Installation and Commissioning

Instructions
Diesel Engine
12V2000Gx6x
16V2000Gx6x
18V2000Gx6x
12V2000Bx6x
16V2000Bx6x
18V2000Bx6x
Application groups 3A, 3B, 3D,3E, 3F, 3G, 3H

MS65026/01E
Applicability
See: (→ Page 6)

Table 1: Applicability

© 2015 Copyright MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH
This publication is protected by copyright and may not be used in any way, whether in whole or in part, without the prior writ-
ten consent of MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH. This particularly applies to its reproduction, distribution, editing, translation, micro-
filming and storage or processing in electronic systems including databases and online services.
All information in this publication was the latest information available at the time of going to print. MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH
reserves the right to change, delete or supplement the information provided as and when required.
Table of Contents
1 Applicability 7 Engine-Generator Set Room
1.1 Applicability 6 7.1 Installation room of engine-generator set –
Requirements 41
2 Preface 7.2 Installation room of engine-generator set –
Overview of technical ventilation systems 45
2.1 Preface 8 7.3 Air requirement for venting the installation
room 50
3 Safety 7.4 Shutters 52
3.1 Important provisions for all products 10
3.2 Personnel and organizational requirements 12 8 Fuel System
3.3 Safety regulations for startup and operation 13 8.1 Fuel system – Safety notes and general
3.4 Safety regulations for maintenance and information 54
repair work 14 8.2 Fuel system description 56
3.5 Fire prevention and environmental 8.3 Fuel supply – Connection 57
protection, fluids and lubricants, auxiliary 8.4 Design Information 59
materials 17 8.4.1 Fuel lines 59
3.6 Standards for safety notices in the text 19 8.4.2 Fuel line connections 60
8.4.3 Fuel filter configuration 62
4 General Information 8.4.4 Fuel delivery pressure 63
8.4.5 Water separator 64
4.1 Engine type designation 20 8.4.6 Fuel cooler 65
4.2 Engine side and cylinder designations 21 8.4.7 Fuel preheating 66
4.3 Deciphering Series engine numbers 8.4.8 Fuel tank 67
2000G06 22 8.5 Fuel specifications 70
4.4 Engine serial number – Location 23 8.6 Engine fuel system – Venting 71
4.5 Repowering 24
9 Intake Air System
5 Design Information
9.1 Air supply 72
5.1 Engine/plant design 25 9.2 Design Information 73
5.2 General information on plant design 26 9.2.1 Installation and design requirements 73
5.3 Cooling system design 27 9.2.2 Rain caps and intake hoods 74
5.4 Customized combustion air system 28 9.2.3 Air intake filter 75
5.5 Air intake and exhaust gas system – Design 29 9.2.4 Air intake silencer 76
5.6 Exhaust system design 30 9.2.5 Air filter 77
5.7 Starting system design 31 9.2.6 Intake plenum 78
9.2.7 Contamination or service indicator 79
5.8 Requirement for analytical verification 32
9.2.8 Piping 80
9.2.9 Piping material specifications 81
6 Transport, Storage and Preservation 9.2.10 Diffusers 82
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6.1 Transportation and shipping – Safety notes 9.3 Testing requirements 83
and general information 33
6.2 Connections 36 10 Exhaust System
6.3 Setting the engine down after transport 37
6.4 Storage 38 10.1 Exhaust gas system – Safety notes and
6.5 Preservation 39 general information 85
6.6 Putting an engine back into operation after 10.2 Design Information 86
preservation 40 10.2.1 Exhaust system design requirements and
principles 86
10.2.2 Flexible connections in the exhaust system 90

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Table of Contents | 3
10.2.3 Exhaust piping 93 12.7 Radiator Fan 147
10.2.4 Exhaust system insulation 102 12.7.1 Cooler fan 147
10.2.5 Corrosion protection for exhaust pipes 103 12.7.2 Fan position (TD only) 148
10.2.6 Noise emission 104
10.2.7 Exhaust Silencer 105 12.8 Cooling system – Filling 149
10.2.7.1 Exhaust silencer – General 105 12.9 Cooling system – Draining 150
10.2.7.2 Reflection silencer 106 12.10 Testing 151
10.2.7.3 Absorptive silencer 107 12.10.1 LT/HT coolant pump checklist 151
10.2.7.4 Silencer selection 108 12.10.2 Measuring equipment 153
10.2.8 Exhaust outlet configuration 109 12.10.3 Cooling capacity index test 154
10.2.9 Draining 110
10.2.10 Spark arrestors 111
13 Starting System
10.3 Exhaust system – Validation requirements 112
10.4 Exhaust back pressure – Measurement 113 13.1 Starter – Safety notes and general
10.5 Emission 115 information 155
10.5.1 General information 115 13.2 Starting Equipment (Electric) 158
10.5.2 Noise 116 13.2.1 Starting batteries 158
10.5.2.1 Noise emissions – General information 116 13.2.2 Battery selection 159
10.5.2.2 Intake air noise 117
13.3 Air start 160
10.5.2.3 Exhaust noise 119
13.4 Starting systems – Redundant 162
10.5.2.4 Engine surface noise 120
10.5.2.5 Structure-borne noise 121 13.5 Parallel starter systems 163
10.5.3 Exhaust gas 122 13.6 Starter disengagement and start interlock 164
10.5.4 Heat emission 123 13.7 Safe engine start 165

14 Electronic Controls
11 Lube Oil System
14.1 Electronic controls – Safety notes and
11.1 Lube oil system – Safety and general
general information 166
information 124
14.2 Engine governing 167
11.2 Closed crankcase ventilation system 126
14.3 Engine diagnostics 168
11.3 Oil lines 127
14.4 Engine Control Unit (ECU) 169
11.4 Auxiliary equipment for lube oil preheating 128
14.5 Sensors 170
11.5 Oil filter configuration 129
14.6 Wiring 172
11.6 Oil Level Measurement 130
14.7 Networking 173
11.6.1 Oil level measuring 130
11.6.2 Oil dipstick 131
14.8 ADEC – Functional checks prior to initial
start-up 174
11.7 Inclined operation 132
11.8 Oil priming 133 15 Generator
11.9 Recommended and approved fluids and
lubricants 134 15.1 Generators and couplings 175
15.2 Recommendations to Avoid Electric Erosion 176
12 Cooling System 15.2.1 General information 176
15.2.2 Insulated generator bearings and insulated
12.1 Cooling system – Safety notes and general auxiliary drive 177
15.2.3 Additional installation instructions for
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information 135
12.2 Cooling system – Description 137 generators 178
15.2.4 General grounding recommendations 179
12.3 Coolant 138
12.4 Cooling System Component Design Criteria 139 15.3 Single bearing 180
12.4.1 Cooler core 139 15.4 Installation requirements for single bearing
12.4.2 Expansion tank 140 generators 181
12.4.3 Pressure seal cap with pressure limiting valve 143 15.5 Double bearing generators 182
12.5 Flexible connections 145 15.6 Installation requirements for double bearing
12.6 Coolant pump 146 generators 183

4 | Table of Contents | MS65026/01E 2015-07
15.7 Couplings 184 17.3 Housing / enclosure 209
15.8 Thrust clearance requirements for
crankshaft and generator shaft 185 18 Validation and Commissioning
15.9 Driven Component Checks 186
15.9.1 Alignment of additional components 186 18.1 Reference documents 210
15.9.2 Angular alignment 187 18.2 General information 211
15.9.3 Unbalance in rotating parts 188 18.3 Installation 212
15.9.4 Flywheel adapter seating 189 18.4 Installation drawings for engine and plant 213
15.9.5 Radial runout 190 18.5 Drawings and diagrams 214
15.9.6 Flywheel housing ventilation 191 18.6 General arrangement drawings 215
15.9.7 Forces exerted on the crankshaft 192
18.7 Rotating parts 216
15.9.8 Torsional vibration and bending moment
18.8 Start-Up 217
analysis 193
18.8.1 Installation check and system function test 217
15.9.9 Torsional vibration analysis 194
18.8.2 End Product Questionnaire 218
18.8.3 Factory acceptance 219
16 Mounting / Support 18.8.4 Consecutive initial operation of series-
produced plants 220
16.1 Mounting system 195
16.2 Mounting Configurations 196
16.2.1 Four-point mounting 196
19 Appendix A
16.2.2 Six- and eight-point mounting 197
19.1 Abbreviations 221
16.3 Flexible Mounting Systems 200 19.2 Conversion tables 225
16.3.1 Resilient engine mounts 200
16.3.2 Resilient engine mounts – Selection 201 20 Appendix B
16.3.3 Choice of materials 202
20.1 Index 229
16.4 Rigid Mounting Systems 203
16.4.1 Rigid engine mounts 203
16.4.2 Mounting system – Installation guidelines 204 21 External Documents
16.4.3 Engine mounting 205
21.1 MTN5194 – Engine Lifting Instructions 235

17 Cold Weather Package 22 Drawings
17.1 Cold weather package 207 22.1 Instruction for Universal Shaft BR2000-06 241
17.2 Engine preheating systems 208 22.2 Instruction - Bearing Generator BR2000-
G/C/S 243
22.3 Lube Oil System BR2000-06 245
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Table of Contents | 5
1 Applicability
1.1 Applicability
Engine model kW/cyl. rpm Application group
12V2000B26F 55.4 kW/cyl. 1500 3A, continuous operation, unrestricted
12V2000B26S 59.7 kW/cyl. 1800 3A, continuous operation, unrestricted
12V2000B76 59 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
59.7 kW/cyl. 1800 ICXN
12V2000G16F 55.4 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
12V2000G16S 59.7 kW/cyl. 1800 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
12V2000G26F 59 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
12V2000G26S 76.5 kW/cyl. 1800 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
12V2000G76F 61 kW/cyl. 1500 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
12V2000G76S 74.2 kW/cyl. 1800 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
12V2000G86F 73.9 kW/cyl. 1500 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
12V2000G86S 82.3 kW/cyl. 1800 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
16V2000B26F 44.3 kW/cyl. 1500 3A, continuous operation, unrestricted
16V2000B26S 56.1 kW/cyl. 1800 3A, continuous operation, unrestricted
16V2000B76 55.6 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
62.4 kW/cyl. 1800 ICXN
16V2000G16F 50.4 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
16V2000G26F 55.6 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
16V2000G26S 62.4 kW/cyl. 1800 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
16V2000G36F 62.5 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
16V2000G76F 61.2 kW/cyl. 1500 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
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IFN
16V2000G76S 68.6 kW/cyl. 1800 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
16V2000G86F 68.8 kW/cyl. 1500 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
16V2000G86S 85.7 kW/cyl. 1800 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
18V2000B26F 49.3 kW/cyl. 1500 3A, continuous operation, unrestricted
18V2000B26S 61 kW/cyl. 1800 3A, continuous operation, unrestricted

6 | Applicability | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Engine model kW/cyl. rpm Application group
18V2000B76 82.1 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
81.7 kW/cyl. 1800 ICXN
18V2000G26F 61.2 kW/cyl. 1500 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
18V2000G26S 69.2 kW/cyl. 1800 3B, continuous operation, variable load,
ICXN
18V2000G76F 68.6 kW/cyl. 1500 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN
18V2000G76S 76.2 kW/cyl. 1800 3D, standby operation, fuel stop power,
IFN

Table 2: Applicability
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Applicability | 7
2 Preface
2.1 Preface
This document addresses qualified application engineers, project planners and consultant engineers dealing
with the installation of an MTU engine. The document contains guidelines and recommendations for auxiliary
equipment supporting the engine and describes the initial start-up procedure starting with plant validation
and concluding with a demonstration of ramp-up and operation.
The objective of the document is to establish guidelines which will ensure correct installation of the engine
supplied by MTU.
All information, technical data and illustrations incorporated in this publication are based on the specifica-
tions which were available at the time of going to press. Technical data, torques, pressures, measurements,
settings, illustrations and other data are all subject to change without prior notice. Such changes may affect
product servicing. Always make sure that you have obtained all the latest information relevant to engine in-
stallation before starting work. Up-to-date information is available from MTU Service Centers and authorized
dealers.
Maintenance work must be carried out as directed to ensure the operational safety and dependability of the
engine throughout its useful life. Give due consideration to accessibility for operating, maintenance and re-
pair personnel when planning to install any MTU engine.
This document describes the installation and initial operation of an MTU engine featuring the standard scope
of delivery. It includes:
• General safety information
• Guidelines and recommendations for installation
• Information about peripheral equipment including air intake, cooling, fuel, lubrication and exhaust
• Directives and procedures regulating validation of the installation including initial operation of the plant
Consult the following sources of technical information which supplement this document:
• MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specifications
• MTU Operating and Maintenance Instructions
• TEN data
• MTU installation drawings
• MTU wiring diagrams
• MTU drawings showing special equipment
• Supplier documentation (available for download from www.mtu-online.com)
Check out the Applications & Products tab on the MTU Business Portal (→ Figure 1) for more technical infor-
mation.
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8 | Preface | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Figure 1: MTU Business Portal – Applications & Products tab

Initial operation is the procedure by which MTU conclusively checks engine installation. A series of functional
checks are performed in the course of initial operation. The results are documented and retained for future
reference. Unless otherwise agreed, coverage under the terms of the limited warranty furnished by MTU
commences upon successful completion of initial operation of any engine supplied by MTU.
Completion of the initial operation procedure in no way releases the owner from his contractual obligations.
The owner of the MTU engine is ultimately responsible for correct installation of the engine.
Project-specific applications involving extension or modification of the standard MTU scope of delivery may
necessitate technical support from a local MTU dealer or sales partner . Such technical support may incur
additional cost for the owner.

Disclaimer
MTU accepts no liability whatsoever for damage of any kind incurred on the engine supplied by MTU, in the
installation room or other building parts and/or areas in which the engine is located, including personal in-
jury, resulting from installation of the MTU engine.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Preface | 9
3 Safety
3.1 Important provisions for all products
Nameplate
The product is identified by nameplate, model designation or serial number and must match with the infor-
mation on the title page of this manual.
Nameplate, model designation or serial number can be found on the product.
All EU-certified engines delivered by MTU come with a second nameplate. When operating the machine in the
EU: The second nameplate must be affixed in a prominent position as described in the accompanying specifi-
cations.

General information
This product may pose a risk of injury or damage in the following cases:
• Incorrect use
• Operation, maintenance and repair by unqualified personnel
• Modifications or conversions
• Noncompliance with the safety instructions and warning notices

Correct use
The product is intended for use in accordance with its contractually-defined purpose as described in the rele-
vant technical documents only.
Intended use entails operation:
• Within the permissible operating parameters in accordance with the (→ Technical data)
• With fluids and lubricants approved by the manufacturer in accordance with the (→ Fluids and Lubricants
Specifications of the manufacturer)
• With spare parts approved by the manufacturer in accordance with the (→ Spare Parts Catalog/MTU con-
tact/Service partner)
• In the original as-delivered configuration or in a configuration approved by the manufacturer in writing (in-
cluding engine control/parameters)
• In compliance with all safety regulations and in adherence with all warning notices in this manual
• With maintenance work performed in accordance with the (→ Maintenance Schedule) throughout the use-
ful life of the product
• In compliance with the maintenance and repair instructions contained in this manual, in particular with
regard to the specified tightening torques
• With the exclusive use of technical personnel trained in commissioning, operation, maintenance and re-
pair
• By contracting only workshops authorized by the manufacturer to carry out repair and overhaul
Any other use is considered improper use. Such improper use increases the risk of injury and damage when
working with the product. The manufacturer shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from improper,
non-intended use.
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Modifications or conversions
Unauthorized changes to the product represent a contravention of its intended use and compromise safety.
Changes or modifications shall only be considered to comply with the intended use when expressly author-
ized by the manufacturer. The manufacturer shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from unauthor-
ized changes or modifications.

10 | Safety | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Emission regulations and emission labels
Responsibility for compliance with emission regulations
Modification or removal of any mechanical/electronic components or the installation of additional compo-
nents including the execution of calibration processes that might affect the emission characteristics of the
product are prohibited by emission regulations. Emission control units/systems may only be maintained, ex-
changed or repaired if the components used for this purpose are approved by the manufacturer.
Noncompliance with these regulations will invalidate the design type approval issued by the emissions regu-
lation authorities. The manufacturer does not accept any liability for violations of the emission regulations.
The maintenance schedules of the manufacturer must be observed over the entire life cycle of the product.

Replacing components with emission labels
Emission labels are attached to all MTU engines. These must remain on the engine throughout its operational
life.
Engines used exclusively in land-based, military applications other than by US government agencies are ex-
cepted from this proviso.
Please note the following when replacing components with emission labels:
• Appropriate emission labels must be affixed on spare parts.
• Emission labels may not be transferred from old components to new ones.
• Emission labels on old components must be removed and destroyed.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Safety | 11
3.2 Personnel and organizational requirements
Organizational measures of the user/manufacturer
This manual must be issued to all personnel involved in operation, maintenance, repair, or transportation.
Keep this manual handy in the vicinity of the product such that it is accessible to operating, maintenance,
repair, and transport personnel at all times.
Personnel must receive instruction on product handling and maintenance based on this manual with a spe-
cial emphasis on safety requirements and warnings.
This is important in the case of personnel who only occasionally perform work on or around the product.
These personnel must be instructed repeatedly.

Personnel requirements
All work on the product shall be carried out by trained and qualified personnel only:
• Training at the Training Center of the manufacturer
• Technical personnel from the areas mechanical engineering, plant construction, and electrical engineering
The operator must define the responsibilities of the personnel involved in operation, maintenance, repair, and
transport.
Personnel must not be under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or strong medication.

Working clothes and personal protective equipment
When working, always wear the necessary personal protective equipment (for example safety shoes, ear pro-
tectors, protective gloves, goggles, breathing protection). Observe the information on personal protective
equipment in the respective activity description.

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12 | Safety | MS65026/01E 2015-07
3.3 Safety regulations for startup and operation
Safety regulations for startup
Install the product correctly and carry out acceptance in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications
before putting the product into service. All necessary approvals must be granted by the relevant authorities
and all requirements for initial startup must be fulfilled.
When putting the product into operation, always ensure that
• All personnel is clear of the danger zone surrounding moving parts of the machine.
Electrically-actuated linkages may be set in motion when the Engine Control Unit (governor) is switched
on.
• All maintenance and repair work has been completed.
• All loose parts have been removed from rotating machine components.
• All safety equipment is in place.
• No persons wearing pacemakers or any other technical body aids are present.
• The service room is adequately ventilated.
• Keep clear of the service room during the first operating hours. Hazardous gases may occur as a result of
the combustion of paints or oils.
• The exhaust system is leak-tight and that the gases are vented to atmosphere.
• Protect battery terminals, generator terminals or cables against accidental contact.
• Check that all connections have been correctly allocated (e.g. +/- polarity, direction).
Immediately after putting the product into operation, make sure that all control and display instruments as
well as the monitoring, signaling and alarm systems are working properly.
Smoking is prohibited in the area of the product.

Safety regulations during operation
The operator must be familiar with the controls and displays.
The operator must be familiar with the consequences of any operations performed.
During operation, the display instruments and monitoring units must be permanently observed with regard to
present operating status, violation of limit values and warning or alarm messages.

Malfunctions and emergency stop
The procedures for emergencies, in particular, emergency stop, must be practiced regularly.
The following steps must be taken if a malfunction of the system is detected or reported by the system:
• Inform supervisor(s) in charge.
• Analyze the message.
• Respond to the emergency appropriately, e.g. execute an emergency stop.

Operation
Do not remain in the operating room when the product is running for any longer than absolutely necessary.
Keep a safe distance away from the product if possible. Do not touch the product unless expressly instructed
to do so following a written procedure.
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Do not inhale the exhaust gases of the product.
The following requirements must be fulfilled before the product is started:
• Wear ear protectors.
• Mop up any leaked or spilled fluids and lubricants immediately or soak up with a suitable binder agent.

Operation of electrical equipment
During operation of electrical devices, certain elements of these devices are live/under high voltage.
Observe the warning information applicable to the devices.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Safety | 13
3.4 Safety regulations for maintenance and repair work
Safety regulations prior to maintenance and repair work
Have maintenance or repair work carried out by qualified and authorized personnel only.
Allow the product to cool down to less than 50 °C (risk of explosion for oil vapors, fluids and lubricants, risk
of burning).
Relieve pressure in fluid and lubricant systems and compressed-air lines which are to be opened. Use suita-
ble collecting vessels of adequate capacity to catch fluids and lubricants.
When changing the oil or working on the fuel system, ensure that the service room is adequately ventilated.
Never carry out maintenance and repair work with the product in operation, unless:
• It is expressly permitted to do so following a written procedure.
• The product is running in the low load range and only for as long as absolutely necessary.
Lock-out the product to preclude undesired starting, e.g.
• Start interlock
• Key switch
• With hydraulic starting system: shut off supply line.
Attach “Do not operate” sign in the operating area or to control equipment.
Disconnect the battery. Lock out circuit breakers.
Close the main valve on the compressed-air system and vent the compressed-air line when pneumatic start-
ers are fitted.
Disconnect the control equipment from the product.
Use special tools if they are specified for the relevant work.
Elastomer components (e.g. engine mounts, damping elements, couplings and V-belts) must not be painted.
They may only be installed after painting the engine or must be covered before painting work is carried out.
The following applies to starters with copper-beryllium alloy pinions:
• Wear a respirator mask (filter class P3). Do not blow out the interior of the flywheel housing or the starter
with compressed air. Clean the flywheel housing inside with a class H dust extraction device.
• Observe the safety data sheet.

Safety regulations during maintenance and repair work
Take special care when removing ventilation or plug screws from the product. Cover the screw or plug with a
rag to prevent fluids escaping under pressure.
Take care when draining hot fluids and lubricants (risk of burning).
Use only proper and calibrated tools. Observe the specified tightening torques during assembly or disassem-
bly.
Carry out work only on assemblies or plants which are properly secured.
Make sure components or assemblies are placed on stable surfaces. Adopt suitable measures to avoid that
components/tools fall down . Use the specified lifting equipment for all components.
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Never use the product as a climbing aid.
When working high on the equipment, always use suitable ladders and work platforms. Never work on en-
gines or components that are held in place by lifting equipment.
Keep fuel injection lines and connections clean.
Carry out appropriate cleaning procedures to clean and inspect components requiring special cleanness (e.g.
components carrying oil, fuel, or air).
Always seal connections with caps or covers if a line is removed or opened.
Fit new seals when re-installing lines.

14 | Safety | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Never bend lines and avoid damaging lines, particularly the fuel lines.
Ensure that all retainers and dampers are installed correctly.
Ensure that O-rings are not installed ina slanted/twisted condition.
Ensure that all fuel injection and pressurized oil lines are installed with enough clearance to prevent contact
with other components. Do not place fuel or oil lines near hot components.
Do not touch elastomeric seals (e.g. Viton sealing rings) with your bare hands if they have a carbonized or
resinous appearance.
Note cooling time for components which are heated for installation or removal (risk of burning).
Pay particular attention to cleanliness at all times.
Remove any condensate from components which were chilled before assembly. If necessary, coat the com-
ponents with a suitable corrosion inhibitor.

Safety regulations following maintenance and repair work
Before barring, make sure that nobody is standing in the danger zone of the product.
Check that all access ports/apertures which have been opened to facilitate working are closed again.
Check that all safety equipment has been installed and that all tools and loose parts have been removed
(especially the barring gear).
Ensure that no unattached parts have been left in/on the product (e.g. including rags and cable straps).

Welding work
Welding operations on the product or mounted units are not permitted. Cover the product when welding in
its vicinity.
Before starting welding work:
• Switch off the power supply master switch.
• Disconnect the battery.
• Separate the electrical ground of electronic equipment from the ground of the unit.
No other maintenance or repair work must be carried out in the vicinity of the product while welding is going
on. Risk of explosion or fire due to oil vapors and highly flammable process materials.
Do not use product as ground terminal.
Never position the welding power supply cable adjacent to, or crossing wiring harnesses of the product. The
welding current may otherwise induce an interference voltage in the wiring harnesses which could conceiva-
bly damage the electrical system.
Remove components (e.g. exhaust pipe) from the product before performing necessary welding work .

Hydraulic installation and removal
Check satisfactory function and safe operating condition of tools, jigs and fixtures to be used. Use only the
specified jigs and fixtures for hydraulic removal/installation procedures.
Observe the max. permissible force-on pressure specified for the jig/fixture.
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Do not attempt to bend or exert force on HP lines.
Before starting work, pay attention to the following:
• Vent the installation/removal device, the pumps and the pipework at the relevant designated points.
• During the installation procedure, screw on device with plunger extended.
• During the removal procedure, screw on device with plunger retracted.
For a hydraulic installation/removal device with central expansion pressure supply, screw spindle into shaft
end until correct sealing is established.
During hydraulic installation/removal of components, ensure that no persons are in the direct vicinity of the
component being pressed on.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Safety | 15
Working with batteries
Observe the safety instructions of the battery manufacturer when working with batteries.
Gases released from the battery are explosive. Avoid sparks and naked flames.
Do not allow electrolyte to come into contact with skin or clothing.
Wear protective clothing, goggles and protective gloves.
Do not place tools on the battery.
Before connecting the cable to the battery, check the battery polarity. Battery pole reversal may lead to in-
jury through the sudden discharge of acid or bursting of the battery body.

Working on electrical and electronic assemblies
Always obtain the permission of the person in charge before commencing maintenance and repair work or
switching off any part of the electronic system required to do so.
De-energize the appropriate areas prior to working on assemblies.
Do not damage cabling during removal work. When reconnecting, ensure that cabling cannot be damaged
during operation by:
• Contact with sharp edges
• Chafing on components
• Contact with hot surfaces.
Do not secure cables on lines carrying fluids.
Do not use cable straps to secure cables.
Always use connector pliers to tighten union nuts on connectors.
Subject the device as well as the product to a functional testing on completion of all repair work. In particu-
lar, check the function of the engine emergency stop feature.
Store spare parts properly prior to replacement, i.e. protect them against moisture in particular. Package
faulty electronic components or assemblies properly before dispatching for repair:
• Moisture-proof
• Shock-proof
• Wrapped in antistatic foil if necessary.

Working with laser devices
Laser work must only be performed by authorized and trained personnel. When working with laser equip-
ment, always observe the safety instructions in the manufacturer's Operating Instructions.
When working with laser equipment, always wear special laser-protection goggles (hazard due to heavily fo-
cused radiation).
Laser devices must be equipped with protective devices in accordance with their class and usage to ensure
safe operation.

Measuring deviations on components
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At a reference temperature of 20 °C, workpieces, components and measuring instrument are within the
specified tolerances.

16 | Safety | MS65026/01E 2015-07
3.5 Fire prevention and environmental protection, fluids and
lubricants, auxiliary materials
Fire prevention
Flames, naked light and smoking are prohibited.
When working with combustible indirect materials, e.g. cleaning agent, ensure area is well ventilated. The
resultant steam/air mixture must be sufficiently diluted to prevent a potentially explosive atmosphere.
Rectify any fuel or oil leaks immediately. Oil or fuel on hot components can cause fires – therefore always
keep the product in a clean condition. Do not leave rags saturated with fluids and lubricants on the product.
Do not store combustible materials near the product.
Do not carry out welding work on pipes and components carrying oil or fuel. Before welding, clean with a
nonflammable fluid.
When starting the engine with an external power source, connect the ground cable last and remove it first.
To avoid sparks in the vicinity of the battery, connect the ground cable from the external power source to the
ground cable of the engine or to the ground terminal of the starter.
Always have a suitable extinguishant (fire extinguisher) on hand and familiarize yourself fully with its han-
dling.

Noise
Noise can lead to an increased risk of accidents if acoustic signals, warning shouts or sounds indicating dan-
ger are drowned.
Wear ear protectors in workplaces with a sound pressure level in excess of 85 dB (A).

Environmental protection and disposal
Dispose of used fluids, lubricants and filters in accordance with local regulations.
Within the EU, batteries can be returned free of charge to the manufacturer where they will be properly recy-
cled.

Fluids and lubricants, auxiliary materials
The Fluids and Lubricants Specifications will be amended or supplemented as necessary. Prior to operation,
make sure that the latest version is used. The latest version can be found on the website on the “Technical
Info” or “Parts and Service” tabs at http://www.mtu-online.com.
Process materials may also be hazardous or toxic. When using consumables and auxiliary materials as well
as other chemical substances, observe the information contained in the safety data sheet for the product.
The safety data sheet may be obtained from the relevant manufacturer or from MTU.
Take special care when using hot, chilled or caustic materials.

Used oil
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Used oil contains combustion residues that are harmful to health.
Wear protective gloves!
Wash relevant areas after contact with used oil.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Safety | 17
Lead
• Adopt suitable measures to avoid the formation of lead dust.
• Switch on extraction system.
• When working with lead or pastes containing lead, avoid direct contact to the skin and do not inhale lead
vapors.
• Wash relevant areas after contact with lead or lead-containing substances.

Compressed air
Observe special safety precautions when working with compressed air:
• Unauthorized use of compressed air, e.g. forcing flammable liquids (hazard class AI, AII and B) out of con-
tainers, risks causing an explosion.
• Wear goggles when blowing dirt off workpieces or blowing away swarf.
• Blowing compressed air into thin-walled containers (e.g. containers made of sheet metal, plastic or glass)
for drying purposes or to check for leaks risks bursting them.
• Pay special attention to the pressure in the compressed air system or pressure vessel.
• Assemblies or products which are to be connected must be designed to withstand this pressure. Install
pressure-reducing or safety valves set to the admissible pressure if this is not the case.
• Hose couplings and connections must be securely attached.
• Provide the snout of the air nozzle with a protective disk (e.g. rubber disk).
• First shut off compressed air lines before compressed air device is disconnected from the supply line, or
before device or tool is to be replaced.
• Carry out leak test in accordance with the specifications.

Painting
• Observe the relevant safety data sheet for all materials.
• When carrying out painting work outside the spray stands provided with fume extraction systems, ensure
that the area is well ventilated. Make sure that neighboring work areas are not adversely affected.
• There must be no naked flames in the vicinity.
• No smoking.
• Observe fire-prevention regulations.
• Always wear a mask providing protection against paint and solvent vapors.

Liquid nitrogen
• Observe the relevant safety data sheet for all materials.
• Work with liquid nitrogen may be carried out only by qualified personnel.
• Store liquid nitrogen only in small quantities and always in specified containers without fixed covers.
• Avoid body contact (eyes, hands).
• Wear protective clothing, protective gloves, closed shoes and safety goggles.
• Make sure that working area is well ventilated.
• Avoid knocking or jolting the containers, valves and fittings or workpieces in any way.

Acids/alkaline solutions/urea (AdBlue®, DEF)
• Observe the relevant safety data sheet for all materials.
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• When working with acids and alkaline solutions, wear goggles or face mask, gloves and protective cloth-
ing.
• Do not inhale vapors.
• If urea solution is swallowed, rinse out mouth and drink plenty of water.
• Remove any wet clothing immediately.
• After contact skin, wash body areas with plenty of water.
• Rinse eyes immediately with eyedrops or clean tap water. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.

18 | Safety | MS65026/01E 2015-07
3.6 Standards for safety notices in the text
DANGER
In the event of immediate danger.
Consequences: Death, serious or permanent injury!
• Remedial action.

WARNING
In the event of a situation involving potential danger.
Consequences: Death, serious or permanent injury!
• Remedial action.

CAUTION
In the event of a situation involving potential danger.
Consequences: Minor or moderate injuries!
• Remedial action.

NOTICE
In the event of a situation involving potentially adverse effects on the product.
Consequences: Material damage!
• Remedial action.
• Additional product information.

Safety notices
1. This manual with all safety instructions and safety notices must be issued to all personnel involved in opera-
tion, maintenance, repair or transportation.
2. The higher level warning notice is used if several hazards apply at the same time. Warnings related to person-
al injury shall be considered to include a warning of potential damage.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Safety | 19
4 General Information
4.1 Engine type designation
The engine type is designated on a label affixed to engine which describes its application and configuration.
The type designation also provides information about the design index of the engine.
The series nomenclature for the various engines shown below specifies the admissible use of a given engine
defining its sector and application to further reduce the risk of warranty or goodwill claims.

Figure 2: Series nomenclature for MTU engines
A Number of cylinders D Main application group G Frequency and rating
B Cylinder arrangement E Load profile
C Engine series F Development status
The various ratings are specified in addition, see (→ Table 3).
Indices Description
S Sixty Hertz (60 Hz)
F Fifty Hertz (50 Hz)
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Table 3: Engine series indices

20 | General Information | MS65026/01E 2015-07
4.2 Engine side and cylinder designations

Figure 3: Engine side and cylinder designations
1 Left engine side (A-side) 3 Right engine side (B-side)
2 Engine free end in accord- 4 Engine driving end in ac-
ance with DIN ISO 1204 cordance with
(KGS = Kupplungsgegen- DIN ISO 1204 (KS = Kup-
seite) plungsseite)
Engine sides are always designated (in accordance with DIN ISO 1204) as viewed from driving end (4).
For cylinder designation (in accordance with DIN ISO 1204), the letter "Ax" refers to the cylinders on the left-
hand side of the engine (1) and letter "Bx" refers to the cylinders on the right-hand side (3). The cylinders of
each bank are numbered consecutively, starting with x=1 at driving end (4).
The numbering of other engine components also starts with 1 at driving end (4).
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | General Information | 21
4.3 Deciphering Series engine numbers 2000G06
A typical Series 2000 engine number comprises nine or ten digits. The first three digits specify the cylinder
arrangement and the engine series. The fourth digit specifies the site at which the engine was built, either in
Aiken (USA), Friedrichshafen (Germany) or Suzhou (China). Series 2000 engines built in Friedrichshafen have
nine-digit serial numbers, whereas all other engines have ten-digit serial numbers. The other digits are serial
numbers assigned in the order of manufacture. (→ Figure 4) shows an example of an engine serial number
and explains its meaning.

Figure 4: Deciphering Series 2000 engine numbers
Cal-
lout Value Description
A 544 12V2000G06
545 16V2000G06
546 18V2000G06
B 1 Friedrichshafen
2 Aiken
3 Suzhou
C 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Sequential production number
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* Engines built in Friedrichshafen have one digit less than illustrated.

22 | General Information | MS65026/01E 2015-07
4.4 Engine serial number – Location
(→ Table 4) specifies the location of the engine designation.
The terms “left side” and “right side” are based on viewing the engine from the flywheel end.

Engine series Location of engine serial number
Series 2000 Left side, middle of block

Table 4: Location of engine serial number
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | General Information | 23
4.5 Repowering
The main objective of repowering is to prolong operation of an existing plant by replacing the diesel engine.
An engine from the same series can be used for purposes of repowering in the case of a plant with a high
number of annual operating hours. MTU's Reman engine service makes this possible.
In most cases, using an engine from the same series minimizes the work involved in adapting to the new
engine.
Nevertheless, certain changes may prove necessary when repowering, e.g.:
• Adapting the existing power train or generator
• Installing a new intermediate housing
• Adapting the cooling system
• Adapting auxiliary components
• Adapting the exhaust/silencer system
• Adapting air filters or the air intake system
• Adapting existing control systems
• Installing new electronic systems for control, operation and monitoring

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24 | General Information | MS65026/01E 2015-07
5 Design Information
5.1 Engine/plant design
This installation manual provides some basic guidelines. Some sections contain references to documents
which may prove useful, or are indeed necessary, when designing, developing and installing an engine or
plant supplied by MTU.
• Installation drawings
• Diagrams (e.g. coolant, fuel and oil circuit)
• Wiring diagram
• Engine mounting guidelines
• Coupling instructions
• Technical sales documentation
• Noise spectrum analyses
• Drawings of auxiliary equipment
• Calculation reports
• Certificates/test protocols
• Engine test reports
• Approvals
• Fluids and Lubricants Specifications
• Engine Operating Instructions
• Tool Catalog
Additional technical documentation is available on the MTU-Business Portal (→ http://partner.mtu-on-
line.com/irj/portal) or on special request. Please contact an authorized MTU representative to request addi-
tional technical documentation.
TIM-ID: 0000055709 - 003

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Design Information | 25
5.2 General information on plant design
Refer to the following documents when designing drives:
• Engine/plant installation drawing
• Performance diagram
– Fuel consumption curves
– Load factor
– Application group
• TEN data
– Reference conditions

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26 | Design Information | MS65026/01E 2015-07
5.3 Cooling system design
Refer to the following documents when designing cooling systems:
• Cooler specifications
• Engine installation drawings
• Schematic representation of the cooling system
• TEN data
– Heat dissipation via coolant from high- and low-temperature circuits
– Coolant temperature at engine outlet (HT circuit)
– Max. charge-air temperature before intercooler (LT circuit)
– Max. admissible pressure loss in external engine cooling system
– Cooler cap opening pressure
– Thermostat opening and closing temperatures
– Preheating system data
• Fluids and Lubricants Specifications (→ http://partner.mtu-online.com/irj/portal) Service | Documents |
Fluids and Lubricants Specifications / Preservation and Re-preservation
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Design Information | 27
5.4 Customized combustion air system
Refer to the following documents when designing air intake systems:
• Schematic representation of the air intake and exhaust system
• TEN data
– Volumetric intake air flow rate
– Admissible intake air resistance
• Engine installation drawings

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28 | Design Information | MS65026/01E 2015-07
5.5 Air intake and exhaust gas system – Design
Refer to the following documents when designing air intake systems (for containers and buildings when the
cooler is installed in these rooms):
• Cooler data, particularly cooling air flow requirements
• Schematic representation of the air intake and exhaust system
• TEN data
– Volumetric intake air flow rate
– Admissible intake air resistance
• Engine installation drawings
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Design Information | 29
5.6 Exhaust system design
Refer to the following documents when designing exhaust systems:
• Schematic representation of the air intake and exhaust system
• TEN data
– Volumetric exhaust gas flow rate
– Exhaust gas temperature
– Permissible exhaust back pressure
– Max. sound pressure level
• Exhaust noise spectrum analysis

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30 | Design Information | MS65026/01E 2015-07
5.7 Starting system design
Refer to the following documents when designing electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic starting systems:

• TEN data including

For electric starters
• Max. admissible starter current
• Internal battery resistance
• Business portal with wiring diagrams

For pneumatic starters
• Max. admissible pressure before pneumatic starter
• Required volume flow rate
• Required volume for x attempts at starting

For hydraulic starters
• Max. admissible oil pressure before starter
• Required volume flow rate
• Required volume for x attempts at starting

• TEN data
– Breakaway torque
– Cold start current
– Number of teeth on flywheel ring gear
– Barometric pressure
– Oil pressure
• Flywheel ring gear drawing
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Design Information | 31
5.8 Requirement for analytical verification
MTU requires a torsional vibration calculation for all new installations. The manufacturer or distributor must
present a calculation analyzing bending moment and torsional vibration for design and installation of any en-
gine or plant. An authorized MTU representative shall be consulted should the data used for the purposes of
these calculations change in order to facilitate recalculation based on latest available data.

Disclaimer
MTU accepts no liability whatsoever for damage of any kind incurred on the engine supplied by MTU, in the
installation room or other building parts and/or areas in which the engine is located, including personal in-
jury, resulting from installation of the MTU engine.

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32 | Design Information | MS65026/01E 2015-07
6 Transport, Storage and Preservation
6.1 Transportation and shipping – Safety notes and general
information
DANGER
Falling Engine
Personal Injury
• To avoid injury from a falling engine, an adequate lifting device with a spreader bar and sling should
be used to lift the engine.
• The sling and spreader bar should be adjusted so the lifting hooks are vertical to prevent bending the
lifter brackets.
• To ensure proper weight distribution, all provided lifter brackets must be used.

DANGER
Unintended engine start.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Lift the engine-generator set only while the engine-generator set is in the “OFF” mode and locked-
out.

DANGER
Suspended load.
Risk of serious injury from falling objects – danger to life!
• Follow the lifting and handling procedures according to manufacturers’ guidelines.
• Ensure all lifting equipment is maintained according to manufacturers’ guidelines.
• Ensure lifting device with adequate capacity is used.
• Ensure all personnel stand clear when heavy objects are lifted or suspended.

DANGER
Suspended load.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Lift the engine-generator set only by the lifting brackets provided for this purpose.
• Do not use the lifting brackets provided with the engine and generator because they are designed to
withstand their individual loads only.
• Ensure that the lifting brackets are not damaged prior to use.
• Ensure that the lifting brackets are evenly loaded.

DANGER
Fall from heights.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Use suitable ladders and work platforms.

WARNING
Hazardous acids, alkaline solutions, coolant, fuel, paint and preservatives.
Risk of serious injury!
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• Consult appropriate Material Safety Data Sheets for proper handling, use and storage information.
• Immediately seek medical attention if contact or ingestion has occurred.

WARNING
Hazardous fluids.
Chemical contact with battery acid, alkaline electrolytes or caustic byproducts.
Risk of serious injury!
• Wear protective clothing to prevent contact with skin.
• Flush eyes and/or wash skin immediately with water for at least 15 minutes after contact.
• Seek medical attention immediately after contact or ingestion.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | 33
WARNING
Heavy objects.
Risk of serious injury!
• Use adequate mechanical lifting equipment or seek assistance.

CAUTION
Suspended load.
Risk of injury and damage to the equipment!
• Prevent equipment from swinging while suspended.

NOTICE
Components of the engine-generator set are sensitive to magnetism.
Damage to engine-generator set!
• Do not use magnetic lifting devices near the engine-generator set.
• Do not come in the vicinity of the engine-generator set with any magnetic lifting devices.

NOTICE
Unintended crankshaft movement/inhibition.
Damage to engine-generator set!
• Install the crankshaft locking device, if provided, prior to transport.
• Remove the crankshaft locking device, if provided, prior to starting.

NOTICE
Mishandling of components.
Damage to engine-generator set!
• Follow published recommendations for proper handling of the engine-generator set and its compo-
nents.

Refer to the relevant installation drawings for dimensions and instructions on using lifting gear for a certain
engine or genset. Follow the instructions below:
• Lift the engine only by the lifting eyes provided for this purpose.
• Lift and transport the entire genset only by the specified attachment points.
• Use suitable lifting gear.
• Secure lifting gear directly to the attachment points.
• Ensure that slings run straight and do not snag.
• Observe the admissible angle of diagonal pull.
• Secure the engine or genset to prevent it tipping during transport.
• Secure appropriately to prevent slipping and tipping when negotiating inclines and ramps.
• Only use means of transport and lifting equipment recommended by MTU (MTN 5194), see (→ Page 235).
• Take care to avoid damaging the protective foil when handling seaworthy packing. Use appropriate han-
dling equipment (e.g. forklift truck).
• Follow any additional information provided in the engine or genset Operating Instructions and installation
drawings.
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34 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Figure 5: Engine lifting points – example
A Distance between lifting C Distance between center of a Max. 10° *
points gravity and rear flange face
B Distance between center of of the block
gravity and crankshaft cen- D Distance between lifting
ter line points
* Max. admissible diagonal pull. Observe requirements specified in MTN5194.
TIM-ID: 0000055720 - 002

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | 35
6.2 Connections
All connections on the engine must be sealed off prior to transportation and delivery. Never leave these con-
nections open when forwarding the engine in subsequent transport.

Figure 6: Connection on delivery and in use
1 On delivery 2 In use (ball-type union A M38 x 1.5
MBN15003)
Remove the covers before hooking up the engine to the coolant and fuel supplies etc.

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36 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | MS65026/01E 2015-07
6.3 Setting the engine down after transport
Set the engine down on a firm, level surface using appropriate engine mounts or stands. Consider the prop-
erties and load-bearing capacity of the floor before setting the engine down. Never set the engine down on
its oil pan unless expressly instructed to do so by MTU.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | 37
6.4 Storage
Proceed as follows when taking an engine out of operation and putting it into storage (for a specified period):
1. Preserve any driven components as per manufacturer preservation guidelines.
2. Store the engine or genset in a dry place on its original transport trestle or a similar base, and enclose
with an oil-resistant cover.
3. Leave corrosion-inhibiting antifreeze in the system. Otherwise drain the coolant and fill with an approved
corrosion-inhibiting antifreeze if below-freezing temperatures are to be expected.
4. Do not fit any additional covers when using seaworthy packing (vacuum-sealed, airtight aluminum foil).
Check for excessive moisture at regular intervals using a hygrometer.
5. All necessary tasks are described in the (→ Preservation and Re-preservation Specifications A001070).

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38 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | MS65026/01E 2015-07
6.5 Preservation
The engine can be ordered including preservation ex-works. Preservation includes:
• Internal preservation
• Taking appropriate steps to preserve lubricant, coolant and fuel systems
• External preservation of bare parts
• Sealing all openings on the engine to prevent moisture ingress
• Fitting protective caps over electrical connectors
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | 39
6.6 Putting an engine back into operation after preservation
Follow the instructions below to put an engine back into operation following a period of preserved storage:
• Clean engine as necessary.
• Remove the protective caps/covers from the various components only just before the engine is hooked
up.
• Drain (residual) corrosion inhibitor oil.
• Fill the engine with an appropriate quantity of oil.
• Bar the engine manually (barring tool) to ensure that the oil circulates correctly.
• Fill with coolant .
• Prepare the engine for initial start-up (as per engine documentation).
Refer to the (→ Preservation and Re-preservation Instructions A001070) for detailed information on preserv-
ing and depreserving MTU engines.

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40 | Transport, Storage and Preservation | MS65026/01E 2015-07
7 Engine-Generator Set Room
7.1 Installation room of engine-generator set – Requirements
General information
The engine-generator set must meet certain space requirements for use in an enclosed application.
Note: An important element that contributes to reliable, low-maintenance and trouble-free operation is the
careful arrangement of the installation room for the engine-generator set.

Figure 7: Example of a room for an engine-generator set with an MTU 2000 Series engine

Installation room of the engine-generator set
Planning begins with the selection of a location for installation of an engine-generator set. The room for the
engine-generator set should be in the direct vicinity of the main consumer. This makes the installation of
electric cables easier and the transmission losses remain low. Further factors to be observed when planning
the installation location:
• Ventilation
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• Exhaust piping
• Fuel supply
• Accessibility
• Maintenance and service
When installing an engine-generator set near residential areas, special measures must be introduced to mini-
mize noise and exhaust gas emissions. The building air inlets (ventilation system) must be taken into consid-
eration when planning the exhaust system.
The room should be located, with regard to the predominant wind direction, such that the exhaust gas and
noise are carried away by the wind.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Engine-Generator Set Room | 41
The installation room of the engine-generator set should have outer walls on two sides. One outer wall to
facilitate air inlet for cooling and ventilation and a second outer wall for the exhaust outlet. The exhaust out-
let must be positioned so that exhaust gas is directed away from the building and ventilation inlets. Pipe
bends must have a large radius to minimize the resistance to flow.
The installation room of the engine-generator set can be at ground level, below the ground or even, with a
suitable design, on higher floors.
A sufficient fuel supply must be guaranteed at all times.
The main fuel supply must be as near as possible to the engine-generator set. If the main fuel tank is below
ground, a day tank has to be installed on the same level at the engine-generator set. An additional pump
conveys the fuel from the main tank to the day tank.
Vibrations must be effectively decoupled and damped to prevent fatigue fractures.
The area around the engine-generator set must be easily accessible for maintenance and repair work. All rel-
evant laws, ordnances and specifications regarding the minimum distances between engine-generator set
and walls and other operating equipment must be observed. A minimum distance of 1 m (3 ft) between the
engine-generator set and neighboring walls or other electrical operating equipment must be observed. A min-
imum distance of 1.5 m (5 ft) must be observed at the rear side of the engine-generator set to facilitate re-
moval. Engine-generator sets that have coolers installed on the baseframe must have a duct leading from the
cooler side to the outer air outlet shutters, whereby a minimum distance of 1 m (3 ft) must be observed.
Access to the installation room of the engine-generator set must be easy and safe and free emergency es-
cape route must be available.
The emergency escape route to the exit must be shorter than 20 m (65 ft).

Size of the installation room
Take the following aspects into account when determining the size of the installation room:
• A suitable clearance must be left for components that may have to be removed during the course of main-
tenance and repair work.
• Leave enough room above the filler caps to allow oil and coolant to be topped up.
• To avoid subsequent drilling work, suitably sized and correctly positioned openings must be planned for
the walls and ceiling for ventilation, exhaust pipes, coolant inlet and outlet and cable entries.
• A suitable opening must be available to move the engine-generator set into the installation room.
Dimensioning the opening: Dimensions of engine-generator set + 10%
• The electrical system of the engine-generator set (e.g. generator and switchgear) must be arranged on
one side to prevent crossovers of pipes and cable ducts.
• Safe lifting and removal of the engine-generator set and other heavy components must be guaranteed.
• MTU Onsite Energy shall not be liable for safe statics of the installation room of the engine-generator set.
• Transformers or switch cabinets with voltages above 1 kV must not be installed in the installation room of
the engine-generator set.

Storage of objects in the installation room of the engine-generator set
CAUTION
Fire.
Risk of injury and damage to the engine-generator set!
• Do not store combustible items or material in the engine-generator set room.
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Note: Only objects required for the correct operation of the engine-generator set from MTU must be kept
and stored in the installation room of the engine-generator set.

42 | Engine-Generator Set Room | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Building facilities
The installation room of the engine-generator set must have the following features:
• Dry and frost-protected. A heating system must maintain a steady room temperature of at least 5 °C
(41 °F).
• In cold climates with temperatures below freezing, every water line in the installation room of the engine-
generator set must be protected against freezing during operation.
• Walls and ceilings must be coated with roughcast for acoustic insulation. Space for additional acoustic
insulation must be provided if necessary.
• The installation room must be fireproof if it is separated from surrounding rooms. All applicable laws, ordi-
nances and specifications regarding the arrangement of fireproof rooms must be observed. Walls must be
at least 11 cm (4.33 inches) thick and composed of brickwork or class B35 concrete.
• Doors must open outwards.
• Doors must be designed to prevent unauthorized access, yet still allow unhindered escape from the build-
ing at any time. Affix a warning sign indicating High Voltage to the access doors.
• Floors must be made of non-combustible materials. Asphalt floors are unsuitable, poured concrete floors
are possible providing they are sealed with an anti-dust coating. Install a water drain with an oil separator
at the lowest point.
• Install power supply lines of the engine-generator set for alternating voltage and direct voltage in separate
channels and protective conduits.
• The low-voltage main distribution for emergency gensets must be accommodated in a separate room near
the installation room of the engine-generator set.
• All openings in the building envelope must be sealed with non-combustible building materials.
• A telephone connection must be provided near the engine-generator set (preferably in the neighboring
room).
• The installation room of the engine-generator set must also have a firefighting system with dry chemicals.
• Smoke, flames, naked light and non-electrical lighting are prohibited in the installation room of the engine-
generator set. Permanent signs must clearly refer to this prohibition.
• Use waterproof lamps for purposes of illumination. Lighting must be connected to the emergency power
circuit.
• Battery-powered flashlights must be available. Keep the batteries well-charged when not in use.

Inertial foundation in the installation room of the engine-generator set
A stable, solid inertial foundation is of decisive importance for operation of the engine-generator set. A quali-
fied structural engineer must calculate specific loading and vibration as the structure of the foundation and
its bedding greatly depend on local building and ground conditions.

Concrete
Consider the following points when casting the inertial foundation in concrete:
• Strength characteristics of the inertial foundation and the load-bearing soil
• The ground in the installation room of the engine-generator set around the inertial foundation must have a
sufficient load-bearing capacity for the components of the genset.
• Static stability of the mounts (tilting, slipping)
• Dynamic stability of the mounts
• Natural frequencies, resonance ratio, damping factor, amplitudes
• Dynamics of the ground under the inertial foundation
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The engine-generator set must be mounted on a stable inertial foundation or base. The inertial foundation
must be in the form of a horizontal monoblock design. Do not repair incorrectly dimensioned or damaged
foundations but replace them completely.
The inertial foundation must be designed in accordance with regular technical specifications for the required
load. Regular specifications demand concrete with a compressive resistance of 17 MPa (2500 psi), rein-
forced with reinforcement steel mesh of 3.25 mm thick wire (8 AWG) or reinforcement rods No. 6 in the
middle of a grid square with 30 cm (12 inches) side length.
The following formula is used to determine the depth of the inertial foundation:

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Engine-Generator Set Room | 43
Bed depth = M ÷ (d x w x l)
M= Weight of engine-generator set including all fluids and lubricants in kg (lbs)
d= Typical concrete density of 2323 kg/m3 (145 lbs/ft3)
w= Foundation width in m (ft)
l= Foundation length in m (ft)
On each side, the inertial foundation must be at least 30 cm (12 inches) wider and 30 cm (12 inches) longer
than the baseframe of the engine-generator set. The inertial foundation may be 8 to 20 cm (3 to 8 inches)
above floor level for ease of maintenance.
Note: The above calculation serves as an example; MTU Onsite Energy is not responsible for the design and
version of the foundation. Ensure that all applicable laws, ordinances and specifications regarding the correct
arrangement and design of the foundation are observed.

Steel
When installing an inertial foundation in a steel design, experienced technicians must guarantee compliance
with the legal requirements.

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44 | Engine-Generator Set Room | MS65026/01E 2015-07
7.2 Installation room of engine-generator set – Overview of
technical ventilation systems
The technical ventilation system in the installation room is used to supply a sufficient air volume for the fol-
lowing purposes:
• Dissipation of the heat radiated by the engine, cooler or engine-generator set, charge-air cooler, generator
and exhaust pipe
• To vent harmful emissions
• To promote combustion in the engine
• To provide a safe work environment
• To comply with statutory requirements
For cooling systems from MTU Onsite Energy, the underpressure in the installation room of the engine-gener-
ator set must not exceed a value of -0.12 kPa (-0.5 inH2O).
The operational characteristics of the engine-generator set can be impaired if the air circulation or cooling is
insufficient.

Ventilation methods
The installation room of the engine-generator set can be ventilated naturally or with forced-air ventilation.
MTU Onsite Energy does not recommend installing in rooms which depend entirely on natural ventilation
without any form of forced ventilation. This method is consequently not described in this manual.
The installation room can be force-ventilated by means of fans which may be driven by the engine or pow-
ered electrically.

Low pressure ventilation system
Underpressure is created when warm air from the installation room of the engine-generator set is extracted.
This in turn ensures a relatively constant flow of fresh air into the room. Allowing air to flow over the genera-
tor first before passing on to the engine is advisable. Air inlets and outlets must be arranged such that the
best possible room ventilation is achieved without dead spots.
To generate underpressure in the installation room of the engine-generator set, the fan must be located on
the exhaust air side. This arrangement is used in 90% of applications, particularly when the cooler is installed
directly on the genset baseframe and the cooler fan is driven by the diesel engine by means of a V-belt
(→ Figure 8) or its own electric motor (→ Figure 9).
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Engine-Generator Set Room | 45
Figure 8: Vacuum ventilation with cooler in installation room of engine-generator set and cooler fan driven by V-
belt
1 Exhaust piping 4 Engine-generator set with a Intake air
2 Exhaust silencer cooler b Exhaust air
3 Adjustable air inlet shutter 5 Cooler air duct
6 Adjustable air outlet shutter

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46 | Engine-Generator Set Room | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Figure 9: Vacuum ventilation with cooler in installation room of engine-generator set and cooler fan driven by
electric motor
1 Exhaust piping 4 Engine-generator set with a Intake air
2 Exhaust silencer cooler b Exhaust air
3 Adjustable air inlet shutter 5 Cooler air duct
6 Adjustable air outlet shutter
The engine-generator set is usually located near the air outlet opening. If the cooler fan is driven by an elec-
tric motor, the engine-generator set can be located in another area of the installation room. The cooler is
usually located near the air outlet opening or the air duct.
The cooler must be positioned such that the warm air flow is not routed back into the installation room after
it passes the cooler. For this reason, the room must be sealed off airtight between cooler and wall or the air
duct. A resilient gasket must be installed between cooler and wall or air duct to prevent the introduction of
structure-borne noise into the building.
When using a splitter-type silencer to meet acoustic specifications leave a gap of at least 500 mm (19.68 in-
ches) between cooler fins and splitter attenuators.
For wall installation, motor-driven shutters and rain caps must be installed towards the outside. The motor-
driven shutter should be installed directly at the cooler air outlet in applications involving large wall openings
or large air duct cross-sections. This makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the motor-driven shutter
to the same dimensions as the cooler.
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Another version of vacuum ventilation is to install the cooler outside the installation room and to install the
electrically-driven fan at the air outlet (→ Figure 10).

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Engine-Generator Set Room | 47
Figure 10: Vacuum ventilation system with electrically-driven fan outside the installation room and electrically-
driven fan on the exhaust air side
1 Exhaust piping 4 Engine-generator set a Intake air
2 Exhaust silencer 5 Electrically-driven fan, ex- b Exhaust air
3 Adjustable air inlet shutter haust air side
6 Adjustable air outlet shutter

High pressure ventilation system
High pressure ventilation systems are used in the following cases:
• Need to filter engine room intake air
• Dusty environments
In these cases, the fans are located on the intake side and create a high pressure in the room. However, this
does not involve placing the entire cooler on the intake side, just the fans. The overpressure in the room
equates to the resistance of the pressurized air.
The cooler should not be installed in the intake air area of the installation room because warm air would thus
be supplied to the engine-generator set. The cooler must therefore be installed outside the building.
A filter can be installed before the air inlet opening to separate coarse sand particles from the air flow and
thus extend the service life of the engine air filter. Take the flow resistance of this filter into consideration
when calculating the pressure reserves of the fan.
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Overpressure in the installation room of the engine-generator set can cause the entrance door to open
abruptly when entering the area. To avoid injury, a mechanical brake should be installed at the entrance
door.
(→ Figure 11) shows an example of a high pressure ventilation system.

48 | Engine-Generator Set Room | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Figure 11: High pressure ventilation system with electrically-driven fan outside the installation room and
electrically-driven fan on the supply air side
1 Exhaust piping 4 Electrically-driven fan, in- a Intake air
2 Exhaust silencer take air side b Exhaust air
3 Adjustable air inlet shutter 5 Engine-generator set
6 Adjustable air outlet shutter

Safeguarding ventilation (shutter calculation)
The following section can only specify approximate values for dimensioning of the shutters. Exact values for
ventilation of the installation room of the engine-generator set must be calculated in the development phase
of the project, whereby site conditions must be taken into consideration.
Equation for calculation of the shutter size:
Shutter size ≥ Cooler core x SF ÷ Shutter efficiency factor
SF = Size factor:
• for exhaust air: 125 to 150%
• for supply air: 150 to 200%
For the cooler core size, the cooler surface must be specified.
The shutter efficiency is listed in the technical data of the shutter used.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Engine-Generator Set Room | 49
7.3 Air requirement for venting the installation room
The formulas for calculation and guidelines are based on approximation. Final values must be recalculated
taking site conditions into consideration.

Formula for calculating air requirement
An adequate supply of air to ventilate the genset installation room can be calculated as follows:

Cooler installed inside the room (TD version)
V=C+U
• V = Air flow rate (m3/s)
• C = Combustion air flow rate (m3/s)
• U = Cooling air flow rate through cooler (m3/s)
The values are specified in the TEN data of the engine and on the Business Portal (cooler cooling air flow
rate)

Cooler installed outside the room (usually TB version):

Based on the following assumptions
• 12/16/18V2000G26F at Fuel Stop Power (FSP)
• Intake air temperature +20 °C (68 °F)
• 100% generator power = max. engine power
• Generator operating at 92 % efficiency
• Air filter inlet inside the room
• Exhaust silencer and off-engine cooler outside the room
• Approx. 2 % of diesel engine power for 10 m of insulated exhaust pipe
• The dissipation of fuel heat in not included in this calculation
the table below can be used to estimate the overall volume of air required:

Temperature dif- 12V2000G26F 16V2000G26F 18V2000G26F
ference 3
m /s 3
yd /s 3
m /s 3
yd /s 3
m /s yd3/s
Δt = 15 °C (59.0 °F) 7.23 9.45 8.90 11.64 10.74 14.04
Δt = 18 °C (64.4 °F) 6.19 8.09 7.63 9.98 9.21 12.04

Table 5: Simplified calculation of air requirement

Exact calculation
V = Q / (cpm * Δt * ρ) + C
Q = QSM + QG + QAR + QZ
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50 | Engine-Generator Set Room | MS65026/01E 2015-07
• V = Air flow rate (m3/s)
• Q = Sum of room heat output in kW
• QSM = Heat radiated by the diesel engine (manufacturer's specification)
• QG = Generator (manufacturer's specification or 8 % of generator power)
• QAR = Exhaust pipe (2 % of engine power for 10 meters of insulated pipe)
• QZ = Additional heat sources
• cpm = Specific heat capacity (1.005 kJ/kg/K)
• Δt = Temperature difference (between cooling air inlet and outlet temperature)
• C = Combustion air flow rate (m3/s)
• ρ = Air density
– 1.29 kg/m3 at 0 °C (32 °F)
– 1.25 kg/m3 at +10 °C (50 °F)
– 1.20 kg/m3 at +20 °C (68 °F)
– 1.16 kg/m3 at +30 °C (86 °F)
– 1.13 kg/m3 at +40 °C (104 °F)
– 1.09 kg/m3 at +50 °C (122 °F)
– 1.06 kg/m3 at +60 °C (140 °F)
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Engine-Generator Set Room | 51
7.4 Shutters
Air inlets and outlet must be provided with shutters to direct fresh air into the installation room of the en-
gine-generator set during operation of the engine-generator set. If the engine-generator set is not in opera-
tion, the shutters block off the air flow. Furthermore, the shutters protect against water, leaves and small
animals.
The air resistance of the shutters depends on the clear opening width, air velocity and shape of the fins and
must be specified separately by the supplier. Shutters are installed in openings in the masonry or on the
interior side.

Figure 12: Electrically actuated shutter
1 Servomotor 24 V A Air outlet shutters
a Direction of the air flow B Air inlet shutters

Manually actuated shutters
Manually actuated shutters can be used for engine-generator sets that are started manually.

Gravity shutters
Gravity shutters are often used in installation rooms for engine-generator sets. The fins of the shutters are
TIM-ID: 0000055728 - 003

opened by the air flow while the engine-generator set is in operation. The fins close due to their dead weight
when the engine-generator set is not in operation. If the gravity shutters are closed, they protect the air inlet
system against water, leaves and small animals. These shutter version must be installed carefully in the air
flow.

Fixed shutters
Fixed shutters protect the installation room against water, leaves and small animals.

52 | Engine-Generator Set Room | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Electrically controlled shutters
Electrically controlled shutters can be used for engine-generator sets that start automatically. The control
system of the engine-generator set takes over control of the shutters. There are two systems:
• Shutters open when current is applied – servomotor opens shutters when active. The shutters must open
when the engine-generator set starts up.
• Shutters closed when current is applied – servomotor closes shutters when active. Shutters open when
power is interrupted.
Note: The system "Shutters closed when current is applied" is the method preferred by MTU.
All electrically actuated shutters can also be controlled by a room air thermostat.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Engine-Generator Set Room | 53
8 Fuel System
8.1 Fuel system – Safety notes and general information
One of the tasks of the fuel system is to keep the fuel clean and free of air, water and foreign bodies. The
fuel system also has to deliver the fuel to the engine at the right operating pressure.
The connections on the engine are shown in the engine installation drawing and the fuel system schematic.
Requirements and instructions regarding the treatment and storage of diesel fuels are contained in the MTU
Fluids and Lubricants Specifications. The latest version is available on the MTU Business Portal.
Storing diesel fuels is subject to a number of legal regulations. Customer requirements and the mission pro-
file of the engine must be given due consideration when designing the fuel system. This section describes
the structure of a typical fuel system. Other designs are also conceivable providing that they fulfill the speci-
fied requirements. Refer to the technical sales documentation and Fluids and Lubricants Specifications pro-
vided by MTU for details.
WARNING
Fuels are combustible and explosive.
Risk of fire and explosion!
• Avoid open flames, electrical sparks and ignition sources.
• Do not smoke.
• Wear protective clothing, protective gloves, and safety glasses / facial protection.

WARNING
Coolant and fuel contact when engine is running.
Risk of serious injury!
• Do not fill coolant or fuel tanks while the engine is running.

WARNING
Hazardous acids, alkaline solutions, coolant, fuel, paint and preservatives.
Risk of serious injury!
• Consult appropriate Material Safety Data Sheets for proper handling, use and storage information.
• Immediately seek medical attention if contact or ingestion has occurred.

WARNING
Slipping and falling caused by spilled liquids.
Risk of serious injury!
• Immediately clean up spilled liquids with suitable cleaning agents or as defined by the manufacturer’s
specifications.

WARNING
Sections of the fuel system are under high pressure. Fluids under high pressure can penetrate skin and
clothing.
Risk of serious injury!
• Do not open or disconnect fuel lines while the engine-generator set is hot or operating.
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WARNING
Pressurized lines or its connections could burst.
Risk of serious injury!
• Never use pressurized lines for climbing or support.

54 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
WARNING
Pressurized systems and compressed-air lines.
Risk of injury!
• Prior to starting work, relieve pressure in systems and compressed-air lines which are to be opened.

WARNING
Flying debris and hazardous air stream when using compressed air.
Risk of serious injury!
• Never use compressed air to clean contaminated clothing.
• Never use compressed air to force flammable liquids out of containers.
• Do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure (according to OSHA regulations).
• Wear protective clothing and adequate eye and ear protection (face shield or safety goggles).

WARNING
Hot components/surfaces.
Risk of burns!
• Allow the engine to cool down to below 50 °C before beginning work.
• Wear suitable protective equipment/thermal gloves.
• Avoid unprotected contact with hot surfaces.

WARNING
Draining of hot liquids.
Risk of serious injury and burning!
• Use proper heat-proof containers when draining liquids.
• Wear protective gloves.
• Allow adequate time for the engine to cool down before draining hot liquids into the appropriate heat-
proof container.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 55
8.2 Fuel system description
(→ Figure 13) shows a typical fuel system.

Figure 13: Example of an off-engine fuel system
1 Fuel tank vent lines 9 Fuel tank level monitoring 17 Day tank overflow line
2 Day tank filling line system A Pump off
3 Three-way valve 10 Fuel cooler (if necessary) B Pump on
4 Fuel delivery pump 11 Primary fuel filter C Minimum alarm
5 Fuel priming pump 12 Fuel return connection D Maximum
6 Filler neck of fuel storage 13 Fuel supply connection E Minimum
tank 14 Fuel drain/pump
7 Fuel storage tank 15 Fuel day tank
8 Fuel return to day tank (or 16 Fuel tank level monitoring
storage tank depending on system
capacity of day tank)
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56 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
8.3 Fuel supply – Connection
The engine has two connections allowing integration in an external fuel supply system:
• Supply from tank (5)
• Return to tank (7)
Admissible pressures are specified in the TEN data. Connection dimensions are specified in the engine-spe-
cific installation drawing.

Figure 14: Fuel pump
1 Fuel filter 4 HP pump 7 Supply from tank
2 Metering unit (HP fuel con- 5 Return to tank 8 LP pump
trol block) 6 Low-pressure distributor
3 HP line block
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 57
Venting the fuel system for initial start-up / maintenance work (e.g. filter
replacement, pump replacement)

Figure 15: Filter replacement

The entire low-pressure fuel system (especially filters and HP pump) must be prefilled for initial start-up and
following maintenance of the fuel system to ensure reliable engine starting. The HP pump is lubricated by
fuel so the entire mechanism must be filled before initial start-up.
Important:
Do not attempt to install a prefilled filter cartridge. Only fill the filter cartridge after installation to prevent
contaminated fuel entering the HP fuel system.
Do not open the HP system in the course of initial start-up or when servicing.

Procedure:
This requires the use of a manual venting pump. Alternatively, the engine can be vented e.g. directly by ap-
plying upstream pressure or by means of an electrical venting pump.
• Open the unpressurized fuel return to tank connection (→ Figure 14) (5) and connect it to the tank or a
suitably large vessel.
• Open vent valve (2) on filter.
• Vent filter by actuating hand pump (1).
• Close vent valve (2).
• Actuate hand pump (1) until HP pump flow can be heard. Fuel now emerges from the return tank.
• Switch off upstream pressure(optional)
• Close return tank.
• Crank engine until rail pressure exceeds 300 bar.
• Start engine.
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58 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
8.4 Design Information
8.4.1 Fuel lines
The sections below provide design and installation guidelines for the fuel system.
CAUTION
Incorrect fuel line installation.
Fire hazard and groundwater contamination!
• Incorrectly installed fuel lines can chafe and leak or break.

General design principles for fuel lines:
• Never use galvanized steel for the fuel lines. A chemical reaction between the fuel and the zinc coating
creates powdery flakes. These flakes clog up the fuel filters and may damage the fuel pump and injectors.
• MTU does not approve the use of copper piping as it becomes embrittled as a result of strain when ex-
posed to vibration.
• Do not install hoses under tension to prevent them coming loose or tearing.
• Optimize fuel line routing by choosing the shortest and simplest arrangement.
• Use guides where necessary to prevent kinking the hoses.
• Use flexible fuel line connections where necessary (e.g. between engine and base skid and between base
skid and foundation).
• Observe a minimum distance of 300 mm away from any components of the exhaust system (e.g. exhaust
manifold, exhaust piping and turbochargers) when routing fuel lines.
• Route hoses well away from any moving parts, e.g. fan belts.
• Never route hoses over sharp edges or anywhere they might be subjected to chafing or vibration.
• Secure all hoses with clamps to avoid chafing as a result of vibration.
• Flexible hoses must be resistant to coolant, fuel, lube oil, mold and abrasion. Flexible hoses must also be
flame-retardant and reinforced.
• Never modify or manipulate fuel lines included in the engine scope of delivery.
• Route all lines in protected areas. These areas must be free of damage.
• Seal all fuel supply line unions. Prevent air from ingressing the fuel system.
• Minimize the number of connections and avoid sharp bends or other circumstances which might encour-
age pockets of air, excessive flow resistance or fuel gelling in cold conditions.
• Lines must be capable of withstanding a maximum suction pressure of 0.68 bar (9.8 psi) without com-
pressing. Lines must be capable of withstanding a pressure of 6.89 bar (100 psi) without bursting and
tolerate temperatures ranging between -40 °C (-40 °F) and 149 °C (300 °F).
• MTU specifies seamless tubing for steel pipework.
Refer to the fuel system schematic for minimum fuel inlet/return dimensions (available on the MTU Business
Portal). Lines shall be no smaller in diameter than the connection fittings on the engine.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 59
8.4.2 Fuel line connections
The following connection methods may be used:
• Brazed union using sealing cone
• Seamless (swaged) connection
• Flange connection
• Weld joint
The following connection methods are prohibited:
• Soft brazing connection
• Crimp connections
• Bonded (glued) joints
• Hose clamps
Rigid connections are inadmissible on the engine as they may work themselves loose as a result of vibration.
Consider the following when establishing connections from and to the engine:
• Use flexible hoses to establish connections.
• Flexible hoses must be fuel-resistant and flame-retardant.
• Do not install flexible hoses under tension.
• Avoid compression and tensile or torsional strain.

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Figure 16: Torsional and tensile loading of flexible hoses
1 Wrong 2 Correct

60 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Figure 17: Admissible bending
1 Wrong 2 Correct
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Figure 18: Proper use of elbow fittings
1 Wrong 2 Correct

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 61
8.4.3 Fuel filter configuration
All engines are equipped with fuel filters (secondary filters) close by. For Series 2000G06, MTU also specifies
fuel prefilters (primary filters) featuring a water separator. Primary filters with fuel heating elements may be
necessary in cold climates.
MTU recommends the use of fuel prefilters which have been tested and approved by MTU.
Do not locate fuel filters in the vicinity of heat sources, e.g. turbocharger exhaust elbows. This is particularly
important for fuel prefilters with plastic covers. Radiated and convected heat, or direct contact with hot
parts, may deform plastic components.
Remember that hot components still radiate heat for quite some time when the engine has come to a stand-
still and that the fans no longer draw in cooling air in this case.
The admissible temperature for MTU-approved fuel prefilters is specified in the relevant component drawing.
It lies at 100 °C.

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62 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
8.4.4 Fuel delivery pressure
The fuel pressure at the fuel inlet on the engine must lie within a defined range. The relevant values are
specified as absolute pressures in the TEN data. This depends on site altitude and the position of the tank
from which the fuel is drawn.
An orifice plate installed upstream of the connection on the engine is generally needed for this engine series
when the tank is arranged above crankshaft height. Consult the relevant documents on the Business Portal
and the specifications in the TEN data in such cases.
The main reason for this is the high delivery quantity of the LP fuel pump used.
Please note:
• The fuel supply pressure is specified for engine connection.
• Do not exceed the maximum fuel pressure limit at the engine inlet.
• A naturally-aspirated system is the preferred design. Locating the fuel storage tank / day tank below
crankshaft level will prove beneficial in this case.
• Give due consideration to pressure loss resulting from upstream pipework, fuel prefilters etc..
• A fuel lift pump and a day tank may prove necessary should the pressure loss attributable to these com-
ponents exceed the negative pressure value specified in the technical sales documentation.
• Fuel return lines must not create excessive back pressure. Limit values for back pressure in the supply
and return lines are specified in the TEN data.
Important:
The pressure at the fuel inlet must be measured prior to initial start-up. As a rule-of-thumb:
• No orifice plate is required if the absolute pressure at the inlet is < 1 barabsolute.
• An orifice plate is required if the absolute pressure at the inlet is > 1 barabsolute. Plates meeting the relevant
specifications can be ordered on the Business Portal.
Refer to the arrangement drawing specified in the TEN data for precise values.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 63
8.4.5 Water separator
Diesel fuel which has been contaminated with water is the main cause of fuel pump and injector damage.
Install an additional water separator if water content in the fuel supply is an issue. The additional separator
must be installed between the fuel tank and the primary fuel filter. It must be easily accessible to facilitate
maintenance at regular intervals.
Preferably install separators featuring a water sensor which signal an alarm when too much water has accu-
mulated.

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64 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
8.4.6 Fuel cooler
Fuel heats up as it circulates around a fuel system. After long periods of operation, or where fuel storage
capacity is limited, the temperature of the fuel, e.g. in the day tank, may rise above acceptable levels with
negative effects on the operating characteristics of the engine.
Some engines may benefit from fuel coolers to reduce the temperature of the fuel returning from the engine
to the tank. Such a cooler can be incorporated in the fuel return line between engine and fuel tank. Fuel
coolers can utilize water or air as a cooling medium.
The maximum admissible fuel inlet temperature, maximum admissible fuel flow quantities and maximum heat
dissipation from the flow of fuel are specified in the technical sales documentation.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 65
8.4.7 Fuel preheating
Fuel preheaters may be necessary to prevent the fuel from gelling at low ambient temperatures.
Fuel preheater systems must feature shut-off valves or thermostats on the heating side to avoid overheating
the fuel.

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66 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
8.4.8 Fuel tank
NOTICE
Use of galvanized steel fuel tank.
Fuel system damage!
• Never use a galvanized steel fuel tank.
• Sulfur in the fuel reacts with the zinc coating to form powdery flakes which clog fuel filters and cause
damage to the fuel transfer pump and injectors.

The outlet of the return line into the tank must be arranged at a suitable distance away from the intake of the
suction line. This prevents return fuel being immediately drawn back into the fuel system. Furthermore, the
return line must be introduced into the tank at a point where atmospheric pressure prevails. Fuel tanks must
be made of fuel- and corrosion resistant materials. The tank must be adequately large and installed in a suit-
able location.

Fuel tank material
Observe local regulations governing the storage of water pollutants.
The fuel tank can be made of the following materials:
• Aluminum
• Stainless steel
• Structural steel (with a fuel-resistant coating both inside and out)
• Welded sheet steel
• Reinforced plastic

Fuel tank design
Supply and return lines must extend to the lowest point of the tank (useful capacity). This prevents fuel on
the supply side being siphoned back into the tank. The fuel supply line must be located above the bottom of
the tank to avoid drawing dirt and sediment into the fuel system. Leave a clearance volume of 5 % at the
bottom of the tank. The supply line must be positioned centrally to better compensate any inclination.
The supply and return lines must be well supported inside the tank. Cracks on the supply side may lead to air
ingress and the power loss this entails. The supply and return lines in the tank must be at least 300 mm
(12 inches) apart to prevent hot return fuel mixing with cold supply fuel in the tank. The maximum admissible
temperature for fuel returning from the engine to the tank is specified in the technical sales documentation.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 67
Figure 19: Fuel tank
1 Filler neck 5 Baffle plate a Fuel supply to engine
2 Wire strainer 6 Drain valve b Fuel return from engine
3 Return line 7 Supply line
4 5% clearance volume for dirt 8 5% volume for fuel expan-
and sediment sion
Baffle plates may be necessary to separate air from the fuel and to prevent the fuel from sloshing around the
tank in mobile applications. These plates help minimize erosion and deformation of the fuel tank resulting
from sloshing fuel. The plates must extend from the top to the bottom of the tank. Baffle plates must feature
openings to keep the fuel level constant in the tank as a whole.
The tank must feature an easily accessible drain valve to facilitate the removal of any dirt.
The filler neck must be positioned in a clean, easily accessible place and at a suitable height, leaving ade-
quate space for a canister or tanker hose, for purposes of filling. Fit a removable wire strainer with a mesh
size of approx. 1.58 mm (0.062 inches) to prevent the ingress of coarse particles of dirt or foreign bodies in
the tank.
The tank must feature a breather which complies with applicable regulations.
Note:
The tank must comply with all local and national statutory regulations.
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Fuel tank location
Fuel tank location is an important factor in any application and must meet the following requirements:
• The difference in height between the fuel and the engine supply pump must be kept to a minimum. Con-
sult the technical sales documentation for details of admissible fuel pump intake and pressure limits.
• The fuel tank must be located well away from any sources of excessive heat.
• The filling point should be easy to access and simple to use.
MTU recommends placing the fuel tank above the fuel pump or installing an additional check valve. This
valve prevents fuel from flowing back if the tank is not installed above the fuel pump.

68 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Fuel tank content

Fuel tank capacity is matter for careful consideration; it must be perfectly adapted to the needs of the en-
gine. Tanks designed for mobile applications must feature a supply pipe to ensure an adequate supply of fuel
when operating at any degree of inclination. Tank capacity must be at least 5% greater than the maximum
filling volume to allow for expansion of hot fuel.
A shut-off valve is required to facilitate replacing the primary filter if the fuel tank is positioned above the
primary filter. This valve prevents fuel from running out of the tank.
When designing tank capacity ensure that the fuel supply temperature limits specified for operation in the
technical sales documents are not exceeded at any level of fuel in the tank.
Tank capacity depends on engine power, fuel consumption and envisaged runtime. The equation below may
serve to make a rough estimation:

Whereby:
V(L) = Tank volume (liters)
P = Engine power (kW)
t = Runtime (hours)
be = Specific fuel consumption (g/kWh)
ρ = Fuel density (weighted average ≈ 830 g/l)
Fuel tank volume in gallons V(gal) can be calculated with a conversion factor of 1 gal = 3.785 liters.

Fuel tank vent lines
• Tanks must feature vent lines which effectively prevent potentially hazardous low and high pressures. Low
pressure leading to higher pump flow rates and temperature fluctuations in the tank is particularly danger-
ous.
• Venting systems must operate automatically.
• All venting outlets must be covered to prevent rainwater ingress.
• Vent lines must installed as a permanent fixture. They must also be long-lasting and flame-resistant to an
adequate degree. Metal vent lines normally meet these requirements. The suitability of any other materi-
als must be demonstrated.
• Vent lines from the storage tank and the day tank can be combined in joint pipework.
• Never route venting systems into closed spaces.
• The breather can be integrated in the fuel filler neck.

Fuel tank shut-off valve
Any pipe connection below the admissible level of fuel in the tank must be equipped with a shut-off valve.
Shut-off valves must be positioned as close to the tank as possible, and be easily accessible and simple to
operate.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Fuel System | 69
8.5 Fuel specifications
WARNING
Ignition sources near diesel fuel.
Personal injury from fire!
• To avoid injury from fire, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel including open
flames, sparks, cutting, welding or grinding. Do not smoke when handling diesel fuel or refueling.

Fuel quality is a crucial factor determining satisfactory engine performance, long service life and acceptable
exhaust emission rates. MTU engines are designed to run on most diesel fuels available on the world market.
Refer to the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specifications for details of approved fuels.

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70 | Fuel System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
8.6 Engine fuel system – Venting
Engine fuel systems can be vented with a mechanical hand pump. Electrical venting may be used to assist as
necessary, see fuel system flow diagram. No additional pumps are needed for Series 2000G06 under normal
circumstances. These only come into consideration when extremely low pressures are to be expected up-
stream of the engine intake on the suction side. Observe admissible pressures at the engine intake in such
cases.
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9 Intake Air System
9.1 Air supply
The air intake system of any MTU engine directly influences engine power, fuel consumption, exhaust gas
emissions and useful engine life. By supplying clean, dry and cool air, the air intake system ensures satisfac-
tory combustion and helps to optimize the operating characteristics of the engine.
The air intake system of the engine may comprise the following components:
• Intake silencer
• Air filters and the associated piping
• Turbochargers
• Air piping for the intercooler
• Intercooler
• Intake manifolds
• Air filter differential pressure sensor
• Intake plenum
• Intake air and exhaust fans for enclosures
• Noise attenuation/insulation

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9.2 Design Information
9.2.1 Installation and design requirements
The air intake system must be designed as follows:
• Meet all limit values published in the TEN data, including:
– Max. intake air flow rate
– Max. intake resistance
• Adequate filtering and particle-retention capabilities to prevent any ingress of abrasive particles in the tur-
bochargers and combustion chambers
• Avoid any excessive increase in intake air temperature on passing to the turbocharger inlet
• Avoid inadvertent exhaust gas recirculation
• Afford easy access to replaceable components, particularly the air filters
• Avoid the ingress of water and foreign bodies (particularly when replacing filter elements)
• Observe applicable noise level restrictions
• Avoid exerting any weight on the turbocharger
• Isolate the intake tract from engine vibration when the air intake system is installed off-engine
Note:
The overall intake resistance of the air intake system is equivalent to the sum total of the individual system
components. Incorrectly dimensioned components significantly increase overall intake resistance in the air
intake system. Avoid bends in the pipework wherever possible to allow an uninhibited flow of air upstream
of the compressor.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Intake Air System | 73
9.2.2 Rain caps and intake hoods
The entrance to the air filter must be designed to prevent water ingress. Rain caps or intake hoods are re-
quired in applications in which the air intake system of the engine is exposed to the weather, see
(→ Figure 20).

Figure 20: Rain cap
A Rain cap

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9.2.3 Air intake filter
An air inlet filter must be installed to prevent clogging the air filter elements when operating in environments
with a high incidence of airborne particles. The inlet filter must be checked regularly for dirt and cleaned as
necessary. All limit values specified in the TEN data must be respected.
Air inlet filter can be installed to prevent clogging the air filter elements. The inlet filter must be checked
regularly for dirt and cleaned as necessary.
Filters featuring a pre-separator, so-called heavy-duty air filters, are in widespread use.
All limit values specified in the TEN data must be respected when considering a filtering concept.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Intake Air System | 75
9.2.4 Air intake silencer
An air intake silencer can be used to reduce noise levels should intake noise prove to be an issue. Consult an
air intake silencer manufacturer for appropriate recommendations. Ensure that the silencer does not in-
crease intake air resistance beyond the admissible limit when operating in conjunction with the air filter.
Noise spectra of the available dry-type air filters based on measured values are available from the plant.

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9.2.5 Air filter
Air filters protect the engine from abrasive particles of dirt in the air which would otherwise lead to increased
wear-and-tear. Materials used in the air intake system must be free of rust, mill scale and other deposits as
these may also contribute to increased engine wear.
We recommend the use of air filters on offer from MTU. These are tailored to suit the requirements of the
engine.
Please note the following requirements should you nevertheless choose to resort to other brands:
MTU diesel engines must be equipped with dry paper air filters offering a filtering efficiency rating for parti-
cles defined as “ISO 5011-SAE Coarse” of greater than 99.9%. Filter service life is proportional to the dust
retention capacity of the air filter.
Follow these steps to select a suitable air filter:
1. Refer to the technical sales documentation for the engine series and application concerned for details of
the max. air flow rate of the engine and the difference in filter pressure in the clean and dirty state.
2. Determine the overall difference in pressure to the ambient air.
3. Establish desired filter service life.
4. Consider the operating environment (e.g. dust and humidity levels, saline atmosphere).
5. Determine the appropriate filter size (an incorrectly sized filter may contribute significantly to intake re-
sistance in the air intake system).
6. Choose a suitable air filter on the basis of manufacturer's recommendations.
Air filter service life can be prolonged by using air filters featuring pre-separators (centrifugal prefilters). Diag-
onally-arranged vanes set the intake air in a swirling motion as it passes through the prefilter. This separates
out coarse particles of dirt upstream of the dry-type air filter and may be necessary in dusty environments or
applications in which the engine is operated continuously.
In air filters with pre-separators, diagonally-arranged vanes set the intake air in a swirling motion as it passes
through the prefilter. This separates out coarse particles of dirt upstream of the dry-type air filter and may be
necessary in dusty environments or applications in which the engine is operated continuously.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Intake Air System | 77
9.2.6 Intake plenum
An intake plenum is a collecting box equipped with air filters. It combines several air filters in configurations
involving one or more turbochargers. Intake plenums are generally used in applications featuring sequential
turbochargers, or installations requiring flexibility when sizing and arranging the filters. Air plenums must be
checked regularly for cracked welds which would allow unfiltered air into the system.

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9.2.7 Contamination or service indicator
Air filters get dirty in the course of operation eventually leading to increased pressure loss (intake resistance)
through the filter which can impair engine performance in extreme cases. To eliminate this risk, contamina-
tion or service indicators must be installed to warn operators when an air filter is dirty and in need of re-
placement.
The contamination or service indicator should be installed in a straight length of piping as close to the turbo-
charger compressor inlet as possible, but still maintaining a minimum distance of 127 mm (5 inches). If
measuring is only possible at an elbow, install the contamination indicator perpendicular to the bend plane.
The valves and fittings must be mounted at right-angles and flush with the inner wall of the pipe. A pressure
measuring connection for a contamination indicator is shown in (→ Figure 21).

Figure 21: Sampling point for static pressure
1 Weld or brazed joint 3 Upper pipe wall
2 Coupling or nipple D 3.175 mm (0.125 inches)
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Intake Air System | 79
9.2.8 Piping
All piping in the air intake system must be air-tight when subjected to a vacuum.
The following requirements apply to the piping for the air intake system:
1. All piping must be air-tight when subjected to a vacuum.
2. Air intake pipes must be designed to create as little flow resistance as possible.
3. Avoid small pipe diameters and long piping routes.
4. Keep the number of elbows in the system to a minimum.
5. Use smooth elbows.
6. The ratio of bending radius to pipe diameter should be at lease 2.0 (preferably 4.0).
7. Avoid segmented elbows. If absolutely necessary, make up the elbow using more than five segments
(90° elbow).
8. Route air channels well away from sources of heat such as exhaust manifolds etc.
9. If this is not practical, use suitable insulation materials or shield the intake system to reduce the effects
of heat radiated from these sources.
10. Decouple the engine intake system from off-engine piping. This is intended to safeguard against any neg-
ative effects of engine movement and thermal expansion.
11. Ensure that the intake lines do not obstruct access to other component parts of the engine requiring
maintenance.

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9.2.9 Piping material specifications
Air intake ducts must be made of non-corrosive materials such as aluminum or aluminum-plated steel. The
ends of the pipes must have a bead of min. 2.3 mm (0.09 inches) to secure hoses/hose clamps.
We recommend using stainless steel piping in highly saline environments.
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9.2.10 Diffusers
Any transitions in pipe cross section should be as gradual as possible. Avoid abruptly widening or narrowing
the cross section, see (→ Figure 22).

Figure 22: Diffuser configurations
A Inadmissible B Admissible

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9.3 Testing requirements
Testing requirements
Validation testing shall be documented in the “End Product Questionnaire” provided by MTU. This obligatory
documentation requirement applies to:
• New engine installations
• Repowering projects
• Modifications to the engine and/or air intake system, and changes in mission profile or environmental
conditions

Validation requirements
Thorough validation of the air intake system must include:
• A complete description of the system. We recommend describing the air intake system and its design on
initial start-up by taking photographs and making sketches.
• Appropriate and well-maintained instrumentation. All instruments and equipment must be calibrated and
in satisfactory condition.
• Correctly prepared tests and precise results. Thorough preparation ensures precise results.
• Data recording and evaluation
• Diagnostics (troubleshooting) and corrective action (as necessary)
• The engine must be running at normal operating temperature under full load.
Engines are normally equipped with a correctly designed and assembled air intake system on delivery. Air
intake systems other than the one supplied by MTU may be necessary to meet the requirements of certain
projects and must be validated in the course of initial start-up in regard of intake air differential pressure, air
intake temperature and assembly (correct, no leaks).

Measuring intake air differential pressure
The intake air differential pressure must be measured and recorded once the new air intake system has been
installed and the engine is undergoing the initial start-up procedure. The test connection setup for measuring
intake air differential pressure is shown in (→ Page 79).
Note: Intake air differential pressure must be measured at all air inlets on the engine. This depends on the
pipe diameter.
MagnehellicTM differential pressure gages are well-suited to this purpose, or any other equivalent gage which
measures intake air differential pressure in mbar or in H2O. The intake air differential pressure is measured
with the engine running under full load at rated speed.
Desired values for intake air differential pressure are specified in the TEN data for MTU engines on the MTU
Business Portal or can be obtained from your authorized local MTU dealer or distributor.
The position of the intake air differential pressure measuring connection is shown in the installation draw-
ings.

Measuring intake air temperature
The intake air temperature of the engine can be measured and recorded to ensure correct ventilation of the
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genset installation room. A precision thermocouple and a suitable indicator are used to measure the temper-
ature. The thermocouple can be installed at a measuring point similar to the one used to measure the intake
air differential pressure.
Note: Intake air differential pressure and intake air temperature must be logged to validate initial engine
start-up.
The position of the air intake temperature measuring point is shown in the installation drawings.

Calculating air intake system differential pressure – form
Complete this form for an individual calculation:

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Intake Air System | 83
Calculation of air intake system differential pressure
Differential pressure of rain cap or mbar (in H2O)
intake hood
Differential pressure of prefilter + mbar (in H2O)
Differential pressure of air filter + mbar (in H2O)
Differential pressure of piping + mbar (in H2O)
Miscellaneous + mbar (in H2O)
Total intake air differential pres- = mbar (in H2O)
sure

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10 Exhaust System
10.1 Exhaust gas system – Safety notes and general information
WARNING
Exhaust gases are harmful to health.
Risk of poisoning!
• Ensure that the engine room is well ventilated.
• Repair leaking exhaust pipework immediately.

WARNING
Exhaust gases are hot and pressurized.
Risk of injury and burning!
• Wear protective clothing, gloves, and goggles / safety mask.

The exhaust gas system is intended to route the exhaust gas to a suitable outlet and attenuate exhaust noise
to admissible levels. This section describes the requirements on functionality, application and installation of
an exhaust gas system for an MTU engine typically comprising the following components:
• Exhaust manifold
• Turbocharger
• Exhaust system
• Silencer
• Rain cap
• Exhaust bellows
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10.2 Design Information
10.2.1 Exhaust system design requirements and principles
The exhaust gas system of an MTU engine-generator set must function properly in widely-ranging ambient
conditions. The system is exposed to rain and snow and is also subjected to thermal and mechanical stress.
Stationary engine-generator sets operating indoors need an exhaust gas system which vents the exhaust gas
safely to atmosphere while keeping both noise and temperature at acceptable levels.
Refer to the TEN data for MTU engines for technical data and other requirements of the exhaust gas system.
This data is available on the MTU Business Portal or from your local MTU dealer/sales partner.
Numerous factors must be given due consideration when designing an exhaust system:
• Configure the exhaust gas system in such a way as to allow an uninhibited flow of gas.
• The entire system must be gastight.
• The back pressure limit value (see technical sales documentation) must be observed.
• The exhaust gas system on the engine and the off-engine piping must be mechanically decoupled to safe-
guard against any negative effects of engine movement and thermal expansion.
• The exhaust system gets very hot so route exhaust pipes well away from components which are sensitive
to heat. Keep a good distance away from the following components:
1. Filters
2. Fuel system components
3. Starters
4. Battery-charging generators
5. Vent lines of the engine cooling circuit
• Route fuel lines well away from the exhaust system to prevent fuel coming into contact with hot piping
etc. in case of a ruptured fuel line.
• Do not insulate the exhaust system on the engine as this may lead to engine damage.
• Observe applicable noise level restrictions.
• Bear noise reduction in mind.
• Dissipation of heat from the system to the environment
• Alternative piping routes
• The size of the plant must be commensurate with available space .
• Exhaust piping vibrates so use flexible/isolated connections on the engine-generator to allow for relative
movement between the components and for thermal expansion.
• Exhaust outlet design must preclude the ingress of water and foreign bodies into the engine.
• It must be possible to drain condensate from the exhaust pipes.
• Install a small drain plug at the lowest point of the exhaust gas system.
• Several drain plugs may be required if there are a number of low points.
• Use a condensate separator in extreme cases.
• Route condensate to a collecting container and ensure correct disposal.
• Fit grills over the exhaust outlet to prevent small animals and vermin entering the system.
• The overall design of the exhaust gas system must be streamlined and offer easy access for inspection
and maintenance.
• Do not combine individual exhaust pipes to form a common manifold for installations incorporating sever-
al engine-generator sets.
• Do not insulate pre-assembled exhaust system components on the engine-generator set as this can lead
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to engine damage.

86 | Exhaust System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Dimension principles
Practical guidelines on exhaust gas system sizing are listed below:
• Avoid using elbows and bends as much as possible.
• If an elbow is really necessary, use one with a large bending radius rather than a component comprising a
number segments. A comparison between a rounded and an angled elbow is shown in (→ Figure 23).
• Pipe diameter downstream of the turbocharger exhaust outlet must be at least as large as the exhaust
outlet itself. When incorporating a silencer in the exhaust gas system note that the cross section of the
manifold must equate to the sum of the cross sections of the individual pipes connected at each of the
exhaust outlets.
Refer to the TEN data for MTU engines for technical data and other requirements for the exhaust gas sys-
tem. This data is available on the MTU Business Portal or from your local MTU dealer/sales partner.
• Minimize piping length by taking the shortest direct route between the various components.
• The exhaust outlet must be unobstructed to avoid inhibiting the flow of gas which would increase back
pressure in the system.
• Installing elbows may increase resistance more than previously estimated.

Figure 23: Comparison of rounded and angled elbows
1 Rounded elbow – Right 2 Angled elbow – Wrong

Back pressure
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When designing the exhaust gas system, ensure that flow resistance (back pressure) is kept as low as possi-
ble and well within the specified limits. Refer to the TEN data for MTU engines for technical data and other
requirements for the exhaust gas system. This data is available on the MTU Business Portal or from your
local MTU dealer/sales partner.
Any of the factors listed below may lead to excessive back pressure:
• Undersized exhaust pipe diameter
• Too many bends
• Long exhaust pipes between engine and silencer
• High flow resistance through the exhaust silencer

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High exhaust back pressure may lead to:
• Non-compliance with EPA certification requirements
• Loss of performance
• Poor fuel utilization
• Increase combustion temperatures
• Increased exhaust temperatures
• Engine overheating
• Reduced service life of engine

Calculating exhaust back pressure
The diameter of the exhaust outlet flange is the prime factor determining the dimensions of the exhaust gas
system. Larger piping is required if calculated exhaust back pressure exceeds the admissible maximum, ei-
ther that or exhaust pipe routing needs to be reconsidered.
Exhaust back pressure calculation is based on gas flow resistance through the various component parts of
the exhaust gas system downstream of the exhaust outlets at the engine. The Darcy-Weisbach equation can
be used in cases where the total equivalent lengths of all the component parts installed in the exhaust gas
system are known.
The exhaust back pressure can be calculated based on the following input values:
• Exhaust gas volume flow rate at full engine load
• Exhaust temperature after turbocharger at full engine load
• Pipe diameter
• Overall length of straight piping
• Exhaust silencer differential pressure
• Length of flexible connections
• Number of elbows having a small radius
• Number of elbows having a large radius
• Number of 45° elbows
• Number of 90° elbows
The exhaust back pressure thus calculated must be below the maximum limit value specified for MTU en-
gines in the TEN data. This data is available on the MTU Business Portal or from your local MTU dealer/sales
partner.
MTU recommends calculating the exhaust back pressure for the entire exhaust gas system starting at the
turbocharger exhaust outlet right through to the end of the piping. Engage the services of your local MTU
dealer or sales partner for technical assistance in calculating exhaust back pressure if the specific require-
ments of your project involve complex exhaust gas system design.
Exhaust gas system back pressure must be established using metrological equipment requiring suitable fit-
tings in the exhaust pipe (→ Page 113).

Insulating the exhaust gas system
Exhaust gas temperatures downstream of the turbocharger may be as high as 600 °C (1112 °F) when an
MTU diesel engine is running under full load at rated speed.
Important: MTU does not permit the use of insulation on component parts of the engine exhaust gas system
such as the exhaust manifolds or turbochargers. Please consult the technical support service of your local
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MTU dealer or sales partner when dealing with project-specific installations requiring insulation on parts of
the engine exhaust gas system.
Exhaust pipes are not usually insulated, but may have to be in some project-specific applications where insu-
lation materials are necessary to protect surrounding areas from high surface temperatures. Exhaust pipes
are then thermally insulated to prevent any negative impact associated with radiated heat.
Refer to the TEN data for MTU engines for technical data and other requirements of the exhaust gas system.
This data is available on the MTU Business Portal or from your local MTU dealer/sales partner.

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Corrosion protection for exhaust pipes
Exhaust pipes made of stainless steel do not require corrosion protection. Insulated exhaust pipes do not
need painting on the outside.
A corrosion-inhibiting, heat-resistant special coating capable of withstanding approx. 600 °C (1112 °F) may
be applied to exhaust pipes which are exposed to the elements.
Corrosion protection is not needed on the inside of the exhaust pipes. A protective coating of soot builds up
and prevents corrosion inside the exhaust piping when the engine is put to use.
NOTICE
Exhaust soot.
Radiator damage!
• Observe the location of the exhaust pipe drain plug and its proper use to prevent the radiator fan
from forcing exhaust soot through the radiator core in the event of an exhaust leak.
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10.2.2 Flexible connections in the exhaust system
NOTICE
Expansion of flexible connections.
Product damage!
• Flexible connections or bellows must be properly fitted between any two fixed points to compensate
for expansion.

Flexible connections (compensator bellows) permit relative movement and thermal expansion between tur-
bocharger exhausts and components of the exhaust system. We recommend using jacketed metal bellows. It
may prove necessary to install several sets of bellows depending on the length of the exhaust pipe. The bel-
lows must be designed to compensate axial expansion (in the longitudinal direction) and also, to a lesser
degree, angular deformation (bending) and lateral deformation (thrust), see (→ Figure 24). Compensator bel-
lows are not designed to compensate for misalignment during assembly or to absorb the weight of exhaust
gas components. Avoid torsional stress (twisting). Incorrectly installed bellows may lead to premature failure
of the turbocharger, exhaust manifold, piping, silencer or pipe flanges. Refer to the relevant component
drawings for details of installation requirements for compensator bellows supplied by MTU.

Figure 24: Admissible misalignment compensated by flexible connections
1 Axial offset 2 Angular offset 3 Lateral offset

Thermal expansion
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As a rule-of-thumb, the bellows can only be extended by up to 75% of their total range at temperatures ex-
ceeding 500 °C (932 °F) due to thermal expansion.
(→ Figure 25) shows thermal expansion of exhaust piping as a function of temperature.

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Figure 25: Thermal expansion as a function of temperature
1 Austenitic steel A Thermal expansion in
2 Ferritic steel mm/m
B Temperature difference in
°C
Compensator bellows must be installed in the neutral or extended state to allow for thermal expansion of the
exhaust pipe. Assembly instructions are provided in the component drawings of MTU bellows or drawings
provided by the manufacturer concerned.
The extension length of the bellows is determined by the thermal expansion of the exhaust pipe in the case
of compensator bellows which have to be installed in the extended state. This extension length depends on
the distance between the fixed point and the bellows. (→ Figure 26) shows a typical installation configuration
with bellows in the exhaust piping.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Exhaust System | 91
Figure 26: Installation of a flexible connection or bellows in the exhaust piping
1 Cold state (installation tem- 4 Installation state (bellows 7 Installation length
perature) pretensioned) 8 Spacer clamps
2 Warm state (engine opera- 5 Nominal length
tion) 6 Extension range
3 Untensioned state (prior to
assembly)
The following recommendations help to avoid common installation errors:
• Bellows are easier to install using a provisionally fixed spacer (dummy) to ensure that the installation di-
mensions are correct. This spacer must be removed prior to initial start-up.
• Bellows must be aligned correctly (in all three dimensions) .
• If several exhaust pipe bellows are installed ensure that they all have the same recovery properties, espe-
cially if they are insulated.
• Remove the compensator bellows before performing any welding work on the exhaust piping to prevent
stray currents passing through and possibly destroying them.
• Keep exhaust pipe bellows clean and free of foreign bodies, such as insulation materials, which might con-
fine their range of movement.
• Make sure that bellows incorporating diffusers are installed in the right direction.
• When installing compensator bellows with internal piping, make sure that the inner pipe does not touch
the bellows when the engine is running.
• Additional weight must not be applied to the bellows.
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• During assembly, it is of decisive importance to avoid torsional stress (twisting).

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10.2.3 Exhaust piping
Exhaust piping must be well-secured, but also capable of following thermal expansion and contraction. An-
choring points must be provided on supporting structures with adequate load-bearing capabilities. They must
be fixed in all three axes and located immediately after the flexible bellows or Y-pipe. (→ Figure 27) depicts
two suitable bellows configurations. The exhaust piping must be isolated from the engine to allow for the
relative movement associated with thermal expansion and an engine responding to torque loading.

Figure 27: Connection configurations for bellows in the exhaust line
A Combined exhaust lines 1 Anchoring points 3 Bellows
B Separate exhaust lines 2 Y-pipe 4 Engine
In the case of multiple engine plants, individual exhaust lines are recommended for each engine-generator
set. However, should it be necessary to route the exhaust gas from several engines into a common manifold,
the cross sectional area must equate to the sum total of the individual pipes. This results in quite large pipe
cross sections if excessive back pressure is to be avoided. The exhaust line of each engine must have a clos-
ing mechanism to prevent damage to an engine that is not in operation. For customer-specific projects that
require a complex design of the exhaust system, please consult the Technical Support of a local MTU Onsite
Energy dealer or sales partner.
WARNING
Exhaust gas is poisonous.
Risk of serious injury and poisoning!
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• Ensure that all exhaust system connections are properly connected.
• Ensure that all exhaust pipe connections are free of exhaust leaks.
• Ensure that ventilation is adequate to prevent buildup of exhaust gas.

NOTICE
Exhaust system support.
Product damage!
• Never allow the engine exhaust turbochargers or exhaust manifolds to support the weight of the ex-
haust system.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Exhaust System | 93
Additional technical data on the interface between exhaust system and engine-generator set is available in
the MTU Business Portal or can be acquired from the local MTU Onsite Energy dealer or sales partner.

Exhaust pipe materials
If commercially available steel or stainless steel pipes are used for exhaust line, they have to be supported at
suitable intervals.
Due to residual stress that occurs at high temperatures, seamless pipes are preferred to welded pipes. The
use of spirally-welded pipe must be avoided.
Exhaust gas lines made of S235JR (ST37-2) can resist temperatures up to 300 °C (572 °F). However, stress
resistance significantly decreases above 300 °C (572 °F). Higher grade materials are therefore needed when
dealing with exhaust gas temperatures over 300 °C (572 °F). Table (→ Table 6) lists some examples of suita-
ble exhaust pipe materials depending on the exhaust gas temperatures to which they are exposed.

Exhaust gas temperature Exhaust pipe material
Up to 300 °C (572 °F) Structural steel (e.g. S235JRG2)
Up to 400 °C (752 °F) Ferritic stainless steel (e.g. X6CrTi12)
Up to 500 °C (932 °F) Heat-resistant steel 17Mn4
Up to 600 °C (1,112 °F) Austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiMoTi17-12-1 (1.4571)

Table 6: Examples of exhaust pipe materials depending on exhaust gas temperature

Exhaust pipe wall thickness
A differentiation is made between exhaust pipes subjected to a minimum of mechanical strain and those
which are exposed to significant mechanical strain.

Exhaust pipes subjected to minimum mechanical strain
Horizontally or vertically installed exhaust pipes with a length of up to 5 m (200 inches), which are not ex-
posed to significant wind loads or other natural forces. Recommended minimum wall thicknesses for these
types of exhaust pipe are:

Exhaust pipe outside diameter Minimum wall thickness for minimum mechanical strain
500 mm (19.7 inches) 3 mm (0.12 inches)
500 to 900 mm (19.7 to 35.4 inches) 5 mm (0.20 inches)

Exhaust pipes subjected to significant mechanical strain
Horizontally or vertically installed exhaust pipes with a length of over 5 m (200 inches), which are exposed to
significant wind loads or other natural forces (e.g. earthquakes). Recommended minimum wall thicknesses
for these types of exhaust pipe are:

Exhaust pipe outside diameter Minimum wall thickness for significant mechanical strain
Up to 500 mm (19.7 inches) 5 mm (0.20 inches)
500 to 900 mm (19.7 to 35.4 inches) 7 mm (0.28 inches)
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Due to the corrosive effects of heat and moisture, MTU Onsite Energy recommends the use of exhaust pipes
with a wall thickness greater than 3 mm (0.12 inches).
Minimize the risk of corrosion by installing stainless steel exhaust pipes. However, do not install pipes with
walls which are thinner than 3 mm (0.12 inches).

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Exhaust pipe installation

Figure 28: Exhaust pipe installation with mounts
1 Bellows 2 Fixed mounts 3 Floating mounts

Fixed mounts
Fixed mounts absorb the reaction forces of compensator bellows resulting from thermal expansion. These
mounts must be installed in the direct vicinity of the engine-generator set to protect the engine against the
weight of the exhaust system and to decouple the exhaust line from engine vibrations.
NOTICE
Expansion of flexible connections.
Product damage!
• Flexible connections or bellows must be properly fitted between any two fixed points to compensate
for expansion.

For horizontal pipes, a clamp must be used to secure the line during installation on the ceiling, wall or floor
(see(→ Figure 29)).
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Figure 29: Fixed mount for horizontal piping
Fixed mounts for vertical piping bear the weight of the pipe at its lowest point, see (→ Figure 30).

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Figure 30: Fixed mount for vertical piping
A fixed mount can also be used when routing a pipe through a ceiling opening, see (→ Figure 31).

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Figure 31: Fixed mount in a ceiling opening
NOTICE
Hot exhaust pipes.
Damage to wall or ceiling!
• Use pipe sleeve or fire proof materials when exhaust pipes pass through a wall or ceiling building
material.

Floating mounts
Floating mounts accommodate the weight of the exhaust piping and transverse forces to ensure precise axial
guidance when bellows are installed, see (→ Figure 32).
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Figure 32: Floating mounts
Install a floating mount at a distance of 1x to 2x pipe diameter from the axial bellows to prevent bulging or
denting them.
A floating mount can also be used for a ceiling opening, see (→ Figure 33).

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Figure 33: Floating mount in a ceiling opening
Consider the following points when determining the spacing of exhaust pipe mounts:
• Weight of the exhaust pipe including insulation and outer jacketing
• Any additional loads such as wind and snow
• Bearing load of the mount
• Admissible building load
• Exhaust pipe material specification
Also bear the following constraints in mind when sizing each individual mount:
• Thermal expansion of the compensator bellows
• Frictional forces in the floating mounts
Secure the mounts to the building structure using anchor bolts or anchor plates/rails embedded in concrete.
Observe the minimum anchor bolt spacing specifications to avoid compromising their load bearing capacity.

Exhaust silencer mounts
Exhaust silencers are relatively heavy and therefore have to be saddle-mounted, see (→ Figure 34). Make
sure that the exhaust silencer is placed on a smooth surface to spread the load evenly and avoid denting,
puncturing or cracking it.
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Figure 34: Exhaust silencer mount
(→ Figure 35) and (→ Figure 36) depict two examples of suspended mounts for exhaust silencers.

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Figure 35: Suspended mounts for an exhaust silencer – Example 1
1 Floating point 2 Anchoring point

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Figure 36: Suspended mounts for an exhaust silencer – Example 2
1 Floating point 2 Anchoring point
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10.2.4 Exhaust system insulation
Insulation is used to protect the surroundings from the high exhaust system surface temperatures in applica-
tions which are susceptible to radiated heat. All exhaust system components must be capable of withstand-
ing temperatures up to the values specified in the technical sales documentation.
Exhaust gas temperatures downstream of the turbocharger may be as high as 600 °C (1112 °F) when an
MTU diesel engine is running under full load at rated speed.
Important: MTU does not permit the use of insulation on component parts of the engine exhaust gas system
such as the exhaust manifolds or turbochargers.
Please consult the technical support service of your local MTU dealer or sales partner when dealing with
project-specific installations requiring insulation on parts of the engine exhaust gas system.
Exhaust pipes are not usually insulated, but may have to be in some project-specific applications where insu-
lation materials are necessary to protect surrounding areas from high surface temperatures. Exhaust pipes
are then thermally insulated to prevent any negative impact associated with radiated heat.
Refer to the TEN data for MTU engines for technical data and other requirements of the exhaust gas system.
This data is available on the MTU Business Portal or from your local dealer/sales partner.

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10.2.5 Corrosion protection for exhaust pipes
Exhaust pipes made of stainless steel do not require corrosion protection.
Insulated exhaust pipes do not need painting on the outside.
A corrosion-inhibiting, heat-resistant special coating capable of withstanding approx. 600 °C (1112 °F) may
be applied to exhaust pipes which are exposed to the elements.
Corrosion protection is not needed on the inside of the exhaust pipes. A protective coating of soot builds up
and prevents corrosion inside the exhaust piping when the engine is put to use.
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10.2.6 Noise emission
The exhaust system is one of the main sources of noise in many applications. The noise is created by highly-
pressurized exhaust gases escaping intermittently from the engine cylinders and pulsating in the exhaust
pipe. These pulsations not only lead to exit noise at the exhaust outlet, but also to the radiation of noise from
the surfaces of the exhaust pipe and the silencer housing. A properly tuned silencer can effectively reduce
noise while exerting a minimum of exhaust back pressure. Noise radiation can also be attenuated by means
of jacketed piping in critical environments.
Cracks and gaps in the exhaust system are another potential source of noise. The probability of leakage in-
creases as the engine gradually ages as a result of wear, misalignment or lack of maintenance of the exhaust
system. Such noise is unnecessary and can be successfully avoided by carefully selecting and installing the
piping and unions in conjunction with conscientious maintenance procedures.
Refer to (→ Page 119) – Emissions for more information about noise emission.

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10.2.7 Exhaust Silencer

10.2.7.1 Exhaust silencer – General
A silencer is installed in the exhaust line to dampen exhaust noise, see (→ Figure 37). The muffling effect not
only depends on the silencer, but also on the arrangement and design of the exhaust outlet.

Figure 37: Exhaust silencer
Exhaust silencers must be developed to suit the requirements of the application concerned. These require-
ments may include the following factors:
• Installation position
• Spatial limitations
• Vibration damping
• Noise attenuation
• Permissible exhaust back pressure
• Exhaust gas cooling
• Heat radiation
MTU can provide the following data to facilitate system design:
• Engine performance curve
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• Max. exhaust gas temperature
• Max. exhaust flow rate
• Maximum permissible exhaust back pressure
• One-third octave spectrum at the engine exhaust outlet
MTU can provide a noise spectral analysis based on a series of commissioned trials to demonstrate compli-
ance with project-specific design criteria.
Reflective or absorptive silencer designs are possible, or even a combination of the two. Silencers must be
adequately sized to suit the specific requirements of the application which may involve finding a compromise
in case of conflicting criteria.

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10.2.7.2 Reflection silencer

Figure 38: Cross section through a reflection silencer
1 Inlet duct 3 Change in cross-section
2 Outer jacket 4 Resonance tubes
Principle of a reflection silencer:
Obstacles in the silencer, e.g. partitions, changes in cross section and offset tubes, reflect the exhaust gas
sound waves. This reflection partially attenuates the noise by destructively interfering with consecutive
waves (wave peaks and troughs cancel each other out).
Advantages:
• Good noise attenuation at low temperatures
• Possibility of attenuating noise at certain frequencies
• Compact design
Disadvantages:
• High exhaust back pressure
• Thermal insulation sometimes necessary
• Serious damping issues with medium or high frequencies as stationary waves may be encountered
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10.2.7.3 Absorptive silencer

Figure 39: Cross section through an absorptive silencer
1 Inlet duct 3 Sound-permeable cover
2 Outer jacket 4 Noise-absorbent material
Principle of an absorptive silencer:
Friction between the sound waves and the noise-absorbent materials in the silencer convert acoustic ener-
gy into heat. This is the most commonly-used type of exhaust silencer.
Advantages:
• Good attenuation at medium and high frequencies
• Attenuation of a wide frequency range
• Low exhaust back pressure
• Little or no thermal insulation required
• Highly economical
Disadvantages:
• Poor attenuation at low temperatures
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10.2.7.4 Silencer selection
Consider the following aspects when selecting a silencer:
• Frequencies to be attenuated
• Level of noise reduction to be achieved
• Exhaust gas temperature (influences noise absorption and the choice of materials)
• Exhaust gas volumetric flow (influences the shape and size of the silencer)
The maximum admissible exhaust back pressure, and hence the maximum flow velocity in the silencer, is
determined by the engine. The silencer and exhaust gas system must be designed such as to minimize ex-
haust back pressure by maintaining a streamlined laminar flow to the greatest possible extent.

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10.2.8 Exhaust outlet configuration
Orientate and position exhaust end pipes such as to prevent the following:
• Recirculation of exhaust into the air inlet system
• Exhaust gas flowing through an engine cooler
• Excessive noise emission
• Water ingress in the exhaust system
The best overall reduction in noise is achieved by installing the silencer in the vicinity of the engine. Long
exhaust pipes between engine and silencer increase the probability of issues with resonance.
Prevent rain and snow ingress in the exhaust system by:
• Installing a flap over vertically-arranged end pipes
• Using a horizontally-disposed end pipe with a rain cap or diagonal cut
• Inclining the end pipe downwards
Note:
Exhaust outlets must be arranged such as to eliminate any risk of personal injury.

In the case of encapsulated stationary engines, situating the exhaust silencer on the inside or outside can be
more or less beneficial depending on circumstances. Internal silencers are easier to maintain and drain than
those installed outside. External silencers, on the other hand, may only need covering with a protective grill
instead of insulation materials (providing that heat and noise do not present a problem).
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10.2.9 Draining
Larger quantities of condensate may accumulate in exhaust pipes, especially longer ones. In extreme cases,
a condensate separator may have to be installed together with a drain at the lowest point in the system in
order to prevent corrosion from within. A small drainage bore may be incorporated at the lowest point in the
exhaust system in the case of a manifold with a downward facing outlet and a bent pipe which routes the
exhaust gas vertically up. In applications featuring pusher fans ensure that the drain bore is positioned such
as to avoid contaminating the cooler core with exhaust gas exiting from the bore.

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10.2.10 Spark arrestors
The exhaust system must be equipped with spark arrestors if any flammable gases might be encountered in
the vicinity of the engine. This eliminates the risk of explosion resulting from sparks originating from the en-
gine.
A spark arrestor consists of a stainless steel winding which sets the exhaust gas rotating as it flows along.
Hot carbon particles are dashed against the outer wall and cooled before exiting.
Spark arrestors must be appropriately sized and cleaned at regular intervals to avoid exceeding exhaust back
pressure limits.

Figure 40: Spark arrestor
1 Hot exhaust gas 2 Cooled exhaust gas
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10.3 Exhaust system – Validation requirements
Thorough validation of the exhaust system must include:
• A complete description of the system. We recommend describing the exhaust system and its design on
initial start-up by taking photographs and making sketches.
• Appropriate and well-maintained instrumentation – all instruments and equipment must be calibrated and
in satisfactory condition.
• Correctly prepared tests and precise results, thorough preparation ensures precise results.
• Data recording and evaluation
• Diagnostics (troubleshooting) and corrective action (as necessary)
• The engine must be running at normal operating temperature under full load.
Engines are normally equipped with a correctly designed exhaust system on delivery. Installation must be
subjected to validation testing in the course of initial start-up, to ensure that:
• Flexible connections are installed at the exhaust outlet on the engine.
• Flexible connections have been installed correctly.
• Condensate traps featuring a drainage facility are installed in the exhaust piping.
• The specified silencer has been installed and secured.
• Walls have been lined with heat-insulating material.
• Downstream exhaust piping does not narrow down in diameter.
• The overall weight of the exhaust system is correctly supported.
• Pipe wall thicknesses are appropriate throughout.
• Exhaust piping is properly insulated (if necessary).
• Exhaust pipes are installed downwards to the outlet.
• Exhaust piping is protected against weathering (rain cap fitted if necessary).
• Exhaust gas cannot re-enter the building.
• Personnel cannot come into contact with hot parts of the exhaust system.
• Warning labels/shields are in place on hot parts.
• Chimney duct has been correctly installed.
Measure and record exhaust back pressure with the engine running at rated speed under full load. Remem-
ber to check the exhaust system for leaks.

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10.4 Exhaust back pressure – Measurement
As soon as the exhaust system is installed and the engine has completed the commissioning procedure, the
back pressure in the exhaust system must be determined by measurement. To do this, a suitable connection
fitting must be installed in the exhaust pipe within 127 mm (5 inches) of the exhaust outlet on the engine.
Note: Exhaust back pressure must be measured at all exhaust outlets on the engine. Specifications in the
TEN data are based on an exhaust gas flow rate of 40 m/s.
The test connection setup for measuring exhaust back pressure is shown in (→ Figure 41).
Magnehellic™ differential pressure gages are well-suited to this purpose, or any other equivalent gage which
measures exhaust back pressure in mbar or in H2O. The exhaust back pressure is measured with the engine
running under full load at rated speed.
Note: Record the exhaust back pressure for commissioning and validating any MTU engine.
Desired values for exhaust back pressure are specified in the TEN data for MTU engines on the MTU Busi-
ness Portal or can be obtained from your authorized local MTU dealer or distributor.

Figure 41: Measuring connection
1 Weld or brazed joint 3 Upper pipe wall
2 Coupling or nipple D 3.175 mm (0.125 inches)
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The diameter (D) of the bore in the exhaust pipe is 3.175 mm (0.125 inches). The top part is the nipple or
neck (2) into which the measuring instrument is inserted.
The measuring connection fitting must be installed in a straight section of the exhaust pipe. Install the con-
nection fitting perpendicular to the bending plane should it be necessary to locate it in an elbow or curved
section of the exhaust pipe.

Position of the exhaust back pressure measuring connection fitting
An example showing the position of the measuring connection (P1) on a Series 2000 engine is depicted in
(→ Figure 42).

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Figure 42: Position of the exhaust back pressure measuring connection on a Series 2000 engine
1 Rain cap 3 Exhaust pipe 5 Exhaust manifold
2 Exhaust silencer 4 Exhaust turbocharger P1 Measuring connection for
exhaust back pressure

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10.5 Emission
10.5.1 General information
Emissions can be understood as the emanation or release of noise, exhaust gas and heat.
• Noise
– Noise is generally defined as an unpleasant or undesirable sound. In the context of this manual, noise
is defined as any sound arising as a by-effect of operation of a diesel engine system.
• Exhaust gas
– In the context of this manual, exhaust gas is defined as gaseous or solid (soot) by-products of the com-
bustion process in the diesel engine.
• Heat
– In the context of this manual, heat is defined as radiated heat excluding heat dissipated via cooling
systems.
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10.5.2 Noise

10.5.2.1 Noise emissions – General information
A noise spectrum analysis revealing (air- and structure-borne) noise emission to the environment can be re-
quested for any series of diesel engine or system. Such spectra can be provided for individually designed
installations if so envisaged by contractual agreement. The spectra represent a dB scale. The sound pressure
levels specified in the noise spectra are based on the rated power and rated speed of the engines. These
values should only be considered as approximate values for other operating points.

Figure 43: Typical sources of noise emission emanating from a diesel engine
1 Unattenuated exhaust noise 3 Structure-borne noise in-
2 Unattenuated intake air duced in the foundation via
noise the engine mounts
4 Surface noise
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10.5.2.2 Intake air noise
The sound pressure level reference value is 2 × 10-5 Pa (0 dB). Sound pressure levels are measured at a
distance of 1 m (3.3 ft) (unless otherwise stated in the diagram).

Figure 44: Intake air noise spectrum analysis
The engine can be equipped with intake air silencers to minimize intake air noise, see (→ Figure 45).
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Figure 45: Example of an intake air silencer
1 Intake silencer

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10.5.2.3 Exhaust noise
The sound pressure level reference value is 2 × 10-5 Pa (0 dB). Sound pressure levels are measured at a
distance of 1 m (3.3 ft) (unless otherwise stated in the diagram).

Figure 46: Exhaust noise spectrum analysis
An engine can be equipped with exhaust silencers to minimize exhaust noise. See (→ Page 85) for details.
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10.5.2.4 Engine surface noise
The reference level is 2 × 10-5 Pa (0 dB). Sound pressure levels are measured at a distance of 1 m (3.3 ft)
(unless otherwise stated in the diagram).
Note that the intake air noise values are not included in the surface noise analysis.
Surface noise can be attenuated by means of enclosures, baffles or a combination of both.

Figure 47: Surface noise spectrum analysis

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10.5.2.5 Structure-borne noise
Structure-borne noise is transmitted through the engine/genset mounts to load-bearing components (skid,
chassis etc.). Structure-borne noise can be dampened by means of resilient mounts, rubber buffers, or a
combination of the two, placed under the base skid or chassis.

Figure 48: Example of the structure-borne noise level on a typical frame
X Frequency in Hz Y Sound level LV in dB
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Exhaust System | 121
10.5.3 Exhaust gas
The proper use of diesel engines to ensure compliance with emission standards is outside the scope of this
manual. Refer to the installation guidelines for exhaust aftertreatment systems for details.
See (→ Page 85) for exhaust system installation guidelines.

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10.5.4 Heat emission
Practically all machinery and prime movers generate heat. Hot surfaces and radiated heat must be given due
consideration in design for reasons of safety. Adopt suitable strategies to prevent injuries resulting from ex-
treme heat. Compliance with work safety regulations issued by governmental bodies, industrial associations
etc. is mandatory when operating or maintaining engines or installations.
Also ensure that radiated heat in no way impairs the functionality or dependability of neighboring compo-
nents or systems. Heat radiated by components and exhaust gases may affect the air intake and engine
room temperatures. Take this effect into account when designing engine air intake systems, zone venting
facilities, or both.
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11 Lube Oil System
11.1 Lube oil system – Safety and general information
WARNING
Oils/oil vapors are combustible/explosive.
Risk of fire and explosion!
• Avoid open flames, electric sparks and ignition sources.
• Do not smoke.

WARNING
Slipping and falling caused by spilled liquids.
Risk of serious injury!
• Immediately clean up spilled liquids with suitable cleaning agents or as defined by the manufacturer’s
specifications.

WARNING
Engine oil and coolant are under relatively low pressure but liquids under pressure can penetrate skin
and clothing.
Risk of serious injury!
• Do not open or disconnect coolant or oil lines while the engine-generator set is hot or operating.

WARNING
Pressurized lines or its connections could burst.
Risk of serious injury!
• Never use pressurized lines for climbing or support.

WARNING
Pressurized systems and compressed-air lines.
Risk of injury!
• Prior to starting work, relieve pressure in systems and compressed-air lines which are to be opened.

WARNING
Flying debris and hazardous air stream when using compressed air.
Risk of serious injury!
• Never use compressed air to clean contaminated clothing.
• Never use compressed air to force flammable liquids out of containers.
• Do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure (according to OSHA regulations).
• Wear protective clothing and adequate eye and ear protection (face shield or safety goggles).

WARNING
Hot components/surfaces.
Risk of burns!
• Allow the engine to cool down to below 50 °C before beginning work.
• Wear suitable protective equipment/thermal gloves.
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• Avoid unprotected contact with hot surfaces.

WARNING
Draining of hot liquids.
Risk of serious injury and burning!
• Use proper heat-proof containers when draining liquids.
• Wear protective gloves.
• Allow adequate time for the engine to cool down before draining hot liquids into the appropriate heat-
proof container.

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A properly functioning lube oil system is essential for ensuring trouble-free engine operation over a long peri-
od of time. The entire lube oil system is a permanent part of the engine. MTU diesel engines feature pres-
sure-controlled lubrication with a gear-type oil pump. The oil pan holds the oil supply. Only those connections
included in the scope of delivery of any MTU diesel engine may be utilized for monitoring, draining or addi-
tionally filtering the oil and for purposes of priming. Never attempt to manipulate or modify the lube oil sys-
tem of the engine. Please request technical support from an authorized local dealer or MTU Onsite Energy
sales partner should such interventions be unavoidable .
Always follow the instructions and information provided by MTU Onsite Energy on oil change intervals, the
use of approved oils, maintaining oil levels correctly and operating the engine at an incline.
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11.2 Closed crankcase ventilation system
All MTU engines feature a closed crankcase ventilation system as standard. An open crankcase ventilation
system may be necessary for technical reasons in exceptional cases, e.g. when operating at high altitude.
Open crankcase ventilation systems allow engine oil to escape in the form of droplets and vapor. This needs
handling in accordance with locally applicable statutory requirements and regulations.
MTU shall not be held liable for any infringement of such requirements and regulations. (→ Figure 49) shows
an example of this system.

Figure 49: Closed crankcase ventilation system
1 Oil separator 3 Air return – cylinder bank A
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11.3 Oil lines
Check and clean all external pipe connections prior to installation to prevent dirt and leakage originating
from the lube oil system.
Select hoses based on the SAE J30 standard, or other standards which apply to the application concerned.
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11.4 Auxiliary equipment for lube oil preheating
WARNING
Fire caused by heated diesel fuel vapors.
Injury from Fire!
• Keep those people who are not directly involved in servicing away from the engine.
• Stop the engine immediately if an oil leak is detected.
• Do not smoke or allow open flames when working on an operating engine.
• Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, insulated gloves, apron, and so on).
• To prevent a buildup of potentially volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during opera-
tion.

There are several ways of preheating lube oil when starting the engine from cold. MTU does not recommend
the use of oil preheaters. It may be necessary to preheat the lube oil in extreme circumstances to maintain a
constant oil temperature when the engine is running. Consult an authorized MTU representative if you need a
solution for preheating the oil.

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11.5 Oil filter configuration
NOTICE
Inadequate oil filter change interval.
Engine wear or failure!
• Change oil filters regularly.
• Plugged filters will result in unfiltered oil being supplied to the engine causing excessive wear.
• Only MTU tested and approved filters may be used.

Disposable screw-on filter elements, automatic oil filters and centrifugal oil filters are all possible configura-
tions.

Centrifugal lube oil filter
CAUTION
Improper assembly of centrifugal oil filter.
Injury from fire!
• Ensure the centrifugal oil filter has been properly assembled, prior to starting the engine.

The centrifugal filter is a bypass filter that uses centrifugal force to remove fine particles of soot and dirt
from the oil. After leaving the oil cooler, the oil passes through the centrifugal filter as it flows back to the oil
pan. Centrifugal filters require regular maintenance, but prolong the oil change intervals.
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11.6 Oil Level Measurement
11.6.1 Oil level measuring
DANGER
Explosion hazard from oil vapors.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Before opening up the crankcase, allow engine cool to below 50 °C.
• Avoid naked flames, electric sparks and sources of ignition.

NOTICE
Overfill of the oil pan.
Engine damage!
• Never overfill the oil pan.
• Rotating parts can contact the oil and cause foaming.
• Proper lubrication is prevented and leads to severe engine damage.

The oil level can be measured with:
• Oil dipstick
Note:
Do not use the oil dipstick in conjunction with electrical oil level monitoring on one and the same engine.
The values measured using these two methods would never match.

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11.6.2 Oil dipstick
All MTU engines feature an oil dipstick to measure the oil level when the engine is at standstill. Unmarked oil
dipsticks which are calibrated on filling oil for the first time may be required in special applications when the
engine is installed at an incline. Refer to the relevant Operating Instructions for details.
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11.7 Inclined operation
Series engines from MTU are approved for inclined operation as specified in the TEN data. Special engine
designs and oil pans are required to operate at steeper angles.
Special applications in which the engine is installed at a permanent incline may require the use of unmarked
dipsticks with the marks being subsequently applied after initial filling.

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11.8 Oil priming
Priming with oil may or may not be necessary depending on engine use (e.g uninterruptible power supply
systems). The bearings do not usually have to be primed before starting as pockets in the crankshaft supply
them with lube oil during the first few revolutions.
Priming is only recommended in the following exceptional cases:
• Inclined engine operation at extreme angles
• Engine operation in extremely cold ambient conditions
Consult an authorized MTU representative in order to clarify requirements if a third-party priming system is
to be installed.
The priming system should be activated as needed.
MTU does not permit continuous priming of the engine/system as this damages the engine.

Priming following engine disassembly
Priming by means of a temporarily installed pump is only necessary when the engine has been completely
dismantled and subsequently reassembled. In this case, the temporarily installed lube-oil priming pump is
used to build up the necessary oil pressure in the system prior to engine starting. This ensures that all oil
galleries and filters are properly filled with oil.
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11.9 Recommended and approved fluids and lubricants
Operation of MTU engines is only permitted with the approved lube oils. The approved lube oils and their
corresponding change intervals are listed in the Fluids and Lubricants Specifications (publication available in
the MTU Business Portal).

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12 Cooling System
12.1 Cooling system – Safety notes and general information
This section deals with requirements and recommendations for designing and maintaining a cooling system.
It also describes the overall design of the cooling system, its component parts, operating conditions, com-
missioning tests and maintenance.
This section only provides general information applicable to all MTU engines and drive systems. Technical
data for the cooling systems of specific engine series are available on the MTU Business Portal.
Note:
Only use approved coolants listed in the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specifications, or coolants which clear-
ly meet the criteria specified therein.

WARNING
Coolant and fuel contact when engine is running.
Risk of serious injury!
• Do not fill coolant or fuel tanks while the engine is running.

WARNING
Hazardous acids, alkaline solutions, coolant, fuel, paint and preservatives.
Risk of serious injury!
• Consult appropriate Material Safety Data Sheets for proper handling, use and storage information.
• Immediately seek medical attention if contact or ingestion has occurred.

WARNING
Slipping and falling caused by spilled liquids.
Risk of serious injury!
• Immediately clean up spilled liquids with suitable cleaning agents or as defined by the manufacturer’s
specifications.

WARNING
Engine oil and coolant are under relatively low pressure but liquids under pressure can penetrate skin
and clothing.
Risk of serious injury!
• Do not open or disconnect coolant or oil lines while the engine-generator set is hot or operating.

WARNING
Pressurized lines or its connections could burst.
Risk of serious injury!
• Never use pressurized lines for climbing or support.

WARNING
Pressurized systems and compressed-air lines.
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Risk of injury!
• Prior to starting work, relieve pressure in systems and compressed-air lines which are to be opened.

WARNING
Hot liquid.
Risk of serious injury and burning!
• Take precautions when the radiator or heat exchanger pressure cap is removed.
• Wear protective gloves, face shield and goggles.
• Allow adequate time for the engine to cool down before removing the radiator or heat exchanger
pressure cap.

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WARNING
Flying debris and hazardous air stream when using compressed air.
Risk of serious injury!
• Never use compressed air to clean contaminated clothing.
• Never use compressed air to force flammable liquids out of containers.
• Do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure (according to OSHA regulations).
• Wear protective clothing and adequate eye and ear protection (face shield or safety goggles).

WARNING
Hot components/surfaces.
Risk of burns!
• Allow the engine to cool down to below 50 °C before beginning work.
• Wear suitable protective equipment/thermal gloves.
• Avoid unprotected contact with hot surfaces.

WARNING
Draining of hot liquids.
Risk of serious injury and burning!
• Use proper heat-proof containers when draining liquids.
• Wear protective gloves.
• Allow adequate time for the engine to cool down before draining hot liquids into the appropriate heat-
proof container.

NOTICE
An air bound coolant pump cannot adequately circulate coolant and could cause severe overheating of
the engine.
Engine damage!
• Ensure that air is completely purged from the cooling system.

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12.2 Cooling system – Description
Heat is dissipated from the engine in four ways: By the engine coolant (water jacket), charge-air coolant, ex-
haust gas and by radiation. Heat has to be removed from the engine coolant and the charge air in order to
meet the temperature requirements of the engine coolant and the air inlet elbow. Give due consideration to
exhaust heat and radiated heat as these often affect the air temperature for the fans and coolers (when the
cooler is installed in the genset installation room, for example). The cooling capacity of the cooler is reduced
if the cooler intake air is heated.
A cooler featuring a fan dissipates heat generated by the engine effectively. A centrifugal pump is used to
circulate the coolant.
On modern engines, intake air which has been compressed by the turbocharger has to be cooled to meet
demands for higher performance and stricter emission compliance regulations. As a result, charge-air cooling
has become a permanent feature of all cooling systems . Two cooling system configurations are available for
MTU Series 2000 engines:
• TD (engine with air/air charge-air cooling)
This configuration uses a coolant cooler.
• TB (engine with water/air charge-air cooling)
This configuration uses an on-engine intercooler and an off-engine coolant cooler.
The choice between the TD or TB configuration is dictated by the performance expected of the engine.
The engine coolant (water jacket) absorbs heat generated by the combustion process in the cylinders and
leads it away. Heat absorbed from the oil is also dissipated via the oil/water heat exchanger. Fully-closing
thermostats in the outlet channels of the engine coolant circuit control the flow of coolant to curtail the time
needed to warm the engine up and to regulate the coolant temperature.
Refer to the TEN data for MTU engines for details. This data is available on the MTU Business Portal or from
your local MTU dealer/sales partner.
The engine coolant can be preheated by an optional coolant preheater (water jacket heater).
Refer to the Operating and Maintenance Instructions for details.
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12.3 Coolant
The coolant (antifreeze and corrosion inhibitor) used in the cooling system must be approved by MTU or
meet the requirements specified in the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specifications.
Note:
Always mix the water, antifreeze and corrosion inhibitor well before filling in the cooling system. Do not fill
the cooling system with each constituent part separately.

When draining coolant containing corrosion inhibitors or antifreeze, collect it in a separate container and dis-
pose of it appropriately.
NOTICE
Handling of used fluids and lubricants.
Environmental pollution and violation of regulatory requirements!
• Dispose of used fluids and lubricants in accordance with local regulations.
• Never dispose of or burn used oil in the fuel tank.

Corrosion inhibitors protect the engine, cooler and the rest of the cooling system from damage resulting
from corrosion. The antifreeze lowers the freezing point of the coolant to prevent frost damage.
Observe specified concentrations when mixing corrosion inhibitors and antifreeze. Protection from corrosion
is no longer afforded if the corrosion inhibitor ratio falls below the minimum concentration. Corrosion inhibi-
tor separates from the coolant if the ratio exceeds the maximum admissible concentration. As a result, de-
posits form in the cooling system which may impede or block the coolant flow leading to a drop in cooling
capacity. The thermal transfer capacity of the coolant decreases if the maximum admissible antifreeze con-
centration is exceeded. The cooling system is consequently unable to operate at full capacity.

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12.4 Cooling System Component Design Criteria
12.4.1 Cooler core
The cooler cores generally feature a tube-and-fin design offering the following benefits:
• Lower differential pressure on the air and coolant sides
• Easier to clean
• Durable structure
Consider the following points for satisfactory cooler core design:
• Flow capacity of the cooler core
– The flow capacity of the cooler must be equal to are greater than the coolant delivery rate of the en-
gine. This information is provided in the technical sales documentation of the engine concerned.
• Pressure drop (differential pressure) through the cooler core
– Pressure drop through the cooler core must be equal to or less than the maximum admissible pressure
drop specified in the technical sales documentation of the engine.
• Thermal transfer capacity
– The thermal transfer capacity of the cooler core must be adequate for the application concerned, the
environment, type of coolant and fan throughput.
• Fouling factor
– The fouling factor (reserve cooling capacity) of the coolant cooler must be adequate for the application
concerned and the environment. A higher fouling factor may be necessary in very dusty environments.
• Type of coolant
– The type of coolant used (raw water, antifreeze or any mixture of the two) must be compatible with the
design of the cooler and the materials used in its construction. Mixing ratios specified by MTU and ap-
proved fluids are listed in the Fluids and Lubricants Specifications.
• Heat sinks must be accessible for cleaning.
• Durable structure.
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12.4.2 Expansion tank
The expansion tank in a cooling system is used to vent the system (allow gas to escape from the coolant)
and prevent bubbles forming (inclusion of gas in the coolant) when operating at an inclination. The expansion
tank allows space for the coolant to expand as the cooling system heats up. The information provided here is
intended as a rough guide.
One or two expansion tanks may be installed. The engine cooling circuit (high-temperature circuit) and the
charge-air cooling circuit (low-temperature circuit) may each have their own expansion tank when the two
circuits are completely separate. If these two circuits are connected then the two expansion tanks must also
be interconnected. Furthermore, each expansion tank may be integrated in the cooler core or installed sepa-
rately away from the cooler core. (→ Figure 50) shows an example of an expansion tank and its main fea-
tures.

Figure 50: Expansion tank, example
1 Upper vent line 7 Lower vent line 13 Minimum level (bubbles
2 Vent bore in filler neck 8 Cooler inlets start forming)
3 Filler neck 9 Standpipe A 2% venting volume
4 Low coolant level sensor 10 Baffle plate B 6% expansion volume
5 Swirl chamber (settling 11 FULL – Hot level C Reserve volume (approx.
chamber for filling line) 12 FULL – Cold level 15%)
6 Filling line and connections
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Percentage figures are always based on the total volume of coolant in any circuit.

140 | Cooling System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
An integral expansion tank must meet the following standards:
• Expansion tank volume
– The volume of the expansion tank must be at least 18% of the total capacity of the cooling system.
• Standpipes
– Standpipes must be located as far away from the cooler inlet and as close to the center of the expan-
sion tank as possible. Entrained gas is best separated from the coolant in this area.
– The bottom end of the standpipe must not reach below the swirl chamber.
– The top end of the standpipe must reach above the coolant FULL – hot level.
– The standpipe must face away from the coolant level sensor, filler neck and pressure limiting valve in
order to minimize coolant loss.
• Swirl chamber
– The bottom of swirl chamber partition walls must be at least 25 mm (1 inch) off the top of the cooler
core. This space improves venting.
– The swirl chamber must be fully sealed off to prevent coolant flowing from the cooler core to the ex-
pansion tank. The standpipe must be the only route between cooler core and expansion tank.
• Swirl chamber (settling chamber for filling line)
– The expansion tank must feature a settling chamber for the filling line to prevent the coolant from swirl-
ing.
• Filling line connections
– In order to prevent any unnecessary drop in pressure, the fittings on the filling line must not reduce its
internal diameter.
– Filling lines must be located as low above the swirl chamber and as close to the center of the expan-
sion tank as possible. This arrangement offers the greatest degree of versatility in inclined operation.
– Filling line connections leading to the engine must be as close to the coolant pump as possible. This
creates maximum discharge head at the coolant pump inlet.
– The filling lines between expansion tank and coolant pump must run steadily downwards. Kinks or
changes in gradient may result in an inclusion of air in the filling line.
– Filling lines and their connection fittings must be at least 25 mm in diameter.
• Vent lines
– Vent lines must lie above the hot coolant level.
– Vent lines must face away from the coolant level sensor, filler neck and pressure limiting valve in order
to minimize coolant loss.
– Vent lines and their connection fittings must have a minimum diameter of at least 12 DN10 or ¼".
– Vent lines must always run steadily up from the connections on the engine to the top of the expansion
tank.
– Vent lines must always face away from the filling lines in the upper coolant tank, to prevent air being
drawn into the filling lines.
• Cooler inlet
– The cooler inlet must be located in the expansion tank at the lowest possible point.
– The cooler inlet must be sealed to the expansion tank and must not have any venting apertures.
– The diameter of the cooler inlet line must be the same as the diameter of the thermostat housing out-
let.
• Filler neck
– The filler neck must extend below the venting volume (2%) and the expansion volume (6%) levels and
end at the full COLD coolant level.
– The filler neck must match the size of the pressure sealing cap used.
– A venting aperture must be provided at the top of the filler neck.
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– The filler neck must be located as close to the top center of the expansion tank as possible. This ar-
rangement allows the coolant cooler to be filled to the greatest possible extent even at an inclination.
• Coolant level sensor
– The coolant level sensor must be positioned just above the lowest acceptable coolant level following
coolant loss. The height above the coolant level following coolant loss must represent approx. 98% of
the reserve volume.
– The coolant level sensor must be located immediately above the point at which bubbles form. This
point typically lies above the coolant level following coolant loss.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Cooling System | 141
An off-engine expansion tank must also meet the following additional standards:
• Installation location for an off-engine expansion tank
– The off-engine expansion tank must be located at the highest appropriate point. The bottom of the off-
engine expansion tank must lie above the highest point of the cooling system.
• Vent lines
– Vent lines must be arranged at the highest point of the off-engine expansion tank and as far away from
the cooler inlet as possible.

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12.4.3 Pressure seal cap with pressure limiting valve
WARNING
Coolant is hot and under pressure.
Risk of injury and scalding!
• Never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature.
• Allow the engine to cool down for at least 10 minutes before removing the cap.
• Wear protective clothing (face shield, rubber gloves, apron and boots).
• Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure.

The pressure seal cap with pressure limiting valve maintains optimum pressure in the cooling system. The
cooling system is pressurized when the coolant expands as the temperature increases.
Note:
Pressure is released from the cooling system on removing the pressure seal cap when the coolant is hot.
The pressure in the cooling system only builds up again when the pressure seal cap is replaced and the
cooler has cooled down and warmed up once more.

Pressure builds up as the engine temperature rises and coolant and air in the system expand. The valve in
the pressure seal cap lifts off its seat allowing excess air to escape from the system. (→ Figure 51) illustrates
this expansion.
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Figure 51: Coolant expansion
A Air 2 Vent bore 5 Cooler
B Expanding coolant 3 Expansion tank
1 Air flow 4 Filler neck
The air and coolant contract as the engine cools down creating a vacuum in the system. This vacuum lifts
another valve in the pressure cap allowing atmospheric air to flow back into the expansion tank. See
(→ Figure 52).

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Cooling System | 143
Figure 52: Coolant contraction
A Air 2 Vent bore 5 Cooler
B Contracting coolant 3 Expansion tank
1 Air flow 4 Filler neck
The pressure seal cap and the pressure limiting valve must meet the following standards:
• The pressure seal cap must be installed on the top of the expansion tank above the coolant level when the
system is completely filled and hot.
• The pressure valve must be capable of withstanding the pressure experienced in the expansion tank with
a tolerance of ± 0.07 bar (1 psi) on the rated value of the pressure cap.
• The pressure valve must also respond to low pressure in order to prevent hoses and other parts being
compressed as the cooling system cools down.
• The opening limit value for the pressure valve (high and low pressure) varies depending on engine series.
These pressure limit values are specified in the technical sales documentation.
• The valve must be designed to maintain the minimum pressures required upstream of the coolant pump
depending on the altitude at which the cooler is installed.
• Furthermore, the coolant must never start boiling when the cooler installed at higher altitudes as this
leads to overheating of the engine as a result of bubbles in the engine cooling circuit.
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12.5 Flexible connections
Engines must be hooked up to the cooling circuits by means of flexible connections. Flexible connections on
the engine must be designed to avoid subjecting the engine to high forces resulting from any vibration and
movement within the system or from thermal expansion.
Flexible connections must be resistant to pressure (overpressure, vacuum, or both), high temperatures and
contact with oil, fuel and coolant. Hoses should have a minimum bursting pressure of at least
5 bar (72.5 psi). Flexible lines must not be subjected to external tension or pressure.
Flexible connections may be established with
• Rubber piping
• Hose
• Flexmaster connections
Flexible connections in the cooling system must meet the following specifications:
• Route all flexible connections avoiding twisting, chafing, crushing and contact with hot surfaces.
• Arrange flexible lines such as to facilitate visual inspection for any signs of wear, and straightforward re-
placement.
• Use strong, high-quality hose clamps which stay tight and prevent leakage both in the hot and cold states.
• Use special hose clamps for silicone hoses.
• Secure all pipe-hose connections with two clamps positioned at 180° to each other.
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12.6 Coolant pump
The coolant pump is also vulnerable to air bubbles in the coolant. The coolant pump may be damaged as a
result of cavitation if air is trapped in the cooling system because it is not properly vented. Coolant pipes
leading to the coolant pump must have the same diameter as the inlet connection on the engine. Bends in
the coolant pipes must be smooth and have a constant radius. Segmental bends are not recommended.
The suction pressure range of the coolant pump is specified for each engine series in the technical sales
documentation. This range must not be exceeded. The lowest pressure in the cooling system is normally ex-
perienced at the coolant pump inlet.

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12.7 Radiator Fan
12.7.1 Cooler fan
The fan and coolant cooler must harmonize well to ensure efficient, adequate and dependable engine cool-
ing. Compatibility between coolant cooler and fan is determined on the basis of their respective performance
characteristics and by ensuring that the drop in static air pressure remains within limits.
The coolant cooler for the charge-air circuit and the engine coolant circuit must be designed by the customer
for all TB engines. The relevant design data are available on the Business Portal.
Back pressure downstream of the cooler in Pa is always specified for fans supplied by MTU. The sum total of
low pressure inside a container and sound insulation in the air duct downstream of the cooler must not ex-
ceed this value.
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MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Cooling System | 147
12.7.2 Fan position (TD only)
The position of the fan is crucial. Consider the following:
1. Fans have one side which has to face the cooler. This side is indicated by a sticker on the 12V. A spacer
ring is located on the engine side on the 16V and 18V versions,.
2. The fan must be located in the center of the cooler opening. This ensures an even gap all the way
around. Correct the opening in the cooler at the top and bottom to achieve a uniform gap.
3. The fan is correctly positioned in the cooler opening when the gap is set as specified in the cooler draw-
ings.
4. 12V: Distance to engine block
5. 16V/18V: Distance of cooler to engine foot

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12.8 Cooling system – Filling
Do not start up the engine until the cooling system is fully functional. Prepare the cooling system for opera-
tion as described below. Procedure:
• Fill the system from the bottom. Use the drain connection on the lower supply pipe leading to the coolant
pump. This will fill the system up to the full cold coolant level (bottom edge of the filler neck).
• Turn the engine on the starter without actually starting for 3 to 5 seconds.
• Shut the engine down immediately.
• Check the coolant level in the expansion tank.
• Top up with coolant to the full cold coolant level.
• Turn on the starter again without actually starting for 3 to 5 seconds.
• Check the level in the expansion tank.
• Repeat the process until there is no need to top-up any further.
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12.9 Cooling system – Draining
It is important to be able to drain all the coolant from the cooling system. Any larger quantities of coolant
remaining in the system may freeze in cold conditions and damage the engine or component parts of the
cooling system. Find ways of draining any coolant which has become entrapped if necessary. Affix labels to
warn others of this risk as appropriate. Refer to the diagram and installation drawing on the Business Portal.

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12.10 Testing
12.10.1 LT/HT coolant pump checklist
Product support provides end-users with the following information about installation. Comprehensive photo-
graphic documentation of all listed items is required. It must be possible to understand the overall piping
arrangement on the basis of these photographs.
Coolant pump checklist
Vent lines • Are all vent lines connected between engine and expansion tank?
From engine to expan- • How many?
sion tank • Where is each of them connected? State the precise connection point on the en-
gine.
• Are the connections above and below the coolant level in the expansion tank as
required?
• Inner diameter of the pipe?
• Length of the pipe?
• Do the pipes from the engine to the expansion tank run up or down?
Vent lines • Are all vent lines connected between intercooler and expansion tank?
From intercooler to • How many?
expansion tank • Where is each of them connected? State the precise connection point on the en-
gine.
• Are the connections above and below the coolant level in the expansion tank as
required?
• Inner diameter of the pipe?
• Length of the pipe?
• Do the pipes from the engine to the expansion tank run up or down?
Vent lines • Are all cooling system vent lines connected to the expansion tank?
Cooling system to ex- • How many?
pansion tank • Where is each of them connected? State the precise connection point on the en-
gine.
• Are the connections above and below the coolant level in the expansion tank as
required?
• Inner diameter of the pipe?
• Length of the pipe?
• Do the pipes from the cooling system to the expansion tank run up or down?
Expansion line • Is the expansion line connected between expansion tank and HT circuit?
From expansion tank • Where is it connected on the engine? State the precise connection point.
to HT circuit • Is the connection above or below the coolant level in the expansion tank?
• Inner diameter of the pipe?
• Length of the pipe?
Expansion line • Is the expansion line connected between expansion tank and LT circuit?
From expansion tank • Where is it connected on the engine? State the precise connection point.
to LT circuit • Is the connection above or below the coolant level in the expansion tank?
• Inner diameter of the pipe?
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• Length of the pipe?
Expansion line • Are all expansion lines connected between expansion tank and cooling system?
From expansion tank • How many?
to cooling system • Where is each of them connected to the cooling system? State precise connec-
tion points.
• Are the connections above and below the coolant level in the expansion tank as
required?
• Inner diameter of the pipe?
• Length of the pipe?

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Cooling System | 151
Coolant pump checklist
Coolant lines • Inner diameter of the pipe?
From LT thermostat • Length of the pipe?
housing to cooling • Does the pipe run away from the engine up or down?
system • Are there any “goosenecks” in the piping?
Coolant lines • Inner diameter of the pipe?
From cooling system • Length of the pipe?
back to HT thermostat • Does the pipe run away from the engine up or down?
housing • Are there any “goosenecks” in the piping?
Coolant lines • Inner diameter of the pipe?
From LT thermostat • Length of the pipe?
housing to cooling • Does the pipe run away from the engine up or down?
system • Are there any “goosenecks” in the piping?
Coolant lines • Inner diameter of the pipe?
From cooling system • Length of the pipe?
back to LT pump • Does the pipe run away from the engine up or down?
• Are there any “goosenecks” in the piping?
How was the genset filled (via the plug screws on the water pumps or via the ex-
pansion tank)?
Which component is at the highest point in the system?
How great is the difference in height between the engine and the expansion tank?

Table 7: LT/HT coolant pump checklist

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12.10.2 Measuring equipment
Note:
All test equipment must be calibrated and in satisfactory condition.

WARNING
Coolant is hot and under pressure.
Risk of injury and scalding!
• Let the engine cool down.
• Wear protective clothing, gloves, and goggles / safety mask.

CAUTION
Use of transparent tubing
Risk of injury and scalding!
• Use transparent tubing of appropriate wall thickness and material temperature rating.
• Install transparent tubing securely and carefully.

Check the coolant flow for any visible bubbles of air when completing the product questionnaire during the
test run. Preferably use transparent tubing which allows air bubbles to be detected easily. Sight glasses can
also be used nevertheless. Install sight glasses or transparent tubing in the coolant line running from the
engine to the cooler (in both the HT circuit and the LT circuit). Replace the venting and filling lines with trans-
parent tubing.
Note:
Only use sight glasses and transparent tubing during trials when the engine is not running under full load.
Remove any sight glasses and transparent tubing when conducting trials with the engine running under full
load, or if high coolant temperatures can be expected.

Engine test bench or other means of loading
It must be possible to operate the engine at full load during trials in order to complete the questionnaire.
Full-load testing is mandatory to validate the cooling system.
Note:
MTU will reject any questionnaire which does reflect completion of full-load testing.
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12.10.3 Cooling capacity index test
Record data at regular intervals, but only after temperatures and pressures have stabilized.
The following data may be necessary:
• Engine speed
• Driving speed (depending on the application)
• Engine load
• Gear used (depending on the application)
• Intake air differential pressure
• Exhaust back pressure
• Air intake temperature
• Oil pan temperature
• Mean exhaust gas temperature
• Fuel inlet temperature
• Coolant cooler air inlet temperature
• Coolant cooler air outlet temperature
• Ambient temperature
• Engine coolant outlet temperature
• Coolant cooler outlet temperature – HT circuit
• Coolant cooler outlet temperature – LT circuit
• Charge-air coolant outlet temperature
• Temperature in the intake manifold
• Pressure at the turbocharger outlet
• Pressure in the intake manifold
Use the following formulas (including adjustment factors for altitude and coolant) to determine the limiting
ambient temperature (LAT) of the cooling system.

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13 Starting System
13.1 Starter – Safety notes and general information
Most of the engines on offer from MTU include just one starter in the scope of delivery, although a dual or
redundant starting system may be installed if desired.
Refer to the general arrangement drawings for information on installing the starter.
Establish connections and route the supply lines (electrical cabling, compressed air piping etc.) such as to
avoid any form of mechanical, thermal or chemical damage.

DANGER
Electric shock.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Strictly follow all codes, standards, regulations, and laws pertaining to the installation.

DANGER
Electric shock.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Exercise extreme caution when working on or around electrical components.
• Ensure the main switch is in "OFF" position when servicing any part of the electrical system.
• Remove all electrical power before removing protective shields for service or maintenance.

DANGER
Manipulation of interlocks on parts under high voltage. Live components and connections.
Risk of burns or death from electric shock!
• Do not tamper with any interlocks in the system.

DANGER
Electric shock.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Do not touch battery terminals, generator terminals or cables while the engine-generator set is being
started or is running.

DANGER
Electric shock.
Risk of serious injury – danger to life!
• Verify that all power leads and control connections are properly insulated before starting the engine-
generator set.

DANGER
Fire and explosion.
Risk of serious injury - danger to life!
• Refrain from smoking or using an open flame when near batteries.
• Refrain from opening, dismantling or mutilating the battery/batteries.
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WARNING
Electric shock.
Risk of serious injury!
• Disconnect battery ground cable when servicing any part of the electrical system.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Starting System | 155
WARNING
Batteries are live parts.
Risk of electric shock!
• Take care when disconnecting battery cables.
• Remove the negative side of the battery first.

WARNING
Electric shock.
Risk of serious injury!
• Remove fuse in DC system when servicing any part of the electrical system.

WARNING
Chemical contact.
Risk of serious injury!
• Check battery polarity before connecting the cables to the battery.

WARNING
Hazardous acids, alkaline solutions, coolant, fuel, paint and preservatives.
Risk of serious injury!
• Consult appropriate Material Safety Data Sheets for proper handling, use and storage information.
• Immediately seek medical attention if contact or ingestion has occurred.

WARNING
Hazardous fluids.
Chemical contact with battery acid, alkaline electrolytes or caustic byproducts.
Risk of serious injury!
• Wear protective clothing to prevent contact with skin.
• Flush eyes and/or wash skin immediately with water for at least 15 minutes after contact.
• Seek medical attention immediately after contact or ingestion.

WARNING
Heavy objects.
Risk of serious injury!
• Use adequate mechanical lifting equipment or seek assistance.

WARNING
Fire and sparks.
Risk of serious injury!
• Keep sparks and open flames away from the battery/batteries.

WARNING
Sparks.
Risk of serious injury!
• Check battery polarity before connecting the cables to the battery.
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NOTICE
Incorrect battery selection and installation.
Damage to battery/batteries!
• Size battery/batteries appropriately according to the application.
• Install battery/batteries away from environmental contaminants.
• Protect battery/batteries from vibration.

156 | Starting System | MS65026/01E 2015-07
NOTICE
Non-compliance to the battery handling recommendations.
Damage to battery/batteries and other equipment!
• Use tools with insulated handles.
• Avoid placing tools on the battery/batteries.
• Remove watches, rings or other metal objects.
• Disconnect the engine-generator set controls when replacing the battery/batteries.
• Disconnect ground first; connect ground last.
• Install batteries of equal voltage.
• Use an appropriate neutralizing agent to wipe up potentially spilled electrolyte.
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13.2 Starting Equipment (Electric)
13.2.1 Starting batteries
WARNING
Batteries develop explosive gases during charging.
Risk of serious injury from explosion and burning!
• Work in a well-ventilated area.
• Avoid open flames, electrical sparks and ignition sources near the battery.
• Do not smoke.
• Ensure only the negative lead is removed from the battery.
• Ensure correct polarity of battery connections.

WARNING
Batteries contain very caustic acid.
Risk of serious injury from chemical burn!
• Wear protective clothing, gloves and goggles/safety mask.
• If contact with battery acid occurs, flush skin with water, apply baking soda or lime to neutralize the
acid, flush eyes with water and get medical attention immediately.

WARNING
Battery acid is highly caustic.
Explosive gases develop during charging.
Metal objects between battery terminals cause short-ciruits.
Risk of burns, explosion, and short-circuiting!
• Wear protective clothing, gloves, and goggles / safety mask.
• Avoid open flames, electrical sparks and ignition sources.
• Do not smoke.
• If battery filling gets into eyes, rinse immediately with water and seek medical attention.
• Do not place metal objects on battery.

The recommended battery capacity is specified for each engine on the Business Portal.
When installing batteries ensure that they are well-protected from any sources of ignition or sparking, road
dirt and other forms of soiling. However, locate the batteries as close as possible to the starter motor (to
minimize starter cable cross section). Batteries must be protected from vibration and easily accessible for
visual inspection and maintenance.

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13.2.2 Battery selection
Two types of battery are available to supply power to the starting system: Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium
(NiCd). The advantages and disadvantages of both types of battery are listed in table (→ Table 8).

Lead-acid battery NiCd battery
Less expensive than NiCd batteries More expensive than lead-acid batteries
Less maintenance required More maintenance required
Reduced starting power at low temperatures
Will not freeze at temperatures of below 0 °C
(< 0 °C)
Water loss accelerates battery aging Suitable for high discharge currents
Unsuitable for frequent rapid charging Well-suited for frequent rapid charging
Unsuitable for long periods in storage, especially in Storage over long periods possible, both in the
the uncharged state (risk of water loss) charged and uncharged states
Lower capacity adequate compared to lead-acid bat-
Higher capacity required compared to NiCd batteries
teries
Suitable for use at temperatures above 40 °C with- Operating temperatures above 40 °C curtail the use-
out reservation ful life of NiCd batteries

Table 8: Lead-acid batteries vs. NiCd batteries
It is important to follow the manufacturer's installation and operating instructions when using NiCd batteries.
Three different types of lead-acid battery can be used:
• Batteries with cell plugs
• Low-maintenance batteries
• Maintenance-free batteries
The main factor to consider when choosing between these three options is maintenance. As the name sug-
gests, maintenance-free batteries need the least maintenance. Low-maintenance batteries and batteries with
cell plugs do need some maintenance such as topping up with water and cleaning the terminals. Batteries
with cell plugs need significantly more maintenance.
Deep cycle lead-acid batteries are not recommended for starting systems on MTU engines.
Important note: Electrical starters are designed for a series resistance (line resistance, internal battery resist-
ance) which must be observed when selecting a battery. The relevant values are specified on the starter
drawings and are also available on the Business Portal.
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13.3 Air start
An air start system comprises the following components:
• Air starter
• Compressed air tank with pressure limiting valve, drain cock and pressure gage
• Air compressor
• Control valve
• Air filter (before starter)
• Air supply lines
Series 2000G06 engines are available with air start systems. The air start system must incorporate an air
tank having an adequate minimum volume to ensure that the specified starting speed and starting time can
still be achieved even when making several consecutive attempts to start the engine. Refer to the TEN data
for more information on designing the start air system.
Any air start system must have the following design features and operating characteristics:
• The air tank must be adequately dimensioned to supply the air starter and any additional pneumatic
equipment, to compensate for piping loss and to realize the specified number of attempted starts.
• All foreign bodies must be removed from the system before connecting the air supply lines to the starter.
• The starting system must be drained at regular intervals.
• A replaceable filter must be installed upstream of each starter motor.
• Compressed air lines leading to multiple starters must run parallel.
• Compressed air lines must be appropriately dimensioned and routed to minimize pressure loss.
• A pressure gage must be installed at the air tank.
Observe the specified admissible pressures for the air starter. See TEN data for details of pressures.
The schematic representation illustrated in (→ Figure 53) shows an example for designing an air start system.

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Figure 53: Air start system
1 Main air supply 4 Control line no. 4 (1/4") 7 Timer
2 Hose 5 Control line 8 From power source
• 1" if starter is within 6 Solenoid valve with high
25 ft of the main air sup- flow rate
ply
• 1-1/14" if starter is more
than 25 ft away from the
main air supply
3 Relay valve (inlet/outlet
1-1/4" or 1-1/2" NPT)
Note:
Install the relay valve (3) as close to the starter as possible for best results.
The overall length of the control line (5) from connection 'A' at the starter control valve to connection 'IN'
at the starter must not exceed 3 m (10 ft).
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13.4 Starting systems – Redundant
Redundant starting systems increase dependability as they generally feature two starters which are control-
led as follows:
• Starter 1 is activated, engages and attempts to accelerate the engine up to firing speed.
• The start command is canceled for this starter should the engine fail to start.
• If the starter pinion is no longer engaged in the starter gear, starter 2 is activated and attempts to acceler-
ate the engine up to firing speed.
Important: When using external control systems, customers must ensure that the two starters are not acti-
vated or engaged simultaneously and both attempt to accelerate the engine. This could damage the staring
system.

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13.5 Parallel starter systems
Both starters engage in the starter gear in parallel in this case. The two starters are energized simultaneously
only when both have been engaged. Not all starters can be used for this special starting method as it re-
quires feedback on the state of engagement.
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13.6 Starter disengagement and start interlock
All starting systems must be designed to automatically disengage the starter as soon as the diesel engine
has picked up speed in order to prevent damage. Engines with electrical starting systems generally feature
an additional freewheel to disengage the starter pinion. This freewheel prevents the armature from overrun-
ning and damaging the starter motor.
On air starting systems, the starter must be disengaged and the supply of compressed air cut off as soon as
the diesel engine picks up speed.
Apart from disengaging after starting the diesel engine, the starter must not engage accidentally when the
engine is running. All starting systems must incorporate a start interlock as a feature of starter motor en-
gagement control.
Some starters, e.g. electric starters, can only make a limited number of consecutive attempts at starting.
They then have to cool down. Refer to the TEN data on the Business Portal for details.

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13.7 Safe engine start
MTU engines can be started in two ways:
1. Starting monitored by MTU electronic control system
• Prior to engine starting the electronic control system executes a self-test routine to ensure that the
engine can be started safely. The control system checks all active start interlocks (activated by sensor
inputs), stop requests or other messages indicating that the engine should not be started.
2. Starting monitored externally
• The MTU electronic control system does not perform any safety checks in this operating mode. The
controller manufacturer is responsible for arranging equivalent safety mechanisms. Refer to the docu-
mentation of the electronic engine management system for details of requirements for engine start-
ing.
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14 Electronic Controls
14.1 Electronic controls – Safety notes and general information
Apart from engines, MTU also delivers state-of-the-art electronic control systems for engine management
and operational monitoring.

NOTICE
Malfunction due to unsolved fault.
Damage to equipment!
• Do not attempt to restart until the cause for shutdown has been identified and corrected.

NOTICE
Live voltages in the electronic control and monitoring system.
Damage to equipment!
• Comply with the operating instructions given with this equipment.

NOTICE
Incautious handling in transit.
Damage to equipment!
• Suitably pack electronic components when being returned for core credit, repair, warranty and/or
analysis.

NOTICE
False cable connection.
Damage to equipment!
• Correctly connect and secure all cables prior to energizing the system.

NOTICE
Chafing of cables.
Damage to equipment!
• Use cable clamps to limit vibration and restrict motion.
• Use grommets to properly install wiring harnesses.

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14.2 Engine governing
In addition to processing programmed logic operations, MTU electronic control systems handle numerous
sensor and operator inputs to regulate operation of the engine by adjusting engine speed and fuel injection.
Sensors installed around the engine plant constantly monitor vital engine parameters such as:
• Oil temperature and oil pressure
• Coolant level and coolant temperature
• Fuel pressure
• Charge pressure
• Engine load and engine speed
• Ambient conditions
Operator inputs and sensor values are processed by the electronic control system. Input commands deter-
mine injection timing and quantity to deliver the engine power requested by the operator.
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14.3 Engine diagnostics
The third task of the electronic control system is to diagnose the engine by means of automatic or manually
initiated functional checks.
The electronic control system constantly diagnoses the engine to ensure that it is operating correctly. A ser-
ies of self-tests run whenever the engine is started. These self-tests are repeated continuously until the en-
gine is shut down. Any faults are recorded and can be checked by the operator later.
Qualified personnel can access the electronic control system using diagnostic software. The user can moni-
tor engine operation in real time, read out fault codes and other stored information (load profiles) and
change engine parameters.
MTU offers a special course of training in using the diagnostic software.

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14.4 Engine Control Unit (ECU)
Note:
This component is referred to as the Electronic Control Module (ECM) in DDEC applications. The abbrevia-
tions ECM and ECU are occasionally used synonymously.

The Engine Control Unit incorporates the control logic for all functions related to engine management. It
processes sensor inputs to determine fuel injection quantity and timing. It monitors itself and other engine
systems for faults which might disrupt correct operation of the engine.
The Engine Control Unit is designed to withstand the harsh environments commonly associated with oilfield
applications:
• Extremely high or low temperatures
• High humidity and direct contact with water
• Exposure to chemicals
• Effects of heavy impacts
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14.5 Sensors
Sensors supply a wide range of engine and plant operating data to the Engine Control Unit. This data is rele-
vant for engine performance, diagnostics and protection.
Sensors usually monitor the following on MTU engines:
• Fuel pressure
• Engine coolant temperature
• Charge pressure
• Charge-air coolant temperature
• Charge air coolant temperature
• Charge air coolant pressure
• Oil pressure
• Oil temperature
• Intake air temperature
• Rail pressure
• Coolant level
• Water level in fuel prefilter

Engine signals
The following engine signals are received by the engine governor of the engine management system ADEC
for stationary engine-generator sets:

Sen- Signal Sensor measuring Electrical signal Item in figure
sor range (→ Figure 54)
B1 Camshaft speed 80 to 2800 rpm 0 to 80 Vpp AC 3
B5 Lube oil pressure 0 to 10 bar relative 0.5 to 4.5 VDC 2
B6 Engine coolant temperature –40 to +150 °C PT 1000 1
(–40 to +302 °F)
B7 Lube oil temperature –40 to +150 °C PT 1000 1
(–40 to +302 °F)
B9 Charge-air coolant temperature –40 to +150 °C PT 1000 1
(–40 to +302 °F)
B10 Charge pressure 0.5 to 6 bar absolute 0.5 to 4.5 VDC 5
B13 Crankshaft speed 80 to 2800 rpm 0 to 80 Vpp AC 3
B33 Fuel temperature HP side –40 to +150 °C PT 1000 1
(–40 to +302 °F)
F33 Engine coolant level – Binary (/ GND) 4

Table 9: Overview of sensors
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Figure 54: Sensor types
The positions of the various sensors are shown in the engine installation drawing.
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14.6 Wiring
Exercise utmost caution when wiring up electronic control systems!
General wiring guidelines are listed below:
• All wires must be made of soft-annealed copper (no aluminum wiring).
• All wires must comply with the SAE J1128 standard.
• All wires must be insulated with cross-linked polyethylene or a similar self-extinguishing material. Insula-
tion must be capable of withstanding temperatures ranging between -40 °C and 125 °C.
• Use cable conduits, braiding or a combination of both to protect the wiring.
• Take care to avoid damaging the wiring when installing or removing parts. Ensure that wiring cannot be
damaged during operation by straining over sharp edges, chafing against other components or contact
with hot surfaces.
• Ensure that cables are secured in cable clamps and cannot move freely.
• Do not secure wiring to fluid lines, moving parts or exhaust pipes.
• Use cables with twisted-pair wiring to connect sensors and actuators. The maximum length of unshielded
cabling is 5 m (16.4 ft). Shielded cabling may be as long as 50 m (164 ft) providing that its resistance
does not significantly weaken the electronic signal.
• The maximum length for data connections according to SAE 1939 is 40 m (131 ft).
• Twisted pairs as per SAE J1922 must have at least twelve windings per foot (305 mm). Twisted pairs as
per SAE J1939 must have at least nine windings per foot (305 mm).
Note:
This guide describes general wiring principles only. For information specific to your application please refer
to the application and installation manual of the electronic control system concerned, SAE standards or the
documentation provided by the classification society involved.

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14.7 Networking
MTU electronic control systems provide serial communication links.
MTU uses the following serial communication protocol:
• SAE J1939
This communication link facilitates:
• Transmitting engine data from the control unit via the data link at regular intervals or on request
• Transmitting customer control signals from external controls to the control unit
• Exchanging information between independent modules within the system
• Exchanging engine data with operator displays and control systems
• Transmitting diagnostic data and processing diagnostic routines with external systems such as:
– Computer-based diagnostic software: DiaSys (ADEC)
These communication protocols transmit information about faults detected by the electronic control system.
These protocols use specially coded messages containing information about the type and location of the
fault.
For more information about the serial communication protocol for MTU electronic controllers please refer to
the following SAE documentation:
• SAE J1939 – Serial Control and Communications Heavy Duty Vehicle Network
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14.8 ADEC – Functional checks prior to initial start-up
Check system installation to ensure that:
• All cables are correctly connected to the starter. Ensure that none of the cables, cable lugs etc. are touch-
ing and that all terminals are covered with rubber caps.
• All connectors are correctly plugged in to the Engine Control Unit and the locking clips are engaged.
• All cables are correctly connected to the battery and do not cause any short circuits.
• The engine and all devices are grounded.
• All connectors are correctly plugged in to the user interface devices. Check connector designations and
firm seating.
• All cables are properly secured at appropriate points in the control cabinet and installation location.
• All cables are properly secured to the engine by appropriate means. These cables (to the starter and En-
gine Control Unit on the engine) must not sag at any point. They must be secured to the engine.
• All cables are neatly routed in the control cabinet, housings and cable channels. Connectors and cable
designations must still be legible after installation if at all possible.
Ensure that:
• Cables are never routed over sharp edges unless appropriately protected to prevent chafing.
• Cables cannot be sheared through when the doors or flaps etc. of the control cabinet are closed.
• Ensure that the termination resistor (121 Ω) is installed at the end of each CAN bus line.

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15 Generator
15.1 Generators and couplings
Note:
Prevent electrical erosion. Electrical erosion is caused by stray currents flowing from the generator stator
through the flywheel housing and crankshaft (and its bearings) before returning through the generator ro-
tor. Refer to the chapter on “Electrical connections” (→ Page 176).
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15.2 Recommendations to Avoid Electric Erosion
15.2.1 General information
Inhomogeneous generator components can induce a voltage in the generator shaft which may be transferred
to the crankshaft (e.g. via driver disk or flywheel). On passing a threshold, this voltage is discharged between
bearing and crankshaft. (→ Figure 55) depicts the electrical erosion process.

Figure 55: Electrical erosion process
1 Crankshaft bearing 5 Crankshaft Y The oil film in the main
2 Flywheel and driver disk A Engine bearing is the only isolator
3 Generator bearing B Generator in the fully closed circuit.
4 Plant substructure X Inhomogeneities in the gen- Z On exceeding a critical level
erator can induce a ripple the voltage is discharged at
voltage. the interface between bear-
ing and crankshaft. The in-
tensity of this discharge de-
pends on a number of fac-
tors such as oil quality, oil
temperature and the thick-
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ness of the oil film. Such
discharge causes electrical
erosion (possibly both at
the engine bearings and the
generator bearings).
Local voltage discharge can damage the surface of the crankshaft leading to increased wear and even bear-
ing seizure. Voltage discharge, and the surface damage associated with it, is also possible at the generator
bearing.
Electrical erosion cannot be easily substantiated as its characteristic symptoms are often hard to detect –
even after suffering severe engine damage as a result.

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15.2.2 Insulated generator bearings and insulated auxiliary drive
Generators coupled with MTU engines, especially single-bearing generators, must be equipped with insulated
bearings. Manufacturers must also ensure that any auxiliary drives are also electrically-isolated from the
base skid of the genset.

Figure 56: Correct insulation of engine and generator
1 Crankshaft bearing 4 Insulated auxiliary drive A Engine
2 Flywheel and driver disk 5 Frame B Generator
3 Insulated generator bearing 6 Crankshaft C Auxiliary drive
Additional installation instructions for generators are available on the MTU Business Portal ordered by engine
series.
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15.2.3 Additional installation instructions for generators
In addition to isolating the generator, manufacturers should preferably choose generators incorporating rotor
grounding to further protect the entire genset. In practice, experience shows that generator insulation may
become less effective as time passes, or be rendered ineffective by external factors.
MTU recommends following the maintenance schedule provided by the generator manufacturer.

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15.2.4 General grounding recommendations
MTU specifies ground strips both for the engine and the generator in order to prevent electrostatic charging.
Refer to the National Electrical Code (NEC) 250-30, 250-64, 250-130 for details.
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15.3 Single bearing
Single bearing generators are directly flanged onto the engine via a torsionally-rigid diaphragm coupling
which still offers a degree of axial flexibility.
The generator rotor is partially supported by a single bearing on the free end of the generator. The remaining
mass of the rotor shaft is carried by the crankshaft bearings in the engine.

Figure 57: Engine with single bearing generator
1 Generator shaft bearing B Flywheel housing
A Engine C Generator

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15.4 Installation requirements for single bearing generators
• The generator flange housing (connection between engine and generator) must be sufficiently rigid.
• Do not overload the engine crankshaft and generator rotor.
• Do not overload the engine crankshaft and generator rotor.
– Do not overload the engine crankshaft and generator rotor.
– The axial force of the generator acting on the crankshaft
– The mass moment of inertia of the rotor around the axis of rotation
– The flexural strength of the diaphragm coupling
• A torsional vibration calculation is required. See section on “Bearings” (→ Page 194) for more information
about torsional vibration calculations.
• Bending moments on the flywheel housing must remain below the admissible limits. These values are
specified in the relevant instructions for the generator coupling.
• The generator bearing and the diaphragm coupling must have a degree of axial freedom to compensate
for axial forces resulting from thermal expansion.
The following requirements apply in particular:
• Maximum mass moment of inertia of the rotor assembly
• Maximum admissible radial load on the driving end of the crankshaft including the mass of the diaphragm
coupling, coupling and rotor
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15.5 Double bearing generators
Double bearing generators which are directly flanged onto the engine are driven by means of an elastomer
coupling offering torsional, radial and axial compliance.
The mass of the generator rotor is carried by two bearings disposed at each end of the rotor shaft.

Figure 58: Double bearing generator directly flanged onto the engine
1 Generator shaft bearing B Flywheel housing
A Engine C Generator

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15.6 Installation requirements for double bearing generators
The coupling must accommodate axial, radial and angular offset between generator shaft and engine crank-
shaft. It must also compensate distortion of the genset. The elastomeric components of the coupling must
be designed to withstand the prevailing operating temperatures in the generator flange housing.
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15.7 Couplings
Consider the following points when selecting and assembling a coupling:
• Observe the specifications and procedures defined by MTU and the respective manufacturers of the gen-
erator and coupling when installing and removing the coupling.
• Couplings are only approved for use following a torsional vibration analysis conducted by MTU.
• Fit appropriate guards to prevent accidental contact with couplings and rotating parts.
• Select bolts, nuts, materials and mating surfaces which are capable of withstanding the specified forces
under all operating conditions.
• Use larger washers for aluminum components. Spring washers are unsuitable for such bolted connec-
tions.
• Ensure that the mating surface is clean and undamaged before installing the coupling.
• Check radial runout tolerances before installing the coupling.
• Ensure that elastomer couplings are adequately ventilated to remove heat.
• The coupling must be easily accessible for inspection and maintenance work.

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15.8 Thrust clearance requirements for crankshaft and generator
shaft
Important:
The thrust clearance required by the crankshaft must not be confined by the coupling to the generator. This
could intensify the axial forces acting on the crankshaft leading to severe engine damage.
Consider the following points before establishing the connection between engine and generator:
• Check crankshaft thrust distance against the specifications in the engine installation drawing.
• Check the thrust distance of the generator shaft.
See (→ Figure 59) for thrust distance requirements (for both engine and generator).

Figure 59: Thrust distance requirements – Engine and generator
1 Diaphragm coupling or driv- 4 Generator mount b Limit value for thrust dis-
er disk 5 Generator shaft tance
2 Generator flange surface a Distance between driver
Generator shaft disk and generator flange
3 Generator fan housing
Refer to the assembly instructions of the coupling concerned for details of thrust tolerances.
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15.9 Driven Component Checks
15.9.1 Alignment of additional components
Check the installation dimensions of the engine, coupling and generator or other additional components prior
to installation. This ensures that all the components fit together precisely.
Correct alignment of the engine and all additional components minimizes bending stress at the flywheel
housing and is thus a pre-requisite for trouble-free operation. Refer to the relevant assembly instructions for
the generator connected to the engine.

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15.9.2 Angular alignment
Correct angular alignment of the engine and the components it drives is the key to trouble-free operation.
Incorrect angular alignment may lead to excessive vibration and the increased risk of severely damaging the
engine or its components which this entails.
Misalignment may be the reason for any kind of vibration. Follow the instructions for correctly aligning gener-
ators, gearboxes or other driven components. Consult an authorized MTU representative if you need support.
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15.9.3 Unbalance in rotating parts
Unbalance in the flywheel, coupling and generator rotor may lead to linear vibration. Refer to the MTU guide-
lines for balancing rotating parts (→ Page 241).

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15.9.4 Flywheel adapter seating
The flywheel adapter must be correctly seated on the flywheel to avoid excessive vibration. Before installing,
inspect the mating surfaces for flaws, corrosion, foreign particles or irregularities.
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15.9.5 Radial runout
Check radial runout of the flywheel, adapters, couplings, rotors and input shafts in the course of aligning and
installing the coupling. Refer to the special instructions concerning alignment during installation. Consult an
authorized MTU representative if you need support.

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15.9.6 Flywheel housing ventilation
The coupling must be adequately ventilated to dissipate heat. Refer to the relevant guidelines and specifica-
tions of the coupling for details of operating temperature limits. A forced airflow through the generator is
also needed to cool gensets. Generator manufacturers usually include adequate ventilation in their plans. Do
not attempt to modify or close ventilation facilities. Contact an authorized MTU representative and the cou-
pling or generator manufacturer for special instructions when operating in extreme ambient conditions.
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15.9.7 Forces exerted on the crankshaft
Forces are exerted on the crankshaft when a generator or any other component is installed on the main PTO
of the engine. The crankshaft then bears part of the weight of the driven component. Radial load exerted on
the driving end of the crankshaft must not exceed the limits specified in the MTU installation instructions for
the generator coupling. Example shown in drawings from (→ Page 241). Consult an authorized MTU represen-
tative for more information about radial loading of the crankshaft. Do not subject the crankshaft to any form
of external axial loading. Check the thrust clearance of driven components prior to installation and ensure
that it remains within the admissible tolerances for the engine and coupling or driver disk.

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15.9.8 Torsional vibration and bending moment analysis
Torsional vibration and bending moment analyses are helpful when designing systems in that they reveal po-
tentially harmful vibrational stresses. A torsional vibration and bending moment analysis is required for all
new system designs or in case of modification of existing designs. Refer to (→ Page 194) for details.
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15.9.9 Torsional vibration analysis
Torsional vibration calculations allow excessive resonance frequencies to be predicted and avoided. Torsion-
al vibration may result in unsatisfactory engine operation, excessive wear, premature system failure etc.
These analyses help to determine when torsional stress exceeds admissible limits.
Torsional vibration analyses are necessary for all applications. Approved vibration analyses may be re-used
for identical installations in a previously analyzed application.
MTU conducts vibration analyses for certain applications as needed. Other organizations, such as coupling
manufacturers and consultants also perform vibration analyses. However, results provided by other organiza-
tions are not valid sources for evaluating stresses in components delivered by MTU. A vibration analysis
which has been conducted by MTU is the only admissible assessment of stresses occurring in components
supplied by MTU. MTU vibration analyses are in no way intended to confirm the torsional vibration properties
of any third-party components.

An engine and the transmission to which it is connected can basically be represented as a series of masses.
These masses (rotating parts) are coupled by elements (shafts and couplings) which act like springs. The fol-
lowing information may be required to calculate torsional vibration:
• Description of the system application.
• Arrangement drawing of the overall drive system, including main PTO and auxiliary PTOs
• Mass-elastic diagram of all rotary driven machinery including drive shafts, couplings, flanges etc.
• Engine type and rated power
• Load characteristics of the application
• Order number of engine and plant
• Part numbers of crankshaft pulley, vibration dampers, installed auxiliary drives and flywheel
• Coupling brand and type
• Brand and type of rotary driven machinery
• Expected ambient temperature
An approved torsional vibration analysis is essential for a long useful life, reliability and ultimately the suc-
cess of any power transmission system. Submitting complete and informative driveline data together with
any request for a torsional vibration analysis is therefore vital. Information about all possible operating condi-
tions of the application concerned is also needed (e.g. power vs. speed).
The plant manufacturer is responsible for having torsional vibration calculated for any new configuration.
Even minor modifications to rotary driven machinery may have a major impact on the results of the torsional
vibration analysis.
The relevant form and details on how to apply are available on the Business Portal.
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16 Mounting / Support
16.1 Mounting system
The main functional requirements on an engine mounting system are:
• To adequately support the engine and driven components
• To limit and reduce movement of the engine and plant when subjected to transient and torsional excita-
tion
• To isolate mechanical vibration and structure-borne noise
• To limit external impact and transient forces to avoid physical contact between the engine and surround-
ing equipment
– To isolate sudden transient excitation (e.g. explosion or earthquake)
• To limit bending moment at the juncture between cylinder block and flywheel housing (rear flange face of
block) to the maximum values specified
• To prevent torsional loading of engine block and plant
• To compensate for thermal expansion and manufacturing/assembly tolerances
The most common mounting configurations are:
• Four-point mounting
• Six- and eight-point mounting
These configurations can be realized with resilient or rigid mounting systems. MTU recommends resilient
mountings for standard use. Take advice from an authorized MTU representation when dealing with more
sophisticated installations.
The vibration characteristics of the installation are determined by:
• The combined weight of the engine and installation
• Rigidity of the mounting system
• The properties of the supporting sub-structure
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16.2 Mounting Configurations
16.2.1 Four-point mounting
Four-point mounting is more suitable for stationary engines where the base skid or substructure is unlikely to
be subjected to dynamic loading. Two of the four mounting points are usually located at the front of the en-
gine with the other two at the rear. Four-point mounting arrangements are easy to adapt for use with resil-
ient mounts. (→ Figure 60) depicts a four-point mounting arrangement.

Figure 60: Four-point mounting arrangement with front and rear mounting supports
When installing and securing four-point mounting arrangements ensure that alignment takes place before the
mounts are finally bolted to the engine and plant to avoid twisting and bending. Ensure that all bolts are
tightened to the specified torque. Loose bolts lead to fretting corrosion and wear under the screw heads re-
sulting in excessive engine movement or vibration.
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16.2.2 Six- and eight-point mounting
Six- and eight-point mounting arrangements are used in applications where a heavy unit (e.g. a generator) is
directly flanged onto the engine. Three or four mounts support the engine with additional mounts bearing the
weight of the flange-mounted unit. The engine and the flange-mounted unit must be meticulously aligned to
ensure ease of movement, and prevent vibration and wear of the rotating shafts and their bearings. The fig-
ures below – (→ Figure 61) and (→ Figure 62) – depict the basic configurations of five-, six- and eight-point
mounting arrangements.

Figure 61: Six-point mounting arrangement with front and rear (x2) fixed bearing pedestals
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Figure 62: Eight-point mounting arrangement with front (x2) and rear (x2) fixed bearing pedestals
Rigid frames are needed when using six- or eight-point mounting arrangements in mobile machinery. This
prevents torsional and bending loads on the engine and the components attached to it. If mechanical isola-
tion is required, the engine and plant must be mounted on a rigid substructure isolated from the supporting
structure to minimize bending stress. (→ Figure 63) depicts resilient mounting of a substructure on which the
engine/plant is rigidly mounted.

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Figure 63: Rigid mounting on substructure with resilient substructure mounting
1 Rigid mount 2 Resilient mount
When installing and securing six- or eight-point mounting arrangements ensure that alignment takes place
before the mounts are finally bolted to the engine and plant to avoid twisting and bending. Ensure that all
bolts are tightened to the specified torque. Loose bolts lead to fretting corrosion and wear under the screw
heads resulting in excessive engine movement or vibration.
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16.3 Flexible Mounting Systems
16.3.1 Resilient engine mounts
Resilient mounting allows the supporting substructure to be mechanically isolated from vibration originating
from the engine/plant. The following requirements apply to any arrangement involving resilient mounts:
• Select mounts which are appropriately sized to bear the calculated static and dynamic loads experienced
at each mounting point.
• The mounts should protect the engine and plant from strain resulting from bending stress and distortion
of the base skid.
• The mounts protect equipment from vibration at all engine speeds.
• Prevent noise being induced in the foundation.
Resilient-mounted engines can be expected to move a little during operation. All connections/linkages to
and from the engine must therefore by designed to allow such movement.

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16.3.2 Resilient engine mounts – Selection
The best and easiest way of obtaining suitable resilient mounts is to use those offered by MTU. MTU offers
bespoke resilient mounts tailored to the weight of the generator and its intended use.
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16.3.3 Choice of materials
Rubber and spring steel are the main materials used for manufacturing isolators. The characteristics of these
two materials are listed below:
Rubber
• High degree of flexibility
• Good damping properties
• Available in a wide range of Shore hardnesses
• Economical
• Low resistance to fuel and oil
• Limited temperature range (-20 °C to +70 °C)
Spring steel
• Non-wearing
• Capable of achieving very low natural frequencies
• Long service life
• Resilient to oil, fuel, ozone and grease
• Wide operating temperature range
• Low natural damping
We urgently recommend procuring engine mounting elements from MTU as these are already adjusted to
suit specific applications.

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16.4 Rigid Mounting Systems
16.4.1 Rigid engine mounts
Rigid mounting systems are used when the engine, generator and installation itself are a fixed part of the
machine structure. The following requirements apply to any arrangement involving rigid mounts:
• All components which exert reciprocal forces must be rigidly connected to a common frame. Do not, for
example, connect a rigidly-mounted engine and any resiliently-mounted generator connected to it to a
common base skid.
• The engine, plant and any driven equipment must be meticulously aligned to minimize load on the cou-
pling, flywheel and flywheel housing.
• Use isolated fixtures for instruments, electronic equipment, coolers etc. installed on the substructure to
prevent damage resulting from vibration transmitted via the rigid engine mounts.
• All mounting components must be strong enough to withstand the dynamic loads associated with the ap-
plication.
• The arrangement of the rear mounts can restrict the bending moment at the rear flange face of the engine
block.
• Rigid mounts must be designed to accommodate thermal expansion.
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16.4.2 Mounting system – Installation guidelines
Be mindful of the following common issues to ensure that the isolators are installed correctly:
• Ensure that the load-bearing capacity of the isolators is adequate at every mounting point based on the
calculations.
• Ensure that there is sufficient space between mount and structure to prevent the isolator being com-
pressed.
• Ensure that there is no direct contact between the engine and other components which are secured rigidly
to the frame.
• On engine systems, all the mounts must be loaded equally to avoid excessive or uneven loading.
• The mounting elements on the engine must be tightened after delivery on engines supplied with engine
mounts. Refer to MTN5008 for tightening torque specifications.
• Consider bending moments in connecting planes. These values are specified for MTU engines in the rele-
vant documents.

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16.4.3 Engine mounting
See (→ Figure 64) to determine the distance to the center line of the rear mount (RR) to achieve zero bending
moment at the rear flange face of the block (a).

Figure 64: Distance of rear mount for zero bending moment
a Rear flange face of block WT Wet transmission gearbox L2 Distance to center line of
b Rear flange face of flywheel weight rear mount
housing L1 Distance to engine center of RF Reaction force at center line
X Desired zero bending mo- gravity of front mount
ment L3 Distance to center line of RR Reaction force at center line
WE Wet engine weight front mount of rear mount
L4 Distance to gearbox center
of gravity
Determine the distance of the rear mounts (L2) to achieve zero bending moment at the rear flange face of
the cylinder block

Distance formula for center line of rear mount
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Defined engine mounting arrangement
See (→ Figure 65) to determine the bending moment at the rear flange face of the block (Mx) for a defined
engine mounting arrangement. First determine the engine mount reactions RF and RR. The tail mount reaction
RT must be assumed as being zero or a predefined value for the application.

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Mounting / Support | 205
Figure 65: Bending moment for defined engine mounting arrangement
a Rear flange face of block L2 Distance to rear flange face L8 Distance to tail mount
b Rear of flywheel housing of block RF Reaction force at center line
X Desired zero bending mo- L3 Distance to center line of of front mount
ment mount at flywheel housing RR Reaction force at center line
WE Wet engine weight L4 Distance to gearbox center of rear mount
WT Wet transmission gearbox of gravity RT Reaction force at center line
weight L5 Distance to center line of of tail mount
L1 Distance to engine center of tail mount
gravity L6 Distance to center line of
mount at flywheel housing
L7 Distance to gearbox center
of gravity
Determine the bending moment at the rear flange face of the cylinder block for a defined engine mounting
arrangement

Formula for reaction force at the rear mount:
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Formula for bending moment at the rear flange face
of the block:

Note:
Consult MTU Engineering when dealing with applications involving more than 1000 lbft (1356 Nm) at the
rear flange face of the block.

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17 Cold Weather Package
17.1 Cold weather package
MTU engines may only be operated within the temperature ranges specified in the relevant TEN data. Operat-
ing in extreme conditions may therefore necessitate the use of a cold weather package. Some of these pack-
ages simply include additional devices to facilitate engine start-up. Other packages can help to keep the en-
gine temperature above limits when idling.
Cold weather packages typically comprise a combination of:
• Preheating units to facilitate engine start-up
• Auxiliary coolant heaters to keep the engine warm when idling
• Oil preheaters
• Oil pan heaters
• Enclosures for the engine
• Louvers for the front of the coolant cooler
• Idle speed increase
MTU does not recommend the use of oil preheaters. It may be necessary to preheat the lube oil in extreme
circumstances to maintain a constant oil temperature when the engine is running. Consult an authorized
MTU representative if you need a solution for preheating the oil.
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17.2 Engine preheating systems
Preheating systems heat the engine coolant or lube oil to facilitate engine starting. (→ Figure 66) shows an
example of preheating system design.
MTU diesel engines can be started from cold without preheating. However, cold starting increases wear-and-
tear on the engine and has a negative impact on its service life. Refer to the technical sales documentation
for engine-specific limit values for operation with and without preheating at low ambient temperatures.
Only the HT circuit normally requires preheating. However, both the HT circuit and the LT circuit must be
preheated in extreme conditions.

Figure 66: Example of a preheating system
1 Pump 5 Preheating unit C03 Return from preheating unit
2 Engine 6 Oil cooler C05 Preheating unit power sup-
3 Thermostat C01 Connection (OEM) coolant ply (connect to pump inlet)
4 Cooler outlet, engine cooler
C02 Connection (OEM) coolant
inlet, engine cooler
Refer to the relevant schematic representation of the cooling system for information on the position of the
connections of a given engine preheating system.
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17.3 Housing / enclosure
Consider installing a housing and cooler louvers if the engine is operated at extremely cold temperatures for
longer periods. Poorly designed housings may lead to excessive coolant, oil and charge-air temperatures.
This in turn can result in shorter engine service life, loss of engine power and poor fuel utilization. Engine
housings can also excessively load the fan and its drive components. Housings must never fully seal off the
engine. A general rule-of-thumb is that at least 25% of the surface in the middle of the face of the water
cooler must remain free for an unrestricted flow of air.
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18 Validation and Commissioning
18.1 Reference documents
WARNING
Live parts, rotating and moving parts and a high level of engine noise.
Risk of electric shock, crushing, parts of the body being caught or pulled in or damage to hear-
ing!
• Before starting, ensure that no other persons are in or near the danger zone.
• Carry out safety precautions to prevent persons entering the danger zone.
• Ensure that all protective guards and covers are installed, if the engine has been started in order to
perform maintenance tasks
• Always start the engine according to the procedure described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual.

NOTICE
Risk of engine damage due to incorrect action.
Risk of severe damage to property!
• Ensure engine is ready for operation before starting. See engine documentation.

Carefully check all relevant documents, drawings and diagrams prior to initial start-up.
• Read the section concerning “Initial start-up” in the Operating Instructions of the engine concerned.
• Only use approved fuels, oils and coolants listed in the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specifications.
We recommend users to keep a copy of the commissioning report from the initial sample test. Keep a log
book as evidence of maintenance and repair work performed on the engine and to prove that only approved
fluids and lubricants have been used. Proof of maintenance and repair work is of great help when resolving
warranty issues.

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18.2 General information
MTU requires initial sample testing for any components which are newly introduced by the plant manufactur-
er. Testing must be verified for compliance with MTU's technical specifications and approved by an author-
ized MTU representative. MTU does not require additional tests for subsequent commissioning activities for
plants featuring the same design other than the standard manufacturing tests.
Commissioning tests include the following:
• Installation check for mechanical components
• Installation check for all safety equipment
• System test of the electronics
• System tests to ensure compliance with MTU's technical requirements for operation
These tests ensure that the engine has been installed according to MTU specifications. Any changes deemed
necessary can still be made at this point in time.
Plant manufacturers installing emission-related components must follow MTU guidelines. Failure to do so
may render emissions certificates invalid.
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18.3 Installation
The scope of delivery is determined by the extent to which MTU products are integrated in other systems or
plants. Examples of an MTU scope of delivery:
• Diesel engine
The “Engine mounting” chapter (→ Page 194) includes a detailed description of engine mounting and align-
ment. MTU bears no responsibility for the design or use of components or systems which are neither manu-
factured nor maintained by MTU.

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18.4 Installation drawings for engine and plant
The installation drawings of the engine/plant include the following technical data relevant to installation of
the diesel engine:
• Main dimensions and center of gravity of the engine/plant
• Arrangement of the main components
• Engine mounting
• Dimensions and position of the main connections
• Details of the main and auxiliary PTOs
• Removal space for auxiliary equipment on the engine/plant
• Measuring points for initial operation
• Position of sensors on the engine/plant
The installation drawings depict the standard scope of delivery. Refer to the drawings of any optional equip-
ment for more information about dimensions and assembly instructions. Consult the MTU Business Portal to
request all the latest drawings.
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18.5 Drawings and diagrams
Important drawings and diagrams are appended in the annex to the documentation.
Check the MTU Business Portal to ensure that you have the latest drawings, and order more recent versions
as necessary.

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18.6 General arrangement drawings
The general arrangement drawing depicts the diesel engine and its components. The drawing includes the
following technical data relevant to plant assembly:
• Critical dimensions in side view, plan view and overview
• Plant weight and center of gravity
• Position of the main components
• Plant installation
• Main PTOs
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18.7 Rotating parts
Allow plenty of space for movement around all rotating parts such as fans, V-belts etc. Install suitable covers
over all rotating parts to prevent injury, ensuring adequate ventilation at the same time.

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18.8 Start-Up
18.8.1 Installation check and system function test
During initial operation, the tasks listed below must be carried out in their given order. The application engi-
neer must tailor the scope of work to suit the specific requirements of the order concerned. Testing must at
least include the tasks listed in (→ Table 10):

Order Task Comments
1 Check engine mounting
2 Check crankcase and firm seating
3 Check drive components
4 Check fuel system as per flow diagram
5 Check air intake system as per flow diagram
6 Check exhaust system as per flow diagram
7 Check exhaust system
8 Check lube oil system as per flow diagram
9 Check cooling system as per flow diagram
10 Check electronic functions
11 Prepare engine for start-up See engine Operating Instructions

Table 10: Example of a testing procedure prior to initial engine start-up
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18.8.2 End Product Questionnaire
The “End Product Questionnaire” must be filled out by an authorized MTU representative following final com-
pletion of all installation work on the plant. Trial operation must include all plant components relevant to op-
eration of the engine. Primarily, these are:
• Air system
• Exhaust system
• Fuel system
• Cooling system
• Lubrication system
• Electronic control
• Engine and genset mounting
• Main and auxiliary PTOs
During the system test, correct interaction of the components must be verified and settings optimized as
required. The system test must be conducted with the engine running in full load operation. The engine cool-
ing system must be operated at full load until the engine temperature has stabilized.
When determining the cooling capacity index use blocked open thermostats to eliminate the influence of any
manufacturing tolerances in the thermostats. The original thermostats must be reinstalled after the test is
completed.
The “End Product Questionnaire” available on the MTU Business Portal includes a full list of measurement
data which must be checked and recorded as part of the system test. These preprinted forms can be found
here: Sales & Marketing | Sales Promotion | Dealership Documents (MTU DD).

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18.8.3 Factory acceptance
Having checked the installation and successfully completing system testing the authorized MTU representa-
tive submits a test report to MTU. MTU checks the test report for any inadequacies and responds as neces-
sary.
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18.8.4 Consecutive initial operation of series-produced plants
In the case of orders for multiple, structurally-identical plants, full-scale initial sample testing need only be
conducted on one of the plants. The commissioning test scope can be reduced for subsequent identical
plants before they are put to use. Further approval by an authorized MTU representative is not necessary. Go
to the MTU Business Portal: Service | Documents | Forms | Forms for Initial Start-Up | Oil & Gas. The com-
missioning checklists are available here (forms A and B).

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19 Appendix A
19.1 Abbreviations
Abbre- Meaning Explanation
viation
A/AC Air-to-Air Charge Cooling Diesel engine charge-air cooling method
AC Alternating Current
AGR Abgasrückführung Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
AL Alarm
ANSI American National Standards Institute Association of American standardization organiza-
tions
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATL Abgasturbolader Exhaust turbocharger (ETC)
AWG American Wire Gauge US American unit for wire cross-section
BCI Battery Council International
BDC Bottom Dead Center
BDM Backup Data Module Date backup module
BHP Brake Horse Power
BMEP Brake Mean Effective Pressure
BR Baureihe Series
BTU British Thermal Unit
BV Betriebsstoffvorschrift/Konservierungs- Fluids and Lubricants Specifications / Preservation
vorschrift and Represervation Specifications, MTU Publication
No. A00/..
CA Cranking Amperes Current output from one battery at 0 °C (32 °F)
CAD Computer-Aided Design
CAN Controller Area Network Data bus system, bus standard
CCA Cold Cranking Amperes Current output from one battery at -18 °C (0 °F)
CCB CAN Connection Board Plug-in circuit board for CAN bus communication
CCO Calibration Change Order Data record setting changes to adjust power, optimi-
zations and application groups of engines with iden-
tical hardware
CDC Calibration Drift Compensation To reset drift compensation in the Engine Control
Unit with DiaSys® to optimize emissions and con-
sumption
CE Conformité Européenne Mandatory mark of conformity seen on many prod-
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ucts manufactured for the Common Market or the
European Economic Area
CFH Cubic Feet per Hour Unit of flow rate
CFM Cubic Feet per Minute Unit of flow rate
COM Communication equipment Hardware interface (serial connection)
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Control Checksum procedure to detect data transmission
faults

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Appendix A | 221
Abbre- Meaning Explanation
viation
CSA Canadian Standards Association Non-profit-making association for safety and per-
formance standards including standards for electri-
cal/electronic engineering, industrial plants, boilers
and pressurized vessels, environmental protection
etc.
CT Current Transformer
dB(A) A-weighted decibels Tenth of a Bel, unit of sound pressure level
DC Direct Current
DIFF Difference
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. German National Standards Institute. At the same
time identifier of German standards (DIN = “Deut-
sche Industrie-Norm”)
DL Default Lost Alarm: Default CAN bus failure
DOC Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
DN Diameter Nominal A specified or theoretical diameter which may devi-
ate from actual dimensions, normally within an ad-
missible tolerance range
DPF Diesel Particulate Filter
ECM Electronic Control Module
ECMS Engine Side Control Management System
ECU Engine Control Unit Engine governor
EPA Environmental Protection Agency US regulatory body responsible for implementing
federal laws on environmental protection, develops
standards aimed at ensuring compliance with these
laws
ETK Ersatzteilkatalog Spare Parts Catalog
FO Frequency Output
GND Ground
GPM Gallons Per Minute Unit of flow rate
HALT Highly Accelerated Life Tests
HD Hochdruck High pressure (HP)
HI High Alarm: Measured value exceeds 1st maximum limit
HIHI High High Alarm: Measured value exceeds 2nd maximum limit
HMI Human Machine Interface
HP High Pressure
HP Horse Power
HT High Temperature
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ID Identification number
IEC International Electrotechnical Committee International standards organization for all electrical
and electronic equipment and associated technolo-
gies
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engi- International organization for the promotion of tech-
neers nology related to electricity
IIG Initiale Injektorgleichstellung Initial injector equalization. Input of the injector code
with DiaSys® in the Engine Control Unit to ensure
optimum emission and consumption behavior

222 | Appendix A | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Abbre- Meaning Explanation
viation
IP International Protection (degree of ingress Classifies the protection of electrical/electronic
protection) equipment against environmental factors
ISO International Organization for Standardiza- International umbrella organization for all national
tion standardization institutes
ITS Integrated Test System
KGS Kupplungsgegenseite Engine free end as per DIN ISO 1204
KS Kupplungsseite Engine driving end as per DIN ISO 1204
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LED Light Emitting Diode
L.L.C. Limited Liability Company
LO Low Alarm: Measured value lower than 1st minimum limit
LOLO Low Low Alarm: Measured value lower than 2nd minimum lim-
it
LP Low Pressure
LT Low Temperature
MCS Monitoring and Control System
MTU Motoren- und Turbinenunion
MV Magnetventil Solenoid valve
NEC National Electrical Code US American electrical engineering standard
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Associa- US American standards association for electrotech-
tion nical products
NFPA National Fire Protection Association US American fire-prevention association
NPT National Pipe Thread US American standard for conical threads
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administra- US American federal authority for health and safety
tion at work
OT Oberer Totpunkt Top Dead Center (TDC)
PAN Panel Control panel / control cabinet
PF Power Factor
PH Phase
PM Permanent Magnet
PMG Permanent Magnet Generator
PSI Pounds per Square Inch
PTO Power Take-Off Main and auxiliary PTOs
PU Projektierungsumgebung Project configuration environment
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PVC Polyvinylchloride
P-xyz Pressure-xyz Pressure measuring point xyz
QL Qualification Level
RCM Reserve Capacity Minutes Unit of battery discharge
RDP Remote Desktop Protocol
RFOB Rear Face of Block
RMS Root Mean Square Mathematics: Root mean square

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Appendix A | 223
Abbre- Meaning Explanation
viation
RPM Revolutions Per Minute Unit of frequency (1 rpm = 1/60 Hz)
Number of shaft revolutions completed in one mi-
nute
RTC Real Time Clock
RTD Resistive Temperature Device
RTU Remote Terminal Unit Interface for Modbus
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers US American standardization organization
SCA Supplemental Coolant Additive
SD Sensor Defect Alarm: Sensor failure
SLI Starting, Lighting, Ignition Starter batter configuration
SS Safety System Safety system alarm
TA-Luft Technical Instructions on Air Quality Con- German air pollution control regulations (emission
trol limits for stationary engines in Germany)
TB Terminal Block
TB — Synonym for: Liquid-to-air charge-air cooling
TBO Time Between Overhaul Time to major overhaul
TCP Transmission Control Protocol Interface for Modbus
TD — Synonym for: Air-to-air charge-air cooling
TDC Top Dead Center
TEN Technical Evolution Network Technical sales documentation, engine data, techni-
cal data
TS Transfer Switch
T-xyz Temperature-xyz Temperature measuring point xyz
U Symbol for electric voltage
UDP User Datagram Protocol Network protocol for communication via Ethernet
UL Underwriters Laboratories Global non-profit-making organization for product
safety testing and certification
Ultra- UltraCap modules Starting system capacitors
Caps
UPS Uninterrupted Power Source
USV Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung Uninterruptible power supply
UT Unterer TotpunktBottom Dead Center Bottom Dead Center (BDC)
VAwS Verordnung über Anlagen zum Umgang mit Ordinance on Installations for the Handling of Sub-
wassergefährdenden Stoffen stances Hazardous to Water. German regulations on
water pollution control
VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information
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Technologies. Association of German Electrical Engi-
neers
WZK Werkzeugkatalog Tool Catalog

224 | Appendix A | MS65026/01E 2015-07
19.2 Conversion tables
Length
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
in 25.4 = mm
ft 0.3048 =m
yd 0.9144 =m
stat. mile 1.609 = km
Nm 1.852 = km
yd 3 = ft
yd 36 = in

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
mm 0.03937 = in
m 3.281 = ft
km 0.6215 = stat. mile

Area
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
in2 645.16 = mm2
ft2 0.0929 = m2
yd2 0.8361 = m2
stat. mile2 2.59 = km2

Unit B multiplied by factor Unit A
mm 2 0.00155 = in2
m2 10.764 = ft2
m2 1.1960 = yd2
km2 0.3861 = stat. mile2

Volume
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
in 3 16387 = mm3
ft3 0.02832 = m3
yd3 0.7646 = m3
gallon (U.S.) 3.785 = dm3
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gallon (UK) 4.546 = dm3

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
cm 3 0.06102 = in3
m3 35.31 = ft3
dm3 0.2642 = gallon (U.S.)
dm3 0.22 = gallon (UK)

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Appendix A | 225
Volumetric flow
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
gal/min (GPM, U.S.) 3.79 = l/min
gal/min (GPM, U.S.) 0.134 = ft3/min (cfm)
ft3/min (cfm) 1.70 = m3/h

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
l/min 0.264 = gal/min (U.S.)
3
ft /min (cfm) 7.48 = gal/min (U.S.)
m3/h 0.589 = ft3/min (cfm)

Velocity
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
ft/s 0.3048 = m/s
stat. mile/h (mph) 1.609 = km/h
knot (UK) 1.852 = km/h

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit B
m/s 3.281 = ft/s
km/h 0.6214 = stat. mile/h (mph)
km/h 0.54 = knot (UK)

Mass
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
lb 0.4536 = kg
oz 28.35 =g
ton (imp.) 1.016 =t

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
g 0.03527 = oz
kg 2.205 = lb
t 0.9842 = ton (imp.)

Force
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
lbf 0.4536 = kp
lbf 4.4482 =N
TIM-ID: 0000002173 - 016

kp 9.80665 =N

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
kp 2.205 = lbf
N 0.10197 = kp
N 0.2248 = lbf

226 | Appendix A | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Density
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
slug/ft 3 515.4 = kg/m3

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
kg/m 3 0.00194 = slug/ft3

Torque
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
lbf ft 1.3558 = Nm

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
Nm 0.7376 = lbf ft

Pressure
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
2
lbf/in (psi) 703.1 = kp/m2 (mmH2O)
lbf/in2 (psi) 0.06895 = bar
2
lbf/ft (psf) 47.88 = Pa
inHg 0.03386 = bar
inHg 345.3 = kp/m2 (mmH2O)

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
atm 760 = mmHg
atm 1.0133 = bar
atm 10332 = kp/m2 (mmH2O)
atm 1.0332 = kp/cm2 (at)
atm 14.696 = lbf/in2 (psi)
bar 14.504 = lbf/in2 (psi)
Pa 0.0209 = lbf/ft2 (psf)

2nd moment of mass
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
slug ft 2 1.3558 = kg m2

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
kg m 2 0.7376 = slug ft2
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Energy
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
lbf ft 1.356 =J
kcal 4186.8 =J
BTU 1055 =J
CHU 1899 =J

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Appendix A | 227
Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
J 0.7376 = lbf ft
J 0.0002388 = kcal
J 0.0009478 = BTU
J 0.00052656 = CHU

Power
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
PS 0.7355 = kW
HP 0.7457 = kW
BTU/s 1.054 = kW
kcal/h 1.163 =W
HP 550 = lbf ft/s

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
kW 1.36 = PS
kW 1.341 = HP
kW 0.9487 = BTU/s
W 0.8598 = kcal/h
lbf ft/s 0.0018 = HP

Temperature
Celsius Kelvin
x °C - = x + 273.15 K
xK = x − 273.15 °C -
x °F = 5/9(x − 32) °C = 5/9(x − 32) + 273.15 K
x °R = 5/4x °C = (5/4x) + 273.15 K

Fahrenheit Réaumur
x °C = 9/5x + 32 °F = (4/5x) °R
xK = 9/5(x − 273.15) + 32 °F = 4/5(x − 273.15) °R
x °F - = 4/9(x − 32) °R
x °R = (9/4x) + 32 °F -

Fuel consumption
Unit A multiplied by factor = Unit B
mile/gal (US) 0.4251 = km/l
TIM-ID: 0000002173 - 016

gal/mile (US) 2.3527 = l/km

Unit B multiplied by factor = Unit A
km/l 2.3527 = mile/gal (US)
l/km 0.4251 = gal/mile (US)

228 | Appendix A | MS65026/01E 2015-07
20 Appendix B
20.1 Index
A Cooling system 
Abbreviations 221 – Coolant  138
ADEC  – Coolant pump  146
– Functional checks  174 – Checklist  151
Air intake and exhaust gas system  – Cooler core  139
– Design  29 – Cooler fan  147
Air intake filter  – Description  137
– Air intake system  75 – Design  27
Air intake silencer  – Expansion tank  140
– Air intake system  76 – Fan position  148
Air intake system  – Flexible connections  145
– Air filter  77 – Pressure seal cap  
– Air intake filter  75 – With pressure limiting valve  143
– Air intake silencer  76 – Safety notes and general information  135
– Closed crankcase ventilation system  126 – Test  
– Contamination indicator  79 – Cooling capacity index  154
– Design requirements  73 – Testing  
– Diffusors  82 – Draining  150
– Installation requirements  73 – Filling  149
– Intake plenum  78 – Measuring equipment  153
– Maintenance indicator  79 Corrosion protection 
– Overview   – Exhaust pipes  103
– Air supply  72 Crankcase 
– Piping  80 – Closed crankcase ventilation system  126
– Material specifications  81 Crankshaft 
– Rain caps  74 – Forces exerted on the crankshaft  192
– Testing requirements  83 Cylinder 
Air supply  – Designation  21
– Overview  72
D
Applicability 6
Arrangement drawings 215 Design 
– Air intake and exhaust gas system  29
B – Combustion air system  
Bearing  – Customized  28
– Double bearing generators   – Cooling system  27
– Installation  183 – Engine  25
– Single bearing  180 – Exhaust system  30
– Single bearing generators   – Plant  25
– Installation  181 – Starting system  31
Bearings  – Torsional vibration and bending moment analysis  
– Double bearing generators  182 193
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Diagrams 
C – Annex  214
Checklist  Diffusors 
– Cooling pump  151 – Air intake system  82
Combustion air system  Draining 
– Customized   – Exhaust system  110
– Design  28 Drawings 
Connection  – Annex  214
– Fuel supply  57 – General arrangement drawings  215
Conversion tables 225 – Installation drawings  213

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Appendix B | 229
Drive  Exhaust system 
– Angular alignment  187 – Absorptive silencer  107
– Couplings  175, 184 – Back pressure measurement  113
– Forces exerted on the crankshaft  192 – Design  
– Generators  175 – Principles  86
– Single bearing  180 – Requirements  86
– Thrust clearance requirements  185 – design  30
– Unbalance in rotating parts  188 – Draining  110
– Exhaust outlet  
E – Configuration  109
Electrical connections  – Exhaust silencer  105
– Additional installation instructions for generators   – Flexible connections  90
178 – Insulation  102
– General grounding  179 – Noise emission  104
– Generator bearings and auxiliary drive  177 – Piping  93
– Overview  176 – Reflection silencer  106
Electronic control systems  – Requirements  
– Engine Control Unit  169 – Validation  112
– Engine diagnostics  168 – Silencer selection  108
– Engine governing  167 – Spark arrestors  111
– Networking  173
– Safe engine start  165 F
– Sensors  170 Fan 
Electronic controls  – Cooler fan  147
– Safety notes and general information  166 – Fan position  148
Emissions  Filling 
– Exhaust gas  122 – Cooling system  149
– Exhaust system   Flexible connections 
– Noise  104 – Exhaust system  90
– General information  115 Fluids and lubricants 
– Heat emission  123 – Lube oil system  134
– Noise emissions   Flywheel 
– Engine surface noise  120 – Additional components  
– Exhaust noise  119 – Alignment  186
– General information  116 – Flywheel adapter seating  189
– Intake air noise  117 – Flywheel housing  
– Structure-borne noise  121 – Ventilation  191
Engine driving end  – Radial runout  190
– Definition  21 Fuel cooler 
Engine free end  – Fuel system  65
– Definition  21 Fuel delivery pressure 
Engine governing  – Fuel system  63
– Control systems   Fuel filter configuration 
– Electronic  167 – Fuel system  62
Engine mounts  Fuel heating 
– Choice of materials  202 – Fuel system  66
– Rigid engine mounts  203 Fuel line connections 
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Engine sides  – Fuel system  60
– Designation  21 Fuel lines 
Engine type designation 20 – Fuel system  59
Exhaust gas system  Fuel specifications 
– Overview  85 – Fuel system  70
– Safety notes and general information  85 Fuel supply 
Exhaust pipes  – Connection  57
– Corrosion protection  103

230 | Appendix B | MS65026/01E 2015-07
Fuel system  Installation room of the genset 
– Description  56 – Air requirement  50
– Fuel cooler  65 Insulation 
– Fuel delivery pressure  63 – Exhaust system  102
– Fuel filter configuration  62 Intake plenum 
– Fuel heating  66 – Air intake system  78
– Fuel line connections  60
– Fuel lines  59 L
– Fuel specifications  70 Lube oil preheating 
– Fuel tank  67 – Auxiliary equipment  128
– Safety notes and general information  54 Lube oil system 
– Venting   – Fluids and lubricants  134
– Engine  71 – General information  124
– Water separator  64 – Inclined operation  132
Fuel tank  – Lube oil preheating  
– Fuel system  67 – Auxiliary equipment  128
Functional checks prior to initial start-up  – Oil dipstick  131
– ADEC  174 – Oil filter configuration  129
– Oil level measuring  130
G – Oil lines  127
General information  – Priming  133
– Initial start-up  211 – Safety information  124
– Plant design  26
Generator  M
– Double bearing generators   Measuring equipment 
– Installation  183 – Cooling system  153
– Generators and couplings  175 Mounting 
– Single bearing  180 – Engine mounting  205
– Single bearing generators   – Four-point mounting  196
– Installation  181 – Mounting system  195
– Installation guidelines  204
H – Resilient engine mounts  200
Heating  – Resilient engine mounts, selection  201
– Cold weather package  207 – Six- and eight-point mounting  197
– Enclosure  209
– Engine preheating systems  208 O
– Housing  209 Oil dipstick 
– Lube oil system  131
I Oil filter configuration 
Initial start-up  – Lube oil system  129
– General information  211 Oil level measuring 
Installation  – Lube oil system  130
– Additional components   Overview 
– Alignment  186 – Air supply  72
– Double bearing generators  183
– Overview  212 P
– Single bearing generators  181 Piping 
– Air intake system  80
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– Wiring  172
Installation and design requirements  Piping  
– Air intake system  73 – Air intake system  
Installation drawings  – Material specifications  81
– Engine  213 Plant design 
– Plant  213 – General information  26
Installation guidelines  Preface 8
– Mounting system  204 Putting back into operation  
Installation room of engine-generator set  – After preservation  40
– Requirements  41
– Shutter  52
– Ventilation  45

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Appendix B | 231
R Starting system 
Rain caps  – Battery selection  159
– Air intake system  74 – Design  31
Repowering 24 – Parallel starter systems  163
Requirement for analytical verification  – Redundant starting systems  162
– Torsional vibration  32 – Safe engine start  165
– Starter  155
S – Disengagement  164
Safety  – Interlock  164
– Rotating parts  216 – Starting  
Safety notes and general information  – Air  160
– Cooling system  135 – Starting batteries  158
– Electronic controls  166 Storage 38
– Exhaust gas system  85 – Preservation  39
– Fuel system  54 – Putting an engine back into operation  
– Shipping  33 – After preservation  40
– Starter  155
T
– Transportation  33
Safety notices, standards 19 Testing requirements 
Safety regulations  – Air intake system  83
– Auxiliary materials  17 Tests 
– Environmental protection  17 – Consecutive initial operation of series-produced plants
– Fire prevention  17  220
– Fluids and lubricants  17 – End Product Questionnaire  218
– Important provisions  10 – Factory acceptance  219
– Maintenance work  14 – Installation check  217
– Operation  13 – Reference documents  210
– Organizational requirements  12 – System function test  217
– Personnel requirements  12 – Torsional vibration analysis  194
– Repair work  14 Torsional vibration 
– Startup  13 – Requirement for analytical verification  32
Safety requirements  Transport 
– Safety notices, standards  19 – Preservation  39
Serial number  – Setting the engine down  37
– Location  23 Transportation 33
– Series 2000  22 – Preparing connections  36
Shipping 
W
– Transportation  33
Shutters 52 Water separator 
Silencer  – Fuel system  64
– Absorptive silencer  107
– Exhaust silencer  105
– Reflection silencer  106
– Silencer selection  108
Spark arrestors 
– Exhaust system  111
Starter 
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– Safety notes and general information  155

232 | Appendix B | MS65026/01E 2015-07
21 External Documents
21.1 MTN5194 – Engine Lifting Instructions .............................................................................................................................................. 235

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | External Documents | 233
234 | External Documents | MS65026/01E 2015-07
21.1 MTN5194 – Engine Lifting Instructions

VERSTÄNDIGUNGSNORM
April 2001
EXPLANATORY STANDARD

Kranen von Motoren
Hinweise MTN5194
FRIEDRICHSHAFEN Engine Lifting
Instructions

Ersatz für Replacement for
Ausgabe 05.2000 05.2000 Edition

The English version is a translation. In case of
dispute the German original will govern.

1 Anwendungsbereich 1 Area of Application
Diese Norm gilt für die Auslegung der zum This standard applies to the design of equipment
Kranen von Motoren 1 ) benötigten for the lifting of engines 1) and provides
Lastaufnahmeeinrichtungen und gibt Hinweise instructions for the lifting and transportation of
zum Heben und Transportieren von Motoren. engines.

2 Lastaufnahmeeinrichtungen 2 Lifting Equipment
Alle zum Heben des Motors benötigten All lifting equipment (ropes, chains, shackles,
Lastaufnahmeeinrichtungen (Seile, Ketten, beams, etc.) used for lifting engines is to be
Schäkel, Traversen etc.) sind unter den selected in consideration of the following points
folgenden Gesichtspunkten so auszuwählen, to ensure that the permissible loads of these
dass die zulässigen Belastungen dieser components/systems are not exceeded:
Bauteile/Einrichtungen nicht überschritten
werden:
• Masse des zu hebenden Motors. • Mass of engine to be lifted.
• Anzahl der Anschlagpunkte am Motor. • Number of on-engine lifting points.
• Senkrechte Krafteinleitung über Traverse mit • Vertical force application via lifting beam with
einer Toleranz (Schrägzug) von 10°. a tolerance (inclined pull) of 10°.
• Beim Anschlagen mit mehreren Strängen • In the case of multi-point lifting (several links
(von der Traverse zum Hebezeug führende between beam and lifting equipment) only
Stränge) dürfen nur zwei Stränge als tragend two links may be considered as load
angenommen werden. Dies gilt nicht, wenn carrying. This does not apply when it is
sichergestellt ist, dass sich die Last über die ascertained that the load is equally
Traverse gleichmäßig auch auf weitere distributed via the beam to other links or,
Stränge verteilt oder bei ungleichmäßiger with unequal load sharing, the permissible
Lastverteilung die zulässige Belastung der load on the individual links is not exceeded.
einzelnen Stränge nicht überschritten wird.
• Bei Seilen und Ketten darf der • In the case of ropes and chains, the
Neigungswinkel (Winkel, den zum Hebezeug deflection angle (angle of deflection of the
führende Stränge, z. B. Seile, mit der li nks to the lifting equipment, e.g. ropes with
Senkrechten bilden) von max. 60° nicht a vertical lift) must not exceed max. 60°.
überschritten werden.

) Mit Motor sind auch Motoren/Gasturbinen incl. anwendungsspezifisch angebauter Aggregate
1

(z.B. Getriebe, Generator) angesprochen.
TIM-ID: 0000059078 - 002

1) The term "engine" is used to refer to engines/gas turbines including all application-specific
engine-mounted assem blies (e.g. gearboxes, generators, etc.).
Fortsetzung Seite 2 bis 3
Continued on pages 2 to 3
Bearbeitet Geprüft Freigegeben Anderungsdienst TQMS Ordnungs-Nr.
Compil d by: Checked by: Approved by: Amendment Service TQMS Order No.
Koch Schatte! Schattel 2/2001 205F
MTU MOTOREN UND TURBINEN UNION FRIEDRICHSHAFEN GMBH
- -

Für diese Werknorm behalten wir uns alle Rechte vor
All rights reserved for this MTU Factory standard

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | External Documents | 235
MTN5194 Seite/Page 2 von/of 3

• Der Einfluss der Temperatur auf die • The influence of temperature on the lifting
Tragfähigkeit ist zu berücksichtigen. capacity is to be considered.
• Die Lastaufnahmeeinrichtungen müssen in • The load acceptance equipment must be in
einem betriebssicheren Zustand sein. an operationally safe condition.

3 Heben und Bewegen von 3 Lifting and Transportation of
Motoren Engines

• Den Motor nur an den vorgesehenen • Suspend engine only from the specified
Anschlagpunkten anhängen. Nur von MTU lifting points. Lise only MTU-approved
vorgesehene Transport- und transportation and lifting equipment.
Hebevorrichtungen verwenden.
• Die Anschlagpunkte und deren Ausführung • The lifting points and their design are shown
sind in der gültigen Einbau- oder AO- in the valid installation and/or arrangement
Zeichnung angegeben. Ebenso das maßlich drawings. The dimensionally suitable lifting
dazu geeignete Lastaufnahmemittel equipment (beam) and, if necessary, the
(Traverse) und ggf. erforderliche required stabilisation equipment are also
Stabilisierungseinrichtungen. specified on these drawings.
• Bei Aggregaten auf Grundrahmen sind zur • In the case of gensets on base frames,
Kippsicherung zusätzliche Fangzüge additional safety links are to be used to
anzubringen prevent tilting
(4 Querzüge z. B. auf Motor- und 84 transverse links e.g. to generator and
Generatoranschlagpunkte), wenn die engine lifting points) when the lifting points
Anschlagpunkte für die Lastaufnahme tiefer are lower than the overall genset centre-of-
als der Aggregategesamtschwerpunkt liegen. gravity.
• Die Anschlagpunkte sind mit weißer Farbe, • The lifting points are to be marked in white
bei weißen Motoren mit schwarzer Farbe, paint, in the case of white engines with black
markiert. paint.
Hinweis: Aufhängeösen von Motoren, Note: Lifting eyes on Series 2000 and 4000
Aggregaten und Getrieben der BR 2000 und engines, gensets and gearboxes are not
BR 4000 sind nicht gekennzeichnet. colour-coded.
• Für den Transport ist der zulässige • The angle of deflection permissible for
Schrägzug an den Anschlagpunkten kenntlich transportation is to be indicated at the lifting
gemacht. points.
• Zum Heben des Motors müssen alle • When lifting engines, all available lifting
vorhandenen Anschlagpunkte gemäß AO- points as per arrangement/installation
/Einbauzeichnung genutzt werden. drawing are to be used.
• Die Hebeseile bzw. -ketten (Anschlagmittel) • The lifting ropes, or chains (connecting
zwischen dem Motor und den elements) between the engine and the lifting
Hebeeinrichtungen müssen senkrecht beam must be vertical (maximum angle of
verlaufen (maximaler Schrägzug von 10°). Es deflection 10°). lt is essential to ensure that
muß sichergestellt sein, dass die the lifting rig elements are not in contact with
Anschlagmittel nicht am Motor oder dessen the engine or its components. Exceptionally
Komponenten anliegen. Ausnahme: ein if the appropriate instructions are contained
entsprechender Hinweis ist in der AO- in the arrangement/installation drawing.
/Einbauzeichnung vorhanden.
• Der Motor ist mit langsamer Geschwindigkeit • The engine is to be lifted slowly. When the
TIM-ID: 0000059078 - 002

zu heben. Wenn der Motor um ca. 10 mm engine has been raised approximately 10
angehoben ist, ist zu überprüfen, ob die mm it must verified that the ropes, or chains,
Hebeseile bzw. -ketten zwischen dem Motor between the engine and the lifting beam are
und den Hebeeinrichtungen senkrecht bzw. vertical, or in compliance with the data on
entsprechend den Angaben in der AO- the arrangement/installation drawing. If this
/Einbauzeichnung verlaufen. Wenn dies nicht is not the case, the lifting equipment must be
der Fall ist, müssen die Hebeeinrichtungen readjusted.
neu justiert werden.
• Zur Verbindung des Motors mit den • Only approved connecting elements may be
Hebeeinrichtungen dürfen nur zugelassene employed to connect the engine to the lifting
Anschlagmittel verwendet werden. Es ist nicht rig. lt is prohibited to lay lifting ropes, or

236 | External Documents | MS65026/01E 2015-07
MTN5194 Seite/Page 3 von/of 3

zulässig Hebeseile bzw. -ketten um den Motor chains, directly around the engine.
herumzulegen.
• Der Motor darf nicht gehoben oder • The engine must not be lifted, or transported,
transportiert werden, wenn ungesicherte Teile when unsecured accessories are present on
auf dem Motor liegen. the engine.
• Wird der Motor auf dem Boden abgestellt, ist • If the engine is to be set down on the
darauf zu achten, dass der Boden eben, ground, it must be ensured that the ground is
sauber, trocken und ausreichend stabil ist. level, clean, dry and adequately stable.
Angaben über geeignete Vorrichtungen zur Details of suitable mounting equipment, as
Aufnahme gemäß A0-/Einbauzeichnung per arrangement/installation drawing, are to
oder Bedienungshandbuch sind zu beachten. be observed.
• Die Anschlagpunkte am Motor dürfen nicht • The on-engine lifting points may not be
verändert werden. modified.
• Beschädigte Anschlagpunkte am Motor bzw. • Damaged on-engine lifting points, or
beschädigte Lastaufnahmeeinrichtungen damaged lifting equipment, may not be
dürfen nicht repariert werden, sondern müssen repaired. They must be replaced.
ausgetauscht werden.
• Weitere Hinweise im Bedienungshandbuch • Compliance with further instructions as
sind zu beachten. contained in the Operating Manual is
mandatory.

Ergänzende Angaben Supplementary Information

Frühere Ausgaben Previous Editions
05.2000 May 2000

Änderungsvermerk Changes Im plemented

- Hinweis auf Nichtkennzeichnung durch - Non colour-coding instruction
Farbmarkierung der Anschlagpunkte bei for Series 2000 and 4000 engine
BR 2000 und BR 4000 neu aufgenommen lifting eyes included.
- Norm zweisprachig DE/EN erstellt - Standard converted to dual-language
DE/EN version
TIM-ID: 0000059078 - 002

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | External Documents | 237
TIM-ID: 0000059078 - 002

238 | External Documents | MS65026/01E 2015-07
22 Drawings
22.1 Instruction for Universal Shaft BR2000-06 ....................................................................................................................................... 241
22.2 Instruction - Bearing Generator BR2000-G/C/S ................................................................................................................................ 243
22.3 Lube Oil System BR2000-06 .................................................................................................................................................................... 245

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | Drawings | 239
240 | Drawings | MS65026/01E 2015-07
22.1 Instruction for Universal Shaft BR2000-06
TIM-ID: 0000085799 - 001

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | | 241
242 | | MS65026/01E 2015-07
22.2 Instruction - Bearing Generator BR2000-G/C/S
TIM-ID: 0000085732 - 001

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | | 243
244 | | MS65026/01E 2015-07
22.3 Lube Oil System BR2000-06
TIM-ID: 0000085731 - 001

MS65026/01E 2015-07 | | 245