CIVIL ENGINEERING SURVEYING -VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Survey Principals

1.1What is the main principal in Surveying?

Survey work is done whole to the part

1.2 What is the principal no 2 in Surveying?

New points should be fixed by at least 2 independent measurements

1.3 What is the principal in leveling?

Measure the height differences between points

2. Linear Measurements

2.1 Name two types of offsets in surveying?

 Perpendicular offsets
 Oblique offsets

2.2 What is the maximum distance to be taken in a perpendicular offset?
30m?? 50m????

2.3 What is the diameter of a picket circle?
1cm ????

2.4 Difference between prospection diagram and field note?

 Prospection diagram shows the existing details of the area about to
be surveyed.
 Field notes are for recording information while conducting the
survey. ????????

2.5 How to set out a right angle only using chain and poles?

 First one tape is stretched between two poles.
 Then the next tape is placed between the third pole and the first tape
with the zero mark near the pole.
 Then the reading at the intersection point is checked.
 When the value is the lowest the tapes are perpendicular.
????????

What is the difference between Quadrant bearing and Whole Circle bearing? A quadrant bearing is an acute angle within a quadrant defined by the cardinal directions (00 to 900).5.1. How would you measure the magnetic bearing of a line with a theodolite?  First the theodolite is set to zero in the direction of the magnetic north using a compass  Then the horizontal angle of the line is measured using the theodolite  That angle is the magnetic bearing 3.2.4. What are the fundamental parts of a theodolite?  Telescope  Levelling screws  Level bubble  Display (digital theodolite)  Keypad(digital)  Tribrach  Clamping screw 3. Name different types of theodolite?  Transit theodolite  Digital theodolite  Total station  gyro theodolites 3. What is the difference between a level and a theodolite? Auto levels are used to measure vertical heights while theodolites are used to measure vertical and horizontal angles. 3.3. while a whole circle bearing is an angle measured in from north in a clockwise direction (00 to 3600) .3. What are the fundamental lines in a theodolite?  Vertical axis  Horizontal axis  Telescope axis  Axis of plate levels  Axis of altitude bubble  Line of collimation 3. Instruments -Theodolite 3.6.

3.9 What is latitude and departure?  Latitude is the projection of a line on the north-south meridian. Total Station 4. What are the temporary adjustments of transit theodolite?  Setting  Centering  Leveling  Focusing 3.  Departure is the projection on the east-west meridian.10 What is closing angular error in a theodolite traverse? How is it adjusted?  The difference between the calculated fore bearing and the obtained fore bearing at the final station.  The error is adjusted by dividing the error among all the stations.  To accurate leveling the electronic level in the total station should also be used.2 Name three types of keys in a TS?  Function keys  Alphanumeric keys  Operation keys 4. 3.8.11 Name one method for balancing a traverse? Bowditch’s method 4.3 Name five applications in a TS?  Set out roads and buildings .7.1 Explain how to do approximate leveling and accurate leveling of a TS?  Approximate leveling is done by centering the level bubble by using the tripod legs and then the level screws.  Open traverse  Closed traverse 3. Explain different methods of traversing. 3. ????? 4.

Magnetic Meridian – the direction indicated by a freely suspended and balanced needle free from other attractive forces c.4 List three advantages in a TS over a normal Theodolite?  Can measure coordinates  Can measure distances  Data processing (calculation and storage) 4. a. Arbitrary Meridian – any convenient direction towards a prominent landmark Bearings/Angles a.an acute angle within a quadrant defined by the cardinal directions c. Whole Circle Bearing (WCB) . Quadrant Bearing (QB) .the bearing of a line measured in the direction opposite to the forward direction of a survey . Reduced Bearing (RB) – same as quadrant bearing?? d. Meridians Explain what is.  Mining  Meteorology  Mapping and topography  Mechanical and electrical construction in buildings ???? 4. Fore Bearing – the bearing of a line measured in the forward direction of a survey e.5 List two disadvantages in a TS over a normal Theodolite?  Expensive  Difficult to learn 5. True Meridian – the plane passing through the true north and south poles at the place of observation b. Back Bearing .an angle measured in from north in a clockwise direction b.

Leveling: 7. designing. rail ways. dams and canals 7.1 What are the instruments used in leveling?  Auto level  Tripod  Leveling Staves  Measuring tapes  pegs 7. estimating and executing the various engineering projects such as roads.4 Explain the procedure for taking measurements? .5m on a staff 7.4 What are the instruments used in theodolite traversing?  Digital theodolite  Tripod  Poles  Measuring tapes  pegs 7.3 What is an Open Traverse? A traverse that does not form a loop 6. Traversing 6.3 What are the basic rules for leveling?  Start and finish at a benchmark to close the loops  Keep the fore sight and back sight distances equal  Keep lines of sight short  Never read below 0.1 What is the purpose of traversing? To compute the area of a traverse or make a survey plan ???? 6.6.2 What are the applications of leveling? Planning.2 What is a Close Traverse? A traverse that forms a loop 6.

Differential Leveling 8.1 What is the purpose of Leveling? Planning.4 Line of Collimation – the axial line of the telescope 8.7 Explain how to remove Parallax?  Focus the cross hairs  Focus the object  Then check whether there is relative movement between object and cross hairs.2 What is MSL in leveling? Mean sea level 8.  If there is movement refocus until it is gone.  Level the instrument correctly  Direct the telescope towards the staff held  Take the reading 7. dams and canals 8. estimating and executing the various engineering projects such as roads.3 Reduced Level – the elevation of point above the datum adopted 8.6 Arbitrary Bench-marks – a point with an assumed reduced level 8. 8.5 Permanent Bench-marks – a fixed reference point of known elevation which will not change for a long time 8.5 What are the main parts of an Auto Level?  Telescope  Eyepiece  Level  Leveling screws  Focusing knob 7. rail ways.6 What is the least count of a 5m staff? 5mm ??? 7.7 Temporary Bench-marks – a fixed point with a known elevation . designing.

Types of Leveling and what it is? a.1 Back sight Reading (BS) – a staff reading taken on a point with known reduced level 9. Simple Leveling – finding the elevation of two points that are visible from a single level b.3 Intermediate sight Reading (IS) – any sight that is not a back sight or fore sight 9.5 Instruments used in Leveling?  Auto level  Tripod  Leveling Staves  Measuring tapes  pegs 9.6 What is a horizontal plane? A plane perpendicular to vertical line/a plane tangent to a level surface 10.2 Foresight Reading (FS) – a staff reading taken on point whose reduced level is to be determined 9. Cross section Leveling – determine the elevations of points transverse to a given line 10. Profile Leveling – determine the elevations of points along a given line d. Differential Leveling – the level is set up in several positions if the points are far apart or the elevation is too large c. Three Sights 9.4 Change Point – a staff station on which fore sight and back sight are taken in order to change the instrument position 9.9.1 Methods of Calculation of Reduced Level  Rise and fall method  Height of instrument method .

4 Define Engineering Scale and Fraction Scale? . building locations and other physical features.4 What are the sources of errors in leveling?  Collimation error  Instrumental error  Error due to curvature  Personnel errors 12.The difference between consecutive points are calculated and the differences indicate rises and falls 11.2 Height of Instrumentation method – the height of the instrument is calculated at each change point and other reduce levels are calculated from that 10. 12. boundary locations.2 What is scale in a survey plan? The scale depends on the area of the survey and the size of the produced plan ??? 12.2 What is error allowed for normal leveling? 12√𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 11. 11.1 How can you check the accuracy of your leveling work? / Arithmetical Check? Σ𝐵𝑆 − Σ𝐹𝑆 = Σ𝑅𝑖𝑠𝑒 − Σ𝐹𝑎𝑙𝑙 11.1 What is a survey plan? How to define? A specialized map of an area with exact measurements.3 Rise and Fall method . Scales 12. 10. Accuracy and errors 11.3 What is Two Peg Test? The two peg test is used to check whether the level is exactly horizontal.

which indicates the number of actual units that are represented by one unit on map.6 What is the scale in a One Inch Map? 1:63360 ??? .  A plan is made to a larger scale with a smaller area but it is more detailed.  Fraction scale is a map scale.  Engineering scale is a tool to transfer measurements at fixed ratio of length.5 Differentiate a Map and Plan?  A map is made to small scale and may cover wide area. 12. 12.