Special ISSUE

Min urem

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• Affa bora
om ss e

Ind irs E ted
IN Hom ents Even
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TH ela • tsʼ
IS n ID Re
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ITIO ec He ren
N - urity adq ce -
& uarte Spe
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role Inse
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To seamlessly integrate
submarines into Network
Centric Operations,
H O R I Z O N S . . .
in addition to the
technological challenges
which require to be
overcome, there is also a
need to change the way
submarines do ‘business
at sea’.
4 Page 11

During a recent
high-level review,
Defence Minister
��������������� A.K. Antony
directed the IN and
the coast guard to
plug deficiencies �������
������� in the working of
coastal security December 2009-January 2010 ▸ Vol 4 No 6
“Though territory related issues retain their
primacy, other issues, like historical differ- network.
Rs 75.00 (INDIA-BASED BUYER ONLY) www.spsnavalforces.net
ences and religious prejudices, are no less 3Page 9
a contributing factor. Modern day conflicts...
have expanded to include terrorists, religious
fanatics and ethnic interests.”
—Defence Minister A.K. Antony at a
meet on ‘Changing Nature of Conflict’
on November 23

The last issue

of 2009 also INDIA
coincides with
the Indian MANAGING
Navy Day, EDITOR &
thus to com- PUBLISHER
it, an article am happy to learn that you are publishing the SP’s Naval Forces – Indian Navy Special.
tracing the
evolution of Our economic progress is closely linked to the security of our coasts. India will be increasingly called upon to strike a balance and enhance
the security in and around the Indian Ocean region. Moreover, coastal security has assumed an increased importance of late. We have initiated
the Indian Navy from a fledgling force several measures to strengthen the security along our long coastline. The role and responsibilities of the Navy will increase correspondingly.
to a blue water navy, capable of grow-
ing into a regional power, has been included. We are committed to the process of modernisation of our Navy. Modernisation must however, not come at the cost of indigenisation.
A round up of the year’s milestones achieved, Adequate attention must be paid to the development of physical and human resources and their optimal and judicious utilisation.
supported by appropriate images, adds to the I am sure the publication will be read and liked widely.
glorious achievements of the navy in the year
gone by. No annual day of the defence forces Please accept my best wishes for your endeavours.
can be commemorated until we remember
(A.K. Antony)
our gallant martyrs. In the Navy Hall of Fame,
Captain M.N. Mulla’s sacrifice is retraced with
touching insights from his wife and daughter,
with some rare photographs.
In dian Navy

There are two articles on submarines,
one covering anti-submarine weapons in
which the writer traces the evolution of ant-
submarine weapons and argues in favour
of the torpedo as the most potent weapon.
The other article gives out the requirement
of communications for submarines while
operating in Net Centric Operations as well as
touches upon some future trends. The events
of 26/11 redefined terrorism for terrorists, the
government, media and the average citizen.
As the first anniversary of 26/11 was fast
approaching, there was a frenzy of activity
in the print and electronic media to bring it
to the notice of the decision makers as well
to increase viewership. Thus, an article on
coastal security management was considered
most appropriate where a candid review has

Transition to
been carried as to what has been achieved
and what are the unfinished tasks. News
Digest wraps up this special issue dedicated
to the Indian Navy.
I would like to take this opportunity to
convey our gratitude to our Defence Minister
Mr A.K. Antony, for his support and encour-

Photograph: www.indiannavy.nic.in

agement towards our efforts.

DECEMBER 4, 2009
On the occasion of Navy Day, we at
SP’s take this opportunity to extend
our warm wishes to the Indian Navy.
Class Submarine

Being a technology intensive service, the IN requires upgradation of modernisation
plans on a constant basis. Recent times have witnessed considerable openness,
liberalisation and access to global market for frontline technologies.

R E A R A D M I R A L ( R E T D ) S . K . R A M S AY
For article, turn to Page 2

Photograph: www.navy.mil

Sailors stationed aboard
INS Viraat (R 22) refuel a
Sea Harrier after it returns
from a mission during
Malabar 2007

“To be secure on land, we must be supreme • Project influence in India’s maritime areas ▸▸▸ The fleet of 12 Pondicherry attempt of coupe at Maldives.
at sea.” of interest, to further the nation’s political, Operation Talwar: Amid the heat of Kargil
—Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru economic and security objectives; Class minesweepers are conflict during 1999, the frontline ships
due for retirement and global

• In cooperation with the Indian Coast of both Western and Eastern Fleets were
ndia’s maritime history dates back to Guard, ensure good order and stability in formed into a task force which was deployed
some 5,000 years. The first recorded India’s maritime zones of responsibility;
tenders have been floated in the Northern Arabian Sea to safeguard
evidence of shipbuilding capability • Provide maritime assistance, including for eight Mine Counter India’s maritime assets against any possible
was found in a tidal dock built during disaster relief, in India’s maritime neighbour- misadventure by the Pakistan Navy.
the Indus Valley Civilization, around 2300 hood; and
Measure Vessels ◂◂◂ Operation Parakram: To meet any kind of
BC at Lothal on the Gujarat coast. In that • Play a key role as part of ‘a pluralistic fallout from the tense situations during 2001-
era, the trade between India and its neigh- security order’ for a better world. Python, was launched soon thereafter. On 02, the IN was fully deployed and partici-
bouring states was essentially through sea the eastern seaboard, sinking of Pakistan pated in all joint forces exercises.
for many centuries. Operational Engagements Navy’s submarine PNS Ghazi heralded the Operation Enduring Freedom: To counter
The Maurya, Satavahana, Chola, Since its inception, the IN has undertaken Indian blockade of erstwhile East Pakistan the increasing menace of hijacking at sea,
Vijayanagara, Kalinga, Maratha and Moghul numerous operational assignments, a brief through naval aircraft, Sea Hawks and Alizés, particularly in the region of Malacca Strait,
empires, were all known to possess powerful account of some of the important ones is operating from the INS Vikrant. In addition Indian naval ships undertook convoy protec-
navies. The Cholas excelled in foreign trade enlisted here. frigate and ASW Ships were deployed in tion and security role on the high seas, in the
and maritime activity, extending their influ- Operation Vijay, 1961: Indian naval ships Bay of Bengal. Loss of the INS Khukri was latter part of 2001. This operation was called
ence overseas to China and Southeast Asia. provided gunfire support for naval and army a major setback. Complete control over exit Operation Enduring Freedom and earned
The Maratha and Kerala produced the most landing troops to liberate Goa and success- and ingress ensured a total naval blockade of global accolades for the country.
powerful naval forces in the subcontinent fully sunk Portuguese frigate and patrol boats. Karachi Port and the erstwhile East Pakistani
and were credited with defeating European Indo-Pak Conflicts: During the Indo-Pakistan ports. Disaster Relief & Rescue
navies at various times during 17th and War of 1965, the IN’s role was restricted to Operation Cactus: In 1988, the INS Operations
18th centuries. Admirals Kanhoji Angre and patrolling the areas of conflict. During the Godavari with Indian marine commandos on Operation Madad: The IN deployed 27
Kunjali Marakkar came to be known as out- 1971 war, however, the IN came of age with board was quickly diverted to proceed with ships, 19 helicopters, six naval aircraft and
standing chiefs during that era. its two most innovative and daring attacks despatch to intervene in a hijack attempt of a over 5,000 naval personnel in an unprec-
on Karachi harbour. The first attack, code- vessel by a rebel group PLOTE of Maldives edented disaster relief operations, post
Birth of the Indian Navy named Operation Trident, was launched on who had held a senior minister hostage on Tsunami 2004. These area specific relief
Whilst the East India Company in 1612 December 4. The second attack, Operation board. This action decisively put paid the operations were launched for different states.
established what was then known as the Operation Madad was for Andhra Pradesh
Honourable East India Company’s Marine, it and Tamil Nadu, Operation Sea Waves for
was in 1830 that the British government set Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Operation
up British Indian Navy (IN). It is believed that Castor in Maldives, Operation Rainbow in Sri
the Mutiny of 1946 by the sailors of the Royal Lanka and Operation Gambhir in Indonesia.
IN forced the British to hasten the process To augment existing capabilities in this spe-
of Independence. Even after Independence, cialised area, a Landing Platform Dock INS
the Royal IN continued to function as such Jalashwa, formerly the USS Trenton, was
and was commanded by the British officers. acquired in 2007, besides the ongoing indig-

On January 26, 1950 when India became a enous shipbuilding projects, to continually
Republic, the birth of the IN took place with upgrade the amphibious fleet.
her ships designated as Indian Naval Ships. Operation Sukoon: A large force under
Vice Admiral R.D. Katari was the Indian offi- the command of Flag Officer Commanding,
cer to take over as Chief of the Naval Staff Western Fleet was deployed off Lebanon to
on 22 April, 1958. evacuate 2,286 Indian nationals and expatri-
Photograph: SP Guide Pubns

Roles and responsibilities assigned to ates, including 436 Sri Lankan and 69 Nepali
the IN were as follows: citizens, from war-torn Lebanon.
• In conjunction with other armed forces of
the Union, act to deter or defeat any threats or Anti-piracy operations
aggression against the territory, people or mar- In a first of its kind, a coordinated action
itime interests of India, both in war and peace; Navy ALH by the ships of the IN and the Indian Coast

Guard had successfully led to release of
a hijacked Japanese cargo ship, the MV
Alondra Rainbow, from pirates.
Piracy off the coast of Somalia: The IN,
by deploying its stealth frigate INS Tabar in
October 2008, emerged as one of the first
to respond to crisis situation perpetuated by
pirates operating around the coast of Somalia
and the Gulf of Aden. Frontline destroyer INS
Mysore was also deployed to augment the
anti-piracy operations. On a request from the
Seychelles government, patrol by naval ships
in the area was intensified which resulted
in the arrest of nine pirates. The INS Savitri,
an Offshore Patrol Vessel, has recently been
deployed in the region for constant vigil and to
create a secure environment.

Operational Commands & Bases
With Naval Headquarters at Delhi, Chief of the
Naval Staff exercises operational control of the
navy through the Western Naval Command,
Eastern Naval Command and Southern
Naval Command. Each of these commands
is headed by a Vice Admiral. At Port Blair, a
tri-service Andaman and Nicobar Command
was established in 2001. The primary role of
this command is to safeguard India’s strategic
interests in Southeast Asia and the Strait of
Malacca. Between the three services, com-
mand is exercised on a rotational basis.
The INS Kadamba at Karwar, situated
100 km south of Goa, was commissioned in
2005 as the third operational naval base of
the IN. Developed under project ‘Seabird’, it
is the largest naval base in the region. The ships, submarines and aircraft, which is aug- one Aircraft Carrier INS Viraat, Missile Boats, on July 26 this year by the Prime Minister,
Indian Naval Academy, commissioned as the mented by acquisition of foreign platforms to Minesweepers, Fast Attack Crafts, and so on. Dr Manmohan Singh.
INS Zamorin at Ezhimala, was inaugurated overcome the gaps on account of delays in Submarines: The submarine fleet consists Fleet Air Arm: Sea Harriers are the frontline
in February 2009 by the Prime Minister of indigenous shipbuilding programmes. of diesel-electric submarines, the Russian combat aircraft of the navy’s fleet air arm,
India. To augment operational capabili- Surface Ships: The inventory of the navy’s origin Foxtrot and Sindhughosh Classes and operating from aircraft carrier INS Viraat.
ties and infrastructure on the east coast, surface ships comprises the Delhi and Rajput German origin Shishumar Class. A Russian Recently, the airborne early warning helicop-
another state-of-the-art operational naval Class guided-missile destroyers, guided-mis- Charlie Class nuclear submarine, commis- ter Kamov-31 was acquired from Russia. In
base is coming up about 50 km south of sile frigates of Talwar Class, Brahmaputra sioned as INS Chakra, was operated on addition, the Sea King, Kamov-28 and the
Visakhapatnam at Rambilli Mandal. Class and Godavari Class, and the next- lease by the IN between1988 and 1991. A Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) built
generation Shivalik Class, the Kora, Khukri, technology demonstrator and most presti- Dhruv are used in anti-submarine warfare
Force Levels Veer and Abhay Class corvettes, amphibious gious indigenous programme for construc- (ASW) role. Maritime reconnaissance role is
The three dimensional profile of the IN essen- ships Landing Ship Tank (medium and large) tion of nuclear powered submarines came performed by the Tupolev 142, Ilyushin 38,
tially comprises indigenously built surface and Landing Platform Dock INS Jalashwa, out of the stable with the launch of Arihant Islanders, Dornier Do 228 aircraft, as well as
Continued on page 4


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Follow us on Twitter Being a technology intensive service, the IN requires upgradation
of modernisation plans on a constant basis. Recent times have Transition to
witnessed considerable openness, liberalisation and access to
global market for frontline technologies. BLUE WATER
News Hotline
During a recent high- To seamlessly integrate

level review, Defence submarines into Network

Minister A.K. Antony Centric Operations, in addition
n’ ER BM

directed the IN and to the technological challenges

the coast guard to which require to be overcome,

plug deficiencies in there is also a need to change

the working of coastal the way submarines do


security network ‘business at sea’

es RE D


Indian Navy’s story of supreme Northrop Grumman

valour: Remembering Captain M N proposes the sale of

Review & LT GENERAL (RETD) Communications COMMODORE (RETD)

Mulla and his ship INS Khukri Advanced Hawkeye E-2D

(Story and Video) aircraft to the Indian Navy Road Ahead NARESH CHAND & NCO C.P. SRIVASTAVA

Transition to Blue Water Continued from page 3

▸▸▸ Six Scorpène class
submarines with MESMA
air-independent propulsion
are currently under
construction at Mazagon Docks
Limited. These submarines
are expected to be delivered
to the navy 2012 onwards. ◂◂◂

and Ellora, developed by Bharat Electronics
Limited for different classes of ships. The
systems employ a modular approach for
ease of integration on various platforms
like helicopters, vehicles, and small ships.
Certain platforms, apart from electronic sup-
port measures, have electronic countermea-
sure capabilities. Advanced technologies,
like multiple-beam phased array jammers,
are employed in the system for simultaneous
handling of multiple threats.
A new thrust is being given to network
centric operations by linking all shore-based
installations and ships via high-speed data
networks and satellites. Towards desired
impetus, Government has recently approved a
dedicated communication satellite to the navy
which is expected to be operational by 2010.

Modernisation of the IN
In 2004, a contract was signed with Russia
for purchase of aircraft carrier Admiral
Gorshkov. On completion of comprehensive
refit and modifications the ship will be com-
missioned as INS Vikramaditya. Even though
the project has been delayed considerably
for a variety of reasons, the present delivery
schedule of the ship is 2012.
Simultaneously, another contract was
concluded for purchase of 12 single-seater
MiG-29K and four dual-seater MiG-29KUB
fighters to operate from the INS Vikramaditya.
The first batch of four aircraft has already
arrived. In addition, the government has also
approved procurement of 30 MiG-29Ks, con-
tract for which will be signed shortly. These
aircraft and the indigenously developed Light
Combat Aircraft (LCA) are to operate from an
Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC), currently
Photograph: PRO Navy

under construction at Cochin Shipyard Limited.
A contract has also been inked for top of
the line Long Range Maritime Patrol and ASW
aircraft with Boeing of the US and delivery of
INS Viraat
eight Poseidon P-8I aircraft would commence
from 2012. Additionally, six Medium Range
Maritime Reconnaissance aircraft with ASW
capabilities are planned to be inducted. This
aircraft would replace the aging Islanders.
Global tenders are out for procurement of
advanced, multi-role naval helicopters with
anti ship, ASW capabilities, missiles and torpe-
does. More UAVs are planned to be inducted.
An Indo-Israel joint venture has been set up
to convert Chetak helicopters into unmanned
UAVs to be able to operate from ships.
Apart from the new acquisitions, mod-
ernisation and upgrades of existing air-
craft in the inventory is also progressing
satisfactorily. Sea Harrier combat aircraft,
Sea King helicopters, IL 38 MR aircraft
are all part of the modernisation project.
The government has approved the long
awaited construction programme of the IAC
at Cochin Shipyard Limited. The construc-
tion of lead ship of 40,000 tonne has com-
menced with delivery schedule of 2012-13.
Photograph: PRO Navy

There are reports for an order for follow
on second IAC. The ship design caters
for operations by indigenously developed

naval LCA, MiG-29K, and Sea Harrier com-
IN Ships Mysore, Jyoti and Kuthar during SIMBEX-07 off Singapore in 2007
bat aircraft. In addition to HAL built Dhruv,
Ka-31 and Sea King Mk.42 helicopters are
Chetak helicopters. Israeli origin unmanned India and Israel on development of Barak- submarine launched ballistic missile system also planned for operation on board the
aerial vehicles (UAVs), like Heron and NG missile system for surface ships. Missile Sagarika with a range of about 700 km is yet IAC. Recently Request For Information has
Searcher- IIs, have been inducted into fleet system Barak-I is already installed on most of another prestigious project executed for the been issued to all leading naval combat
air arm for better surveillance. the frontline ships. Indigenously developed navy. Another successful programme has aircraft manufacturers for new generation
Weapon Systems: Development and produc- Dhanush ballistic missiles have been inte- been the adaptation of the Yakhont anti-ship combat aircraft to operate from two IAC.
tion of supersonic cruise missile BrahMos grated on the INS Sukanya to provide nuclear missile system into the BrahMos. Other new acquisitions include three
has been most successfully accomplished deterrence capability. Electronic Warfare: Sangraha is a joint elec- additional Talwar Class stealth frigates to be
under a joint venture (JV) between India and The other cruise missile systems of for- tronic warfare programme and comprises constructed at Kallinigrad, Russia. The navy
Russia. The other prestigious JV is between eign origin include Klub SS-N-27. Indigenous electronic warfare suites, namely Ajanta has government approval for an additional

Photograph: PRO Navy

Shivalik - the stealth destroyer in action, soon to be inducted in Indian Navy

eight warships. Indian defence shipyards are ▸▸▸ Indigenous nuclear The IN may arm its Kilo Class submarine of technology arrangements.
full up with orders for construction of surface fleet with the BrahMos cruise missile after Being a technology intensive service,
ships and submarines. Prominent among submarine Arihant will be successfully completing test launches from the IN requires upgradation of modernisa-
them are the seven ships of Project 17A, equipped with K-15 as well the submarine. Project-75I is on the anvil for tion plans on a constant basis. The long
Shivalik and Kolkatta Classes. opening second line for construction of next- gestation period of shipbuilding process
Indigenous nuclear submarine Arihant
as Sagarika/Agni-III ballistic generation submarines indigenously. These and integration of systems and technol-
will be equipped with K-15 as well as missiles and advanced Indian conventional submarines are to be equipped ogy further enlarges the capability gaps,
Sagarika/Agni-III ballistic missiles and with air-independent propulsion system to requiring macro management. Nonetheless,
advanced Indian made sonar systems. The
made sonar systems ◂◂◂ considerably enhance its submerged endur- recent times have witnessed consider-
government’s nod has been given for con- ance, besides advanced stealth features, able openness, liberalisation and access
structing the three more submarines as fol- undergoing trials in Vladivostok, will be com- land-attack capability. to global market for frontline technologies.
low-on Ballistic Missile Submarines that will missioned as INS Chakra on joining the IN. The existing fleet of 12 Pondicherry Commensurate reforms in policies, proce-
reportedly be larger than the Arihant Class Six Scorpène class submarines with class minesweepers are due for retirement, dures, its periodic reviews for acquisition
submarines. Meanwhile, India has finalised a MESMA air-independent propulsion are cur- global tenders have accordingly been and induction of top end platforms, weap-
deal with Russia to lease Akula-II Class sub- rently under construction at Mazagon Docks floated for eight Mine Counter Measure ons, systems, equipment, and so on, are
marine, Nerpa, with an option to buy it at the Limited. These submarines are expected Vessels. These ships are expected to be right steps in the right direction and will
end of lease period. The submarine, currently to be delivered to the navy 2012 onwards. constructed at Goa Shipyard under transfer usher in a bright future for the IN.

Can India cope with a
Te c h n o l o g y

Sea Mine Threat
or does India need
to act now? Pondicheri Class MCMV

The Indian Navy at present has just 12 Mine Sweeper Ocean (MSO, PONDICHERI class) and 2 Mine Sweeper
Inshore (MSI, MAHE class) vessels to safe guard its vast coastline of more than 7500 km, 12 major ports and all the
assets within the economic zone.


Can India cope with a Sea Mine increase the MCM capability in order to fill will allow for rapid deployment.
Threat or does India need to act the requirement gap for the critical years
now? ahead with a fraction of the cost of new Containerised MCM:
The Indian Navy at present has just 12 Mine MCMVs, should this not be considered? There are only few industries who are expert
Sweeper Ocean (MSO, PONDICHERI class) India is a fast growing Nation and a major and can offer a solution for a “Containerised
and 2 Mine Sweeper Inshore (MSI, MAHE part of our economy is depending on free MCM System” like ATLAS ELEKTRONIK
class) vessels to safe guard its vast coast- and unhindered sea traffic. Sea Mines are a GmbH Germany. Other Companies as
line of more than 7500 km, 12 major ports real threat, a threat in itself and a threat to our BOFORS or KOCKUMS offer containerised
and all the assets within the economic zone. growth and economy. subsystems and most likely suppliers of MCM-
Since the PONDICHERI class of vessels We need dedicated MCMVs and highly AUVs and EMDS will be able to offer their sys-
Explosion of a Mine
have almost lived their life, 8 of these vessels trained personnel for MCM operations. tems in a containerised variant as well.
are planned to be decommissioned shortly. Although the program for new MCMVs has The ATLAS system e.g. covers the com-
The remaining 4 MCM vessels are undergoing started with transfer of technology but it is plete MCM chain, consisting of the AUV
mid-life refit and also being modernised. On complex and hence transfer takes time. The “SeaOtter” with a specialised MCM Sonar
the other hand, the two MAHE class MSI ves- question is: Are there alternatives we poten- payload, the single shot Mine Disposal Vehicle
sels have only a limited capability as ocean tially can use to cope with this threat? The “SeaFox”, to be operated from a RHIB or pos-
going vessels and are also aging as well. answer is yes! sibly from an unmanned surface drone, the
Looking into the future requirements of Worldwide the Navies are considering the Influence Mine Sweeping Drone “SAM 3” from
the IN for MCM Vessels, a program for 8 new use Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) TKMS Kockums, and the command and con-
MCMVs has been initiated. Response from for Mine detection and classification and single trol system, derived from the leading IMCMS.
two shipyards were received and currently shot mine disposal vehicles are already intro- The IMCMS (Integrated Mine
technical offers are being evaluated by the IN. duced in several Navies. Unmanned remotely Countermeasure System) has been intro-
It is a challenging program, as the first 2 ships operated drones for influence mine sweeping duced in the MCMVs of several leading MCM
would be built abroad and during the same are available and introduced in various Navies Navies and is a potential candidate for the
period, the GOA shipyard Ltd. will also be as well. Indian Navy as well. The complete equip-
upgraded to be able to build the remaining 6 Today these systems are available in a ment is packed in a standard 20ft container,
MCM vessels locally. This upgrade will include containerised variant. These MCM containers half-size container or for the SAM 3 in a 40ft
infrastructure and training and is part of the
requested Transfer of Technology, what has to
be offered by the foreign shipyards as well. ine, how much the economy is effected, if a
Such a challenging program needs time mine threat was detected. Mines can easily be
and if everything goes well as planned, the thrown from basically all vessels and can be a
first of class of the new vessels will enter terrorist attack as well.
service at the earliest in 4 to 5 years and If a comparison is allowed with other
the last one of these 8 Mine Countermeasure nations, depending on free sea traffic as
vessels can be expected to join the Navy well, the Indian coast line of more than 7500
somewhere in 2021. km with 12 major ports, have to be safe
Now Considering the foreseen decommis- guarded just with 4 MCM(MSO) Vessels,
sioning as well as Mid Life Extension /MLE pro- ending with 12 MCMVs in 2021. The US
gram of the MCMV fleet, only 4 PONDICHERI for example have a coast line of about
class and about two MAHE class vessels 20,000 km (including Alaska), the US Navy
will be available in the inventory of the IN operates 26 MCMVs in addition to the heli- can be combined in a way, that both mine container. Spare parts (“on board spare
by 2012. If the new MCM vessel program copter based MCM capabilities. The UK, hunting and mine sweeping are possible. All parts” and the necessary service equipment
can be realised as scheduled, the MCMVs with a coast line of about 12,000 km and necessary equipment are housed inside the including the Special test and tools for opera-
fleet will start increasing from 2012 but at too 10 major ports, operate with 16 MCMVs. respective container and only minor infra- tion) are also housed inside the respective
slow pace, making them 12 MCMVs in 2021. China has a coast line of about 15 000 km structure is needed to be ready for operation. container.
Therefore, Indian Navy will have a very limited and 8 major ports is operating 19 MCMVs. Operation from shore positions or from any Each container system is fitted with the
MCM capability from 2012 onward, especially These Nations as average have 1 MCMV in craft of opportunity with sufficient energy and command electronics and the AUV during
in direct comparison with the coastline of operation for about 800 km of their coast a crane is possible. Transport of those contain- transport. This includes the electronic cabi-
7500 km and about 12 major ports and all the line. Whereas, India in 2012 will have close ers is a standard procedure, by truck, train, nets, the consoles for operation, planning,
assets within the economic zone. to 1800 km per 1 MCMV and will come up ship or aircraft, enabling rapid deployment evaluation, equipment for documentation
close to a comparable coast line length per to any destination. This saves time in case and the equipment necessary to remotely
Is the mine threat real? MCMV in around 2020/21. In addition the of need and operation from a shore position control drones. During operation it acts as
This question nobody realistically can MCMVs are dedicated ships for the MCM enables intensified training of the operators at “CIC” with the typical infrastructure needed
answer, but looking at the past experi- purpose and not very fast in transit, it takes any time. for MCM operations.
ence, the US NAVY for example has lost quite some time to transit with the ships This containerised MCM capability can be A containerised MCM System would not

or suffered severe damage on more ships to the operational area. If a mine threat is realised within a period much shorter than the only bridge the current major gap until the new
by sea mine explosions than by any other detected in our waters, it will take days, if not realisation of new MCMVs and at by far less MCMVs will be operational, but in addition
reason in the entire period since the sec- close to weeks to be able to start an MCM cost. It is not an investment in a dead end, enable for rapid deployment of MCM capabili-
ond world war. operation in the area of requirement. as those systems will be force multipliers and ties. In addition, the major subsystems such
Mines are cheap and will have a major No doubt, the budget is limited and enable rapid deployment, supporting the MCM as e.g. the AUV or the EMDV, foreseen for
economic impact if a sea-lane of communi- not all desires can be fulfilled immediately. capability of the MCMVs when they are avail- the new MCMVs can be used there or later as
cation is blocked. Just one mine explosion On the other hand, the procedure and pro- able. The program for the new MCMVs also a force multipliers. The same applies for the
creates a major effort to ensure that no further cesses cannot be cut short drastically to includes the introduction of AUVs and Single- Remotely Controlled Influence Mine Sweeping
explosives are there, hindering the free access expedite the programme for new MCMVs Shot-Mine-Disposal vehicles. The introduction Drones as well. Therefore India should think
to the ports. If we consider the enormous and hence it need certain minimum time to of containerised versions would expedite the on the possibilities of procurement of the
amount of goods arriving or departing every mature. Therefore the solution may be only realisation of sufficient MCM capabilities, which “Containerised MCM System” the market is
day from the Indian ports, we could well imag- to look for some alternative if available to is really the need of the hour and in addition offering now.

OEM Perspectives

‘IAI will meet the IN’s
most challenging needs’
IAI will continue to work closely with the Indian Navy to help meet its
most challenging needs, now and in the future.
Photograph: SP Guide Pubns/ IAI

Itzhak Nissans,
Barak point President and CEO,
defence system
Israel Aerospace Industries Limited

srael Aerospace Industries (IAI) offers missile systems, advanced attack missiles, with local Indian industries, and has lately the advanced long range air and missile
a wide range of defence related solu- radars, combat suites, Unmanned Aerial established the joint venture company NOVA defence system (LRSAM). IAI regards the
tions—in space, in the air, on land and Vehicles, Network Centric Warfare systems Systems in cooperation with TATA. Indian Navy as a highly professional and
at sea. IAI has served as the advanced and Electronic Warfare Systems. The company maintains a long term demanding client, with unique operational
weapon systems house for the Israel Navy IAI works closely with the Indian armed fruitful working relationship with the Indian needs and capabilities. IAI will continue to
for over 40 years and has installed opera- forces to provide them with the most advanced Navy. IAI’s solutions for the Indian Navy work closely with the Indian Navy to help
tional systems onboard 100 ships worldwide. and effective solutions for their needs. In order include (among others) the Barak point meet its most challenging needs, now and
IAI’s naval solutions include air and defence to support the users in India, IAI cooperates defence systems and joint development of in the future.

‘Lockheed Martin
a natural ally to the IN’
Lockheed Martin’s position as the prime system’s integrator
for many of the world’s premier maritime systems, make
partnerships with the Indian Navy and coast guard—and
India’s passion for innovation—a natural fit.
Photographs: Lockheed Martin

Roger Rose,
Top: MH-60R multi-role helicopter (two different views); Chief Executive,
Bottom: Aegis ships in action
Lockheed Martin India Private Limited

ockheed Martin provides many of The Japanese, Korean, Australian and US carries a Lockheed Martin digital cockpit as witnessed a short year ago in Mumbai, its
the high tech systems employed Navies employ the Lockheed Martin Aegis and an integrated mission suite, is the most coastline – is critical to the security and eco-
by the United States and partner Combat System to protect their battle groups. advanced naval helicopter in the world. It nomic growth of the nation. Lockheed Martin
navies, many of which operate in Only an Aegis system, using the SM-2 missile is designed to provide greatly enhanced provides a broad range of maritime products
the Asia-Pacific theater. India’s strategic - a capability developed and refined over a mission capability, increased fleet avail- - from Aegis and MH-60R, to submarine
geographic position as not only the trade 30-year period at a cost of over US$10B - can ability, and reduced operating and support combat systems, coastal surveillance sys-
hub of South Asia, but as a peninsula protect against the modern missile threats costs. Additionally, it provides antisubmarine tems, acoustic targets, and even the Deep
situated across the oil route for more than deployed in the Asia-Pacific theater. warfare (ASW) and surface surveillance Submergence Vehicle being offered to India’s
half of the world’s energy needs, make the One of the key sensors and weapons capabilities. The MH-60R has already accu- National institute of Ocean Technology.
Indian Navy’s decision to deploy carrier systems employed by US carrier battle mulated more than 4,000 flight hours within These capabilities, and Lockheed Martin’s
battle groups off its eastern and western groups, the MH-60R multi-role helicopter US Navy squadrons. position as the prime system’s integrator
coasts a natural one. The Indian Navy’s has just been successfully deployed (46 With the emergence of India as a global for many of the world’s premier maritime
vital mission is to protect the freedom of have been delivered), and is being offered economic force, and the influx of national systems, make partnerships with the Indian
the Arabian Gulf and Bay of Bengal trade to its first potential international partner - players in the Indian Ocean, India’s protec- Navy and Coast Guard - and India’s passion
routes that carry 90% of India’s trade. India - by the US Navy. The MH-60R, which tion of its sea lanes of communication, and - for innovation - a natural fit.

‘IN & Boeing happy with the
progress of P-8I programme’
And overall, this relationship is hard proof of the growing
closeness of the US and India
Photograph: Boeing

Dr Vivek Lall,
Vice President and India Country Head,
Boeing Integrated Defense Systems

oeing’s relationship with the a willingness on both sides to learn of the P-8I programme. The Indian Navy to be a trusted partner in India’s defence
Indian Navy has grown from the about the other, to narrow and overcome looks forward to receiving its new aircraft and security. And overall, this relationship
moment India first expressed any gaps of distance and culture. From and bolstering its maritime security at is hard proof of the growing closeness
interest in Boeing’s P-8I, India’s Boeing’s perspective, this relationship is the same time the US Navy inducts its of the US and India, spoken of so elo-
new long-range maritime patrol and anti- characterised by a sense of openness, version of the same aircraft into its force. quently in Washington by Prime Minister
submarine aircraft. The negotiations, trust and mutual respect. The Indian Navy So I think Boeing is demonstrating its (Manmohan) Singh and President (Barack)
which concluded successfully, showcased and Boeing are happy with the progress determination and, indeed, commitment Obama.

Hall of Fame
Illustration: Ratan sonal and Photographs: Abhishek / SP Guide Pubns

Late Captain Mulla’s daughter Ameeta Mulla Wattal and his wife Sudha;
(top) the Mullas as a young couple

A Tale of
See video of the interview on www.spsnavalforces.net

Ameeta Mulla Wattal, Captain On the Golden Jubilee of India becoming

Supreme Valour
Mulla’s elder daughter. Voice a republic, the Department of Posts issued
wrought with emotion and a stamp to pay tribute to Captain Mulla’s
pride, the daughter read out valour and sacrifice. Admiral Madhvendra
the last letter from her father, Singh, then Chief of the Naval Staff, inau-
which she has safely framed for gurated the ‘Captain Mahendra Nath Mulla
posterity. It is not always that Auditorium’, a 968-seater, air-conditioned
one inherits a legacy of rare auditorium at Navy Nagar, Mumbai.
valour. Retrospectively, Ameeta Amid the enduring praise is a soft voice
observes: “Not because it that lends an insight into the man Captain
was the right thing to do, nor Mulla was. “He was very straightforward and
Remembering Captain M.N. Mulla because it was expected of truthful. To him the world was either black or
him, but because knowing him white,” reminiscences his wife Sudha Mulla.
and his ship, the INS Khukri as I did, it was the only thing he “He disliked having to compromise and this
S A N G E E TA S A X E N A would have done.” evoked strong responses from people. Some
liked him and some did not but I believe he
was respected by all, seniors and juniors

alike.” Eyes clouding with nostalgia, she
ecember 9, 1971. The violent recalls: “The sailors and his subordinates
sounds of war rumbled as a furi- adored him because he was very fair and
ous yet futile struggle took place just. He was a strict disciplinarian but he
40 nautical miles off the coast was also very kind and generous to them,
of Diu. This was a desperate last attempt particularly when they needed help.”
to save lives on the Blackwood class anti- Today, the very tradition of a ship’s
submarine frigate, INS Khukri, deployed Captain going down with his vessel, not-
to fight Pakistan during Operation Trident, withstanding the supreme valour of the act,
known to Indians as the 1971 war. is itself debated—particularly, when one
Torpedoed by a Pakistani submarine, PNS can live to fight another day and pass on
Hangor, it became the only Indian ship the lessons of real time action
to sink—a chapter in its history Indian to the new
Navy will never forget. A gripping battle generations of
story which salutes the exemplary cour- fighters who
age and great leadership of Captain M.N. would benefit
Mulla who went down with his ship, true to from the first
the time-honoured tradition that dictates hand experi-
“captains don’t abandon their ships”, has The INS Khukri; (right) a commemorative stamp of M.N. Mulla ence of a war
motivated generations of naval officers. He veteran. A
was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra post- captain may
humously for conspicuous gallantry and abandon
dedication to duty. his ship
Captain Mahendra Nath Mulla settled on cious seamanship and India takes pride in To honour the mar- and save

the bridge and exhorted his men to aban- the story of INS Khukri and Captain Mulla. tyrs of INS Khukri, the his life for
don the ship and jump into the cold waters “I have often wondered what made my Indian Navy raised a further
of the Arabian Sea. It was 8.45 pm and the father decide to go down with his ship after memorial constituting a service to
Khukri sank within minutes. He preferred to it was torpedoed during the 1971 Indo-Pak full-scale model of the INS the force, seems to be
stand by his 18 officers and 176 sailors who war. Did he want his name to be enshrined Khukri—15 m long, 2 m the unanimous opinion of naval personnel.
went down with the Khukri—the only Indian in history books as a man of valour? Did he wide and 7 ft tall—in Diu, on a small hillock But ask the common man who gratefully
captain to go down with a ship to his watery do it because it was a part of an old archaic facing the Arabian Sea and the exact loca- welcomes the heroes fortunate enough
grave during war. He taught generations of naval tradition, or did he accompany his tion where the crew of the INS Khukri fought to return home but fondly remembers the
naval officers not only how to live but how ship to the womb of the sea because he felt valiantly 38 years ago. It was inaugurated martyrs who gave their present for the
to die. No point debating and discussing it was the right thing to do? Whatever the by Vice Admiral Madhvendra Singh, on country’s future. And that is how India
a 38-year-old story. Each ship’s operations reason, he was a great leader and continues December 15, 1999, during his tenure as will always remember and revere Captain
unravel stories of guile, courage and auda- to influence my every living moment,” said FOC-in-C Western Naval Command. Mahendra Nath Mulla, MVC.

Review &

Photographs: www.about.com and PRO Navy
Coastal Management

Road Ahead
During a recent high-level review, Defence Minister A.K. Antony directed the IN and the coast guard to plug
Smoke rises from the windows of the Taj Hotel in Mumbai after the
26/11 terrorist strike

deficiencies in the working of coastal security network
LT G E N E R A L ( R E T D ) N A R E S H C H A N D

ndia has 15,106.7 km of land recommendations in the form of a public docu- rooms of the IN and the coast guard, both at 3,000 personnel.
border running through 92 dis- ment titled “Reforming the National Security the field and the apex levels. New coast guard stations: The government
tricts in 17 states and a coast- System” in February 2001. Its recommenda- • The IN will control all navy-and-coast-guard has sanctioned nine new coast guard stations.
line of 7,516.6 km touching 13 tions on coastal security, even after eight joint operations. Regional HQ: The Regional Headquarter
states and Union Territories. India’s years, are relevant. Briefly, these are: • Assets, such as ships, boats, helicopters, under an Inspector General was made opera-
total number of islands is 1,197 which • While the Jammu and Kashmir border is still aircraft, and so on, as also the manpower of tional in Gandhinagar in September to coor-
accounts for a stretch of 2,094 km active; Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and the coast guard, will be increased. dinate the patrolling and surveillance off the
additional border or coastline. Ministry the west coast of the country are also being • A specialised force, called “Sagar Prahari Gujarat coast.
of Home Affairs, Department of Border used for the purpose of smuggling arms. Bal”, comprising 1,000 personnel and tasked Air squadron: An air squadron has been acti-
Management has a Border Area The smugglers have acquired high-powered with protecting naval assets and bases on vated in Porbandar in June.
Development Programme started dur- speed boats. both the east and the west coasts, as well as Coastal radars: Defence Secretary Pradeep
ing the Seventh Plan with the twin objectives • The concept of border security has under- the island territories, is to be created. Kumar said Bharat Electronics Limited is in the
of balanced development of sensitive border gone a sea change with the growing vulner- • This force will procure 80 Fast Interception process of installing 46 radars costing about
areas in the western region through adequate ability of the coastline and also of the airspace. Crafts for sea front patrolling. Rs 300 crore all along the Indian coast, includ-
provision of infrastructure facilities and promo- In response to strengthening of security... • A new Coast Guard Regional HQ will be set ing the islands, in the first phase of forming a
tion of a sense of security among the local along a sensitive land border, the transgressor up in Gujarat, under the newly created post radar chain.
population. The programme was revamped in is already on the lookout for soft gaps...along of COMCG (North-West), to look after surveil- Operations & training: Navy Chief Admiral
the Eight Plan and extended to states which the coast, and if need be, from the air. lance off the coast of Gujarat, Daman and Diu. Nirmal Verma said nine operations have been
have an international border with Bangladesh. • Little has been done over the years to • ‘Vessel and Air Traffic Management Systems’ carried out along the west coast based on
The land borders have been continu- understand or take action to create the infra- will be installed by the Ministry of Petroleum to intelligence inputs. To check the effectiveness
ously under focus due to the hostile nature of structure for the protection of India’s vast cover all offshore development areas, as has of the new systems, joint operations are also
certain neighbouring countries and disputed coastal areas. been done in the western offshore region. being carried out between the coast guard,
borders. However, the same is not true of • The GoM felt that it was desirable to set up a • The Indian Coast Guard has been addition- coastal police, customs and the navy. In the
the coastal areas. There are some disputed Specialized Marine Police in all coastal states ally designated as the authority responsible for recently concluded Operation Rakshak in
areas in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and island territories. coastal security within Territorial Waters, includ- September-October, 165 merchant vessels
but apart from this, there are routine problems Evidently, the GoM’s report was not imple- ing areas to be patrolled by the coastal police. and 259 fishing vessels were interrogated by
• The Director General Coast Guard is des- navy and the coast guard. In July, the coast
ignated as ‘Commander Coastal Command’ guard conducted joint exercise “Barricade”
and made responsible for overall coordination along the Tamil Nadu Coast together with the
between central and state agencies. navy and other central and state agencies.
• The setting up of nine additional Coast For the first time, 13 agencies acted together;
Guard Stations to integrate into the ‘hub-and- even the local fisherman were involved. Eleven
spoke concept’ with coastal police stations joint exercises have been conducted along all
along with manpower. the coastal states.
• The proposal for setting up of Static Coastal Schemes under the Home Ministry: The
Radar Chain and a comprehensive network meeting also took stock of the Coastal Security
chain of ‘Automatic Identification System’ sta- Scheme of the Union Ministry of Home
tions along the entire coast as well as island Affairs—64 Coastal Police Stations have been
territories has been approved. made operational, 25 out of 97 check-posts
have been operationalised and 42 boats sup-
High-level review of plied. The Defence Minister directed the con-
coastal security cerned officials to expedite the delivery of the
On November 12, a high-level review of the remaining 152 boats which are in the pipeline.
coastal security was conducted under the The coast guard and the navy are providing
Defence Minister during which he directed training to marine police and other support to
the IN and the coast guard to plug deficien- state governments in matters connected with
cies in the working of coastal security network. boats and their manning. It was agreed that
Admiral Nirmal Verma, who took over as Chief of the Naval Staff on 31st August, during Emphasising that coastal security is a top pri- fishermen need to be actively involved and
his recent interactions with MARCOS (Marine Commandos). ority of the government, Antony underlined an imparted training. So far, 1,500 have been
integrated approach put in place post-Mumbai trained; the navy has trained 74 in Mumbai.
of smuggling and illegal fishing. Division of mented seriously otherwise 26/11 could per- terror attacks and called upon the top officials Integration: Cabinet Secretary K.M.
responsibility among effected agencies is such haps have been averted. of the two forces to meet the procurement Chandrashekharan reiterated that an effective
that the Indian Coast Guard functions between schedules of patrol vessels, interceptor boats, mechanism can be possible only with the col-
12 and 200 nautical miles, which is the EEZ, Post 26/11 surveillance aircraft and radars to enhance lective action of navy, coast guard and states.
while marine police keep watch inside the 12 The same exercise was repeated post 26/11 coastal security. National Security Advisor M.K. Narayanan
nautical miles of territorial waters and the navy and a comprehensive package of measures Fast track acquisitions: Antony expressed wanted the response time to be quickened.
beyond 200 nautical miles of blue water. There were announced by Defence Minister A.K. satisfaction on the fast-track acquisitions of the JOC: Post Mumbai attack, one of the key
is continuous movement of all types of ves- Anthony after its approval by the Cabinet navy and the coast guard. achievements has been operationalising the
sels for trade, fishing, military, policing, sports, Committee on Security. Salient features were: Fast Interceptor Crafts: As many as 80 Fast JOCs at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Kochi and
and so on. On each Indian coast there are • The Indian Navy (IN) has been made Interceptor Crafts are being acquired for the Port Blair under Naval Cs-in-C, who have been
reportedly 1,50,000 small fishing boats with no responsible for overall maritime security, which Sagar Prahari Bal of the IN at a cost of Rs 320 designated as Cs-in-C of Coastal Defence.
modern navigation means or communications. includes both coastal and offshore security. crore (about $69.5 million). Coastal states have also nominated nodal
Management of such a coastline is a formida- The Indian Coast Guard, State Marine Police Indian Coast Guard: The coast guard would officers for effective coordination. Further the
ble assignment and when super imposed with and other central and state agencies are to get a big boost with the acquisition of 74 intelligence sharing mechanism has been
the template of terrorism, the task becomes all assist the IN in terms of coastal defence. ships/high speed boats/hovercrafts and four streamlined. A toll-free number 1093 for coast-
the more complex and challenging. • Four Joint Operation Centres (JOCs) are to Dornier aircraft. One Advanced Offshore Patrol al security has been set up.
be established at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Vessel and two interceptor boats joined the
Post Kargil Kochi and Port Blair and placed under the coast guard fleet this year and another six will Maintain the momentum
The events of 26/11 resulted in deep intro- jurisdiction of the respective C-in-C. The JOCs be commissioned by March next year. Director It is not clear whether the manpower short-
spection by the Government of India resulting are to be manned and operated jointly by the General, Coast Guard Vice Admiral Anil ages of the police and other agencies, like
in the establishment of committees to recom- IN and the coast guard, with requisite inputs Chopra informed the meeting that the acquisi- the Research and Analysis Wing and the
mend the future course of action in order to from diverse agencies. tions worth over Rs 6,000 crore (about $1.3 Intelligence Bureau, are also being plugged
pre-empt a recurrence. Fact is, such efforts • The respective Naval Cs-in-C will hold billion) are progressing well. on a war footing. Then the status of issues, like
and intentions have been voiced after every additional responsibility as Cs-in-C, Coastal Delegation of financial powers: The Defence the International Ship and Port Facility Security
terror strike, be it on the Indian Parliament or Defence. Minister said the government has in the interim Code, Container Security Initiative, Shipborne
in the Kaluchak Cantonment, but still terror- • A ‘National Command, Control, delegated financial powers to the C–in–C to Automatic Identification System, and so on, is
ists have struck with impudence and at will. Communication and Intelligence’ network hire boats for coastal patrolling. not clear. However, it is heartening to see such
Immediately after Kargil, the Group of Ministers would be established for real-time Maritime Man power for coast guard: The coast guard progress on ground. What is required is to
(GoM) working under L.K. Advani made its Domain Awareness linking the operations has been asked to expedite the recruitment of maintain the momentum.

▸▸▸ Currently, there are four
A n t i - S u b m a r i n e We a p o n s

main platforms for anti-sub-
marine warfare—surface
ships equipped with sonars;
airplanes equipped with sono-
buoys; helicopters carrying
both sonobuoys and dipping
sonars; and submarines ◂◂◂

or ejected from aircraft or ships conducting
anti-submarine warfare and deploys upon

the water on impact. An inflatable surface
float with a radio transmitter remains on the
surface for communication with the aircraft,
while one or more hydrophone sensors
and stabilising equipment descends below
the surface to a selected depth to collect
acoustic information.

Photograph: www.mbda-systems.com
MAD: MAD is an instrument used to detect
variations in the Earth’s magnetic field. As
the submarine is built of ferromagnetic mate-
rial, the same principle of detecting the
variations of magnetic field is applied while
detecting a submarine. The term, thus, refers
specifically to magnetometers used by the
navy to detect submarines. Before the devel-
opment of sonar buoys, the MAD gear was
MBDA’s Milas1 in action often installed in aircraft to pick up shallow-
submerged submarines. It is still used today.
To render India’s blue print of a regional power a reality, it is essential to develop
Anti-Submarine Weapons
a potent submarine force along with acquiring the most modern, accurate and Anti-submarine weapons are of three
types—guided weapons, non-guided
lethal anti-submarine weapons
weapons, and rocket and mortar weapons.
Guided anti-submarine weapons, such
LT G E N E R A L ( R E T D ) N A R E S H C H A N D as torpedoes, seek out the submarine to

destroy it. Non-guided anti-submarine weap-
n anti-submarine weapon is devices. There was also the acute need for a to give ships, submarines and maritime ons are mines and depth charges. Rockets
any weapon that can be used forward throwing weapon. patrol aircraft longer detection capability. and mortar weapons, such as anti-subma-
against a submarine to destroy During the intervening period of the two Currently, there are four main platforms rine grenades and anti-submarine rockets,
or degrade its capability. Such World Wars, key developments took place in for anti-submarine warfare—surface ships have the advantage of rapid response time
weapons have to be effective underwater, the field of active sonar (Sound Navigation equipped with sonars; airplanes equipped since these are carried through the air to the
necessitating application of a whole range And Ranging) and radar. The British inte- with sonobuoys (which are dropped into the target. Once dropped on top of the target,
of technologies vastly different from that grated the sonar with fire control and weap- water); helicopters carrying both sonobuoys these also have the advantage of not being
used for surface platforms. The first use of ons to form an integrated system for war- and dipping sonars; and submarines. All sensitive to decoys or stealth features.
a submarine in combat has been recorded ships. During World War II, Germany revived platforms are also equipped with suitable A hybrid of this category is the rocket
on February 17, 1864 during the American its submarine warfare and other nations anti-submarine weapons. Salient features of (missile) launched torpedo, which is car-
Civil War when the Confederate States also followed suit, thus the thrust towards the sensor and anti-submarine weapons are ried to the proximity of the target via
Navy vessel CSS Hunley became the first anti-submarine weapons also took a fresh as follows: a rocket and, therefore, reduces the
submarine to sink an enemy vessel in impetus. British and Commonwealth Naval response time and gives the submarine
combat, the USS Housatonic (1,124 metric Forces proved particularly adept in using Sensors less time to undertake countermeasures or
tonnes screw sloop). But soon after, Hunley depth charges and formed some of the first Optical Detection: The “Mark I Eyeball” evasive maneuvers.
also sank, drowning all eight of its crew. destroyer hunter-killer groups. Air-dropped was the first submarine detection system Torpedo: Earlier torpedoes were straight
After about 136 years, on August 8, 2000, depth bombs were normally set to explode and remains an important method of target running and comprised two types, the
the wreck was recovered, and the DNA- at a shallow depth, while the submarine confirmation. This is now supplemented by heavyweight, fired from submarines, and the
identified as that of the eight crewmen. was crash-diving to escape attack. Aircraft thermal techniques. lightweight fired from ships, dropped from
Their remains were interred in Charleston’s were very successful in preventing U-Boat Radio Intercept: The use of the “wolf pack” aircraft (both fixed wing and helicopters)
Magnolia Cemetery with full military honors. attacks as well as well as destroying them. by submarines in both the World Wars or delivered by rocket. The first success-
Torpedo tubes were first installed on a Some were fitted with a searchlight as well allowed interception of radio signals and ful homing torpedo was introduced by the
submarine around 1885 and the first ship as bombs. allowed convoys to be diverted and hunter- German Navy for use by its U-Boat arm
was sunk by a submarine launched torpedo The new weapons developed during this killer groups to be targeted on the pack. against Allied shipping. A modern torpedo
in 1887. With the advent of submarines in period were as follows: Submarines now transmit using methods that is a potent weapon destroying targets at
naval warfare, the process of developing Forward-throwing anti-submarine mor- are less susceptible to intercept. 40 km at a speed of 50 knots. It has more
countermeasures also commenced. During tars: Introduced in 1942 to prevent loss of Radar: Radars can locate only those subma- destructive potential than a missile. During
the early stages, a submarine was sunk sonar contact, these mortars used a multiple rines that have surfaced, but are not effec- the Falklands War, General Belgrano, an
either by ramming it or by gunfire when it sur- type of small depth charges. The first type tive when these are submerged. 8,000 tonnes cruiser, sank within 45 minutes
faced. Consequently, it was largely immune of charge created a pattern of underwater Sonar: Sound can be used to locate an of being hit by three World War II vintage
to any countermeasures when submerged. explosions around a likely target while the object as bats and dolphins have been torpedoes, but when HMS Sheffield was hit
During World War I, there were about 400 second type exploded only on contact. A doing for thousands of years. Before the by an Exocet missile it was abandoned after
submarines operating on the high seas. The subsequent design allowed a destroyer advent of the radar, sound was used to a few hours and sank after six days. Some
Germans used their U-Boats very effectively hunting the submarine to maintain continu- locate enemy aircraft and artillery, but once instances of torpedoes are M48Mod6-AT
against British merchant fleet, egging UK to ous sonar contact until a kill was achieved. the radar was invented, it became the pri- and M54 lightweight torpedo of Raytheon.
desperately hunt for an effective antidote. FIDO (Mk 24 mine) anti-submarine hom- mary means for detection of surface and A modern torpedo could have the following
ing torpedo: It was an air-dropped passive aerial platforms, including artillery. However, salient features:
Research & Development acoustic homing anti-submarine torpedo, it was not possible to use radar under water • Propulsion—Electric/Thermal
Bombs were not found effective but depth introduced in 1943 by the US and contribut- and sonar has become the primary means • Speed—50 knots
charges worked well and were placed on ed to many ‘kills’ of the German submarines. for detecting under water objects. Sonar— • Range—40 km
British destroyers. Other techniques used Its production was discontinued in 1948. active or passive—uses sound propagation • Endurance—Over 30 minutes, depending

were minefields, barrages and Q-ships. technique to detect, navigate and com- upon speed
Heavily armed with concealed weapons, Cold War phase municate with other vessels. Active sonar • Homing—Combined acoustic and wake
Q-ships were merchant ships that acted Both the US and the Soviet Union strived uses a sound transmitter and a receiver and homing, with an acquisition range of about
as a sort of bait for the submarine which to develop more lethal and stealthier sub- passive sonar listens without transmitting. 5,000 m.
surfaced to attack the unarmed merchant marines. Thus, the countermeasures also The frequencies used in sonar systems vary • Intelligent homing head to ensure target
but got attacked by it. These systems were became more lethal and accurate with the from infrasonic to ultrasonic. Its effective- selectivity, rejection of decoys and overcome
very effective as the Germans lost about introduction of new delivery platforms like ness has increased with the development countermeasures
178 U-Boats during World War I. Torpedoes the helicopter. The torpedoes were made of air-dropped sonobuoys, which relay • Capability to be controlled from firing plat-
were effective but locating a submarine more accurate and new anti-submarine mis- sonar signals to overhead aircraft; dipping form by wire guidance up to a distance of
underwater was a problem. However, the siles and rockets were developed. Better sonar from helicopters and fixed long range about 50 km.
Hydrophones had been developed and were sensors like improved sonar and Magnetic systems. A sonobuoy is a relatively small • Destruction potential equivalent to 400 to
becoming effective as detection and locating Anomaly Detectors (MAD) were developed expendable sonar system that is dropped 600 kg of the explosive Trinitrotoluene (TNT).
Continued on page 13

Communications & NCO

To seamlessly integrate submarines into Network Centric Operations, in addition to the technological challenges
which require to be overcome, there is also a need to change the way submarines do ‘business at sea’

C O M M O D O R E ( R E T D ) C . P. S R I VA S TAVA

“Using primarily space-based systems, we will entire communication upgradation, there
create what I like to call a Battlefield Internet. should be inter and intra navy and inter ser-
Our ships, planes, subs and marines will vice commonality. Hardware and software
essentially log on to this Internet and be able should, as far as possible, be off the shelf,
to achieve incredibly deep situational aware- tailored where required, to meet submarine
ness because of the information power con- applications. The use of open architecture
tained on this Internet grid. Additionally, naval will allow sub systems to be upgraded
or joint force commanders will have increased easily with state of art commercial compo-
visibility across the spectrum of assets avail- nents. This is possible since ‘Revolution in
able to them, giving them incredible flexibility Communication Affairs’ is market driven and,
to match targets to weapons and delivery therefore, always ahead of Revolution in

Photograph: www.lockheedmartin.com
platforms. We call this new way of thinking and Military Affairs. Additionally, the automation
fighting ‘Network Centric Warfare’, and it’s a of both routine operations and preparations
term you’ll hear a lot in the future.” of communication plans, as well as paper-
—Admiral Jay L. Johnson, less message distribution will reduce man-
Former Chief of Naval Operations, US Navy ning and training costs.

Two way submarine communications:
ny navy intending to influence While some of these challenges continue to
events ashore, must aim for full persist, there has been remarkable develop-
integration of submarines, espe- ment in the sphere of two way communica-
Comms at Speed and Depth Information
cially the SSNs, into its expedi- tion with dived submarines. These develop-
tionary task forces. To be effective units of ments are in the sphere of using communi-
a Naval Task Group, within a Joint Force, antennas, trans-receivers, internal switching, ers would have to address the issue of cation buoys and the satellite communication
submarines must be capable of tailoring on- system control and data distribution, and mast configuration to tackle the prob- networks. Two of these are discussed below:
board capabilities to optimise their support for so on. All these capabilities would enhance lems of ‘mast payload limitations’. An
the Joint Task Force and Naval Component submarine communication and bring them at all non-hull penetrating mast approach, Space & Naval Warfare Systems
Commanders. One of the capabilities critical par with those of large surface combatants. optronic element integration of periscope Command Program, US Navy
for this integration is the ability of the subma- However, it is imperative that submarines and Electronic Warfare, and combining The US Navy has developed systems using
rine to mesh into net-centric infrastructure and acquire these new capabilities without com- Electronic Support Measures and commu- floating radio antennas and buoys that will
become an active and capable player in Net promising their inherent stealth, limited mast- nication intelligence into a single system, provide submerged submarines with two-
Centric Operations (NCO). top pay load and yet remain within the existing are some of the approaches being contem- way communications. The new SPAWAR,
For the submarine force, however, NCO is space constraints. plated. An innovative approach could be to Communications Speed and Depth pro-
a double edged sword. While there exists the Data Grids: Information superiority will be have two masts in the submarine of modu- gramme uses floating antennas to provide
potential for submarines to derive significant the key to combat success. Three inter- lar design whose pay load can be ‘custom- two-way communication with submerged
benefits from the net centric infrastructure connected data grids are envisaged— ised’ prior to proceeding to sea, based on submarines over high-frequency radio sys-
and also from other new levels of mutual Planning, Sensor and Engagement Grids. the mission profile and threat perception. tems adapted to handle Internet protocol
support, accepting a net centric role for Successively, each of these grids handle Capability to communicate at depth: To traffic as well as floating buoys to commu-
submarines imposes new requirements and more finely grained and timely information. gain full benefit from the information infra- nicate with military and commercial satel-
demands. Certain ‘sacrifices’ from subma- This information progresses from long range structure, submarines require to change the lites. The programme has also developed
rines to break away from their traditional inde- planning data to real time target tracks and way they do business—they have to prog- floating buoys that connect to submerged
pendent ocean operations is essential. This weapon assignment. All participants of the ress from the traditional connectivity which is submarines by fiber-optic cables to provide
article attempts to analyse all aspects of the NCO need access to these grids in varying periodic and intermittent, to possessing the two-way satellite communications. The buoys
NCO impact on submarines. degrees. ability to communicate continuously, at all can exchange data with the commercial
Connectivity challenges: Submarines are depths. Some of the emerging technologies Iridium satellite system at a rate of 2.4Kpb
Emerging roles for submarines likely to undertake land attack missions in this sphere are the ‘ELF on hull’ anten- and with military ultra-high frequency satel-
In the current global scenario, there is a against mobile or fixed targets. They will nas, enhanced data rate of extremely low lite systems at 32Kpbs, soon to be boosted
renewed emphasis on using sea power to also need real time connectivity to transmit frequency (ELF)/very-low-frequency trans- to 64Kpbs. The system, to be installed on
influence events on land. While submarines will surveillance and reconnaissance information mission from ashore and advanced Buoyant surface ships and submarines as part of
continue to be called upon to undertake their up the command chain. Therefore, subma- Cable Antenna which also allow two ways the US Navy’s Automated Digital Network
legacy roles, there will be an enhancement in rines will largely participate in the Planning UHF/satellite communication. System, operates at or near line-of-sight dis-
the role submarines will now be called upon to and Sensor grids, which in fact require only Under Water Acoustic Communications: tances using COTS components (modems
perform as follows: modest data transfer rates. It is envisaged Short range communication between sub- from Harris Corp and routers from Cisco
• Intelligence, Surveillance and that the submarine’s foreseeable needs for marines and surface units, Unmanned Systems Inc).
Reconnaissance (ISR) tactical connectivity can be satisfied by two Underwater Vehicles and other submarines, The system also has ‘Sea Deep’, a proj-
• Sea Control way information transfer rates of about 128 using U/W acoustic communication which ect to equip manned and unmanned aircraft
• Land Attack kbps, supplemented by the capability to provide data rates of several kbps over with lasers to penetrate the ocean depths
• Anti-Submarine Warfare copy Broad Cast Services globally on a peri- tens of nautical miles, is another sphere of and beam high bandwidth information to
odic basis. ongoing research. The ultimate goal is to submerged submarines. ‘Sea Deep’ can
Technology challenges Antenna challenges: This is an area which develop a radio frequency (RF) and acous- transmit data at 1Mpbs, and some view it as
For a submarine force to be a capable player requires laser focus as far as procurement/ tic communication network for linking under the holy grail of submerged submarine com-
in NCO, it needs to be a full participant in the development effort is concerned. All sub- sea forces with each other and with air and munications. The US Navy plans to install the
underlying information network. This will not marines of the future would almost certainly surface units. High Frequency Internet protocol and buoy
only enhance the common operations picture have two antenna clusters. One would be Internal information distribution: To take systems on the entire submarine fleet, thus
for inter-operability and force coordination, but the multi-functional communication mast full advantage of the enhanced external providing them with two-way communication.
also augment internal information handling which will cover all the bands of today’s submarine communications, correspond-
capability, ensuring the submarine commander antennas, including identification of friend ing enhancement in on-board information Deep Siren Tactical Paging,
can make better informed decisions, execute or foe (IFF), Global Positioning System, processing and distribution is also required. the Royal Navy
cooperation engagement and reduce tactical broad band high frequency (HF), very high The transformation of today’s submarine The Royal Navy’s DSTP (Deep Siren Tectical
response time. In addition, the network will frequency and ultra high frequency (UHF) radio room should occur incrementally over Paging) system employs expendable buoys
also be used for real time transfer of intel- for data link. The second antenna would be the next decade. The radio room needs to that, when contacted through the Iridium sat-
ligence, weather update and critical logistic the high data rate antenna/terminal which be automated for distribution and handling ellite network, enable long-range underwater
information. will feature a steerable dish antenna of 12 to of both broad band and RF Signals. This communications using acoustic signals. The
For submarines, the prerequisite for 16 inches, capable of satellite data recep- would be a major step towards achieving system comprises of command station, one
admission to NCO is the availability of new tion (rate ranging from 128 kbps to 8 mbps) a fully automated radio room which can be or more RF to acoustic gateway buoys and
communication infrastructure to support trans- to access extremely high frequency, low operated from a workstation located either an acoustic receive station on board the
fer and handling of data, many times more and medium data rate transmission, HF and in the radio room itself or in the submarine’s submarine. The Deep Siren buoy is designed
than is possible even in the most modern Global Satellite Broadcast services. control room. to be launched from a submarine (via the
navies today. This infrastructure would include Mast configuration: Submarine design- Affordability: To achieve affordability in the garbage disposal system), as well as from
Continued on page 12

NAVY SPECIAL 6/2009 11
2009—Highlights & Honours
Past Forward

Looking back at the IN and its activities since the last Navy Day throws up a year of action and achievement. From
a change of guard at the helm, bilateral exercises, commissioning bases and ships, launching nuclear submarine
to commissioning women officers in the combat wing, the IN has set its sails towards the sea of success.

: Vice Admiral Dilip Deshpande, : On February 28, Defence Minister A.K. China Sea until April 2. The joint engage- : An Indian Navy Task Group, led by
took over as the Chief of Material Antony laid the keel for the Indigenous ment stands upon an enduring foundation the destroyer INS Delhi, along with frig-
on December 31, 2008 from Vice Aircraft Carrier (IAC), one of the major mile- of bilateral naval cooperation formalised a ates INS Beas and INS Brahmaputra, and
Admiral B.S. Randhawa. stones in indigenous shipbuilding. The design decade-and-a-half ago, when RSN ships the tanker INS Aditya reached Portsmouth
: On January 8 this year, Prime and construction of the IAC was sanctioned began training in Anti-Submarine Warfare on June 17, for Exercise Konkan with the
Minister Dr Manmohan Singh inau- by the Government of India in January 2003. with the IN in 1994. Royal Navy. The task group was under the
gurated the Naval Academy at This is the most prestigious project, which the : On May 19, Admiral Sureesh Mehta, command of Rear Admiral Surinder Pal
Ezhimala in Kerala. IN has taken up in-house so far. The design Chief of the Naval Staff, on a two-day visit Singh Cheema, Flag Officer Commanding
: The IN commissioned its first helicopter and construction of this ship is a technical to Eastern Naval Command, was the Chief Western Fleet. UK participants, command-
base, INS Shikra, on January 22 in an impres- complexity whose dimensions far outstrip any Guest at the commissioning ceremony ed by Commodore Simon Ancona, included
sive ceremony at Mumbai. Captain Philipose such challenge faced hitherto by the Indian of IN’s sixth Landing Ship Tank (Large) the frigates HMS Westminster and HMS
G. Pynumootil, the first Commanding Officer naval designers. With this project, India has Airavat at the IN Jetty at Naval Base, Lancaster, the nuclear powered submarine
of INS Shikra, read out the Commissioning become the fourth nation to join the select Visakhapatnam. HMS Trafalgar, the auxiliaries RFA Mounts
Warrant. club of 40,000 T-plus aircraft carrier design- : An Indian naval ship, currently in the Gulf Bay and RFA Fort Rosalie and an RAF
: In a unique event on February 16, the IN ers and builders. The IAC, designed by the of Aden for anti-piracy surveillance and patrol Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft. A team of IN
commissioned two ships—INS Carnicobar Navy’s Design Organisation, is being built operations, foiled a daring piracy attempt on divers also conducted Explosive Ordinance
and INS Chetlat—on the same day. First in at M/s Cochin Shipyard Limited. It would Liberian registered merchant vessel MV Maud Disposal training with the Plymouth-based
a series of 10 Water Jet fast attack ships be capable of operating an aircraft mix of on May 28. The Indian warship had earlier Southern Diving Group.
being built at Garden Reach Shipbuilders Russian MiG-29K, Ka31 and indigenous LCA. commenced an eastbound escort of mer- : On July 22, Chief of Staff of Bangladesh
and Engineers, Kolkata, the ships were com- : The 2009 edition of the SIMBEX chant vessels, including MV Maud, on May Navy Rear Admiral Zahir Uddin Ahmed
missioned at Chennai by Governor of Tamil (Singapore India Maritime Bilateral Exercise) 27. Around 1250 hours on May 28, MV Maud arrived in India for a week-long visit.
Nadu Surjit Singh Barnala. These are also series of annual bilateral naval exer- with an Indian Master and nine Indian crew : Arihant (Hindi for ‘Destroyer of
the first ever water jet propelled ships of the cises between the IN and the Republic of members reported a skiff manned by eight Enemies’), India’s first indigenously built
IN. The commissioning marked another step Singapore Navy (RSN) commenced in the armed personnel approaching her at high nuclear propelled strategic submarine,
in the direction of indigenisation of the navy’s Andaman Sea on March 24. As a part of this speed. The subsequent confrontation took was launched on July 26 at the Ship
shipbuilding efforts. assignment, units exercised in the South place approximately 225 nm east of Aden. Building Center in Visakhapatnam. India
Continued on page 13

1 2 3 4 5
Photographs: PRO Navy

1. The INS Savitri deployed for surveillance of EEZ of Seychelles and Mauritius from November-end till early January 2010 2. Surgeon Vice Admiral V.K. Saxena, Director General Medical Service
(Navy), inaugurates a health camp held in Delhi from November 4 to 6 3. CNS Admiral Sureesh Mehta receives his Bangladesh counterpart Rear Admiral Zahir Uddin Ahmed in July 4. Admiral Mehta

Communications and NCO Continued from page 11

a maritime patrol aircraft (via the sonobuoy the appropriate command and control centre urgent need for submarines to hone their skills which if known to the planners ashore would
launch tube). The buoy can also be deployed ashore—is adequate for independently operat- of ‘snooping without being detected’—and enhance and contribute towards furtherance
over the side of surface craft. ing submarines. It is only when the submarines for planners ashore to appreciate that this of the war aim. The effectiveness of the patrol
Deployed buoys achieve worldwide become part of the battle group and are indiscretion always comes with a higher risk of and combat efficiency of the submarine would
connectivity with the command station via required to join in the collaborative planning chance detection. Fear of detection, however, be judged by the quality and timeliness of the
a commercial satellite data link and trans- process and transmit information up the com- must not overshadow the strategic advantage ISR obtained and obviously not by tonnage
late SATCOM messages into a robust and mand chain in real time, that current systems of real time ISR within denied or enemy con- sunk. Similarly, if anti-ship strikes are the aim
secure low data rate underwater acoustic and capabilities fall short. trolled waters. So, the message to the crew of a particular submarine deployment, “target
signal that is received and decoded by the Situational awareness vs stealth: In the clas- should be ‘get information when tactically pru- availability” in the areas has to be important
receiving equipment onboard the submarine. sic net centric approach, common knowledge dent, but don’t get caught’. planning criteria. A low/nil ‘target presence’
The Deep Siren acoustic message can be of the position of all allied forces and of all Measure of submarine effectiveness: in the area would point towards sub-optimal
successfully decoded at ranges in excess known or suspect hostile contacts is essential Hitherto submarines were primarily deployed deployment and not necessarily bad subma-
of 150 nautical miles. The DSTP system is for situational awareness and may subsume to sink ships and the measure of effectiveness rining by the crew. It is essential to view sub-
designed to be robust against underwater much of the traditional IFF functions. In addi- of the deployment (that is, choice of area and marine deployment as part of the over all the-
ambient noise, acoustic jamming and propa- tion to demanding near-continuous connectiv- crew effectiveness) was the tonnage sunk. ater battle plan rather than being an adjunct to
gation irregularities, in order to ensure a high ity with submarines, this also implies that the This is no more the case. In most of newly fill-in or plug the offensive/defensive gaps.
confidence of communicating reliably to a accurate position of each submarine will be defined and emerging roles, sinking ships is
submerged submarine within the predicted available to the entire force. This would negate an additional bonus and not the primary role. In Conclusion
range or operating area. Raytheon is also the inherent stealth of the submarine force Most submarine deployments would probably To seamlessly integrate submarines into NCO,
currently working on airborne certification and is not desirable. Thus, the philosophy of be conducted in target-less areas and their in addition to the technological challenges
of Deep Siren, which will allow the system’s submarine connecting to the information grid success cannot be judged by the number of which require to be overcome, there is also
buoys to be deployed via aircraft. should be to ‘join the grid when desired/pru- ships sunk. In fact, submarines would slowly a need to change the way submarines do
dent’, ‘pull’ information as required and ‘push’ transform themselves from ‘flamboyant war- “business at sea”. There is a need to review

Future challenges information selectively, without the other users riors’ to ‘silent enablers and shooters’—the concept of operations and the thought process
Even today the existing submarine C3 of the grid being aware of the connection, silent arm of a different kind. for identifying submarine deployment areas.
(Command, Control and Communication) except probably the net administrator. Choice of deployment areas—an involved The current parameters to analyse the effec-
capabilities onboard are reasonably adequate Tactical indiscretion: Creating a meaningful and joint effort: The process of conceiv- tiveness of a submarine on patrol also needs
for submarines to operate independently in role for submarines in NCO, particularly in the ing and planning submarine operations to be reviewed. There is, therefore, a need for
traditional missions. The existing procedure of littorals, demands that they operate closer to also needs a paradigm shift. Today, since a paradigm shift in the concept and doctrine
consolidating tactical data ashore for transmis- the surface and periscope depths for longer the ‘deployability’ of submarines has been of submarine operations. Only then can these
sion to forward deployed submarines using periods of time. They can then deploy ISR sen- enhanced (due to NCO), the price to be paid potent platforms seize the opportunities pro-
burst transmission when communication is sors and maintain connectively to participate for incorrect deployment would be a ‘wasted’ vided by NCO, without compromising their
established, continue to remain a useful tech- in the sensor, planning and engagement net submarine. Before a submarine is deployed, inherent strengths.
nique. ‘Passing the vital, repacking the impor- work. Whilst this ‘tactical indiscretion’ may not say for ISR, it should be reasonably ensured
tant and shelving the mundane’—executed at jeopardise stealth in benign waters, there is an that the enemy is likely to indulge in activities The author is a qualified submariner and ASW specialist.

Defence Minister A.K. Antony with senior naval officers at the Naval Senior Officers’ Conference-2009 at Delhi on October 22

2009–Highlights & Honours Continued from page 12

thus joined a select group of nations with Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Naval Personnel of the Navy. : The CNS Admiral Nirmal Verma visited
the technological capability to build and Command were present at Headquarters : The 14th cycle of the IN-Indonesian the Western Naval Command from November
operate nuclear propelled submarines. The Southern Naval Command, Kochi, during the Navy coordinated patrol codenamed ‘IND- 17 to 19. The Western Naval Command, one
launch ceremony was attended by Prime visit of the Chinese warship on August 10. INDO CORPAT’ took place from October of the two Operational Commands of the
Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, accompa- : On August 31, Admiral Nirmal Verma 18 to November 5. The operation was navy, with its headquarters at Mumbai, exer-
nied by spouse Gursharan Kaur, Defence took over from Admiral Sureesh Mehta as under the overall control of Vice Admiral cises control over ships, submarines, aircraft
Minister A.K. Antony, Chief Minister of the CNS. Devendra Kumar Joshi, Commander-in- and shore establishments located on the
Andhra Pradesh Dr Y.S. Rajasekhar Reddy, : The second of the three Project 15- Chief of Andaman Nicobar Command, and west coast.
Union Minister of State for Defence M.M. A stealth destroyers was launched on Commander of Indonesian Western Fleet : Sub-Lieutenants Ambica Hooda of
Pallam Raju, Minister of State for Human September 18 by Madhulika Verma, wife of Command. The units operating were under Haryana and Seema Rani Sharma from Uttar
Resource Development D. Purandareswari, Admiral Nirmal Verma, Chief of the Naval the tactical command of the Naval Officer- Pradesh created history on passing out of
Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Staff. The 6,500-tonne ship, named INS in-Charge (Andaman & Nicobar) at Port the portals Southern Naval Command, on
Mehta and high ranking officials from Kochi, is being built by Mazagon Docks Blair and DANGUSKAMLABAR (Commander November 20. Both the officers trained for
the navy, Department of Atomic Energy, Limited in Mumbai. Designed indigenously of Sea Security Group of Western Fleet) 16 months at the Naval Academy at Mandovi
and Defence Research and Development by the Directorate of Naval Design ships of located at Tanjung Pinang. in Goa and other professional schools of the
Organisation. this project will be advanced version of the : Admiral Nirmal Verma participated in IN and finally at the Observer School at INS
: The Chinese Ambassador, His Excellency, existing Delhi Class destroyers. INS Viraat’s 50th birthday celebration on Garuda in Kochi. They will work as observ-
Zhang Yan, Rear Admiral Yao Zhilou : Vice Admiral Anurag G. Thapliyal November 18. The ageing aircraft carrier ers on the IN’s multi-role Dornier aircraft.
Deputy Commander South Sea Fleet and assumed office as the Commandant of returned to patrol the high-seas of India, ear- The navy’s navigators are widely known as
Commanding Officer of PLAN (PLA Navy) Indian Naval Academy at Ezhimala on lier this month, after undergoing major refits observers.
Ship Shenzhen Senior Captain Zhao Chang September 7. He replaced Vice Admiral M.P. and life extension programme at Mumbai
Sheng met Vice Admiral Sunil K. Damle, Flag Muralidharan who was appointed Chief of and Kochi, lasting two years. —Compiled By Sangeeta Saxena

6 7 8 9

releases the Indian Maritime Doctrine on August 28 5. At the Western Naval Command, Vice Admiral Sanjeev Bhasin takes over from Vice Admiral J.S. Bedi on May 1 6. Admiral Nirmal Verma takes
over from Admiral Mehta as the 20th CNS 7. Arihant being launched 8. Exercise Konkan in progress 9. Vice Admiral Sunil K. Damle presents a memento to Rear Admiral Yao Zhilou in August

Fire Underwater Continued from page 10

contained more ▸▸▸ Simplest of the anti- from mine saddles attached to submarines.
explosives, thereby The triggering mechanisms are magnetic,
increasing the weight submarine weapons, a depth acoustic and pressure, and are becoming
of the warhead. But charge is actually a large more sophisticated, being programmed to
modern torpedoes react to known enemy specific signatures,
have to have higher canister filled with explosives and therefore practically impossible to
speeds and more and set to explode at a sweep. Mine design has developed much in
endurance, thus the the last two decades with the introduction of
Photograph: www.eurotorp.com

same punch has to predetermined depth ◂◂◂ smart processor based intelligent mines.
be delivered with
lesser high explosive. rage to provide successive blasts to cause Anti-submarine missiles
Certain techniques, maximum damage. Aerial-launched depth Anti-submarine missiles are different to other
like the shaped bombs are dropped from airplanes or heli- missile systems as these carry an anti-sub-
charge, are thus used copters when a submarine is taken by sur- marine weapon instead of a warhead. The
MU90 LWT torpedo
to make it more lethal. prise on the surface. Modern depth charges major advantage of such a configuration is
The desired explosive can also be carried by missiles to their target. the range and speed of attack compared to
Torpedo Homing Head: The terminal guid- power of a heavy weight torpedo is of the The anti-submarine mortar: The anti-sub- a torpedo. Anti-submarine missiles are all
ance of the torpedo is carried out by the hom- order of about 400 kg of TNT and the weight marine mortar (ASM) is actually a multi-barrel weather systems with a short reaction time
ing system, which comprises of homing head of TNT required for this purpose is about 250 mortar designed to fire a number of rounds and are normally delivered from surface ves-
and a signal-processing unit. Homing head to 300 kg. Some modern torpedoes have an simultaneously to create a series of explo- sels. Some examples are SUBROC, a nucle-
of most modern torpedoes have acoustic explosive weight of just 45 kg, thus affording sions around a submarine. Later, ASM shells ar tipped system, and MBDA’s Milas, an all
sensors. These operate in passive and active it the high range and speed of 65 km and 60 were fitted with impact detonators that fired weather anti-submarine warfare weapon
modes. In the passive mode these sensors knots, respectively. A single modern heavy only after actual contact with the hull of the system derived from the OTOMAT MK2 mis-
seek the noise radiated by the target, whereas weight torpedo is sufficient to sink a ship of submarine, allowing sonar crews to maintain a sile system. Designed to carry and release
in the active mode the torpedo transmits any size. These torpedoes do not impact on constant sound track until a hit was achieved. an MU-90, or similar lightweight torpedo, in
acoustic energy and it seeks the echoes the hull of the ship but explode a few metres Sweden developed an ASW especially for close proximity to the targeted submarine
reflected from the target. In ‘wake homing’, beneath the target hull almost at its centre. anti-submarine operations in the littorals which position, the Milas offers a range of 35km.
a torpedo detects and homes on to bubbles The shock waves so generated lift the ship uses a shaped charge like the Saab Dynamics Evidently, submarines will inevitably
that are created in the wake of the target ship. and create adequate stress on the keel to ASW-600 and the upgraded ASW-601. play a major role in the control of the
This technique was perfected by the Russians break it completely. Mines: Mines are the most cost effective Indian Ocean Region. Therefore, to render
in late 1960s. While the acoustic homing tor- Depth charge: Simplest of the anti-subma- form of naval warfare because these can be India’s blue print of a regional power a
pedoes can be decoyed by noise generating rine weapons, a depth charge is actually a well concealed, are relatively cheap, virtually reality, it is essential to develop a potent
decoys there are no known decoys capable of large canister filled with explosives and set to maintenance free and deliver a punch com- submarine force along with acquiring the
seducing a wake homing torpedo. explode at a predetermined depth. Normally, paratively larger than their size. These are most modern, accurate and lethal anti-sub-
Warhead Design: The earlier warhead surface-launched depth charges form a bar- normally fired from torpedo tubes or dropped marine weapons.

NAVY SPECIAL 6/2009 13
Conceptual Underpinnings
Systems Analysis

Service-based C4ISR solutions for net-centric defence have several distinct benefits that enhance and
improve operational capabilities
C O M M A N D E R ( R E T D ) D E V B R AT C H A K R A B O RT Y

he value chain in a network or stationary. This makes it possible to avoid can be cost efficient
centric environment com- large “stovepipe” systems, designed only for a and make use of the Service Oriented Architecture
prises of several layered specific purpose, and instead make it possible most advanced compo- Services
concepts: to combine individual systems into systems- nents and technologies Communication Command
Situation Information Engagement
• Data Quality is at the most funda- of-systems. Even geographically distributed available. For example, and
Information Operations
Collaboration Control
mental level and describes the infor- systems can then be used as modular build- GSM and CDMA based
mation within the underlying command ing blocks that are interconnected and can systems can be used Infrastructure
and control systems. be combined in different ways. The two key in many applications.
Control Layer Convergence Layer Connectivity Layer
• Information Quality indicates the categories are Services and Infrastructure. The main advantages of
completeness, correctness, currency, Services pertain to services for Communication the network-of-networks
consistency, and precision of the data and Collaboration, Situation Information, approach are: C4ISR: Producers, Services & Consumers
items and information statements. Information Operations, Command and Control • Improved efficiency
• Knowledge Quality deals with procedural and Engagement Support. Infrastructure and a reduction of equip- Producers

knowledge and information embedded in includes a Control Layer, a Convergence Layer ment and operational Maps Positioning
Sensors Cameras Other
the command and control system such as and a Connectivity Layer. costs. Ability to dynami- and Charts Systems
templates for adversaries, assumptions about The Communication and Collaboration ser- cally compose networks
entities such as ranges and weapons, and vices provide functionality for communication depending upon where C4ISR Services

doctrinal assumptions, often coded as rules. and information sharing. Situation Information network resources are • City Maps • Detect • Troops • Stills • Threat
In the more evolved systems, this component services involve gathering, processing needed for the moment. • Military • Identify • Platforms • Video • Weapon
• Coastal • Track • Units • IR • News
would comprise more and more of modeling and dissemination of situation information. • Much higher redun-
and simulation systems. Knowledge quality Information Operations include services for dancy since even if one Situation Picture
is the first component related to the common assessment and influence on other parties’ equipment is damaged, Consumers
model of the operation. situation information and also for protection others continue to operate • Land Force • Headquarters • Others
• Awareness Quality measures the ability to of the own situation information. Command & and joint communications • Air units • Ops Rooms
• Ships • Rescue Coord Centres
use the information and knowledge embed- Control involves services for decision support are maintained using • Special Forces
• Search and Rescue
ded within the command and control system. and order handling. Engagement systems and alternative paths. Even if
Awareness lies in the cognitive domain that is effectors are connected to the C4ISR environ- all inter-network connec-
at a level that is above the level of technical ment and are involved in the information flow tions are lost, sub-net- Connectivity Layer—Networks Interconnected by IP
interoperability. and controlled by Engagement Support ser- works are formed that can
vices. The Control Layer contains functionality later be reconnected.
Netcentric C4ISR and support services that are used to give all Control Layer

Value Chain Solutions and the services mentioned above the required Counting the Control Layer
Layer Offerings characteristics and features such as security, Benefits (By Means of IP)

Data Data Base Centric, mobility, and accessibility. The Convergence Situation Information: Connectivity Layer
Message Driven Layer ensures that connectivity can be accom- Adopting the concepts
plished in a unified manner based on the described above results GSM/CDMA Tactical Radio Fixed Broadband Other
Information Common Operating
Internet Protocol (IP) and different types of in trustworthy and recog- Network Network Network Networks
fixed and wireless networks, belonging to the nised situation pictures,
Knowledge Modelling and Simulation Connectivity Layer can be used. potentially shared in
Awareness Analysis and Decision near real time leading to an
Support Distributed System-of-Systems understanding of the overall situation. This when using the public communication infra-
The C4ISR system is to be regarded as a dis- also enables access to key information for structure. Sharing of information among
tributed system-of-systems with each system different types of actions, and improves gen- various decision makers facilitates synchro-
Efficient conduct of operations is enabled producing and/or consuming services. The eration of corroborated information from com- nised planning and conduct of operations.
by the ability to share data, information, knowl- producers and consumers of various functions plementary sensors, such as radar, electro- In particular, improved coordination between
edge and awareness. In other words, the IT are separated. Thus, services are not neces- optics and signal intelligence sensors. Also, organisational levels can be achieved. This
value chain accompanies the network-centric sarily produced for a single particular purpose surveillance operations can be managed further leads to shorter decision cycles.
value chain. Significantly, this is reflected in and their production is independent of the to continually optimise sensor resources. Other essential factors that improve deci-
improvements in command, control, commu- consumers. This also means that services and For instance, in a situation with a temporary sion quality are the ubiquitous access to
nications, computers, information, surveillance information reside in the system as a whole, threat or a specific planned activity there advanced support services like:
and reconnaissance (C4ISR) over the recent integrated and aggregated, thereby creating may be a need to move mobile platforms to • Resource optimisation
decades. C4ISR systems initially started as services and information with a higher value. preferable geographical locations, tune the • Decision support
database centric and message driven solu- Further, infrastructure and/or technical sensor usage, or to add supplementary sen- • Simulation including evaluation of possible
tions, only able to support Data Quality. To systems producing the services need not sor resources. All this fundamentally changes action alternatives.
progress to the next level, the idea of the be new and existing legacy systems can be the capability to achieve situation information Engagement Support: When so connected,
Common Operational Picture (COP) was integrated. Finally, systems are scalable and to an entirely new level: the entire range of command and control sys-
introduced, thereby improving not only Data hence services and capabilities can be further • Information is derived from a substantially tems, effectors and information resources are
Quality, but also Information Quality. developed in an evolutionary fashion. increased number of sources of different kinds: available for engagement functions. For exam-
Modelling and simulation abilities in a sensors, intelligence, databases, collaborating ple, situation adapted sensor-to-weapon loops
C4ISR system add procedural knowledge in Communication Network authorities and organisations, and other exter- that utilise optimal combination of information
the form of models. Such a system can thus In keeping with the system-of-systems nal sources such as news, media, weather sources, command and control functions, and
support the next level in the value chain, trig- approach, the best, and often the most practi- forecasts, websites and so on. engagement platforms can be established
gering further improvements. Evolving further, cal option, is a network-of-networks, utilising a • Efficient processing and fusion of information
the ability to use this information, as distinct variety of communication technologies. These leads to situation information that is accurate In Conclusion
from understanding it, is aided by the system’s are also called heterogeneous communication and has low levels of ambiguities. Service-based C4ISR solutions for net-centric
ability to mine, analyse and present data for networks. Communication networks may have • Role-based situation pictures, that is, defence strategy have several distinct benefits
decision support and this is pertinent in the different origins: public, private, defence, gov- excerpts of the situation information, can be that enhance operational capabilities, such as
Awareness Quality context. The underlying ernmental and so on, and may include tactical accessed by any authorised user anywhere flexibility, cost efficiency, evolutionary growth,
fact of course is that it is far more necessary to radio, broadband networks, fixed telephony, and anytime. interoperability, robustness, connectivity and

bridge the cultural gaps rather than the techni- and mobile networks. The trick is to use the IP Information Operations: Information opera- security. The services on the net approach
cal gaps to make this vision become reality. as the common communication protocol. tions involves intelligence, influencing and llows one to interconnect and utilise new and
Interoperability aspects of networks come to Dedicated non-IP networks may, however, suppressing the opponent’s situation informa- existing systems in a cost efficient way.
fore, if robust defences are to be built in. be necessary in situation and applications tion, protecting the own situation informa- Commercially available technology can
where real-time information is critical. The tion, and managing the information flow to be utilised whenever it meets requirements.
Service Oriented Architecture network-of-networks approach puts special external parties. Intelligence capabilities C4ISR solutions can be adapted to different
Increasingly, C4ISR solutions for network- requirements on infrastructure functionality, are improved in much the same way as the situations, allowing units to operate across
oriented defence are based on a Service- like routing, addressing, mobility, quality of capability to achieve situation information. A organisational as well as technological bor-
Oriented Architecture (SOA) where the service and security. These can be based large number of sources can be managed ders. Such solutions lead to cost efficiency
functionality of a system is made available as on commercially available technologies with and high-performance communication ser- and allow distribution of desired information
services that can be accessed by any autho- additional security, robustness, and flexibility vices can be widely and readily accessed and functionality to anyone authorised, any-
rised user connected to the network, mobile requirements as deemed necessary; as they with the requisite degree of security even time, anywhere in the network of networks.

▸ ▸ ▸ In Brief Publisher &
Jayant Baranwal
Assistant Editor
Coastal security exercise ships ever built in the UK. aerial systems across all generation submarines monitor thousands of vessels, Arundhati Das
in the Andaman Islands • It will be able to hold 40 the US military services and are envisioned to replace refine detection capabilities, Senior Editorial Adviser
aircraft (including Short Take- the US Coast Guard. The Australia’s six existing Collins- and enhance usability. R. Adm (Retd) S.K. Ramsay
Off Vertical Landing strike ARC-210 provides two-way, class boats. SEA 1000 is Senior Tech Group Editor
Lt Gen. (Retd) Naresh Chand
aircraft and helicopters). multi-mode voice and data expected to be the Australian
Contributing Editor
• It will have a complement communications over a 30 to government’s largest-ever
Lt Gen. V.K. (Retd) Kapoor
of 1,450 (including embarked 512 MHz frequency range. It single defence project. Under Naval Postgraduate School
PRO Navy

Air Mshl (Retd) V.K. Bhatia
aircrew and support staff). also includes embedded Ultra the teaming arrangement, enters era of discovery of Chief Special Correspondent
• It will generate 109 MW of High Frequency and Very High Lockheed Martin Australia future weapons Sangeeta Saxena
A coastal security exercise power and will have a range Frequency anti-jam wave- will lead overall management Advanced research at the Assistant Photo Editor
was conducted by the of about 8,000 to 10,000 nau- forms and other data link of the programme pursuit. Naval Postgraduate School Abhishek Singh
Indian Coast Guard and tical miles. and secure communication Following contract award, it is perfecting directed energy Sub-Editor
Headquarters, Andaman Prime contractors are BAE features, providing the user would develop and integrate and hypersonic weapons that Bipasha Roy
& Nicobar Command in Systems Surface Ships. with total battlefield interoper- an advanced combat system may soon join the handful of
the Andaman Islands from ability and high-performance for the new submarine class, inventions that have trans-
Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash
November 22 to 27 to vali- capabilities in the transfer serving as the prime contrac- formed the military’s ability Vice Adm (Retd) R.N. Ganesh
date various coastal security of data, voice and imagery. tor and systems integrator. to deliver energy fast, accu- Vice Adm (Retd) P.J. Jacob
measures and the Standard Pentagon contract for Included in the contract is the Acacia Research will be a prin- rately and at a safe distance. R. Adm (Retd) Raja Menon
Operating Procedures (SOPs) General Atomics next generation ARC-210 radio, cipal team member. When cruise missiles were Cmde Rajeev Sawhney
Dr W. Lawrence Prabhakar
that have been promulgated. General Atomics, has been which will enter production introduced to naval fleets,
The exercise was conceptu- awarded a $102,200,000 in 2010. This Fifth Generation strategies and concepts of
Alan Peaford, Doug Richardson,
alised with a view to develop (Rs 475 crore) modification of the ARC-210 is software operations on how ships can Andrew Brookes (UK)
coordination, interoperability to the previously awarded reprogrammable and brings Lockheed Martin project support battle changed com- USA & Canada
and work out for achieving Electromagnetic Aircraft several new capabilities to the helps detect deviations in pletely. Now, directed energy Lon Nordeen (USA)
a common communication Launch System Ship-set warfighter, including extended maritime vessel behavior and hypersonic weapons Anil R. Pustam (West Indies)
grid between the navy, coast contract to provide for the frequency range for interoper- The Defense Advanced could well herald the next era West Asia/Africa
guard and various central production of one advanced ability with civil agencies. Research Projects Agency in naval armaments. H.R. Heitman (S. Africa)
and state Agencies, such arresting gear system ship-set has awarded Lockheed Chairman & Mg Director
Jayant Baranwal
as customs, marine police, for CVN-78. Work is expected Martin a 12-month contract
Admin & Coordination
fisheries department, forest to be completed in September to continue development of Bharti Sharma, Survi Massey
department, intelligence agen- 2015. Contract funds will ATK awarded contract for a next-generation Maritime SELEX Galileo awarded Design
cies, and so on. The exercise not expire at the end of the Trident II Solid Rocket Domain Awareness (MDA) contract to supply Associate Art Director: Ratan Sonal
was also aimed to achieve current fiscal year. The con- Propulsion Systems technology that detects ves- missile seekers Layout Design: Rajkumar Sharma,
coordination and to work on tracting activity is the Naval sel deviations from normal at Vimlesh Kumar Yadav
a common platform. Real time Air Warfare Center Aircraft sea and near ports. Current Sales & Marketing

Director: Neetu Dhulia
situations were injected in Division, Lakehurst, N.J. MDA systems require opera-
Head Vertical Sales: Rajeev Chugh
the exercise wherein actions tors to wade through volumes Sales Manager: Rajiv Ranjan
would be initiated as per the of data to identify threat SP’s Websites
SOPs by various participating potential. In contrast, the Senior Web Developer: Shailendra
organisations. Various Indian BAE Systems led team Predictive Analysis for Naval Prakash Ashish
coast guard ships, Indian pursues next phase of navy Deployment Activities (PANDA) SELEX Galileo of Finmeccanica Web Developer: Ugrashen
naval ships, coast guard, ISR and Targeting System Alliant Techsystems (ATK) programme uses sophisti- has been awarded a contract
Published bimonthly by Jayant
Indian Air Force and naval BAE Systems has formed a has received a $100 million cated pattern-based learning for the supply of SM-1S radar Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide
aircraft were mobilised to team to compete for the next (Rs 465 crore) contract from technologies, historical data, seekers for a Middle East Publications P Ltd. All rights reserved.
provide coordinated surface development phase of the US Lockheed Martin to produce and track monitoring to learn customer. The award comes No part of this publication may be
and air surveillance in the Navy’s primary ISR and target- solid rocket propulsion sys- a ship’s “normal” behavior. as part of an MBDA contract reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys-
tem, or transmitted in any form or by
Andaman & Nicobar Islands. ing (ISR&T) system. The team tems for all three stages of By understanding normal for the provision of MARTE
any means, photocopying, recording,
MV Shompen had also sailed is competing for a contract the US Navy’s Trident II (D-5) behavior, PANDA automati- MK2/N anti ship missiles. The electronic, or otherwise without prior
from Port Blair with a medical to transition the Distributed Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM). cally detects deviations that MARTE was developed as a written permission of the publishers.
team comprising one medical Common Ground System- Under terms of the annual might otherwise go unnoticed helicopter launched missile Printed in India:
officer and four medical assis- Navy to an application-based contract, ATK will continue to or be assessed too late. In and is currently part of the by Kala Jyothi Process Pvt Ltd
tants to provide immediate system through the DCGS-N supply Trident solid rocket addition to providing faster base-line weapons on AW101 © SP Guide Publications, 2009
medical facility. A Rear Area Prime Mission Product, known propulsion systems to the and more meaningful threat and NH90 fleets. The missile Letter to Editor
Security enhancement was as DCGS-N PMP. The BAE Trident II (D-5) Missile until assessment, PANDA also has been adapted for instal- editor@spsnavalforces.net
also undertaken by the Army Systems-led team consists December 2013. Deployed helps operators deal more lation on naval vessels and Subscriptions & Advertising
Component Commander in of BAE Systems, General in 1990, the Trident II (D-5) effectively and efficiently with under this contract will be Details may be acquired from the
contact information below:
conjunction with the exercise. Dynamics, Sun Microsystems, is the only US submarine- information. During Phases launched from fast patrol ves-
MTCSC, Space Dynamics launched strategic missile sys- 1 and 2, PANDA successfully sels in an anti-ship mission. SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD
Laboratory, InVisM, and tem in production today. ATK demonstrated the feasibility SELEX Galileo’s SM-1S seekers POSTAL ADDRESS
Post Box No 2525,
Athena consulting. DCGS-N, is the world’s leading supplier of using motion-based pattern are the latest generation of New Delhi 110 005, India
£55 million boost for the network-centric operations of solid rocket motors. It has learning and context filtering the Company’s Active RF anti- CORPORATE OFFICE
shipbuilding on the Tyne “backbone” for the navy, a 53-year history of producing to detect and assess unusual ship seeker family. A 133 Arjun Nagar,
Tyneside shipbuilders A&P are enables the actionable and solid propulsion systems for vessel behavior. During Phase Opp Defence Colony,
celebrating the return of Naval timely distribution of ISR&T submarine-launched ballistic 3, PANDA will be expanded to New Delhi 110 003, India
Tel: +91 (11) 24644693,
shipbuilding to the North data, processes, and systems. missiles, beginning with the
24644763, 24620130
East in UK with the award It helps naval commanders Polaris missile and continu- Fax: +91 (11) 24647093
of a £55million contract to make better decisions in ing through the Trident II Appointment REGD OFFICE
construct a section of the major combat operations. (D-5) FBM. The company’s Fax: +91 (11) 23622942
Vice Admiral R.K. Dhowan takes charge
UK’s Royal Navy’s giant new solid rocket portfolio ranges Email: guidepub@vsnl.com
as new Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
aircraft carriers. The massive from 3-inch diameter spin Vice Admiral Robin Dhowan, AVSM, YSM REPRESENTATIVE OFFICES
construction project, which motors to the Space Shuttle’s who was the Commandant of the pres- BANGALORE, INDIA
will provide around five years’ Rockwell Collins receives Reusable Solid Rocket tigious National Defence Academy on (Air Marshal (Retd)
work for A&P and support contract for ARC-210 radios Motors. B.K. Pandey)
November 30 took over as the Deputy
the 210-strong workforce, will 534, Jal Vayu Vihar,
Chief of Naval Staff. Kammanhalli Main Rd.,
see A&P construct a 1,000 A Navigation and Direction Specialist, Vice Admiral Dhowan

Bangalore 560043, India.
tonne section that will form is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy (45th Course Tel: +91 (80) 23682534
part of the first of the Queen Lockheed Martin Australia C Sqn) and the Defence Services Staff College. He has MOSCOW, RUSSIA
Elizabeth Class carriers. The and Acacia Research Team undergone various courses in India and abroad including the LAGUK Co., Ltd.
aircraft carriers are being for Royal Australian Navy Sea Harrier Direction course at Yeovilton, UK and the Naval (Yuri Laskin)
Krasnokholmskaya, Nab.,
constructed in sections at SEA 1000 Submarine Command Course at Naval War College, Rhode Island, USA.
11/15, app. 132,
locations around the country Combat System Pursuit The Vice Admiral has held various important staff
Moscow 115172, Russia.
and will be shipped to Rosyth The US Navy has awarded a Lockheed Martin Australia of appointments at Naval Headquarters, which include Deputy Tel: +7 (495) 911 2762,
in Scotland where they will be four-year production contract Canberra and Acacia Research Director Naval Operations, Joint Director Naval Plans and as Fax: +7 (495) 912 1260
fitted together. Salient aspects to Rockwell Collins for ARC- Limited of Adelaide are team- Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Policy and Plans), Integrated www.spguidepublications.com

of the aircraft carrier are: 210 radio with a potential ing to pursue the combat Headquarters, Ministry of Defence (Navy). He has also served RNI Number: DELENG/2008/25836

• With a weight of 65,000 value of $450 million (Rs system integrator role for as the Senior Instructor at DSSC Wellington. Ships command-
ed by him include the INS Khukri, the INS Ranjit and the INS
tonnes, length of 280 m 2,090 crore). Domestically, the Royal Australian Navy’s
Delhi. He served as the Naval Adviser at the High Commission
and width of 70 m, Queen ARC-210s are installed on Future Submarine project, SEA
of India, London and as Chief Staff Officer (Operations),
Elizabeth Class of aircraft car- a wide range of aircraft, 1000. Under this Department
Headquarters Western Naval Command.
riers will be the largest war- helicopters and unmanned of Defence project, 12 next

NAVY SPECIAL 6/2009 15
C-130J F-16IN MH-60R



In a world that continues to change dramatically, governments increasingly seek to accomplish their
most vital goals by working with advanced technology companies from around the globe. Building and
sustaining partnerships that achieve their objectives is a matter of how. And it is the how that makes
all the difference.