# CIVL 1101 Surveying - Introduction to Differential Leveling 1/6

Differential Leveling Differential Leveling
Importance of Vertical Positions Importance of Vertical Positions

 A vertical position is the height of a point relative to some  Surveyors created the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of
reference surface, such as mean sea level, a geoid, or an 1929 (NGVD 29, the predecessor to NAVD 88), by
ellipsoid. calculating the average height of the sea at all stages of the
tide at 26 tidal stations over 19 years
 The roughly 600,000 vertical control points in the U.S.
National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) are referenced  Surveyors extended the control
to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). network inland using a surveying
technique called leveling.

Differential Leveling Differential Leveling
Importance of Leveling The Level

 A level consist of a high-powered telescope
 The determination of elevations is called leveling
 The level is attached to a spirit or bubble level that keeps
 Measuring relative elevations changes is a comparatively the line of sight of the telescope horizontal
simply process

 Precise and accurate control of
relative elevations are critical to
most construction projects

Differential Leveling Differential Leveling

Level Instrument Level Instrument
4.70

4.60

4.50

Red numbers indicate
foot intervals

relatively permanent point of known elevation BS = 6.CIVL 1101 Surveying .22 ft Elevation = 103.60 4.55 4.57 4.59 4.51 4.22 ft Starting point (elevation 100.FS Point A Point A Elevation = 103.32 ft HI = 106.52 4.56 BS = 6.58 4.10 ft BS = 6.a sight taken to the level rod  Height of instrument (HI) .54 4.00 ft) Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Definitions Definitions  Bench mark (BM) .32 ft HI = 106.22 ft Starting point Starting point (elevation 100.32 ft FS = 3.32 ft HI = 106.32 ft FS = 3.Introduction to Differential Leveling 2/6 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Level Instrument Definitions 4.10 ft 4.32 ft FS = 3.00 ft) (elevation 100.00 ft) (elevation 100.10 ft Point B Point B E = BS .the elevation of the held at a point of known elevation line of sight of the telescope (either a BM or TP) BS = 6.10 ft BS = 6.00 ft) .22 ft Starting point Starting point (elevation 100.22 ft Elevation = 103.50 Point A Elevation = 103.32 ft FS = 3.53 Point B 4.32 ft FS = 3.32 ft HI = 106.10 ft Point B Point B Point A Point A Elevation = 103.00 ft) Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Definitions Definitions  Backsight (BS) .32 ft HI = 106.

FS = Elevation TP1 Elevation 100.64 112.41 3.32 ft HI = 106.53 TP2 2.56 117.64 100.53 TP1 10.85 .11 BM1 BM1 TP1 HI .00 TP1 10.41 3.64 112.64 112.11 12.00 Point BS HI FS Elevation Point BS HI FS Elevation BM1 12.CIVL 1101 Surveying .11 109.53 TP1 10.88 120.00 Elevation 100.88 120.a sight taken on any point to BS determine its elevation 12.00 Elevation 100.56 12.00 Point BS HI FS Elevation BM1 12.64 100.64 3.00 ft) Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2 Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2 BS BS FS BS FS 10.11 12.00 BM1 12.53 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2 Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2 BS 9.11 BM1 TP2 BM1 TP2 TP1 TP1 Elevation 100.56 117.57 2.00 Point BS HI FS Elevation Point BS HI FS Elevation BM1 12.72 127.88 2.41 3.22 ft Starting point (elevation 100.64 BM2 BM1 BS = 6.64 112.64 100.88 120.64 100.11 109.00 BM1 12.88 12.64 100.64 112.00 TP1 3.Introduction to Differential Leveling 3/6 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2 Definitions  Foresight (FS) .72 BS FS BS FS BS FS 10.85 TP2 9.64 3.00 Point A Elevation = 103.32 ft FS = 3.56 BS FS 10.64 3.88 2.10 ft HI = BS + Elevation Point B Elevation 100.64 3.11 109.11 109.

47 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations .88 120.24 .53  The level may be moved to a temporary point called a TP2 9.10 124.72 127.00 Point BS HI FS Elevation Point BS HI FS Elevation BM1 12.47 BM2 3.64 100.8.88 120.47 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2  The initial backsight (BS) is taken to a point of known elevation  Check the summation of the backsight and the foresight with the change in elevation  The backsight reading is added to the elevation of the known point to compute the height of the instrument Point BS HI FS Elevation (HI) BM1 12.56 12.00 TP1 10.64 3.11 BM2 12.64 112.85 turning point (TP) BM2 3.33 6.56 117.41 3.11 BM2 BM1 TP2 BM1 TP2 TP1 TP1 Elevation 100.72 127. What are the elevations of points TP1 and TP2? BS FS 1.91 BS FS 2.88 120.57 2.64 112.10 BS FS BS FS BS FS 10.10 9.56 BS FS 10.64 100.56 117.11 109.85 TP2 9.Group Problem 1 TopHat Problems  Prepare a set of level notes for the survey illustrated below.00 Elevation 100.10 124.64 3.64 112.68 TP1 TP2 .53 TP1 10.27 4.53 TP2 9.CIVL 1101 Surveying .88 2.Introduction to Differential Leveling 4/6 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2 Computation of Elevations – Find Elevation of BM2 BS FS BS FS 9.41 3.11 109.72 3.88 2.11 109.77 =24.17 BM Elevation 356.00 TP1 10.57 2.77  The elevation of a point is the height of the instrument (HI) minus the foresight (FS) Change in elevation = 33.00 BM1 12.10 124.56 117.72 127.64 100.57 2.72 3.47 +33.24 -8.85 BM2 3.41 3.

02 5.06 BS FS  Misreading the rod .use a well- Elevation 110.91 BS FS below.67 6.45 BM1 TP2 TP1  Moving the turning point .Introduction to Differential Leveling 5/6 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations .Group Problem 1 Computation of Elevations .06 BS FS TP1 1.68 BS FS BS FS 8.Group Problem 2 Common Mistakes BS FS BS FS 8.reading 3.33 6.42 BM2 defined TP Point BS HI FS Elevation  Field note mistakes .02 5.54 instead 1.78 3.11 TP2 Point BS HI FS Elevation BM1 TP2 TP1 Elevation 110.46 3.Group Problem 2 BS FS  Prepare a set of level notes for the survey illustrated 1.17 BM Elevation 356.78 3.CIVL 1101 Surveying .make sure the leveling rod is fully extended Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Common Mistakes Suggestions for Good Leveling  Level rod not vertical  Anchor tripod legs firmly  Settling of leveling rod  Check the bubble level before and after each reading  Leveling rod not fully extended or  Take as little time as possible between BS and FS incorrect length  Try to keep the distance to the BS and the FS equal  Level instrument not level  Instrument out of adjustment  Provide the rodperson with a level for the rod  Environment .wind and heat .work within your group to check you records  Mistakes with extended rod .42 BM2 Differential Leveling Differential Leveling Computation of Elevations .67 6.46 3.11 of 3. What are the elevations of points TP1 and TP2? 2.27 4.

Introduction to Differential Leveling 6/6 Differential Leveling Any Questions? .CIVL 1101 Surveying .