methods to Sustainable Building Conference. vi) Educating young generation for efficiency and conservation Malaysia buildings and technologies are the point of discussions following campaigns. A review on energy scenario and sustainable thus. [accessed 12.1(1):33–40. The energy in Malaysia. [7] Chua SC. They are also wastage in the buildings. ISSN: 0128– 6323. 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