Reference Standard: ASTM (1998).ASTM D36-95, Millard, R.S (1993)


Unlike some substances for example water which changes from solid to liquid at 0 bituminous
materials do not have a definite melting point. Instead, as the temperature raises these materials
slowly changes from brittle or very and slow flowing materials to softer and less viscous liquids. For
this reason the determination of softening point must be made by affixed, arbitrary and closely
defined method if results are to be comparable.

Being very simple in concept and equipment the ring and bell has remained a valuable consistency
test for control in refining operations particularly in the production of air blown bitumen. It is also an
indirect measure of viscosity or rather the temperature at which the given viscosity is evident. The
softening point value has particular significance for materials which are to be used as thick films such
as joint and crack fillers and roofing material. A high softening point ensures that they will not flow in
service. For bitumen of a given penetration determined at 25 the higher the softening point the
lower the temperature sensitivity.

APPARATUS i. Ball guide and ring holder iv.OBJECTIVE The objective of the experiment is to determine the temperature at which given bitumen reaches a certain degrees of softness. Burner . Beaker vi. Thermometer v.05g ii. Tapered ring made of brass and conforming to the standard BSI iii. Steel ball of diameter 9.53mm and weighing 0.

• After specimen had cold. • Bath temperature is maintained at that temperature for 15 minutes. 3 • The steel balls were put on the surfaced of the bitumen in the ring. 5 • Temperature was noted just after the ball was passed and dropped into the base 6 plate. . 4 • The bath liquid was stirred and heated to 5 ±2 per minutes. ring was suspended in the distilled water in the 2 beaker at 5 ± 2 .PROCEDURES • The bitumen was melted and the liquid was poured into a pair of ring placed 1 on plate.

9 6 14.8 8 17. Timer reading Temperature Timer reading Temperature (min) (°C) (min) (°C) 0 5.1 1 7.6 23 41.8 4 11 19 35.5 13 25.3 24 42.9 10 21 25 44.6 2 8.3 9 19.2 21 38.6 26 46 12 24.6 15 29.5 29 - .2 3 9.1 14 27.RESULT Record the temperature indicated by the thermometer at the beginning of the heating and at the end of each 1 minute interval.4 7 15.8 22 39.4 5 12.4 16 30.5 20 36.9 28 49.4 17 32.6 18 33.3 27 47.4 11 22.

The mean temperature of the two specimens (which shall not differ by more than 1 ) is recorded as the softening point.40 2 49.10 Average 48.75 . Number of Test Softening Point ( ) 1 48.

After the experiment.10 Besides that. Be alert and make sure your hand doesn’t touch the hot burner while taking the reading as it may cause minor severe burn. Cause and error during experimental.75 which is situated in the theoretical standard. ii. Surrounding temperature may affect the water temperature. the temperature is 49.DISCUSSION Based on the results that we obtained from the experiment. While doing the experiment. Ensure that you wash the apparatus in a fume chamber with your gloves on. some safety measures have to be follow. the apparatus are washed using hazards chemical.75 The theoretical value of the optimum temperature of bitumen softening point is between 48 to 52 according to Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) standard. iii. the average temperature of softening point that we calculated is 48. . i. The bath temperature not maintained for 15minutes.40 while for the test number 2. The bath temperature is not in the 5 ± 2 range. the temperature of bitumen to become soft for test number 1 is 48. The temperature than we recorded is 48.

This is to test the consistency of bitumen. Adjust the ring until the ball can pass through freely. During conducting the experiment. In order to prevent this from happening. The objective of this experiment was achieved. the final temperature of the softening point is 48. to get good results. there are methods to improve the experiment’s result. The purpose of this test in the industry is to estimate viscoelastic properties of both asphalt and a paving mixture especially in road design.75 which match the theoretical value which is 48 to 52 . In addition. .CONCLUSION To conclude. Before doing the experiment. make sure the Ring holder does not hold the Ball guide in stationary. there are some errors that occurred which will affect the final result. ensure you conduct the experiment in room temperature condition. 3.about. http://wiki.thefreedictionary.REFERENCES 2. composite.htm .