Concept 47.

2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and
adhesion
27.
44.
32.
15.
22. On _Timmy
7.Name
The
How the
Induction
Describe
What do figures
development
the
animals
whatis early
an you
happens
show of drew above,
Ma______________________
interaction among
theinshelled
cleavages
holoblastic
the set egg
the
acrosomallabel
cells
stage
cleavage? the
wasthat an
reaction.influences
Period gastrula,
important
forblastula,
subsequent _____6______
their
adaptationfate,
developmental usually
to allow
archenteron, 3-2-16
by
the
events?causing
movement
blastopore, changes
of in gene
ectoderm,
expression.
animals
endoderm, onto
Each individual
Sperm What
dry
blastocoel,
comes intocell did
land. Speman
Which
digestive
has different
contact and
animal Mangold
tube,
with thecytoplasmic groups
mouth,
jelly coat which find
have
and to be
shelled
anus.
determinants.the organizer
eggs? that induced
leads the acrosome to release enzymes that a series of events that
result
39.
Chapter in
What the
digest the jellyis formation
morphogenesis?
47:coat. Animal of a notochord
(Reread
Development
The acrosomal and
the neural
overview tube?
if you have forgotten.)
reaction elongates and penetrates the jelly coat, and then
molecules
23. What is meroblastic cleavage? Whattoanimals
16. On the at the
figure tip of
below, the process
label and bind
describe sperm
each of binding
show proteins.
the following:
this The
type offertilizationegg andenvelope,
cleavage? sperm membranes
zygote,
33.
fuse Use this
which allow
blastomere,
Overview sketch
blastula, of
sodium a chicken
and to egg to name and give the function
flow in the egg and results in change in the membrane potential.
blastocoel. of the four extraembryonic
membranes
28. Let’s
8. The look
fusion seen back
of in at
the amniotes.
egg theandfrog embryo.
sperm plasma Themembranes
figure on the left shows
allows sodium theionsgraytocrescent,
flow intowhichthe egg.forms
How
opposite
40.
does
24. Asthis
The the
stated point
in the
resultcleavages
early of sperm
concept
indevelopment
a fast are block entry.
heading, Now what
toispolyspermy?
followed look are at
by gastrulation. the
three figure
things on the
involved
Visualize right.
punchingin You will
morphogenesis?
in well see that
a partially invagination
inflated ball with
1. An organism’s controlled by the genome of the zygote as as by molecules from the
occurs
your at the
fist.
Depolarization This gray
would crescent.
prohibits result A
in
other crease
a layer
sperm forms
of
fromthe where
ball invagination
being
fertilizing pushed
the egg. occurs.
to the The upper
inside. In part ofthis
essence, theiscrease
what is
occurs
mother that are in the cytoplasm of the egg. What are these proteins and RNAs called?
called
in the dorsalThese
gastrulation. lip of layers
the blastopore.
These proteins and RNAs areestablish the future embryonic
called cytoplasmic determinants. germ layers. So remember this: gastrulation
establishes
9. Describethe the germ
cortical layers. What are the three germ layers of the embryo?
reaction.
2.Cortical
What isreaction is the final stage of fertilization, in which the fusion of the gamete membranes
cell differentiation?
Concept
Cell differentiationdevelopmental
triggers 47.3
the The
release of
is Cathe2+ from fate
process the which
by of cells
ER into a celldepends
the egg's
becomes on their
cytosol, history and
causing
specialized. corticalon inductive
granules in signals
the egg
to fuse with the plasma membrane and discharge their contents.
41.
17. Although
Distinguish
3. How allbetween
do cytoplasmic cells indeterminants
an
theorganism
animal and have
affect the
vegetalcellsame pole.genome, explain two ways in which gene
differentiation?
expression
10. is
thealtered
How iscytoplasms duringenvelope
fertilization development.
Different cause different formed? genes to be expressed.
TheYou
25. fertilization
should know envelopeat least is formed
two derivativesfrom theofcortical each germ raction in which
layer. Refer molecules
to Figure 47.14 were insecreted intoand
your text,
the space
select three between
tissues
4. What is morphogenesis? the
to plasma
learn frommembrane
each layer.and Usethe vitelline
this chart layer,
to help hardening
organize it. This
your forms
learning. this
envelope,
18. This concept
Morphogenesis which is is
usesa long-term
the some
process byblock
anatomicalwhich toterms
polyspermy
an organismthat youtakes needshape.
to know. TheLabel the following parts on this
differentiated
diagram:
11. Why anterior,
is the posterior,
fertilization
cells occupy their appropriate locations. dorsal,
envelope and ventral.
considered a slow block to polyspermy?
It takes longer
Concept Ectoderm
47.1 After to form but it is longer
fertilization, embryonic lastingdevelopment
than the fast block to polyspermy.
Mesoderm
proceeds through cleavage, gastrulation, Endoderm
and
34. Let us
organogenesis return to development in mammals. What is the mammalian version of a blastula?
42. What does it mean to say that a cell is totipotent?
12. Sperm
5. What binding
is the acrosome activates of aasperm?
signal transduction
What does it pathway contain? in which calcium ions are released from the
endoplasmic reticulum. What are two
It is the specialized vesicle at the tip of the sperm containing outcomes of the elevated calcium ion
hydrolytic level?
enzymes.
35. Label the
Outcome 1: Eggblastocystactivation-belowincreased
to show the ratesblastocoel,
of cellularinner cell mass,
respiration and and proteintrophoblast.
synthesis.
43. Explain
Outcome 2: why
Corticaltwo normal
granules embryos
fuse with result
the when
cell
6. The figure below shows sea urchin fertilization. Label the following: sperm acrosome, the
membrane two blastomeres
and the on
fertilizationthe left are separated,
envelope is but
formed.
sperm not
nucleus,
when
29.
19.
26. On
jellyThethe
Going the
coatpointtwo
ofback blastomeres
sketches
oftothe
egg, above,
thesperm
sperm-binding on
pushed-in the
label
nucleus right
the gray
ballentry
receptors, are
analogy, separated.
crescent,
will result
corticalthe area dorsal
in the lip
thatformation
granules, of blastopore,
vitellineof
is pushed blastocoel,
a(invaginates,
gray
inlayer, egg crescent.
plasma archenteron,
How does this
membrane,
to the and
embryologist)
blastopore,
gray crescent
fertilization
will form a tube ectoderm,
serve
envelope. as endoderm,
a marker? and mesoderm. The sketch on
called the archenteron. The archenteron forms the digestive tube, with an opening at eachthe right shows gastrulation. Note that this
process establishes the three germ layers. **** This is important
end, the mouth and the anus. Since the hollow ball that was pushed in was the blastula, the opening where to know! ****
the invagination occurs is called the blastopore. We want you to make a series of simple sketches below.
30.
36.
Show So
13. The
Nowanow, thatthe
cells
hollow of
you embryo
thehave
ball inner has
cellthree
(thestudied
blastula), seagerm
mass willshow
urchin
then layers.
form ittheGastrulation
fertilization embryo.
punched in in asisthe
What
some followed
isarchenteron
thestudy
detail, by of
role organogenesis.
thethe cellsand
section
forms, Let’s lookthe
ofFertilization
the
then show inat the
formation
trophoblast?
20. The first
Mammals
embryo withof the
andcleavage
a make neural
completed a willtube in
bisect the
whatthe
list digestive
of sketch
you gray
tube. at right.
crescent.
consider The
the What process
essential by which
axesdifferences. this
are now established? dorsal
You shouldLabel hollow
have the nerve chord
on theis
axesthree
at least
formed
figure. is called
Also
differences. labelneurulation,
the animal pole, and the embryo
vegetal pole, stagefirstiscleavage,
sometimes and referred to as a neurula. Which germ layer
gray crescent.
drops down and folds to form the neural tube?
Differences include internal fertilization, egg at metaphase 2, and Zona Pellucida versus jelly coat.
37. What is the function of the amnion?

38. Which extraembryonic membrane
Jelly coat
a. cushions the embryo?
14. The early mitotic divisions of the zygote to form a ball of cells are called cleavages. What is
uniqueb.about cleavage?
is involved in gas exchange?
21.
31. Theimportant
An amount ofchordate
yolk found in an egg will
characteristic affect
is the cleavages.
notochord. WhatWhat
Egg a is holoblastic
isPlasma
notochord? cleavage?
From which germ layer
Cleavage is unique because it is asymmetric.
Sperm Nucleus
does itc.develop?
serves as a disposal sac for embryonic wastes? Membrane
Vitelline Fertilization
Sperm layer Envelope
Acrosome

Cortical Sperm binding
proteins
Granules