!" # $ !

%%"

!

" # $ % #
$ & ' $
( )" (* "
" $ $%
% + $ &
' $ (* "

, !
• # - - .
• / 0 12
• + 3 4
• 5 $ 6 0 21272 89 : =
πν
• #$ ! 2 2* : :* * ; ;* * 9 < = 2
• + ( " + >08

2?" .

+ $%
γ

@ . % $!
@A $ -
) 0 1 : # 8B A
$ % !

π
C $ * !

!""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% ε πν $ * D ! γ :?" $ #0 1. $% . E) $ $ $% F@ . π 0 1 2< ε πν ε ! "# πν ) ) ! γ . @ .

/)0 /)'( / ' /& '1*& / * .8 4 * .23) * . ' +..23) * .* . ' 9 5 5 +* + & ' 23) * 3) /.*) -* * /) &' + +* * /-& 9 +* & ' ' + / )% + / '/)+ & .-' / % &' - 0 + .*&2 &-& + & .*) -* 6 . !""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% 9 ..8* &. *& 3) +-* / )% + * /-'' /&-' * * 6 ' -' * +* • @./) + * +* *& + ) (2+()+ ' %)/&-' % .*) 4) 5 * 5 / ' /& '1*& / * % +-* % 6 ' & * >C / ? D * &' -* 0 + / )% + % % %- +* 5 .* %/ + 6 4)' %7) & +* .' * 8 % / . % ) . 5 *..% + ' % 0 + . ' &-%-* +-* /.) &-* -& *< • 8' )+ % + / )% + /-'' /&-' + =&-%. '1 * +* 5 $ % & ' % ( %)*&' + % *.% > '%0?@'-**< ∑ (± ) ⋅ ( ) + ∑ (± ) ⋅ ( ) + ∑ (m ) [ − ⋅ ( ) ]± ( A A A − ) ∆ =− ⋅ ∑ ⋅( ) + ⋅ ∑ ⋅ + ⋅ ∑ ⋅ ∈ ∈ ∈ A − A A ∈ ∈ ∈ • + / *.* & ' ' .% > '%0?@'-** % / ' +-* ' *)+& %-* % + * & ' / . '& . & ' ' *& ) ( * &) / 8 + / )% + / '/)+ & .' * 8 *& & + &' % % / % ) % + * / /. ' &-% * + * &).-' 3) + 23) * &) % + )%..' * 8 *& & + +* +* &' % % / % ) % + * / /.' * & ..='% % * /) %.* % ' ' 3) + " B * % + *&..' * 8 & + 0 /.* &) %- /-& 9 &' * 3) &-%-* +-* 5 /.% )& + 9 ' + =&-%.-' / % &' .) &-* +* :).. ' % ) % . ' 3) ' ) 9 .-' / % 23) * %/ + 6 4)' %7) & 5 .

!""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% ././84 & + / )% + / '/)+ & .' ' +)4 ' / +/)+ -* + ' * *& / . %'2)+ / % / % ) .% +-* &' -*< = π !). '& ' 6 / % % + * *& < = + + + + = +* + = + + ⋅ γ + − ⋅ = + + ⋅ → = / γ γ !"#$ % & ' % "$ & () ( & ' % !* '& % +' "#$ E+ &' & '* % ) * *& /. 7 %.+ /) / 8 % /. '1 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? E.) % ' *-+( '* % ' /& & + /) / 8 % ++ 3) ' *)+& '2 ) /) / 8 % * 4) %.-' + &' .. 0 .-' + /) / 8 % ++ < ⋅ + ⋅( − ) − ⋅( − ) − − ⋅( − ) − ⋅( − ) − ⋅( − ) = .+ / %.) F / ++ .4' %.-' ' *-+( -* + ..+ / %.& ) % % +-* )%-* % + ' % * & < D? D ?D ?D ?D ?D E.

= .) * + / )% + / '/)+ & . +* +* +* @. .) /) / 8 % * 4) %.) % ' *-+( '* .8& * * / + % / )% + *< +* +* +* ∆.' ' & ' / 8 * '2< ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ ∆ =− ⋅( ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ) ! − ∆ ! =− = *= +* H + * / )% + * / '/)+ & * .8& * * % / )% + * % + 6 4)' + / )% + /-'' /&-' + . !""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% ⋅ + ⋅( − ) − ⋅( − ) − − ⋅( − ) − ⋅( − ) − ⋅( − ) = *)+& %.3) .-' / % &' -< .+ / %.-' / % ) .* % ' %.% +-* &' -*< +* +* +* +* +* +* *& ' % & .% > '%0?@'-** B ' ++. .+ .+ =&-%.(2+ %  = *= +* E*1 .) % ' *-+( '* % ' /& & < G D G D ? D G ? D G D ? ? D G D ? ? D G D ? ? D G D ? ? D G D ?  = *= →  +* *-+)/ 8 .% 6 -* ) .4' %.

' * ./ % /.4 -* .+-* / +/)+ %-* & ' -' & $ ( 9 /.) &-* % /.-' 3) + 23) * &) % + )%. ' 3) ' ) ..*) .) % / +/)+ '* + * .* *./) & 3) + /-& % &-%-* +-* . !""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% = A +∆ ! = + = +* = A +∆ ! = + = +* = A −∆ ! = − = +* = A −∆ ! = − = +* = A −∆ ! = − = +* = A −∆ ! = − = +* @.< = / γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ !"#$ % & ' % ! $ & () ( & ' % !* '& % +' "#$ :).-/ -* +-* / )% + * / '/)+ & * .-' / % &' -< = +∆ ! = + = +* = +∆ ! = + = +* = −∆ ! = − = +* = −∆ ! = − = +* = −∆ ! = − = +* = −∆ ! = − = +* @ )% + * 3) +84 / & /.* ' *)+& & * +-* )%-* ! %.. ' -' +* ' +9 -* -&' & ' /8 + / )% + /-'' /&-' + * 4) % & ' / 8 * '2< ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ ∆ =− ⋅( ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ) ! − ∆ ! =− = *= +* H + * / )% + * / '/)+ & * .* + * + * . '1 * .+ / )% + /-'' /&-' * *).-' + * &).' * .' * 8 % / 0* *& + ) (2+()+ .

+ " B /.' * 8 % & ' %.* 4) ' ) .3) .2& / .) * +.0 / + (2+()+ *&2 &-& + & / '' % > 0 3) ( ' 6 / ' /)2+ * + /-'' /& :).-' / % &' .' * 8 4) .) /) / 8 % * 4) %. '4.' * 8 * 4) *& %..-* .+ .+ & & / '' % + / )% + / '/)+ & .4' %.% + (2+()+ )&.-' / % / @.3) ' + & *)/ % * 3) + (2+()+ ' %)/&-' % .' * & &' * .(2+ % E*1 .' * 8 + )%.' * 8 + 6) / .' * 8 *&2 /&) %.' * 8 /.*&.) % ' *-+( '* % ' /& & < ? G D ? D G G D ? D G G D ? D G G D ? D G G D ? D G  = *= →  +* *-+)/ 8 ..4 -* 3) + (2+()+ ' %)/&-' % . I / * & < + = + + ⋅( − ) + ⋅( − ) + ⋅( − ) + ⋅( − ) γ γ + = + + ⋅( − ) + ⋅( − ) + + ⋅( − ) + ⋅( − ) *)+& %.(2+ %  = *= +* *-+)/ 8 . 9 / '' ' & & %- /. I / 0 + )%.* / D? D ?D ?D ?D ?D E. * '2 + .+ / %. 7.. &..+ & & .+ (2+()+ ++ 4 / '' ' &-& + & 0 + . *& / *.-' + /) / 8 % C ' -)++ &' )%.*< .. + % % * % *& & *< + (2+()+ *&2 /. + (2+()+ *&2 /&) %. '& . !""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% ' %)/&-' % .% / : .

*" I / .' * 8 / '' &-& + & 0 . !""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% &-& + & / '' % +* +* +* +* +* H + .' * 8 +-* )%-*< = / γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ = − ⋅ = − ⋅ = / γ γ 6 /& ( & *& * + *-+)/ 8 /-'' /& 5 (2+()+ ' %)/&-' % . 9% ' %)/ ' + .' * 8 + )%.*/ .' * 8 / + .

HJ % 0 1 7J ' J( " C( " # 4 $ C. ! ! ! " (2" # $ C 02 A ( 0 " .K5@ ! L ) ! 02 L ) 02 : L # . !""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% D . - L .( " (9 * " (:" # A (2 * " ( " # $ % A - $ $ % $ $ $ (: " . L ! %""*"" ' $")" ' ("#$"(" ""["& ' $"("&' ("#$"" ] J (""*"" ' $")" ' %"#$"%" ""["& ' $"("&' %"#$"" ] L . ) (H% 0 D :I H 0 D : " 0 ( " A % . $ . . % @ . . $ $ $ 4 ( " A G .

.% / . M . !""#$"%& !% ' ( !""% K @. / -.' / -* + * .* / + * * '2 < & & & & @.E< B) &. 0 -.-' + * /. ' + /2+/)+.) &-* .) * .* / + *< @.* % ' %."< & *-+)/ 8 4'26 / < / / 1/ 0 / / / / 1 / "C & " * / / / 1/ 0/ 2/ / 0/ 2 * 2/ L * L * & * -. / + * 0 & .* % /.* % ' -* &' * .% / .='% % * .-' 6' // 8 + * /.* % ' %-* * '2 < ∆+ ∆+ J ∆ * @.% / .) * +-* & '( +-* *. K " 3 % !&("*&!"#$< -/ (& γ K 4"+ % !" '' < : &' & % ) / '' + &. -. / -.3) % *. / -.E C 0 @ E*1 .&-' -< B) &.

* # & . # ! "# # . ! ! / % 0 & & ' 1 2 3 # ' *' * $ 0 / # / & & 45 ' % 4 *' * $ ' 6 7 #8 1 . !" # $ !%%" • • ! • " # • $ % & • ' ( ) • ! "# $ % & & # ' & ( ) * + .