'- .. -............. ..

Z"9~.'" "'''-

• A '" iN




H R "



M.A., LL.B., PH.D., D.Lrrr.

Membre d'Honneur de 1& Sooi6M Asiatique de Paris; Hony. Fenow~ Royal Asiatic
Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Hony. Member, Royal A.siatic Society •
. Ceylon Branch; Fellow, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal; Author, Tribes in
Ancient India; History of Fali Lik,.ature: Goography oj Early Buddhism;
GeographU:al E8lKJYIJi The Magadhas in Ancient India, etc.


Published by

IJ me de Seine


Permi les travaux de M. Bimal" Churn Law-dont I. nombre d~fie
presque l'enumeratioll-une grande partie a 13M consacroo t\ extraire des
textes de l'Inde ancienne, en lea prcsentant de manie-re dument classifiee,
les informations concretes sur la geographie, l'hiatoire, la societe, bref tous
les retJ!,ia que cas textes peuvent contenir. L'entreprise n'est pas aisee,
quand on mesure lea deformations. intentionnelles ou rum, que des sources
litteraires ou religieus{'s ont 80uvent fait Bubir aux faits 6lementaires que
lea auteurs avaient soua les yeux et qu'lls etaient tentes d'enrober BOUS
quelque parure mythique.

Le travail de depouillement, de ciaasification, n'en eat que plus urgent.
Malgre bien des travaux d'approche, des syntheses parfois prematurees,
la compilation des sources, effectufe Bans parti.pris de systeme, demeure
indispensable. Elle a trouve un ouvrier diligent et competent, eloigne de
tout esprit d'aventure et d'hypothese, en la personne de M. B. Ch. Law.
Celui·ci a deja aborde a plusieurs reprises la geographie historique de
rInde; il a notamment porte son attention BUr lea sources bouddhiquea,
qui demeurent lea plus 'parl"ntes'.

Le present ouvrage reaume BeS travaux anterieurs sur ce sujet et
apporte nombre de donnees nouvelles. It embra.sse en somma l'ensemble
de notre documentation, depuis Ie Veda jusqu' aux PuratuL les plus recents,
en passant par lea textes canoniques du bouddhisme et du jainisme, les
epopeesJ la am:rti, l'epigraphie Banskrite, sana negliger oeS elements d'in-
formation connus depuis les origines de l'india.nismc, ma.is auxquels chaque
recherche nouvelle conduit a attacher un prix nouveau: lea historiens ou
geographea greos, lea peIerins chinois, les voyageurs arabes.

M. B. Ch. Law a Bouhaite que cette publication pariit sous Ie patron-
age de la Societe Aaiatique <k Paris: celle-ci eat heureuse de I'accueillir.



A systematic and comprehensive historical geography of ancient
India· is Wldoubtedly a great necessity. It is indeed a long.felt want to
have such a geography especially based on epigraphic data. With this
object in view I have attempted to prepare the present book which is the
outcome of my continued study of ancient Indian geography. I have
arranged the geographical names in an alphabetical order and fully dealt
with them under proper divisions to which they belong. I have utilized
original works in Sanskrit (Vedic and Classical), Pal;' Prakrit, Sinhalese,
Burmese, Tibetan, and Chinese and I have received an invaluable help
from other sources such as epigraphy, a.rchaeology, numismatics, accounts
of Greek travellers and Chinese pilgrims. Due attention has been paid to
modern literature and modem researches on the subject. The investiga-
tions made in the line by Sir Alexander Cunningham, Sir William Jones,
Lassen, Vivien·de St. Martin, Stanislas Julien, Buchanan Hamilton,
Mackenzie, Sir Aurel Stein, Kirfel, Dey, S. N. Majumdar, Raychaudhuri
a.nd others are noteworthy, but they now require careful revision in order
to make them thorough and up.to.date. My previous publications have
given me an immense help to prepare this detailed treatise. The task is
no doubt, fraught with difficulties, but I have tried my utmost to avert
them as far as possible. I have spared no pains to make my treatment
systematic, exhaustive, lucid, and useful. Three sketch-maps are given in
this book for the guidance of the readers. I shall consider my labour amply
rewarded, if this book greatly helps the geographers engaged in researches
on a.ncient Indian geography.
I am highly grateful to Prof. Dr. Louis Renou for his Avant.propos.
The Societe Asiatique of Paris bas laid me under" deep debt of obligation
by accepting this book as their publication.

43 Kaila.< Bose Street, }
Calcutta 6,
B. C. LAw.
1st A ugu.ot, 1954.

Note v Introduction I CHAPTER I Northern India 61 CHAPTER II Southern India 138 C!uPrER ill Eastern India 203 CHAPTER IV Western India 274 CHAPTER V Central India 303 Index 345 Mape- (I) Some Mountains and Rivers of India lacifl{! 18 (2) Makiija7llJpa4aa or Great States in Ancient India 44 " (3) Ancient India IronJi8piece . CONTENTS • Page AfXJn/-pr0p08 iii Author'.


the BTahmii1J4a and the Vayu Purii1'. Matsya and Miirka1J4. to outside lands.2. The majority of the names of countries and peeples found in the Purii1. DharmasiUras and Dharmaiiiatrati render us some help. hut there is aIso quite a good lot of names that are entirely new and original. The priccipal peoples in India a. arranged according to the natural regions of the country. the Jamhudvipavar'1J.. SOUBOES To reconstruct a systematic geography of ancient India Vedic literature.117.«lnd section of the Miirka1J4. It is obvious that these lists are framed in pursuanoe of a traditional account handed down from earlier times. It describes the course of the Ganges and refers to the famous rivers in India.. 116. Kautiliya ArthaBiiatra and the Yoginitantra for a study of early Indian geography.3. The longest list of countries and peeples of India is.eya Pura1)a. etc. in some cases a larger account is summarized into a shorter one. the seven mountain ranges in India and twenty. as a mle.2.<lparva of the 88me epic..76.).aa.round Meru. and the K~kindhya·ka1J4a of tbe Ramiiya1'.ngement. Upan~a48. culars of the country of Bharata . tant are Piil)ini's A~fji.«l are rich in geographical information. Brahma. mountains. has a section e&lled the K Urrnavib~a containing .taiijali's MaMhhdma. the Jamhu. lakes.u Pur(1)a list of countries is very meagre.two separate hills. 5. the Skanda. so also in the Padmapurii~a.133.eya Purii1)a (Ch. The Epics and the ~I)as are recognized as a rich mine of geographical information about ancient India. The geographical accounts in the different PuriiI)&S are more or less identical.Iokas 317-78) are almost the same asin the Pura. The fabnlous element as pointed out by Cunningham is conJined.f other major Purii. how· ever. but in some cases additional information can be gathered. and the aecount in one is often repeated in another. forests.dhyayt (4. The or-mbayiitrii. They contain some chapters giving a fairly accurate account of not only the dllferent territorial divisions of India but also of her rivers.aa. the MaMhhdTata has a much longer catalogue without any arra.eya Pura~a contains a description of Jambudvipa and mentions the forests. lakes and mountains a. the PariiSaTatantra and the Atharvapa~!a are equally important in eliciting valuable geographical information..aa. It mentions the nine divisions of Bharata. kha1J4avinirmii'1J. The Miirka1J4.eya Purii1. 4. the BrhaUJa'f'hiU. 57) which really contains the strictly geographical information .. deserts. The parti. The list in the Vayu. sometimes in a more detailed form. The V~!. grouping them according to the mountain ranges out of which they arise.lll8 is very much the same as we find in the NadyadivaT1'.«lS. countries and peoples.Digvijaya sections of the MaMhMrata. The Pauranic lists of countries and peoples occur also in the M aMhMrata. while that in the V~!lU is very short. p .nd on its borders are also mentioned in it. Of the geographical names in the lJgveda those of the rivers alone permit of easy and certain identifications. But it must be admitted that the accounts are sub· stantially correct. The Bhuvanak<¥a. 178. and their allusions to purely Indian topography are generally sober.<l1Ui. INTRODUCTION I. given in the B"*""parva of the MaluihMrata (.. The Marka1J4.173. 4.lll8 is a long one. contained in the M(irka1J4eya. towns. the Kiirmavibhaga sections of the Puruflas. No less impor.1.

nd looking ea. So we find that the Pura1}a8 are really very important for a geographical study of ancient India. The Milindapaiiha which is an important non-canouical Pali text. 26). Pancii!a. 3). As for example. It contains some useful geographical information about Utkala. the Na~hiyacarita by Srthar. the Pali A1iguttara Nikiiya is the main source of informacion which is supplemented by the J aina Bhagavmismra and the Kaf\laparva of the Mahiibhfirata. Viilhika.tu a.hitii8.stronomical works. I Vide Law. The Raghuva". as well as the accounts of the classical geographers and the itineraries of the Chinese pi16TIims. 98).ny 1 This conception fits well with our present knowledge of the topograpby of India. 38). The extensive MiiMtmya literature which contains portions from the Purii~1J8 or Sa".' This arrangement is baaed on earlier a. a Buddhist Sa. Geography of Early Buddhmn and GeovrapMcaJ Essays. Sumba. Bls.nd peoples of India IU'l'ILIIged according to the position of the country conceived a." Some geographical information may also be available from Tibetan texts. the most inlportant chapter of the Indian history and geography before and after the time of the Buddha. IB .nskrit work of great importance. the Daiakumiiracarita by Dru. very great in the sense that evidences may be adduced from them to enable us to locate important sites.rasara and Variihamihira. They supply us with an abundant information conceruing the M adhyade8a or the Middle country and the localities bordering it. too. the M egluulUta by Kiilidasa (Purvamegha. (Ch. I. Texts or narratives of purely historical or geographical nature are altogether absent in tbe literature of the early Buddhists. Nilladha. 24.. Rajaiiekhara's Kiivya-mimiif!l8ii (p. From . the geographical information contained in Pali and Sanskrit Buddhist literature is considerably important. deals with the topography of the various tirlhas or holy places. The later Sanskrit literature abounds with geographical information. The Plili Pitaka.bont the time of the Buddha to about the tinle of ASoka the great literature of the early BuddlIiats i.sa (4th sarga.t~in (6th ucchviisa).nce i. To present a complete geographical picture of India in the Buddha's time and later. Dhoyi's PavanandUta (27) may be utilized for our geographical knowledge. 50. Suraaena. 25. Thus for the history of the rilLe and vicissitudes as well as for the geographical situation and other details of tbe sixteen MaMjanapadas. sis.s a tortoise. 35. and the M ahiivastu. Aitga. For later periods when we have abundant epigraphi- cal and archaeological sources and literary sources. Their geographical importa.a's knowledge of geography may be gathered from his works. Ch.u)ra. 17). Vanga. The Bhiigavatapura!.a also contains some geographical information.s it lies on water resting upon VilIr. contains inci-.. etc. Pali literature ilL undoubtedly the most inlportant. ThilL chapter ilL invaluable from the topographical standpoint. and KMmira (Ch. and whatever historical or geographical information can be gathered is incidental and very much reliable. the Hargacarita by Bii(labhatta (6th and 7th ucchviiBas). specially the Vinaya and the Sutfa. which are mainly Brahmanical. One finds it tedious to read the legendary history of tirlhas or holy places. supplemented by Jaina and Brahmauical sources here and there. PUI. certainly the main source of the histori- cal and geographical information of ancient India.2 llISTQRICAL GIIOGBAl'HY Olr ANCIBNT INDlJ. a. dental references to cities and places connected with the gradual spread of Buddhism.a (5th sarga. like those of pa.tudied from the geographical standpoint. A fairly good idea of Kalida. sis.stwards. The innumerable MiiMtmYM require to be carefully . 93) clearly states the five traditional divisions of India. but to a geogcapher it will never be a fruitless study. contain ma. a list of countries a.


important geographical noticee. The Pali commentaries, specially those
of Buddhaghoaa, and the chronicles of Ceylon, specially the Dipa....,....
and the MaMtJaffl8lJ, furniBh us with chips of information ... to the geo·
graphical knowledge of the Buddhists.
The SansKrit Buddhist texts which are later iu date than the Pali texts,
have some geographical information. Cities of fiction which are not part
of the real world, are found in them. Countriee like Ratnadvipa and
KhaJ;lQ.advipa, cities like Vandhumati and Pu:r;tyavati, and mountains like
TriBaliku and Dhiimanetra, mentioned in them, admit hardly of any identi·
ficati###BOT_TEXT###gt;n and help only to add to the legendary element pervading most of
the acoounts of the Sanskrit Buddhist texts. The Sanskrit Buddhist
texts which are very important from religious and philosophical points of
view, do not elicit much information of a historical or geographical
character. The Mahlivastu speaks mostly of the life of the Buddha; the
La/itavi8tara and the Buddluwaritakiivya aIso refer to the Master's life.
The Bodhi8attvdvaJiinakalpalatii gives a number of stories relating to the
former existences of the Buddha, while the AsokiivaJiina speaks of ASoka
and his times. Very few Sanskrit Buddhist texts have a great corrobora·
tive value. Really speaking, they are not important from geographical
standpoint. They were mostly written from the 6th century onwards to
the 12th and 13th centuries of the Christian era. They no doubt contain
the most important contemporary e'\idence as to the religious history,
but geographically they speak of very remote times. For already by the
6th and 7th centuries of the Christian era the whole of the Indian continent
with its major divisions and sub-divisions, cities, countries, provinces,
rivers, mountains, etc., had become too widely known to its people. Con·
temporary epigraphic, literary and monumental evidenoes abound with
information regarding many geographical details. Moreover, the Indians
of those centuries had also planted their political, cultural and commercial
outposts and colonies not only in SuvarJ;labhumi (Lower Burma) but aIso
in Java and Sumatra, Campa and Kamhoj. Their priests and missionaries
had already travelled to China and Central Asia carrying with them
Sanskrit Buddhist texts. But it is difficult to find in them any idea of far
wider geographical knowledge and outlook of the times. Even the Indian
continent is not fully represented in its contemporary geographical
The earlier texts of the Jain... have many geographical and topo.
graphical references. The Acara1igaSUtra, Bhagawtiviya,hap"'!'[IaJti, Nay<!·
dhammakahlio, Uviisagtula&io, Af'{Wl{Ja4a<f.a8ao, At'uttarOtJavdiyadasao,
Pa'1)hiivtlgaraniiirp" Vivaga-8uya, Ovavtiiya-siiya, Rayapasenaiya-8uya, Pa1J-
!tavav6, J ambuddivapa1j/I),atti, N irayiivaliya-suya, N isiha-mahiinisiha-8uya.s,
Kalp<UliUra, UttaradhyayanasiUra, and the AvaSyakasW;ra contain geo·
graphical data. The Jambuddivapa'[ll;lG!ti which is the sixth upti1iga of the
Jainas, contains a description of Jambudvipa ... well "" that of Bharata·
van,:;a. It speaks of seven var~ or countries constituting seven main
divisions of Jambudvipa. Although it gives us the mythical geography
of the J ainas, there is much that is of great value to geographers of ancient
India. It. is no doubt an interesting Jaina treatise on geography and it
should be studied along with the Vividhatirthakalpa which is not included
in the Jaina canon. The Vividhatirtkakalpa of Jinaprabha Suri contains
legends mixed up with fa.cts. Great care should be taken to separate
fact from fiction in order to present a true geographical picture.'

1 Law. Some Jaina Oanonical SiU1"CUJ, Append..i.x: II.


The inscripticns of Mob and those at the Kh8J,lgagiri and Udayagiri
hiDs of on.... aIao help us greatly. Coins too sometimes enable US to
locate a particular nation or tribe. As for example, tbe discovery of some
copper coins at Niigri, a small town 11 miles north of Chitor, enables us to
locate the kingdom of king Sivi of the Sivi Jiitalca.
Among the early classical geographers Hecata.eus of Miletus (RC.
549-486) was the first Greek geographer whose knowledge stopped on the
frontier of the Persian empire, the river Indus. He knew the people called
Gandhiiri on the upper Indus. He wsa acquainted with the names of
other Indian peoples of the frontier hills (CambridlJe History of India, I,
394). Herodotus (RC. 484-431) wrote about India, much of which was
drawn from Hacataeus. He knew that the population of India was great.!
In fact, most of his allusions to India refer to the times of Darius
and Xerxes (Ibid., I, 329). From a paBBage in Herodotus (IV. 44) it
appears that the valley of the Indus from its upper course to the sea includ·
ing the Punjab and Sind, was annexed by the Persians or was brought
under their control (IUd., I, 336). Regarding minor states in India in
the period from 325 RC. to 300 A.D. some information has been supplied
by him (B. C. Law, Indolcgirol Studi"", Pt. I, 11). Ktesias (B.C. 398)
collected materials during his stay for a treatiae on India. His account
was unfortunately vitiated by a large number of fables and it WBB left to
the followers of Alexander to give to the Western world for the first time
fairly accurate accounts of India and its inhabitants.
The great conqueror carried scientific men with him to chronicle his
achievements, and described the countries invaded by him. Some of his
officers were men of literary culture. Of his companions three men
enriched the Greek conception of India by their writings. Nearchus was
one of them. His book contained a good deal of incidental information
about India (G.H.I., I, 398). Alexander's Indian expedition prodnced
quite a large number of narratives and memoirs relating to India. All
these works are lost, and their substance is found in brief in Strabo, Pliny
and Artian. Some subaequent writers mede considerable additions to the
stock of information concerning India, among whom may be mentioned
Diodoru8, Strabo, Curtius, Arnan, who was the best of Alexander's histo-
rians, and Justinus. 2 The Greek and Roman historians of Alexa.nder
carryon geographical knowledge eastwards beyond the Jhelum (Hydaspes),
the eastern limit of Gandhara to the Beas (Byphaais) (Gambridge Hi8tory
of Itulia, I, 58.59).
Strabo's geography furnishes us with some information about the
well·known Asaska or Mmaka tribe. Though Strabo speaks of the
country of the Gandarai, the mime of the Gandhara country is not
mentioned by any of Alexander's historians. Aooording to Strabo Taxila
lay between the Indus and Hydaapes (the Jhelum). It was a large city
which was governed by good laws. According to him the country of the
elder Poros, the Kekaya country, was extensive and fertile, having in it
some 300 cities. The principality of the younger Poroa was called
Gandaris. But this name is not to be taken as conclusive. He says that
the region where Sophytes ruled was marked by the presence of a mountain
composed of rock salt of sedimentary origin, yielding enough salt to meet
the demands of the people of India BB a whole. He further says that in
the realm of Sophytes dogs were characterized by remarkable courage.
He gives an interesting account of the inhabitants of the territory of

1 Cambridge Hi8tory oj India. I, 395.
• McCrindle, A ......... India '" ducrib«l by M~ and A ......., pp. 6ft".


Mousikanos. The king of the territory of Oxykanos waB called by him
and Diodoros 88 Portikanos. He tells us that the Parthians deprived
EukratideB of a part of Bactriana. The conquests by the Bactrian Greeks
were, according to him, partly achieved by Menander (middle of the 2nd
century B.C.) and partly by Demetrios, son of Euthydemos (cir. 190 B.C.).
Such historico.geographical information, among other details, is found in
his geography.
Meg88thenes who lived long in India gives us topographical matters
of great value. He came to the court of Candragupts Maurya on an
embassy. He himself said that he had often visited Sandrokottos, the
greatest king of the Indians. According to Arnan he also visited king
Poros. The frsgments of his Indika furnish us with invaluable materials
concerning India, her inhabitants, rivers, countries, cities, size, fertility of the
soils, wild animals, borses and elephants, Indian trees, peoples. castes, tribes,
races, occupationa, Indian philosophers, Sramal)as and BrahmaQas, etc.
Artian who distinguished himself as a historian, was the famous author
of the account of the Asiatic expedition of Alexander the great. He also
gave us a fine description of India. His Indika consists of three parts:
the first part deals with the general description of India chiefly based on
the accounts of the country gi ven by Megasthenes and Eratosthenes; the
second part gives an account of the voyage made by Nearchos the Cretan
from the Indus to the Pasitigris, chiefly based on the narrative of the
myage written by Nearchos himself; and the third part gives ample evi·
dence to prove that the southern parts of the world are uninhabitable on
account of excessive insolation. In his lndika he refers to the regions
beyond the river Indus on the west inhabited by the two Indian tribes,
Astakenoi and Aseakenoi. He mentions the countries lying to the east
of the Indus as denoting India proper. He states the dimensions of India,
and deals with her rivers, tribes, etc. He divides the Indian people into
about seven castes and describes the hunting of wild animals by the
Indians, etc.
Eratosthenes wrote a scientific geography. He described India on
the authority of Alexander's historians.
Pliny treats of the geography of India in his Natural HiBftJry, which
was dedicated to Titus, son of Vespasian and his successor as emperor.
The first ten books of this history were probably published in A.D. 77.
Books III-VI are devoted to geography and ethnography. His treatment
i. uncritical but extremely valuable judging from the incidental facts
presented by him.
The PeriplU8 oj 1M ErythraJan Sea by an anonym()us writer is a guide.
book containing an account of trade and commerce carried on from the
Red Sea and the coaat of Africa to the Eaat Indies (modem Ind()nesia).
It is really a guide.book to the Indian ocean including its bordering seas,
the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The articles of trade, which were
handled by the ports, are mentioned in the PeriplUll (Translated by W. H.
Schoff, 1912, pp. 284-288). According to the PeriplU8 tin was shipped
from Egypt to Somaliland and India. Ebony came to Rome from both
India and Egypt. Minnagara waa the name given temporarily to some
cities in India during the period of the Soythisn occupation. After the
oollapee of the Indo·Scythian power these cities resumed their former
names with their autonomy. This guide.book oontsins some information
about the Indus, Syrastrene (S~ra), Barygaza (modern Broach), the
river Mahi (Mais), the river Narmada (NammadWl), Arach06i.i (the country
around the modern Kandahar), Gandaraei (Gandhir&), Ozene (Ujjain),


Tagar.. (modern Ter), Suppara (modem Sopara), CaJliene (modem
Kalyii.na), Pandian Kingdom (Pal)c;Iya), etc.
Ptolemy's Geography is a work of great importance. Ptolemy was
indebted to Marinus of Tyre for his materials. His treatise is divided into
eight books. His description of India within the Ganges Valley, and his
acCOWlt of the countries, cities, towns, rivers, mountains, hills, etc., deserve
to be studied with great care. The position of India beyond the Ganges,
inland towns and villages of the trans· Gangetic India, seven mountain
ranges, rivers of the Indus system, and the territories and peoples of India
classified according to the river· basins, are some of the topics ably treated
by him. His Geography is undoubtedly very helpful to the geographers
of ancient India.
The itineraries of Chinese pilgrims are of inestimable value as sources
of the ancient Indian geography. The accounts of Fa·Hien and Yuan
Chwang who toured all over Northern India are very important. The
account of Yuan Chwang who visited India in the 7th century A.D., is
fuller and more exhaustive. For an accurate and exhaustive geography
of Northern India during the 5th and 7th centuries of the Christian era,
the accounts of these two pilgrims are the most important sources of infor-
mation. There was another Chinese pilgrim who visited India in the 8th
century A.D. He was U.Kong (Cakutta Review, August, 1922). The
accounts of other Chinese pilgrims, Song Yun and Hwiseng. are short and
describe only a few places in north-west India. I-tsing who visited many
important places in ancient India in 673 A.D. gives us a detailed account.
Another Chinese pilgrim named Wang.hiuen.t'se who came to India in
643 A.D., wandered over and visited the countries of the Lord Buddha, as
he himself said in his account.' He visited Magadha and ascended the
Grdhrakula hill (Ki-tche.Kiu) and left there an inscription. He also went
to Mahabodbi at Gay... As related in his account he visited five Indies.
At the head of the Tibetan and Nepalese ca vaIry he marched on Magadha,
defeated the Indian troops, captured the capital, siezed the king and took
him triumphantly to China. He himself visited Nepal and Tibet. His
description of Tibet (Tou.fan) is interesting. This Chinese pilgrim in his
leisure time "Tote a book entitled Account 01 the Voyage. He narrates an
interesting account of the law of Magadha which was then prevalent. If
someone was guilty, he was not beaten by a rod, but recourse was taken
to a wonderful weighing. His inscriptions engraved on the Grdhrakiita
and at Mahabodhi have been translated by Chavaones. His account of
the places in India visited by him is very useful from geographical stand·
The geographical accounts of Muslim writers are equally helpful.
Alberuni, who was in the territory of modem Khiva in A.D. 973, distin·
guished himself in science and literature. In his book on India he deals
with its geography which is sure to render some help to geographers. India
"" far as known to him was Brahmanic and not Buddhistic. In the first
half of the 11th century A.D. all traces of Buddhism in Central Asia,
Khurashan, Afghanistan and North·Western India seem to have dis-
appeared. There his notes on Buddhism were very scanty. Benares and
Kashmir were then two centres of Indian learning. He had not the same
opportunity for travelling in India as Hiuen Tsang had. Hence his geo-
graphical notes are not so very exhaustive. In his book on India (English

1 It is related in Sylvain Levi's article Lea MyWms ck Wang-Hitu.:n-T'atI daM
l'Ind" PQblished in the Jouma/ A .....iqu<. 1900. This paper h .. 00en recently
tran.ol.1<ld into Engliah by Dr. S. P. Ch.tterjee.


edition by Dr. E. C. Sachau. Ch. XVIII) he deals with the MadhyadeSa.
Prayaga. Sthii.ne8v...... Kanyakubja. Piitaliputra. Nepal. Kashmir and
other countries and towns, rivers, animals, the western and southern
frontiers of India, the western frontier mountains of India, islands, rain~
fall, etc. He also refers to the Hindu method of determining distances
between the various parts of India.
Kalhaua's Riijatarangif)i, the well-known K...hmir Chronicle of the
12th century A.D.. should be used with caution as it contains ..
large number of confused ancient traditions. It is valuable, sa.ys Vincent
Smith, as it gives a tl'llBtworthy account of local events (Early History oj
India. 4th Ed .• p. 10).
Marco Polo. the famous Venetian traveller. visited South India and
Central Asia in the 13th century A.D. The account of his travels may be
found useful. (Vide Travel.< oj Marco Polo by L. R. Fawcus published in
the Introducing India, Pt. I. RA.S.B. publication.)
There are other means of approach to the historical geography of
India, such as, the early surveys contained in the Imperial and Provincial
G89"tteers, which are really mines of information. The Reports oj (he
Archaeological Sun-ey of India. and the geographical references in the
Epigraphia Indica, Corpw! I1!8criptionum Indicarum. South Indian Inscrip.
tio1!8 and Epigraphia Carnatica. contain detailed geographical knowledge
of the most definite character. The Cens'UlJ Reports oj India are equally
In the Imperial GauJ;leer oj India (New Edition. Vol. II. Historical.
The Indian Empire. pp. 76--87). Dr. J. F. Fleet's attractive note on Geo:
graphy will no doubt be helpful to researchers. He has shown the
importance of the study of early Indian Geography and has traced the
principal sources of this interesting branch of study.
The Annual Report. of the Archaeological Survey of India contain
detailed accounts of the excavations carried out by the Archaeological
Department at different sites of historical importance. and they dwell
at length upon the topography of places of geographical interest. e.g.,
&snagar, Bhi!a. Kilsia. Paialiputra, Riljagrha. Silmilth, Vaisali, Ta~aSilA.
The Annual Report for 1907·08 contains an account of the ancient temples
of Aihole with the topography of the site. In the Report for 1915-16.
M. B. Garde writes a paper on the site of Padmavati, which is mentioned in
the Vin.upuriif)a as one of the three capitals of the Nagas and described in
Bhavabhuti's Miilati-miidhava as the place where the hero of the poem.
Madhava. was sent by his father from KUI.1<;iinapura in Vidarbha. Padma·
vati is identified with modcrn Pawaya on the confluence of the Sind and
the Parvati. The Report for 1927-28 contains a note by K. N. Dikshit
on the identification of Pu~karar:ta in the Susunia inscription of Candra-
varman. Pnekaraua of the inscription (ed. H. P. Siistri. Ep. Ind .• XIII.
p. 133) is identified with the village of Pokharan. 25 miles to the north·
west of Susunia. The Report. for 1925-26, 1927-28 and 1928.29. contain
accounts of the excavations at Paharpur in the Rajshahi district. while
the Report for 1928·29 contains an account of the excavations at Mahii·
sthan in the Bogra district of north Bengal.! identified with the ancient
site of Pm:H;lravardhana.
'Tk Buddhist Antiquitie8 of Niigijrjunalro~<!a. Madras Presidernoy·. by
A. H. Longhurst, published by the Archaeological Survey of India as their
Memoir No. 64, gives an interesting account of the Buddhist antiquities
discovered at the Nagarjuna's hill on the right bank of the K",l)ii river in

1 Now in East. Pakistan.


the Palna<;! taluk of the GU(l~ur district. Most of the scenes in the beauti-
ful bas·reliefs recovered from the ruined stiipas at the site illustrate
well-known stories connected with the life of the Buddha. The author has
taken much pains to identify the different scenes portrayed in the
sculptures. He bas given us a very readable account of the locality and an
interesting history of the site. The chief buildings and antiquities dis-
covered during the explorations have not escaped th~ careful attention of
the author, and he has furnished us with a very good account of them.
The fruitful result of his careful investigation embodied in this monograph
will surely be appreciated by every student of early Indian geography.
Explorati<ms in Sind by N. G. Mazumdar published as a Memoir No. 48
by the Archaeological Survey of India is a valuable contribution to ancient
Indian geography. It contains prominent topographical features of Sind
and its clima.te. It also gives an a.ccount of the excavations carried out at
the site during the years 1927-28, 1929-30 and 1930-31.


Bounded on the north by stupendous mountain ranges and on the
other three sides by the mighty Beas and ocean, India constitutes a
distinct geographical unit. The vastness of the country with its infinite
variety of fauna and flora, races and languages, religions and culture justly
entitles it to be called a great suh·continent. The remote parts of this
great country revealed themselves to the observers and explorers of ancient
times only gradually and by stages. It is for this reason therefore that we
do not meet with any comprehensive term to designate the whole country
in the earliest records, The word' India' is derived from the name of the
river Sindhu or the InduB,l The Chinese also knew the ancient name of
India as Shin-tnh or Sindbu.. In the Rigooia (VIII. 24. 27) it is referred
to as Sa-pta Sindha vas or 'the Seven Rivers', The designation dOll btles8
corresponds to the term Hapta Hindu found in the Avestan Vendidad.' In
the famous inscriptions of Darius at Persepolis and Naksh-i-Rustam the
entire territory watered by the Indu. and its affluent. is styled simply
Hi(n)du.' Herodotus calls it 'India' which was the twentieth division of
l.he Persian empire. It should, however, be noted that the Vedic Sapta
Sindhava\t and the Persian Hi(n)du corresponded ouly to a particular
part of India lying to the north-west. But' India' of Herodotus was
already acquiring a wider denotation, for the Greek historiau speaks of the
Indians who' are situated very far from the Persians, towards the south,
and were never subject to Darius',5
The exploration of practically the whole country had been completed
in or about the fourth century B.C. The literature of the period, both
Greek and Indian, shows acqu';ntance not only with the realm of the
Pi.,;u;1yas in the south, but also with the island of Tamrapaf(lj or Ceylon.·
The people felt the necessity of a comprehensive term for the territory
extending from the Himalayas in the north to the sea in the south. The
term was Jambudvipa which was then used. In Buddhist literature
Jambudvipa figures 88 one of the four Mahiidvipas or the four great cou-
1 Oomlmdfl. H;.w.y of India, I. p. 324.
, Law, G.ogrophy of Early Buddhiom, p. xvi; Legge. , . - . p. 2ft.
• O~ H;.w.y of India, I. p. 324 .
• Ibid., p. 335.
~ Rayehaudhuri. Sludiu,R tM Indian A..ntiquitiu, p. 81.
I Bbandarkar. OarmiMa<l L - . . (1918). pp. M.; O~ H;.w.y of Indio.
Vol. I. pp. 428ff.


tinents including India with Mt. Sineru (Sumeru) in the centre of them.
A portion of Jambudvipa known as the Ailgadvipa was inhabited by the
Mlecch"" according to the Vayupura"a (48. 14-18).
Childers (Pali Dictionary, p. 165) points out that when oppoeed to
Slbaladipa, Jambudvipa means the continent of India. 1 It is difficult to
be definite on this point. In Sanskrit Buddhist texts we have references
to Jambudvipa. 2 The Minor Rock Edict No.1 of ASoka mentions Jambn·
dvipa 3 which denotes the vast country ruled by that great emperor. In
t.he Epics and Pural)8S Jamhudvipa. is described as one of the seven con-
centric islands, encircled by seven samudrll8.' Of these seven islands the
Jambudvipa is the most alluded to in various sources and is one which is
in its narrower sense identified with Bharatavarlp15 or the Indian peninsula.
An interesting account of Jambudvfpa (Pali Jambudipa) is found in
Pall·Buddhist texts and commentaries. Jambudvipa has been named
after the Jambu tree. (Vi81lddhimagga, I, 205·206; cf. Vinaya Tem, l,
127; Atthasiilinf, p. 298). According to tbe Papaiicaswwni, the commentary
on the Majjhima NiMya, it is called Vana or forest (Vol. II, p. 423). It is
also called Sudacianadvipa which is said to derive its name from a
tree growing in it, the branches of which extend over 1,000 yojanll.'l.
(Brahmfitu!apura"a 37. 28-34; 50. 25·26; Matsya, 114. 74·75; cf. Muhabh.
VI. 5. 13-15; VI. 7. 19.20). The Sinern which is thc highest of the mountain
peaks, was encompassed by seven celestial ranges, named Yugandhara.,
isadhara., Karavika, Sudassana, Nemindhara, Vinataka and AasakalJ.1)a.
The Jambudvipa looks like a lotus with Mern as its kU""ika (pericarp of a
lotus) and the var.,as or mahiidv'ipas, BhadriihYl, Bhiirala. Ketumiila and
Uttarakuru as its four petals. 6 Buddhaghosa, the cE'lebrated Pali com-
mentator, points out that Jamburupa voas 10,000 yojanas in extent and it
was called Great (maha).7 The five great rivers, Ganga, Yamuna, Sarabhu,
Aciravati and Mahi, after watering Jambudipa fell into the sea. 8 The
Buddha, while relating the Oakkavatti8iharuida Suttanta, predicted thus:
• Jambudip& will be mighty and prosperous, the viUages, towns and royal
cities will be so close that a cock would fly from each one to the next'.
According to the Sumail{jauwiliisini Jambudipa had 500 islands (Vol. n,
p. 449). In Jambudipa there were pleasant parks, pleasant groves,
pleasant grounds and lakes, but their number was not great. Moreover.
there were many steep precipitous cliffs, unfordable rivers, inaccessible
mountains and dense thickets of stakes and thorns.. Gold WII.'l collected
from the whole of Jambudipa. 10 ASoka built 84,000 mon""teries in tbe
whole of Jambudipa. l l The Siimkbya, Yoga, Nyiiyaand VaiSe$ika systems
of philosophy, arithmetic, mUSic, medicine, the four Vedas, the Purii"1)<Vl
and the ItihiMas, astronomy, magic, spells, the art of war, poetry and
conveyancing were taught here." There were disputants here in arts and
sciences. 1• The importance of Jambudipa was very great as it was often

1 Law. Geography oj EarJy Buddhism. p. xvi. GtWf/f'aphicoJ E6lK1Y8. p. 6.
2 MahdtXl8lU, m. 67; LalUauUlaro, Ch. XII; Bodhi8atttxirodiiMkalpalatii, 18th
I R. K. Mookerjee, Ak1ca:, p. 110.
• Law, G«>gmphy oj Early BtiddIo.."., p. &Vi; Ctummgham. AIICieftt (hogmpAy of
1w.Ua. p. xxxvi .
• MahiibltMata. VI. 6. 13; Brohmal'4apwd~a, 37. 2746; 43. 32.
• NYlak&J:l~h8'8 commental'y 911 the MGltiib#t6ralo. VI. 6. 3-5; Mar~. 55.
2OIf.; Brahmafl{la. 35. (I; 44,·(5.
7 s..~"I, n, 129. • jbid.,p. 17.
• Arig. Nik., I, 35. 10 Pa~. U, 123..
11 Dipa'l1Of'1UO. p. 4:9; VilvddAimagga, I, 2(11. II MWiRdtI. p. 3.
II T~ 0 _ . , p. 87.

p.. Bhi!?ll1ap. Among the var~aa of Jambudvipa Bhiiratavarsa lay most to the south. Law.'~atriya. 65. and are islands and countries that encircle the Indian Peninsula. covering present geographical area. XI. p.k.. and Jainism.. Cunningham.. 8 A dreadful famine once visited it. 2. IV.... who probably occupied the place near Kahnl. 4. p. 15ft'. of the heretics was so very great that the monks stopped holding the uposatha ceremony for seven years. as we now know it. the Jamhuddivapatl:~latti derives the name BharataVal'$3 from King Bharata J a descendant of Priyavrata~ son of Manu Svyambhava. pp. which is des- cribed in the PUTa"a. Gandharas. 41.8 Bharatavar~a. Kuman or Kumarikadvipa." .!as eight have been shown to be divisions not of India proper. hoth in Pakistan.hinda. 749ff. 71S1. p. 12 The early Greek writers regarded the Indus as the western boundary of India. G~ographical ElJlJaylJ. seems to be identical with India proper.7 whose sovereignty was established over it. 370.. 1 BMgavatapum?:!a. The Jaina work Jarnhud4imptLr<- '!Ultti speaks of seven varfll8 as constituent parts of Jambudvipa.s to have been girt by sea (sagarasa.. 8. 14. .m. p. 121.. 368. 3 Mahaoof!1. l l The ninth dvipa or kha:!I4a.!. 374. 51. 1M. According to the Epic and Puranic authors Jambudvipa was originally divided into seven var~. ciI.. 575-nine dvipa8. r. A . but they knew of Indian settlements in the valley of the Kabul and its tributaries.". Law. pp. K.scfoibed in early u.I The people of Jambn· dips led a virtuous life according to the Kalluivatthu (p. p. 1 n. 36).. 6 Law.sa. and of the .8 or countries constituting the nine main divisions of Jambudvipa. 749-7M. Accordingly some regarded the Cophes..' Bharatav~a was just one of the nine var§Q. who were located in the region comprising the modern districts of Peshawar in the North·Western Frontier Provinee and Rawalpindi in the Punjab. 11 Law.19. " HcCrindI.. 2 Dhammapada Cmnmy..India fl8 dt. 121...\farkat. 5 Thus with the Jaina and Brahmin writers Jamhudvips as a continent was thought of as of much wider extension than Jambudvipa as known to the Buddhists. It is not thus our India. GtogNphit:. There were heretics and monks here and the unrnlioes. Le.rtIJ oj Bvddhinn. among the peoples of UUariipatha in the Great Epic and the PUTa~(l8.e.hal. nor are its component parts 'mutually inaccessible'. i.". Two other varlJaB were added later to the Qriginal seven and the total number of vurlJas was raised to nine. p.n. lO This fact was alBo noted long ago by scholars like Alberuni and Abul Fazl. was divided into nava. 119ft'. The whole of Jambudipa was stirred up by Sanu. p.... " Dham11w. 1M. 01'.s. III. according to Pauranic cosmology. suggests that India at one tinle embraced 1 Dipavaf!l-8a. with the BrahmaI)a8. Ancient Geography of India.10 HISTORICAL GBOGRAPBY 0" AliClENT INDIA visiW by Gautama the Buddha besides Ma. the only son of a female lay disciple who mastered the Tripiiaka. 8 Mahiibh. A . I.. p.mu and A""". ..u. Ancien' Geography oj India.9 But Bharatava~a. and the Yavanas at its western.pada Cmnmy..38 or nine divisions' separated by seas and 88 being mutually inaccessible'. III.kjeya. They are not so many prOvinces of India. Appendix I. India M deacribtd in early texts oj Buddhilnn and Jainiam.al EuaYB... Geographtwl EBIJQY. 9 Cwmingha... as the furthest limit of India on its west. Vaisyas and Siidras thrown within. the river Kabnl. In agreement with the Great Epic' and the Pura~aa. C. hut of Greatsr India. 1116. is not separated by seas within itself. Law. p. . tiacribed by M. 25. 78.. 2 The Cii/alJat?l8a refers to the great Bo·tree at Jambudipa (Vol. Of the nine kha<. Grography 0' 11 Raychaudhuri. Cunningham. S B.vritai» and to have been inllabited hy the Kiriitas at its eastern extremity. 99).... IS The inclusion of Yonas or Yavanas.

ledge from the people of the country and described India as a rhomboid or unequal quadrilateral in shape with the Indus on the west) the mountains on the north and the sea on the east and south. Some Pauranic passages suggest that the ancient Indians were acquainted with the four-fold conformation of India.000 stadia. 5..A. p. 8 Cunningham observes. About the size of India Megasthenes and Deimachos consider the distance from the southern sea to the Caucasus to be over 20. p. the shape of India has been described as an eqnilateral triangle divided into four smaller equal triangles..' In the M aMbhiirata. (G. • Digha. • (l. 6.eastern corner of the Iranian Tableland. 6.m&D. Not long afterwards the Hellenistic ambassadors who were accredited to the court of the great Maurya kings at Piitaliputra also wrote accounts of India based partly on their own observations and partly on the information derived from the Indian sources. Alexander's informants gathered their know.UJ.ni. and its length i.' In the KurmaniveAa section the surface of India is made to conform to the convex shape of the upper shell of a tortoise' lying out· spread and facing eastwards'.G. Vol.1. 49.. In the Geography of Ptolemy we find that the acute angle formed by the meeting of the two coasts of the Peninsula at the Cape Comorin. It was afterwards adopted by the authors of some of the Purti'I)f. INTRODUCTION II within it<! boundaries not only the land lying immediately to the west of the Indus but also the north. ill) . Hiuen Tsang. who visited India in the 7th century A. • Ibid. The Chin. and Sadiya in Assam'.7.A.I. According to him the country is broad towards the north and narrow towards the south. traveller. p. if we extend the limit<! of India to Ghazni on the north. p.' which does Dot form part of India proper. p. We learn from Strabo that Alexander caused the whole of the country to be described by men well acquainted with it. • Ibid. is both geographically and culturally closely connected with it.D. m.OJ.l. 1 HcCrindlo. at the 1 AmradVipa in the lnacription of Mah8. p.. and fix the other two points of the triangle at Cape Comorin. ducril>ed by M. 2. D (C. 236.) That India was divided into nine portions was first pointed out by Parasara and Variihamihira..<md Ama. II. 9. 7 According to Megasthenes the breadth of India at the shortest is 16..000 stadia.' According to the early Buddhists.. moon with the Vindhyas as it<! base and the Himalayas spreading it<! two arms on two sides as the diameter. India is broad on the north whereas in the south it has the form of the front portion of a cart and is divided into seven equal parts. It agrees wonderfully with the description of the shape given by the Chinese author Fah·kai·lih·to. pp.. This is also borne out by the early Greek accounts of the country. His travels were mainly confined to the north of India which may be said to resemble a half. They were undoubtedly of Indian origin... 'The shape corresponds very well with the general fonn of the country. is changed to a single coast line running almost straight from the mouth of the Indus to the mouth of the Ganges...shaped island of Ceylon. describes the shape of the country as a half·moon with the diameter or broadside to the north and the narrow end to the south. Anciem Indi<J .". SHAPB AND DIVISIONS OF INDIA The ancient Indians had a very accurate knowledge of the true shape and size of their country. • Ibid.west. The mango.' This shape of India corresponds to a great extent to the actual shape of the country which is broad on the north having the Himalayas extending from east to west and triangular towards the south.. .

I.iQiitya. Tribes in Ancient India. 77). The Dlutrmasutras testify to the fact that Dak(. the eastern boundary of the Madbyadesa changed from time to time. 58. Two other divisions. The wbole tract of land lying to tbe south of tbe Ganges and to the north of tbe Godavari is k. Dao<)in in his Kavyiioorsa (I. Dak. The Sanskrit Buddhist texts refer to the three divisions of India. Tbey were disrespectful to the Buddhist StWpaiJ (Makiiva"l'sa-'/'ikii. 80) refers to the people of Dii~iuiitya and Adak(.iuiipatha lay to the south of Piiri- patra. Law. II)..D. 245). p. with tbe result that tbey were defeated and mercilessly massacred in almost all tbe battles with tbe Ceylonese (Makiiva"l'8Il/ikii.iQapatha as having extended southwards beyond the Sariivati river and the Pari- pitra mountain. 60. Buddhaghoaa. namely. For further details vide Law. or to PnI)<)ravardhana according to tbe Dimjiivadana.A.A..I. 392. cf. I68ff. Vinaya- Oullavagga.. South and Central. Patafijali also mentions it in his Mahiihh~. I. Uttariipatha and Daksioiipatha. V. w bile according to the commentary on the V iitByiiyaruL Biltra it lay to the east of Ailga. Nortb. According to the Dlutrmasiltras tbe eastern country lay to the east of Prayaga. p. generally identified with a portion of the Vindhyas. but .I. Indological Studi"" I.~ or regions that constitute the divi- sions. They were warlike. The Chinese system of the five divisions was directly borrowed from tbe Hindu Brahmanical system as described in tbe PuriiJ. which are generally styled as the Five Indies. VII. Tbe Sanskrit Buddhist texts refer to Dak(. West. The western boundary of the Ptirvade8a shrinked still more and extendcd to Kajailgala according to tbe ViruLya Makiivagga. l..~il)iipatha is the region lying to the south of Miihi. 14 HIS'l'OBJOAL GBOGBAPlIY OJ' ANCIBNT INDIA &ka . V. as given in tbe Divyavadana.D.mati identified with Miindhiita according to the Kavyamima'f{i8a. 13. Some hold that it is situated between the Bridge of Rama and the river Narmada (Hullzsch. as consisting of five divisions called tbe East.nown as Da~il)iipatha according to the Suttanipiita (Prologue of Bk. The last two divisions are mentioned in name only. Tbey are described as uncultured (anariy(l).las . Geographical E8says. p. the western boundary of the Pri\cya country consequently diminisbed.. Madbyadesa. The Priicya or the eastern country lay to the east of the Madhyadesa. the celebrated Buddhist commentator. (O. 482.atrap Rudradiman of Western India aB evidenced by the Junaga4h Rock InBcription of 150 A. Vi7Ulya-Makiivagga. there is no defining of their boundaries nor is there any description of the countrie. namely. 53. XII. India is described in the official records of the Tbang dynasty of the 7tb century A. The division of India into five provinces was also adopted by tbe Chinese. 265). but are suggested by the boundary of the Madbyade8a. The M akiivagga 01 the V inaya Pir«ka and the Divyiivadana seem to record that the Dak~iQa­ janapada lay to the south of the town of Satakaruik. Law. defines Dakeil)iipatha or the Deccan as the tract of land lying to the south of tbe Ganges (Su11Iangalaviliiaini. comprising the Punjab . S. PiiI)inj refers to Uttarnpatha in his AWidhyayi (5. 447).rc not referred to even in name. the Apariinta or western and the Pracya or eastern a. 'Migbt is rigbt' was their policy whicb tbey rigidly followed. Tribu in Ancient India.I. and the island of Lanka was very mucb troubled by tbem from time to time. I. Modern India and adjacent countries may thus be divided for our purpose into: (I) Northern India. as already pointed out. IV). I. Tbe Kiivyamimii'f{i8a points out that it was to tbe east of Benama.vith slight modifications. Fleet. I). The Damijas who had two settlemente on both sides of the Ganges are identified with the Tamils. Law..a. Cb.G.

(3) Mid-India or Central India comprising the whole of the Gangetic provinces from Thanesvar to the head of the Delta and from the Himalayan mountain to the banks of the Narmada. Along with the Vindhyas and the Satpuras mention may he made of the Ajantas and AravaIlis. Along with the climatic variations that can be marked from the majestic heights of the Himalavas to the low-landa imperceptibly merging into the sea. The two sides of the Peninsula are bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east. INTRODUCTION· 15 proper including KB8bmir and the adjoining hill states with the whole of Eastern Mghanistan beyond the Indus and the present Cis-Sutlej states to the West of the Sarasvati river. again. Orissa and Ganjam. north-west and north-east the country is cut off by a huge mountain-wan from the Chinese Turkestan and Tihet.14.I. (5) Southern India comprising the whole of the Peninsula from Nasik on the west and Ganjam on the east of Cape Comorin (Kuman) on the south including the modem districts of Berar and Telengana. India has heen favoured with a luxuriant variety of flora and fauna. pp. 8 degrees north of the equator. North of the Malayalam region is the Kannada country proper and beyond that is the MaharaHra country. the Andhra territory and the Malayalam region. The entire Indus Valley is included in Northern India. Mysore and Travancore-Cochin or very nearly the whole of the Peninsula to the south of tbe Narmada and tbe Mahanadi rivers. The surf-heaten coast extends (ver neady 3. 13.) South India is an inverted triangle in shape with ita apex in the south at Cape Comorin. the northern boundary consists of the Vindhya mountains. (4) Eastern India comprising Assam and Bengal proper including the whole of the Gangetic Delta together with Sambalpur.. No country. (2) Western India comprising Sind and Western Rajputana with Cutch and Gujarat and a portion of the adjoining coast on the lower course of the Narmada river. west and south are washed by the waters of the Bay of Bengal. the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean respectively.G. the Iranian Plateau and Baluchistan and from the Chindwin and the Irrawaddy Valleys of Burma. Its sea position is thus well adapted for trade with lands around the Indian ocean. On its north. The base of the triangle.ny new scheme for dividing the country into variouB regions.. Maharil. Its three sides on the east. It lies in the centre of the eastern hemisphere and fonns the central peninsula of Southern Asia. PuYSIOAL FEATURES Geographically India occupies a position of great advantage.e. which is more than one-third of the size of Europe. The enormity of the size of India is quite in keeping with the extra- ordinary variety of its physical features. and from the dripp·ing hills of Assam to the waterless desert of Sind. These traditional regions of India will be most helpful in working out a.!ljra and Konkan with the separate states of Hyderabad. has been fa va ured more by nature than India in providing it with well-marked natural boundaries. South of the Ajantas lies the country of Hyderabad.000 miles. No less remarkable are the . South of the Satpura and other hills there was once a helt of impenetrable jungle called the Dano. i. It is almost unbroken and there are very few bays or gulfs which can be used as natural harbours.la- kitral)ya. In the extreme south there are the Tamil land. IV. The entire area comprised within the boundaries of the pre· partitioned India is about a million and a half square miles.A. (G.

028 ft. as these were not thoroughly explored by the geographers of the olden times. The Hindu- kuah mountain. the highest of the groups being Kailasa (22.447 ft. It is composed mainly of granite and is separated from the Greater Himalaya by a valley some fifty miles wide. This arcuate disposition of the Himalaya. It contains the Kamet peak (25. It is of Hercynian age and got considerably folded and faulted subsequent to its uplift. According to the modern geographers this mountain was uplifted earlier. the Kirthar mountain. Khasi and Garo hills. Follow- ing a spur of the Karakoram to the south-east we come to the Mount Kailasa overlooking the Manasa Sarovara. and the southern part.250 ft. extends right up to the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It forms the northern boundary of Kasbmir. This branch forms the Jaintia. and then tbrough north-eastern Afghanistau. can be ascribed to the main tangen- tial thrust coming from the south.agiri to ancient geographers.~ers are Been cutting through the main chains in deep trausverse gorges after long flowing parallel to the trend of the chain. the Naga hills. Since the main crest rises ahove the line of perpetual snow. The mountain-wall in the north-east sends out a great branch westward into Assam. known to the ancient Indians as the MiHyavat and as the Indian Caucasus to the Greeks. and separates Burma from India. One such group stands near the Manasa Sarovara. and this range extends across the Indus north-westwards. In the ·north-east of India an almost continuous ridge of folded mountains. known as the Kn. such as the Badakhshan spur separating the Oxus from the Kokcha. extends southwards from Mula river gorge in a series of parallel ridges for 190 miles. the Lushai hills and the Ambn Y oma. It contains a number of groups of joint peaks.). It nestles within it the lofty peak of Godwin Austen (28.ma Himavanta or Himalaya was well conceived by the ancient geographers of India. The northern portion of this range is called the Sulaimsn mountain. the Barail range. known to the ancient geographers as the Vaidyiltaparvata. too. a lofty range runs dividing the Indus Valley from the hills of Baluchistan and extending from the west of Debra-Ismail Khan to the sea-coast. The Trans-Himalayan zone comprises the Hindukuah.). The Indua and the Brahmaputra are the best examples of this . in the eastern section.000 ft. The Kailasa range runs parallel to the Ladakh range 50 miles behind the latter. the Karakoram and the Kailasa mountains. first dividing India from Afghanistan. known to the ancient geographers as Aiijana. similar in· Iltructure to the Himalaya.000 and . In the north-west of India. and hence is older than the Himalaya proper. is continuous with the Hindukush in the west. To the east of the Manasa Sarovara lake there runs a lofty range known as the Ladakh range parallel to the Greater Himalaya. The comparison of the shape of the Himalaya with the string of a gigantic bow fits admirably with our modem knowledge of the trend of the Himalaya. •B . We do not find reference to these hills and mountains in ancient Indian literature. The height of the Hindukush varies between 14. starts from the north-western extremity of the Himalayas and extends south-westwards. The Karakoram. the na. There are other peaks. From north to south it consists of the Mishmi mountain. the convex side facing towards the Indian plains.).lJ. the Patkai hills. A number of spurs run from the main range.18 HISTOBICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA belts of low land and behind the Siwalik lies the well-known Debra Dun district of the Uttara Pradesa. The Himalayan ri. The Zaskar range bifurcates from the great Himalayan range near Nampa. and the Kokcha spur dividing the Kokcha range from that of the Kunduz.

.Some Mountains and Rivers of India.


found in the Dharrna8Utra of BaudhayanaO who refers to it as being situated on the southern limit of Aryiivarta. the J:t~avat.500 ft. The bird-life of the Himalayas is ricb. The Sub-Himalayan zone consists entirely of tertiary beds. the Maikal range and the hills of Chota N .gpur. and the Vindhya are the mountains of Central India. A group of forest-clad hills forming themselves into a wide plateau runs obliquely along the west of India from the Gulf of Cambay to Rajmahal in the east. tJ8 dt8cnbe.000 ft. and divides the country into two separate parts. Beyond the Vindhyan ranges in the west in the centre of the Kathia."i . The importance of the Him"layan system in shaping the destiny of India seems to be great. 1. There are several passes in the north which may be divided into three groups. 25. 1. Manipur State and the Arakans. On the north side of the Everest the Rongbuk glacier ends at about 16. while in Kumaon they reach 12. .. but completely detached from it by a narrow valley in the south- west stsnds the rock-island of Abu aleo known as Arbuda in the Sirahi Stste of Rajputana. The northern section of them from west to east consists of the Vindhyas. Although regarded as a part of the Aravalli range. It shuts off the country from other parts of Asia and acts as an effective barrier against the outside world on land. According to Megasthenes and Arrian Mt. various kinds. The observations made by the Everest expeditions have added much to our knowledge of the plant-life of the Himalayan region. which runs &cross Rajputana in the west-easterly direction and cuts the country into two halves is closely connected with the Vindhyan system by th~ rocky ridges of Southern Rajputana and Central India. It rises far above any other summit in the Aravalli range.ia. The Skamla Pura~a refers to it as the farthest limit of Kumarikha\l<. In the Kanchengunga group the glacier may come down to 13. Chief among the numerous passes that lead across the north-western frontier to India are the Khyber. p. The Aravalli range.. The Himalayan zone is composed chiefly of crystal~ line and metamorphic rocks. viz. The butterflies are renowned for their beauty and grandeur. and the connected ranges of Bharner and Kaimur which passing through the neighbourhood of Gayi.l&ys may be divided into three zones: the Tibetan zone. the Indo-Gangetic basin in the north and the Deccan tableland in the eouth. viz. Kurram. Tochi. INTRODUCTION 19 Geologically the Hima. In the north- east there are several back-doorS to Burma leading through the north- eastern comer of Assam. Tbe python.d by Megasthenu and Af'f"'ian.r Peninsula is situated mount Gimar aleo known as Raivataka near J una- garh in Gujarat. Gomal and Bolan. Ancient Indw BawlMyana. the Shipki group.000 ft. the cobra. terminate near Rijmahai.wa.. The European flora of the Mediterranean reaches the Himalaya. 147.. the Almora group and the Darjeeling-Sikkim group.500 ft. the centre of Bhiirataval'l!a. . A valuable study may be made of the Himalayan plants and animals. These allow trade to be carried on between India and Tibet. In the south and in the same direction stretch almost in a parallel line the Satpurii. the Himalayan zone and the Sub-Himalsyan zone. the Mahiideva hill. and in Kashmere under special circumstances they may come as low as 8..l 1 2 MeCrindle. Abu is identical with Capitalia which attains an elevation of 6. The fossiliferous beda of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic ages are well developed in the Tibetan zone. the lizard and the frog are found in .. 1 The Piiripiitra or Piiriyiitra. The earliest mention of the Piiripitra i.000 ft.

.! The ~avat has been identified with the Ouxenton of Ptolemy.. 365. a Railway. .ta in Gondwan. the chief hill of Gay. The G. by Ptolemy.. The Dosar.eya Pura~a. Gayiisisa. Ch.. the source of the rivers Toundis. Different parts of the Vindhya mountain are known under different names.. 68. Vipul.) which is said to h . :lill.n elephant (gaja&iBa).' The mountain which runs south of the Narmada is at present known as the Satpurii... was located between the Ganges . M.. 95.. Cb.P.. 67..har hiJls)!O 1 McCrindle..B.. 8 Sabhii. According to Ptolemy the Ouindon stands for only that portion of the Vindhya wherefrom rise the Narmada and the Tapti. parvata is the mountain Sardonyx of Ptolemy. fI MM.. III.nd the Vindhy.. The Maikiil range stands for the ancient Mekal.l India together with the Aravalli mountains identified with the Apokopn. The forest.. The Citrakiita mountain has been identified with Kiimptiiniith·giri in Bundelkhand. The Vindhy. p. n... N. Dosaran and Adam..Iara.224.P. Pt.rmada.' and the other 88 PiiQ<. p. D.n has been identified with the river DMiima (modem Dhasan near S.tk~. Vepulla (Vipula) and Gijjhakilta (Grdhrakiita) which stood to the south of Vepulla. in Centr. Anciem India (J8 ducribed by Ptolemy....1 Provinces.. . mountain.. S. Majumdar's ed .vant he meant the central region of the modern Vindhya range north of the N.. hill fort in the Banda district. To the north of Gaya and west of Riijagrha stands the Gorathagiri (modern Har. 11. A group of five hills encircling the ancient capital of Magadha is known to the early Pali texts as Isigili (J. Gayiisisa) is the principal hill of G.. The Vindhyapiida. Bundelkhand. ccording to Ptolemy. 7 The early Buddhist commentators account for the origin of it.. I... 16-19. By the ~.yMirlj.. Ch. or the J. Varahaka. v. v. SoJ)a and Mahanadi. 35ft'.ve issued from the J. The Jain texts refer to it (Ava. 6 .' Its eastern peak Amarakal)taka is also known as the Som. pn. XXI.. Baros. It is about four miles from the Citrakuta Station of the G.. ~igiri and Subhacaityaka. viz. Narmada.ugar in C...O.R's. 6 Vmaya Pflaka.t~igiri).. 7 Barua... Old Bnihmi I .ri and K/oa'J4ali'ri 0. In the M ahabhdrata we have two lists. 20 HISTORIOAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA Pargiter identifies the Pii.. Hence the Narmada is called the Mekalasutii.. (G"yiisira.ripatm with that portion of the modem Vindhya r . p.. 199. p.. It is an isolated hill on a river called the Paisuni or Mandakini. the source of the Namados and Nanagouna identified with the N . one naming the hills 88 Vaibara.parva.yoni and identical with what is called GayMira in the Mahiibhiirata 6 and in the PuriiQas.. I Padma PUn:i~H'. Variiha. iii Ibid... 9. .pe with that of the head of .. 121.. 461). V!'iabha. name by the striking resemblance of its sh. 1... according to the V inaya Piraka6 is the modern Brahm .tk~a . .§yaka CU"!'. pp.c1ad mountains of Central India stood 88 a serious obstacle to the unification of the whole country in ancient times. Miirka7:uj.rv. It i. Vol. for it was not easy in those days to lead an invading army across this wide belt of stone and jungles.. B. 162. Pal)cjava. 10 Vide Jackson's identification of Goradhagiri in J. Caityaka and Miitailg. It may be identified with the Satpura mnge from which rises the Tapti. The Kiilafijara identified with Kalinjar. I. corresponds to Ptolemy's Ouindon. VebMra (Valliara). parvata and Surathadri or Surathag4"i.' The Amarakal)!aka is the source of three great rivers.rmada and the Tapti. XXI.ted west of Bhopal in Centr... Cb. Gaya and BtAddha Gaga.... 2...p/ions on tile Udayag. The Satpura is the Vaidiirya Parvata which is associated with the rivers Payo~l)i (an afiluent of the Tapti) and the Narmada in the Mahii· bhiirata.I.nge which is situ.ya.

to the Dalma bills in Manbhum drained by the Kumiiri river and perhaps even to the hills in the Santal Parganas washed by the aflluents of the Babla.s to its location. the most important of which are the Ajantii and the BaIaghiit ranges. ii. ing Chattisgarh frOID Bastar. The South Indian mountain system consists of the Western Ghats. and the Mandara hill known to Megasthenes and Artian as Mallus in the Biiilkii sub-division of the Bhagalpur district are Borne other hills and mountains in Eastern India. MegastMnelJ and A. • J. 26. pp. . 3 A. pp. Khasi and Tippera bills. EJM InditJ. 124·5. The Western Ghats ahove the Coimbatore gap were known to the ancient geographers of India as the Sahyadri. • Studies in Indian Antiquities. above 100 miles from Bodh. worthy of notice. the Patharghii\a hill which was ancient 8iliJ. V. 26...G. World. 11 Rapson. extending from Sakti in Raigarh in C. 276. 1922. the Adeisathron..' From the Gorathagiri or Goradhagiri one could have a view of Girivraja.R. Sabhap. the Makulaparvata identified with the Kaluha hill. 10 McCrindle. They send several spurs into the interior of the Deccan Plateau.M.-jan. .000 ft.lagiri" (modern KaI)heri). 6 Marka~¢.A. dad. XVII.ll Kr~J. 1906. lvi.0'"1]' daddya """''1'. p. Cunningham identifies it with the bills south of Sehoa and Kanker separat. the Mallaparvata identi- fied with the Pareshnath hill in Chota N agpur also known as the Mount Maleus'o by the Greeks.saitgama or VihramaSila.B. Among the hills associated with the Western Ghats mention may be made of Trikii\a (from which the Traikii\akas derive their name). MbA. 62.eya PuratUJ. ~yamiika (overlooking Pampa which has been identified with Hampe). 24. lies to the north of the Hazaribagh district.4 According to Pargiter it may be identified with Garo. D.. 113-20. according to Beglar. Ptolemy divides it into two parts. 12 RamciYGttIJ.' Some have located it in Western India and identified it with Kathiiiwa(l range. 7 Z.B. about 26 miles to the south of Buddbagaya.. The Western Ghats run close to the west coast almost without a break for about 1. 9 The Antaragiri identified with the Rajmahal bills in the Santal Parganas.. VIII. and about 16 miles to the north of Chatra in the Hazaribagh district. 281 note . 77. above the sea-level.. Beol..Gaya. Andhra CoiM. 30. Ch.29-30: Goratha1'{l.D. The Sahyadri hills run "lmost parallel to the west coast from the Cape Comorin to the Tapti Valley." Others have identified it with the Sulaiman range..2 The Suktimat range. the Eastern Ghats and the Nilgiris. . Re<X>1"d8 oj 'M W .. • Ibid..P. 139. the earlier capital of Magadha. p. Communication with the interior is carried on through the passes of the Thai Ghat near Nasik. The continuity of the mountain to the Cape after the southern gap is carried through the .000 miles from the pass of Kundaibari in Khandesh to Cape Comorin with an average elevation of 4. s There is a difference of opinion .. Govardhana (Nasik Hill). 104. Vaidya. The sea side is extremely steep and of difficult ascent.Annamalai and the Cardamom hills. 306 notes. VI. XX... Some have identified it with Gurpa hill.saitghiirama.harrl.' Rai Chaudhuri applies the name with the chain of bills. xxix.. INTRODUOTION 21 mentioned 88 the KhaJatika Parvata in the Cave Inscriptio"" II and ill of Moka and the MaMbhii-'iya of Pataiijali." The Kukku\a. 285. xlvii. ~. 2.. C. piidagiri or the Gurupiida mountain has been identified by Stein with Sobhanath peak. Magad. vv. Miilyavat in the Killkindhya country (identified by Pargiter with the bills 2 1 I. the Bor Ghat near Poona and the Palghat or the Coimbatore gap below the Nilgiris.B. cf. the northern part is called the Oroudian (identified with the Vai(liiryaparvata) and the southern part..

Vizagapatam and Godavari regioIlB are much ruBBected and "Widened considerably in the district of Kurnool. That the Malayagiri was joined by the Mahendra hills which extended as far south as Madura is 1 Ramaya'!W • . p.studies in Indian Antiquitiu. more or less parallel to the eastsrn coast of India. Aru!)acala (on the river Kampa)1' and &!abha (in the Piil)?ya country according to the Maluibhiirakl).37. X. 5 A portion of the Eastern Ghats near Ganjam is still called the Mahendra hill. 79. The Maliahs in Ganjam. 41.kat. But Rai Chaudhuri thinks that the same range of hills is meant by the authors of the R6mayiirya and the Purii1}G. It appears from the Riimtiya1)a' that the Eastern Ghats are known as the Mahendraparvata. Gailgiisiigara. 289 note.Ara.APHY OF AlIOIl<NT IliDU near Kupal. " ~kindhyakiu)t. pp. 6 Pargitsr thinks that the name should be limited tQ the hills between the Mahanam.t:tye.la. 92-94. J.eya Puro~a.tt. p.Ja.109. p.ll The Eastern and the Westsrn Ghats meet in the south in a knot of rocks known as the Nilgiris. IV. really forms the western side of the Malayagiri.k. The southern extension of the Western Ghats below the Kaveri. Mudgal and Rsichur)." ~pagiri (north of Cuddapah). 290 Dotee. 2 MdrkanrJ. He identifies the Gomanta with the hills south or south·east of Nasik" According to Rai Chaudhuri to the north of Gomanta was Vanaviisi so that the hill might be plaeed in the Mysore region.t~yamiika and Gomanta may also be 8880ciated with the Sahya mountain. 108. 4 Tinnevdly Di8trict Gazelteer.' According to Pargiter the Mahendra hills of the Riimtiya7l. 79. 3·4. 4. and may perhaps comprise the portion of the Eastern Ghats north of the Godavari. p. The Shevaroy hills are a detached range in the Salem district. 21. Marka'1)t!eya Punit1D. 8 . This extremity is locally known as the Biligiri Rangan hills. Godavari.rkaw!eya PuroIJa.s the Nallamalai hills. :. In their northern extremity the hills are known as the Maliahs.- The Eastern Ghats run as detacbed hills.8 Some minor hills associated with the )Iahendra mountain are the Sriparvata overhanging the river K!"lJ. 4. _3 Studiea in the Indian Antiquitie8. 10 Slwnda Puro'1)a.8. The Mahendradri or the Mahendra mountain is situated between the . III.sangama and the Saptagodavari. l'raSravaJj8 (888ociated with the Goda· vari and the MandiLkinil) and Gomanta. BMgafXJta PumJYl.a and those of the Purii1JlUl are the two different ranges. Venkatadri (Timmsl". Pargiter.000 ft. Cf. The detached hills are known by different names in different parts of the country. BMgatJata Puratto. 9. There is also a Mahendragiri in the Tinnevelly district. CXlTI. JJ MaMbMrata. 9 Avni PurolJCJ. about 72 miles to the north·west of Madras). 85. Ch. 21. 59-61. and the southern extremity of the Eastern Ghats joins the Nilgiri plateau in the Coimbatore district of the Madras State. m. 10--14.la in the Kumool district. 18-20.22 msroRlCAL GlIOGB. 7 Ma. X.l«. I. 13. Further Bouth the Eastern Ghats take the name of Palkonda hills. The ancient Malayaparvata has been correctly identified by Pargiter with the portion of the Western Ghats from the Nilgiris to the Cape Comorin. which approach the sea. 305 note. and Wain. 133. LaDk8.AJ. with an average elevation of about 2.1a. mountain near Tripati or Tirupati in the North Arcot district. Pargiter identifies the fonner with the range of hills stretching from Ahmadnagar to beyond Naldrog and KalyaI)i. The Mahendra range seems to indicate the whole range of mountains extending from Ganjam as far south as the Pal)\lya country to the whole of the Eastern Ghat range. now known as the Travancore hills. In the latter district the Eastern Ghats are known . p. Ganga. 64. .

Cave8 The caves iIi prehistoric times discovered all over the world..A~. Associated with the Malaya is the hill called Dardurn' which is identical with the Nilgiris or the Palni hills. The forests. Sahosra.caritamrta and the Har¥Wlriw1 respectively. Sata. Suktimat of the people of Bhallii(a. According to the Vinayapital:a a natural cave deserves to be called a letta when it i.ll' refers to some mountains which are difficult to be identified.Iyas. keSsra. Sata. 52. It is difficult to take the early caves to be the examples of cave architecture. mostly represent natural caves partly improved by human hand.\-'1l as Mahendra. Sahya of the Apariintas. Ch. Kapil. 34. . Vitl<J!f" 0 .lo. KUJ. and 1 H~ac.i ca·ve are the most noted among the caves and caverns of Rajagriha. xm. VII. cemeteries and mountain caves (girigului) became important as temporary shelters and retreats of the Indian 'runaways'. Devanika. Dboyi's Pavanadilta. touched by human hand and improved by human skill.!a. Va.ka~eyaPurdva. 7 Hariva1!lAa. tree-shades. The four caves dedicated hy ASoka to the Ajivikas in the KhaJatika or Barabar hilla.10.. Suktimat. Devapiila and Sahasr"'rota. S~ in 1 _ . " MaMbharala. II. 19 . 5 They were so called because each of them was associated with one particular country or tribe. Baghu1!a~a. 32. 165. The Malayaparvata was also known as the SrikhaJ. They are as follows: Surasa.Ia.. 67." It is the same as Tamil Podigei or Podigai. 20._ Vamadeva.. Only one of them is located in the neighbourhood of KauAamhi. 1. • cr..arita. a BMgavata Purova. . The group of mountains kno.ls and showers of rain. and Piiripiitra or Piiriyatra of the N~iidas. Ibid. The caves as religious retreats are referred to for the first time in the early texts of Buddhism. Kumuda.lo. 51. It Ma.tk~a of the people of Miim. ferocious anima. wind and sunlight. 'Thus Mahendra lS the mountain par excellence of the Katingas. II. The Indian caves acquired an architectural significance from the days of Mob. Sabya. 42. B.. The BMgavafa PurufJ. Vindhya and Paripatra is known to ancient IndIan geo· graphers as the Kuliicalas. The Indraaiila·guha and the SaptaparI). and wanderers as distinguished from the hermits (tapas""). VI. pP. Malaya of the Pat)<... IV. .la. 8 J.106. They continued to be so up till the reign of King Khiiravela of OriBBa. They were really the means of protection against heat and cold.. 10 The early caves and caverns are mostly associated with the hills around the ancient city of Rajagriba. MaMbMnua. 1.J)(.mati. 79. the Bettigo of Ptolemy. Malaya.' Vindhya of the A\avyas and other forest folks of Central India. It was in them that our remote ancestors developed in different ways our culture and civilization. the recluses. On the summit of the Malayakil(a or the Malaya range there was the hermitage of the sage Agastya. .3••• . • RBi Chaudhuri. Rdma'ya~a.6f. The cavce also served as suitable places for meditation of the recluses.'. open spaces. deserted homes. 30. Splga. The cave (guM) of the Upan4ads is not a religious retreat but the cavity of the heart. P~pa.t~a. Some of them contain ante-chambers and the walls of many of them are decorated with pictures of animals and natural objects. These caves served as shelters of men in life and death. roads. lNTRODUOTION 23 proved hy the Caifanya. 38.!a. XI. • Bkandha V. I. LaJikikB. about 20 miles north of the town of Gay". 26.!adri and Candanadri. lsaJ. the three caves dedicated by DaSaratha in the Nagarjuni hilla. 106.

. The Kailaaa temple of Ellors was a magnificent rock· cut temple which developed in the tradi· tion of the caves as religious shrines.-As explained by Buddhaghosal this cave took its name from an Indasala tree marking its entrance. . II. As compared and contrasted with the caves of Inma. 3 According to Buddhaghosa it was a pre. 6 Digha N. and which was dark became lighted as if by the supernatural power of the gods. • BanIa.. 55. Ellora. 7 Cunningham.-. • Cunningham. This observatioft holds true of the caves of Karle. 18 Udtina.The Barhut medallion represents it as a mountain cave with a rocky Boor and open. Indasalagului. It is difficult to infer from the description given in the Pali text that the cave received any improvement by hnman hand.i. n. Later it also became known by the name of Indrasailaguhil evidently for the reason that it is made tbe seene of action of the famous Pali discourse called Sakkapanha Sutta. 7 On the Bodh·Oaya stone railings the cave has an open mouth and . are nothing hut the slanting slopes of rocks barely touched and rudely dressed by human hand. 11 D_podo O.... Fa·hi.existing cave between two hills with an Indrasala tree at its door.). 86. 88. done up on the whole into picturesque cave· dwelling. The element of the miracle is altogether dispensed with by Buddhaghosa when he describes tbat cave as being surrounded by a wall fitted with doors and windows covered witb chunam plaster decorated with scrolls and floral designs..a (Siamese ed. 19-21. • 8t1marigalavila8'ini.as of Ceylon which do not strictly deserve the name of guM. It is polished inside. 111.-This solitary cave which took its name from a Pippali or Pipphali tree" near its entrance was a favourite resort of Thera Mahii- Kassapa.. p. the king of the gods.. Ajanta.... arched hall inside.' The Vediyaka mountain is now identified with the Giriyak Hill. the discourse in which Sakka or Inda.24 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA the caves dedicated to the Jain recluses on the twin hills of Udayagiri and Khal. while two bears peep out through the piled np rocks.. which was narrow became wide.. . The particular hill with which it was connected was called Vediyaka or Vediya since it was surrounded by altar-shaped blue rocks." Accoriling to Fa·Hien this rocky cave was regularly resorted to by the Buddha for silent meditation after his midday meal. the le. 697.." and it is enclosed by a Buddhist railing. Ancient G«>graphy oj India. Gaya and Buddha Gaya.mouthed hall inside having an arched roof. Aurangabad..wo. Bhaja.iILgiri. From the time of the Satakarl)is of the Andhra dynasty the Inman caves began to develop as viluiras (monastic abodes) and wi/gas or shrines. n. figs. U. 697. The Indrasiila tree is shown above it.•. m. Elephanta and Bagh...1s It is known to the Chin. I. SlUpa oj Bhiirh. pp. interviewed the Buddha to have satisfactory replies to his questions..y. III. 10 It was used for the purpose of lonely meditation.. plate XXVll. while 80me of them in South India came to serve the sepulchral purpose in mediaeval times. 73. were all intended to serve as shelters during the rains. 263·4. 77. 269. six miles from the city of Riijagaha. the ca... p .70. p. In the Digha Nikaya we find that this cave is located in the Vediyaka mountain situated at a short distance to the north of the village of Ambasal)<.967. Pipphali guha.l<.B1ni.ve which was uneven became even. The cave with this tree is represented in one of the Barhut sculptures.ia (Mango·grove). pp. 73A. modern Riijgir.. • Stimatigaiavilci.89.. Legge.- We read in the Pali text5 that at the time when the Buddha stepped into it.. B Uddnaro~~an. The monkeys sit on cubical rocks. 4. I Suma~. It is worthwhile to give a short account of Borne important Indian caves.. MG·41.. • Dig"".

Watters. Majjhima Ni. Dighanakha Sutta. PapancaaUdani.SigrapurivasInar:p parvlLtaIp. 3 Legge. 70. Cunningham. p. The Kapala Kammra was undoubtedly a favourite resort of the pigeons. p. Majumdar'. INTRODUCTION travellers 88 Pipphala cave and to the author of the Man.. The later accounts represent this spacious cave as the venue of the First Buddhist Council.ve is open to dispute. it suggests that while the Council was in session.-It is also known as Sattapa. 203. guh& and kammrM which were then available.. Varaha guM. and the Chinese pilgrims' definitely locate it on the north side of this hill. pp. It may be DW"pyr0ll «nbryoplMi . p. it does not definitely mention on which side the cave stood. 176. :Malalaaekera. n. The present situation of the Son-Bhanc. The Vinaa yaccount does not however rerer particularly to any single cave as the place where the thera-s (Elders) of the First Council met. The location of the c. p.. viMrlUl. Dictionary Qf Pal.... Anc . e Uddnaootl~(1na (Siamese ed. 11.• pp. 7 It came to be known as the boar's cave evidently for the reason that it was a. • This tree cB. Fa. 10 IV.Saiia cave. p. 307.. There is no other cave in Riijagriha which is so ideally situated and so beautifully made. Sattapaf)f)i <ave. According to Ceylon chronicles the Saptapafl.. p. N.).' Cunningham identifies it with the Son-BhlLndar cave on the southern side or the Valliara mountain.. • Ibid . Although the Pali account connects the cave with the Valliara mountain and locates it on a side of it (VehMrapM8e). We are also told that these retreats were caused to be repaired so as to make them serve as shelters during the rainy season.e alone was repaired for the purpose.li ca. 531.-This was a natural cave (SukarakMta) on the Gijjhakiita mountain. All traditions connected with the Vebhii.tely identified.l1. The Tinduka Kammra was marked out by a Tinduka treeS standing near it. .3.) . its five hundred delegates were required to stay in Rajagaha and in all the retreats.ipala guM. II. 84-5. It apparently derived its name from saptapal"l)i creeper serving as its cog- nizance.. ed. p. On Yuan Chwang. Vomica. place for the boars to live in.. On Yuan Chtoang.him. PrtJfH!S N _ .llllot be accura. There is no evidence as yet to show that the cave was fashioned in any way by humsn hand. tatsamipan tu varaharp niima Damstal}..l l 1 P$IA lili. 1271-1272. The Kammraa were all natural caverns in the rocks. .The UdaWllO locates it at some distance from Riijagaha while Hiuen Tsang places it about 9 or 10 miles north-east of the Indra. I. 85. The location of this cave is still doubtful.ra or Vaihara mountain.'h<lppakd8m•• III. Fa-hien places it about a mile to the west of the Pippala or Pipphala cave. • MaMparinwoona 8uttanta. the Malliiva8tu.lar cave is ideal for the purpose of a Council. The wanderer named Dighanakha met the Buddha in this cave. S Vol. Tatnisau dhyayate b~l.la (Sapla-pa"!'<» guM.). II. 4. which served as the retreat to the wandering ascetics including the Buddhist recluses. or Btrychnoa N1J. III. On the other hand. 2'0. Geography oj Itldia (S.!... s The Pali evidence in support of this identification is to be found in the Digha Nilcaya6 in which the cave is placed adjacent to the Tsigili (Rishigiri) mountain. 588: Magadhinaqt jane ~~he Ku.160 .. Why Gomata Kammra was so called is not known. (Digh<l. 11 Watters. p. 8ii.1 guhAlino • tba paipate.ju8rimVlillcalpal as P . It is moreover a commodious cave-dwelling with clear signs of construction by human skill.kiiya I. The Tapoda kammra received its name from its proximity to the Ta'jJOdll8 or hot springs.

and jiyii or pent-roof.26 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA The Pall canonical texts refer to the PilakkhaguM or a cave which WM marked by the Pilakkha tree (Plaqa. The Hiitbigumpha which W8B caused to be excavated by Khii. the great Jain Emperor of Kalmga. 2 is an excavation with many later additions. The earliest of them is the Caitya cave.ll. above the road level. the site of ancient Kausambi dedicated to the Kasyapiyas. A wanderer named Sandaka used to live in it with his 500 followers in summer by providing it with a t .l.3 is a big ViMra with many cells and a big hall. We see altogether 23 excavations. The verandah of the upper storey has a pent-roof. Two of them are called Ajagara- gnmphii and . t P.agiri caves. son. The cave No. meaning a verandah or f"9ade.mporary roof supported on pillars or posta. Another known as SarpagumpM shows a snakehood carved on its upper edge. The Ananta- gumphii on the KhaI. 10.ravela himself is a natural cavern enlarged by an artificial cutting. Those in eastern India are aasociated with king Kharavela. a Hinayana sect of the Buddhista.i rulers. a religious community of the time. On ita left side stands the two·storied Maficapurl cave. called Vyiighragumpha. 1 We then meet with several rock-cut caves. 687. FicU8 InJedoria). pillared or not.r!). about two miles west of Kosarp. the wave-leaved fig tree. p.l<)agiri group is a single storied cave planned on the model of the Maficapuri. Some 35 excavations are now visible. On the slope of the Udayagiri hills there is to be seen a single-storied and building-like cave called Chotahiithigum pha having two small fignres of elephants in ita courtyard. One of them.1 is an unfinished viMra. It has a verandah with two wooden pil\a. They were excavated for the Bhadrayanikas. meaning chamber or chambers hollowed out at the back and at one end. are situated about 300 ft.rs. The cave No.l<Jagiri lies in the dedicatory inscrip- t. . and some in southern and western India. The Riil)igumpha on the Udayagiri is most elaborately decorated. are associated with the name of the Siita. The verandah of the ground floor contains a frieze representing a flying angel.i Gautamiputra. It W8B an excavation of Sataka. and officers. his chief queen. The entrance is sculptured in the style of the Siiilci gate. The court- yard has a wall in front. looks like the face of a tiger with ita distended jaws. It is a wide-mouthed slanting slope of a big boulder. A complete lel'a consisted of ]Xi8aM. The cave No.Bhekagumphii for similar reMons.ions as also in the medireval cult statues of the Tirlhankaras in two of the KhalJ. kal"1). by king ~a<. The Anantagumpha of the KhaI. Those in western and southern India. Almost to the same age may be relegated the Pabhosii. At the left wing of the lower storey there are two caves donated by Prince Va?ukha.g. The N8Bik caves.. It is said to have been a pit or hollow in the earth caused by rain water. The evidence of the religious faith of the donors of the Jain caves in the twin hills of Udayagiri and KhaI. which served the purpose of a shelf. Ganesagumpba and Jayavijaya caves on the Udayagiri hills are the most remarkable from the architectural and artistic points of view. The cave No. described as pall4ulel'M. Its upper storey is of similar design and dimension. kolM.. The ornamental arches in the doorways of the cave show various reliefs. Near about the Hiithignmpha there are a few small caves.l<Jagiri and the Riil)ignmpha. The lower storey hll8 a pillared verandah with chambers hollowed ont at the back.lhasena of Ahicchatra. other royal personages. cave. The water accumulated there during the rains made it look like a pool which became dried up in summer.~ (SiDhaleoo ed.. some of which are situated in Orissa.

l&vadata. Its verandah is reached by half a dozen steps in front between the two central octagDnal pillars. The seven of them fonning a central group are the primitive type. The earliest caves.1 is a natural cavern. a large caitya hall which is a large caitya temple of the same type as the two halls of Ajantii (Nos. With the exception of one dilapidated Caitya. A striking feature of these later caves is the increasing prominence 'If the Botlhi. It has a pillared verandah. II and 12 have cells in the wall and show signs of Mahayanism. may be dated at the first and second centnry B. The fa~de is highly ornamental and the canings are very beautiful. The Ajantii caves form anDther notable group of Buddhist rock cut caves situated 60 miles north· west of Aurangabad in the Nizam's territory. 10 is a beautiful caitya cave. these little known monastery caves are evidently synchronous in point of time with the latest caves of Ajantii. There are decorated arches in front and double railings and many small vihiiras. while the rest display a wealth DfDrnament in sharp contrast tD the simpli. is a viMra. 9 and 10. Its hack wall shDws a standing fignre 'If the Buddha. The caves NDS. . accDrding to Dr. and close to it there is a second pillar surmoWlted by a wheel. The inscriptiDns in the caves go to shDw that they were dDnated at the time of NahapiiJ)a and Ut. Smith.temple of a primitive type. Vogel. i. 17 contains " hall 23 ft.. 2-<l are all plain vrlwraB.C. Three different religions are represented here: the southern group comprising 14 caves is Buddhist. According tD V. is surmounted by four lions with gaping mouths and facing four quarters. Buddhist emblems are distinctly traceable in four 'If the pillars. 19 and 26). A. The cave No. The cave No.5 is of the type of a large vihara. The caves Nos. The architecture is not of the aame type as that of Niisik caves. lNTIIODUCTION 27 too. the bulk of the Ajantii paintings must be assigned to the sixth century A. The Buddhist grDUp contains one real temple. Its entrance consists of three doorways Wlder a gallery. .8attvas who take their place beside the numberless Buddha images. Nos. The BMja cave No. like the Sarnath pillar 'If ASoka. situated about 40 miles west of Dhar in Malwa. tbe symbol of Dharmacakra. The Kiirli and Bhiija caves are the well·known Buddhist cave temples in the Borghata hills between Bombay and Poona. Some of the Buddhist caves contain distinct signs of later Mahayanism. The caves of Ellora which are located in the north·west of the Nizam's territory about 16 miles from Aurangabad and 10 miles to the north· west of Daulatabad are important Buddhist caves. All the 26 caves were not excavated and decorated at one and the same time. city 'If older days. They were excavations 'If the Gupta periDd.. They are all monastic caves hewn out 'If the rocky SIDpe of a hill·side which rises 'In the north from the valley of the Narmada. There is on their right side a Siva temple.3 is a vihara cave. The caves of Ajantii belong to the Caitya and ViMra types. the time 'If the great Chiilukya kings. The cave No. The Bagh caves form an interesting group of Buddhist caves. The roof is arched.D.e. The caves of Aurangabad represent. the final phase in the long development through which mDnastic cave-temple archi- tecture has passed. The Karle caves have at their entrance a pillar which. There are Brahmanical and Jain caves also. The cave No. deep. There is a caitya which is one of the finest specimens 'If cave architecture. wide and 32 ft. The images of the Buddha fDund here and there in these caves are evidently of a later age. the middle one belongs to Brahmanism and the northernmDst to JainisID.

Raghuva". I. Mati and Mahanadi. all flow towards the sea. and creating the great Iudian peninsula (papa triliva7lil8yame- mupa/ca~!hnm mahodadhe-Raghuva. The Elephanta caves. 20) mentions some rivers which seem difficult to be identified. Rajan•• Nanda.ted about six miles to the north- east of the Appollo Bunder. River. Oaill}iiB or Nadis. IV. India owes much of her productiveness to her rivers and many of them also constitute highways of trade and commerce. sometimes on land and occasionally changing their beds. prosperous towns and fertile villages."Aa. Innumerable are the rivers of Iudia which are really the arteries that carry and distribute the water or life· blood of a country. They flow down in various directions seeking the level. X. It is intereating to note that since the Vedic times it became almost a convention to describe the gradually widening Aryandom by the seven rivers c.• IV. all purge away sins. Not unnaturally the Miirka~"eya Purtj~a (LVII. they still stand with full memories of the glorious past of India. All are like mothers to the world. 'All the rivers are sacred.. Mitravinda. p. the Suhmas and the Vangas (Ibid . show the influence of Buddhism and Brahmanism. Trimurti or Brahmanical Trinity h"" been carved on the wall of the main hall. Aciravati. Srutavinda. 75. iIGarigci ca Yamund caiva GodaV4ri Saf'a8tJafi I N a~ Sindhu K6veri jok'amin aannidhi'!f kuru II • MaJJ1n. Sarasvatis. which are situ. Ssrabhii (&rajii).' It is interesting to note what Kalidasa has said in hi. Yamunii. Gayii (Phalgu). cutting valleys sometimes through the mountain ranges. Thus the entire country occupied by the ~gvedic Ary. and Biihumati. Ayurdri.. Sa/w. Payiigii (confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna). 32). Adhikakka. Narmada. C. The prosperity of Iudia to a large extent depends upon her ri ver systems..kaya. Ch. religious shrines and peaceful hennitages. They are as follows:- Anumati. Sarassati.ma N. the modern Bay of Bengal (Raghuva".lled Sindhus. Sundarika.. It extended to the Great Indian Ocean (Mahodaaki) which lay spread to the far south. 'the land of seven rivers'. 35-36).28 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 01' ANCIENT INDIA. 34). Kuhu.sraAruti and Devagarblui.. Sinivati. The ocean in the south- east and the extreme south was lined with extensive forests of paw trees 1 l. Mantra· mtil<i. IV. I.'..Igoeda. 10. One of the caves contains a Buddhist caitya.' The Bluiyavata Purara (Skandha V. . Its coast was bordered by the eastern peoples of the lower Ganges. Sar. thus hemming in almost the three BOuthern sides of the Indian continent. 8 Another version has Gangii. Sindhu and KaverLi The seven sacred rivera of the Buddhist Midland are enumerated as Bahuka (Biihuda).. It is along the banks of the d vers and in close proximity to them that we can trace the growth of tribal settlements and mighty kingdoms. • Viftoldhimawa. They form diverse streams of water (sarit). Yamuna. Though the caves were no longer used for the purpoae for which they were built or donated.Ja. Sarasvati. (Kabul) or even the Oxus. 30) says. 39.sa.ns has been described in the ~edal as Saptasindhrn'U'-'. p.. Madhukulyu. producing ripples (tara.igini) and murmuring sounds (kalawidini) and create waterfalie.ti.. In the far east lay the eastern sea (purvasdgara). lakes and islands. When the Aryandom embraced the whole of Iudia it came to be represented by the seven principal streams called the Ganga. namely. Godiivari. the five rivers of the Punjab together with Sindhu (Iudus) and another river whether it be the Sarasvati or the Kubh. Aparajita.

while in the opinion of Megasthenes and other classical writers. The Candrabhaga or Chenab appears 1 McCrindle. The Indus was generally regarded as the western boundary of India. J..' We are informed by Arrian that the Indus spread out in many places into lakes w:ith the result that where the country happened to bp flat. Hew. To the Vedic Aryans this river stood unsurpassed.. There are other western tributaries. The Indus at the start is a united flow of two streams. Along the south-weet coast of the ocean were settled the Keralas (Ibid. pp. reeeives at Prang tbe joint flow of its two tributaries called the Suvastu or Svat (Soastos of Arnan) and Gauri (Garroia of Arrian).. The Sindhu is the greatest known river of Uttarapatha after which the Indus group is named. 323. bheda and Sailga. C. As deecribed in the [Jgveda (X. The eastern cO/l8t·line running to the south W8B inhabited by some of the mightiest peoples of India.a. Beginning from this confluence it flows north· west over a long distance to turn sout. RltJer8 of Indw. 260.!. is undoubtedly tbe modern Kabul.ld yas (Ibid. The Vedic Krumu is the modern Kuram which is fed ·by the tributary called Tachi.- Quite a good numher of the tributaries of the Indus finds mention in the Nadi-shdi hymn of the [Jgveda. 28. and the Kuhu of the Pura.!. Law. ~ Indio. its shores appeared far apart.. ii. The Gomati which is a tributary of the Indus. kora. one f1ow:ing north- west from the north-west side of the Kailiisaparvata and the other in a north-weeterly and then in a south-westerly direction from a lake situated to the north-east of the Kailasa. ~ this point it follows a slightly meandering and south-westerly course till it faUs into the Arabian Sea fanning two well-known deltas at its mouth. 54). Law.8. the Kophen of Pliny.A. which flow together under the name of the Candrabhaga or Chenab. The Sindhu group as known to Pliny was constituted of the Sindhu (Indus) and nineteen other rivers of which the most famous was the Hydaspes w:ith its four tributaries. . (i) TM Indus Group. Bwldh. Ancient India. Records aJ'M Western W""ld. 2 In the Behistun Inscrip- tion of Darius it is referred to as Hindu and in the Vendidad 8B Hendu. 9-10. It is counted among the seven streams of the Di vyaganga or celestial Ganga. INTRODUCTION 29 (Ibid.. I. According to Alberuni only the upper course of the Indus above the junction with the Chenab (Candrabhaga) was known as the Sindhu.. identified witb the modern Panj. pp. 6 For their details vide B. 75) tbe Sindhu surpassed all the flowing streams in might. 49). IV. 15-16. it was known by the name of Paficnad. 43. " B. • cr. pp. p. I. it was rivalled by no other river than the Ganges.-The Indus is known to the Indians 8B Sindhu "inee the ~gvedic times. 34). 1886.. tbe most western i.. River8 of India. Hataka). the Vitasta or Vital)laa or Jhelum. IV. is the modern Gomal..' It is not difficnlt to recognize some of the most important tributaries tbe Indus receives on the west. while its course from Aror down to the sea was called Mihran. The Sindhu lent its name to the country tbrough which it f1owed. the Kopbes of Arrian. and brings with it another river called Malamantos by Arrian probably represented by the Kameh or Kbonar. The Knbhii. the largest of the tributaries of the Kabul river.B. IV. It flows into tbe Indus a little above Attock (Skt. It speeded over tbe precipitous ridges of the earth and was the' lord and leader of the moving floods'.. lower that point to Aror..- Among the four main eastern tributaries of the Indus.h below the Karakoram range. The entire weetern coast W8B the region of Aparanta. the Kaliilgas and the PaJ. C.. 69.. the Koa of Ptolemy. It is also called Sa.

iha as a Himalayan river. but re·appears again at Barakhera. L. The Sutlej which is the Zaradros of Ptolemy and the Hesydrus of Pliny is the most important feeder of the Indus in the east. . The Ravi or the Iriivati. which is the holy stream of early Vedic India. known to the Greeks as the Hydraotis.me of Chenab to meet the Indus at Panjna<!. notes). appears first to our view at the south-west corner of Chamba in Kashmir 88 the confluence of two streams.. at Urnai near Pehoa it is joined by the Marka1Jg. It is identical with the Greek Hypases or Hyphasis. Manu applies the name of VinaSana to the place where it disappears from view.nd invisible in another (Siddhiinta-liiroma1}i. at Chamasodbheda. Sirodbheda and Niigodbheda. Its source may he traced to the Himalayan range above the Simla hills. It disappears for a time in the sand near the village of Chalaur and re·appears at Bhavarupur. and the united stream bearing still the name of Sarasvati ultimately joins the Ghaggar or Gharghar which is the lower part of the Sarasvati. From Chamba it flows past Lahore. Between these two sacred streams lies the region of Brahma- varta according to Manu. MiirkarpJeya Purii'1)Q" p. The combined flow of four or five rivers proceeds south-west under the na. The Beas (Vipiisii) rises in the Pir Panjal range at the Rhotang Pass near the source of the Ravi.o. Punja6 Gazettter. 82. The Sarasvati. is described in the Milindnpa.. one flOwing from north-eas. Goilldhyaya. and then from Rupar it takes a westerly course till it receives the Boas at the south-west corner of Kapurtala. This river is the same as the ~gvedic Asikl). It flows past Jammu. The Sarasvati is correctly described as a river which is visible at one place a. At BiiJcbapar it again disappears. From Chambii it tlows in a south-westerly direction to meet the Satadru (Sutiei) at the south· west corner of Kapurtala.' 1 Vanap(~rva.-The Sarasvati and the D~vati are the two historical rivers of Vttarapatha that flow down independently without having any connection with the Indus group. (ii) The 8arasvati'Dr~vati group (the Desert river system). It flows down past Patiala to lose itself in the northern part of the desert of Rajputana at some distance from Sirsii. V8. 2 !\Iahiibharata. to flow just "bove Kishtwar . N. The source of the Satadru or the Sutlej is traceable to the western region of the western lake of the Manas Sarovara.. a confluence of two hill streams. The united streams then tlow south-west and join the Chenab hetween Alipur and Uch. 291. Ch. The Candra and the Bhaga issue on opposite sides of the Bara Lacha Pass in the Kangra district. Ambala DiRt-net.Dsparva. Adria or Rhonadis..a. It flows southwards through the Simla and Sirmur States forming a bulge. Geographical Dtcti<mary. at the north-west C(}rner of which it turns south. viz. 82. The Mahiibhiirakz 1 also says that after disappearing the river re-appears again at three places. Bhuvanakosa). I. flowing a south· westerly course and meets the Chenab or the united flow of the Vitastii and the Candrabhiiga. It. Ch. Arrian's Akesines and the Sandabaga or Sandabal of Ptolemy. where- from it flows in a south-westerly direction forming a dosb between it and the Jhelum. From Kishtwar tu Rishtwar its course is southerly.i.30 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA.nd other from south·east and both having their origin in the Himalayan range. It turns a little towards south-west above the Mount Kamet as well as the Simla hiliB to follow a zigzag but south- westerly course through Bilaspur. 1800. appears first to our view at the south-west comer of Chamba in Kashmir as the confluence of two streams.. Dey. In ancient times it took an inde- pendent course to the confines of Sind (Pargiter.

atti to the Padma· hraw. 6. 6 Malwif?Mrata.. The rivers of Mid·land (Madhyade. 2. XIII. In the Vanaparva of the MaMbMrata the confluence of the D!. p.8.>advati and the KauSiki is considered very sacred. 1.! The Kiityiiyana Sraufa8iitra. the place below which both the streams disappear. INTRODUCTION 31 This river which still survives flows between the Sutlej and the Jumna. The Ganges is known by various otber names sucb as Vi. . :. Jahnavi. 83. while the Jaina Jambwiiva·paf}/Q. 46.6 mention sacrifices held on its banks as of great importance and sanctity. etc. III. XXIV. 17) this river formed thc eastern and southern boundaries of the Brabmavarta. 4) mentions a river named .-The Ganges is one of the most important sacred rivers of India. ~gveda Sa1]1. Up to Naham it has a westerly course and then it changes its course towards the south and lies through the districts of Ambala and Shahabad. Cunningham identifies the Dfl>advati with the modern Rakshi that flows by the south· west of Thanesvar. . 15.7. The Sarasvati.. XII. 3 X. but Zimmer correctly places it near the Sarasvati (Altindi8Ches Lehen.6 (iii) The Ga1i{/a-Yamuna Group. The V amana Pura~a (34) considers the Kausiki to be a branch of the D!. Elphinstone and Todd identify it with the Ghaggar flowing through Ambala and Sind. 13Gff. 68. 4. Chantang or Citang runuing parallel to the Sarasvati. Bhiigirathi. The Mandakiru is one of the tributaries of the Alakananda. From Hardwar down to Bulandshahr the Ganges has a soutberly course. was a mighty river which flowed into the sea.8 Mandakini. Ancient If/dia. pp. The MahabMrata traces the source of the Ganges to Bindusara. XII. as known to the early Buddhists. According to Rapson it may be identi· fied with the Citrang. after which it follows again soutb· easterly direction. as known to the classical writers. 22. Ludwig is inclined to identify it with tbe . The number of its tributaries. also called the Gangadviir or the Gate of the Ganges. 23. rathi first comes to light near Gangotri in the territory of GarhwaL At Devaprag it is joined on the left side by the Alakananda. while Piscbel assigns it to K~etra of which the Apaya is a famoUB river. tbe former was taken as the greater of the two. According to the Manusamhita (II.Apaya between the Dfflad· vati and the Sarasvati. From Allahabad down to Rajmahal she h"" an easterly course. ThelJ. 186ft". 2..' and the Sankhyayana Srautasiitr. 2. as known to the Vedic Aryans. The Pali works refer to tbe soutbern face of the Anotatta lake as the source of the Ganges. The sacred river called Dfl$advati flows nearer the Yamuna. According to modern geographers the Ebagi. and it may be identified with the Kaliganga or Mandakiru rising in the mountains of Kedara in GarhwaL The Ganges may be supposed to have assumed tbe name of tbe Ganga.>advati. Its descent by the Dehra Dun is ratber rapid to Haridvar. 6. 3.. 122ff.3.easterly direction up to Prayaga (Allahabad) wbere it is joined by tbe Yamuna. .Bbagiratbi from the point where it i.gveda (III. It tends to meet the Saraovati at Sirsa. was nineteen. pp.29. 13i 19. go to constitute the Ganges system. while its western boundary was the Sarao· vati.mupadi. 18).3. Its origin may be traced to the hills of Sirmur.? Though tbe Ganges and the Indus were known to them as the two largest rivers in India. Tbe Alakananda represents tbe upper course of the Ganges. IS.Apaga as a name for tbe Ganges. after which it flows in a south. 2Q.' the AbJalayana Sraufa8iitra. 7 McCrindle. 8 Yoginitantra.a). met 1 Max Muller. From Devaprag the united stream is called tbe Ganges. The ancient town of Prthudaka (modern Pehoa) is situated on this river.' the La!yayana Srauta· Butra.

a tributary of the G.Briihma1JD' has been sought to be identified with the Gal)<. 8 Sroyambhu Pum~a. is probably the same river as one to the west of Campilnagara and Niith· nagar in the suburb of the town of Bhagalpur.. flows through the districts of Bahraich. p. The Tamasii.NCIBNT INDIA by the Mandiikini. Between Farukkabad and Hardai the Ganges receives another tributary called the Ramagailgii. joins the Ganges in the district of Monghyr north·east of Lakhisarai. The Ganges in its lower course is known as the Bhiigirathi·Hughli in West Bengal and the Padma.iak by some and with the Tapti by others. 294.nges.iak flows into the Ganges between Sonpnr in the Sara district and Hazipur in the district of Muzaffarpur. Its junction with the seven rivers goes to form the tirthas or holy places. The Punappnna (modem Punpun). a historical river of the Ramayal)8 fame. Some have also identified it with the Karatoya. The little Gandak also known as the HiraJ.. (modern south Tons). The Phalgu. The Sadanirii of the Satapatlul.' The Buri· Gal)<. and joins the Sarayii or Ghargharii west of BurMj in the district of Gorakhpur. XlI.E . The Dhutapapii. Vat'CiAG Pwrd~ 210. The greatsst known lower tributary of the Ganges is the Sona (Arrian's Sonos. Vol.32 IDSTORlCAL GlIOORAPHY OF A..i. the modem Son) which takes its rise in the Mekala range (Maikal) in the district of JubbaJpore and flowing north·east through Biighelkhal)<. meets the Ganges just below Patna. The Sarayii. Mirzapur and Shahabad districts. The Ajaya 1 Eggeling. The main stream of the Gal)<.. p. or east Tons joins the G.B. Gonda and Basti. This great historical river is now known as Ghar· gharii (Gogra). According to the M ahiibhiirata it h88 been placed between the Gal)<. The Gomatj (modern Gumti) joins the Ganges between Benaras and Ghazipur.iak) is an upper tributary of the Ganges. V. The Bahumatj or Bagroati is a sacred river of the Buddhists in Nepal. . Pargiter identifies it with the river Rapti.. s The Kamala is an upper tributary of the Ganges. 2 Marka1. The Campa forming the boundary between Anga in the east and Magadha in the west. The KakuttM was a tributary of the Hiral)yavatj or the little Gandak. The Kausikj (modem KuSj) flows through the districts of Bhagalpur and Pumea and meets the Ganges south·east of Maahari in the district of Pumea. The Ganges enters Bengal between Rajmahal and Maida and bifurcates a little above Jangipur in the district of Murshidabad. Ch. The Bhii.Meghnii in East Bengal. another southern tributary. The Gal)<. The ancient city of Ayodhya stood on the Sarayii.lyavatj or Ajitavatj flows through the district of Gorakhpur and f"ns into the Gogril or Gharghara (Sarayii). flows north·east from the ~kfa mountain to faJ] into the Ganges below Allahabad.iakj and the Sarayu. The Son is fed by five tributaries. joins the Ganges in the district of CMpr.'. joins the Ganges at Patna. identified with Sakri.iak which is an upper tributary of the Ganges.. S.girathi branch of the G&Ilges is met on the right aide by the first tributary called Bansloi in the district of Murshldabad. flows into the Ganges between Patna and Monghyr.nges to the west of Biilliii after flowing through Azamgarh. The Sakuti. The little Gandak joins the Gharghara (Sarayu) on the western border of the district of Silra.lntroduction to the Satapatha BriihmatIG. Some unimportant tributaries join the Gharghara in the Gonda district flowing from the district of Bahraich. HM. The G&Ilges receives a tributary called Nuta juat above Farukkabad.l4eya PUnltwl. meets the Ganges west of Gogra in the Monghyr district. It southern tributary.iaki (modern Gal)<. The Acira· vatj. the great tributary of the Sarayii. of the Pauranic fame was a tributary of the eastern GomatL The Tamasii.

It cuts a valley through the Siwalik range and Gharwal before it enters the plains of northern India to flow south paraUel to the Ganges. below the town of Faridpur. The Panar which is the first upper tributary of the main stream of the Ganges in Bengal. flows through the districts of Bankura. an important tributary joill8 the Bhiigirathi at Katwa in the district of Burowan and forms a natural boundary between the districts of Burdwan and Birbhum.ges wrought amongst the monuments and bnildings of Raja Raj Va\labh at Rajnagar in the district of Faridpur. and flows down into the Bay through the Madaripur sub-division of Faridpur and the district of Ba.. The Yamuna is called bv the Chinese as Yen-mou-na. The Ariyalkhal river... the water of the Ganges is carried to the sea through numerous other channels.a as a tributary of this river.ckergunj under the name of the Haringhita. The lower course of the Padma becomes known as the KirtiniiM or Destroyer of memorable works from the r .. The Yamunotri which is eight miles from Kursoli is considered to be the source of the river Yamuna. The Kamsavati and Piimabhava are the two tributaries of the Panar in the district of Maida. The RflpniirayaQ. and then through the districts of Burdwan and Hughli. The first and gre. nrrBODUOTIOlf 33 which i. The united stream is now ~own as the Padma. which is a distributary of the Ganges. pp.. The Ariyii. From Mathura down- wards it follows a south-eastern course till it meets the Ganges forming the f . joins the Ganges below Nawabganj. The Gmi i88ning from the Gangi ahove Piinsi in the district of Faridpur flows down under the name of the Madhumati and reaches the Bay a little . It is identical with the Greek Erannaboas (HiraQyavaha or Hiral)yavahu). 3 . Hughli. The Viluvahini is men- tioned in the Skanda Purii. Between Agra and Allahabad it is joined on the left side by four tributaries. The Atrai (Atreyi) and the lesser Yamuni meet together in the district of Rajshahi. another important tributary of the Bhiig. It is one of the five great rivers according to the Buddhists. wnes from the right side of the Padmi. It takes its rise in the Himalayan range below Mount Kamet. The Damodar takes its rise in the hills near Bagodar in the district of Hazari- bagh. and flows through the districts of Manbhum and Santal Pargan. and Midnapur to join the Hughli river near Tamluk.rathi branch of the Ganges.nd the Madhumati are oonnected by a small river which flows from the former a little above the town of Madaripur and joill8 the latter a little ahove Gopalgunge in Madan- pur sub-division.lkhal . Besides the Bhagirathi and the Padma. The Hughli is joined on the right side by the united flow of the Haldi and Kashai. It serves as a boundary between Burnsena and Kosala.t western tributery of the Ganges is the Yamuna proper which is mentioned in the Yoginilamra (2.. and further down between KOSala and Va'!'''a. 139-40). one of which is known as the Northern Tons. These are also the tributaries of the Panaro At Goalundo the Ganges receives the greater Yamuna which is nothing but the main stream of the Brahmaputra as it flows through East Bengal.. In the district of Dehra Dun it receives two tributaries on the western side.ckergunge. It joins the estuary of the Megbnii to the east of the Faridpur district. Many holy places of India are situated on this river. The seaward end of the delta of the Ganges encloses the large swampy area covered with jungles called the Sundarb&ll8.bove Pirojpur in the district of Ba..5..moue confluence of Prayaga or Allahabad. The Bhiigirathi in its lower course receives on the right side the well-known tributary called the Damodar which flows into the Hughli in several streams in the district of Midnapore..v .

The Brahmaputra receives the tributary called Dhansri which takes its rise from the Naga hills north of Manipur. The Yamuna branch of the Brahmaputra receives near Ghoraghiit the Tista (Trisrcta) as a tributary on the right. Between Lakhimpur and Sibsagar districts the Brahma- putra forms a large island called Majuli. The Surma whicb is the second important 3B . The bLfurcation of the Brahmaputra takes place after it enters Benga!. lies between the Dhaleavarl and the Padma. This Yamuna is nothing but the present main stream of the Brahmaputra as it flows through East Bengal. 85). The BurigaIiga is one of the offshoots of the Dhale- sVarl. Now it finds it. to tbe eastern region of the Manas Sarovara. a little above Damra in the district of Goalpara. On the right side the Brahmaputra is joined by the great tributary called Miinas. Farther down on the right the Yamuna branch of tbe Brahmaputra receives another important tributary called Karatoya which once formed tbe boundary between Bengal and Kamariipa (Maluibluiraia.ll having their origin in the Himalayan range. The meeting of the older course of the Brahmaputra with the Meghna takes place a little below Bhairab Bazar in the Kishoreganj sub-division of the district of Mymensingh. the Lauhitya (Rohita). It receives the waters of Lakshya. while its older course flows past the town ofMymensingh to meet the Meghna representing the united stream of the three Assam rivers called Surma. Fnrtber down it receives three lower tributaries. below Habiganj before it flows into the Meghna as a river of great breadth.-The origin. The Ichamati which is one of the oldest rivers in the district of Dacca. The Lakshya which is regarded as the prettiest river in the district of Dacca. Vanaparva. It flows in a soutb-westerly direction from Sadiya down to tbe place above the Garo hills. At a distance of about 200 miles from the Manas Sarovara it receives an importa. flows north-west and west to join the Brahmaputra. Ch. north-west of the town of Sibsagar. is traceable.lley of Assam in the north-eastern frontier district of Sadiya. is found to have been formed by the three streams that took off from the old Brahmaputra. The Ganga assumes the name of Padma after its confluence with the greater Yamuna a little above the Goalundo Ghat. Formerly it flowed into the Brahmaputra near Ramps!. otherwise known .nt upper tributary. The course of the Brahmaputra through the tableland of BOuthern Tibet is known by the name of Tsangpo. The Krishna.. Fnrther down on the left the Disara which takes its rise in the Patkai hills. according to tbe modem geographical exploration. Fnrther east it is joined by another upper tributary. Fnrther down on tbe left the Brahmaputra receives two streams of the Kalang as its tributaries in the district of Nowgong. Tbe Karatoya has its origin above Domar in the district of Rungpur. flowing from the Garo hills flows into the Brahmaputra.34 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OJ' ANCI1I:NT INDIA. The combined waters of the Meghna and the Brahmaputra flow together under the name of Meghnii. (iv) The Brah11lOlp1dra-MtfJhna SY8tem. and Pnini. The next important tributary on the left is the Buridihing which meets tbe Brahmaputra south of Lakhimpur. The Dhaleavari which is a trihutaryof the lower Brahmaputra is a river of great importance in the district of Dacca. The Brahmaputra maintains its easterly course from the Manas Sarovara to Namcha Barwa and at the latter place it t = south and flows down through the eastern extremity of the Himalayan range to enter the va.. way into the Dhale- avarl by several winding routes. On the right two streams flow into the Brahmaputra above and below Tejpur. a. and it flows south again to meet the Ganges at a little above the Goalundo Ghat. of the Brahma- putra. Barak. The great tributary which meets the Brahmaputra in the district of Sadiya is the Lohit.

The Luni in its course towards the Gulf of Cutch is joined on the left by the Sarasvati flowing down from the Aravalli range. the famoUl! river of East Bengal. It takes its rise in the hills of Ajmer and flows down in a south. Between Railg_a~i and Chittagong town the KarT. There are some c088tal rivers to the east of the Brahmaputra.engnlfing expanse' at the point where they form the confluence. It turns west and follows a straight course down to the mouth of the Halda and then.aphuli. INTRODUCTION river of Assam. in Sylliet. The Meghna takes a tortuous course between the districts of Dacca and Tipperah till it joins the DhaleSvan a little below Munshiganj. It reaches the Bay not far from the mouth of the Karl). The Chambal or the Carmanvati rises from the Aravalli range north· west of Indore and flows north-e""t through eastern . It may be noted here that the Suvamarekha in Midnapore is an important river of eastern India.laphuli is fed by a few small tributaries. It joins the mighty Padma near Rajabari. It is fed by no less than six tributaries.Meghnii system. takes a southerly course and flows past the town of Chittagong which lies on its right bank. which rises in the district of Manbhum and flows past Jamshedpur and farther down through the districts of Dhalbhum and Midnapore to fall into the Bay. which flows into the Bay opposite to the island of Kutubdia.oup. The Naf is also a boundary river which separates the Cox's Bazar sub·division of Chittagong from the district of Arakan. (v) The Luni·Chambal (}. The Parvati is a local river of Indore which flows north· west to join the Chambal on the right. The minor stream of the Brahmaputra which was formerly the main stream and which now flows past the town of Mymensingh under the name of Brahmaputra flows into the Meghna in Kishoreganj sub- division..The Lnni is the only important river west of the Aravalli range. The Mann issues from the Hill Tipperah. the headquarters of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The two grest rivers represent' a most awe-striking sight of an all. The Baraka has a westerly course till it joins the Surma. It is joined on the right by five tributaries before forming a confluence with the Baraka. The Feni forming the boundary in its upper course between the Hill Tipperah in the north and the district of Chittagong in the south and in its lower course between the districts of Chittsgong and Noakhali takes its rise in the hills of Hill Tipperah and empties itself into the Bay opposite the island of Sandvlp. The united waters of the Padma and the Meghna flow together into the Bay of Bengal in a southerly direction under the name of Meghna between the districts of Noakhali and Backerganj and form a few doabs at the estuary. It rises from the Lushai Hills t.. The Miitamuri is a small internal river of the Cox's Bazar sub-division. represents the upper course of the Meghni. The Kamaphuli is the largest of the three main rivers of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Banas is a notable left tributary which joins the Luni south of Varabai.westerly direction to reach the border between Rajputana and the Cutch Peninsula. flows north to join the Barak.. The Sangu rises from the extreme south of the eastern part of the Chittagong Hill Tracts.hat connect the Chittagong Hill Tracts with the south·western part of Assam and flows south-west down to Railgama~i. The river then runs direct south to meet the sea by forming a large delta at its mouth. West of Habiganj. A streamlet meets the Lnni on the right side.Rajputana into the Yamuna. . The Meghna is the name by which the lower course of the Surma river flowing through the district of Dacca is generally known. The Kalisindh flows north from the Vindhya range to join the Chambal on the right a little north of Piparda. The first left trihutary of the Luni is the Bandi which isaues from the Aravalli range.

It receives no more tributary in the re8t of its course up to the sea. The Gambhira is a tributary of the Yamuna above the Chambal flOwing east from GaIigiipur. (vi) The Narmndd-TWpti Group.. According to the Ma18ya PurtiTja (Ch. The Ken (Cainas according to Arrian) is an important tributary of the Yamuna below the VetravatL The Mahi is the most important of the lesser rivers that issue from the Piiripatra mountains and flow into the Arabian sea. a tributary of the Chambal. The Narmada and the BeviL form a confluence a little above Mandla to flow dowo under either name. The Maikal range. that is to say. &8 it flows through Indore. This river passes through Burhanpur and crosses the boundary of the Central Provinces before it enters the Bombay Presidency to meet the sea at Surat. In its course towards the Yamuna it is joined by many tributaries. rises from the Maikal range and flows in a south-westerly direction forming the natural boundary between Bhopal and the Central Provinces. Then this river runs through Indore and flows past BevakaQtha of Bombay and meets the sea at Broach. Vafl)asa). all flowing from the M!ll>iideva hills. The Sipra is a local river of the Gwalior State flo~g into the Chambal a little below Sitaman. evidently a portion of the ~ksa. between the D. The point where the Berach receives the Dhund. The Tapti or Tapi has its source in the Muitai plateau to the west of the Mahadeva hills and flows westward forming the natural boundary between the Central Provinces and the north-western tip of Berar. The Narmada (Namados of Ptolemy) is otherwise knowo as Beva. Its source is traceable to the Mandab hills in Kathiawar. it is fed by a large number of small tribu- taries. hills adjoining the Vindhya range. the modem Maikal range preserving the name of the ancient territory of Mekala. The Vihalii and the Vegavati are associated with the Mount Urjayanta in Suriil. The source of the Beva is traceable to the AmarakaQtaka. The Sabarmati flows from the Pari- patra mountains and finds its way into the Gulf of Cambay through Ahmedabad. Within t. " tirlha or a holy place. The Berach. It take. It is the historical river on which stands the ancient city of Ujjayinl. The Kunu is a right lower tributary of tbe Cbambal. river is met by a very important river called the Puma. Accord- ing to the Mahiibhiirala the Narmada formed the BOuthem boundary of the ancient kingdom of Avanti. It is immortalized by Kalidasa. . It has a south-westerly course up to Banswara and then it turns south to pass through Guzrat. 193) the place where the Narmada falls into the sea i.. mSTORIOAL GBOGUPHY 07 ANOllINT INDIA According to Cunningham it is the Pm of the PurtiTjfU. according to Kiilidasa. Samodbbava.. and Mekalasuti. four on the left and three on the right. It empties it&elf into the Gulf of Cam bay. Aa this river takes its course in between the two great mountain ranges of the Vindhya and the Satpurii.tra. Six more rivers meet the Tapti on the left before it empties it&elf into the sea. rises from the Aravalli range. namely. The last name i8 important as indicating its source. This river i8 further fed by seven tributaries. In eastern Khandesh thi.-The Narmada which is the most important river of Central and Western India.he Central Provinces (Madhya PradeSa) it is met by four tribu- taries.san:>ii (Dhasan) and the Sipra. becomes knowo as the Banas (Skt. The DaMfI)a is a tributary of the VetravatL The Nirbindhyii is the river between VidiBii and Ujjayini. The river Bhadar of Kathiawar flows into the Arabian Sea. It is identified with the modem Kiilisindh which forms a tributary to the Chambal.. and the Mej is its first left tributary. Before the river enters Indore it is joined by not less than thirteen tributaries. is also the source of the great river Son. The Vetravati (modern Betwa) rises from the Paripatra mountains.

the Satpura. It is . flows through the district of Balasore. Maner and Kinar.n- pur. It flows p.J. Prankiti. The Triaiima (also called the Tribhaga or Pitrisoma) and the J.ikulya was applied to the united flow of three upper streams. It flows in a south-easteriy direction below the Vindhya range cutting a valley through the Eastern Ghats. The Po""a rises from. about 900 milee in length.\Iikulyii bearing the descriptive name of Triaiimii. waters the Dalma hiDs in Manhhum.. In its oourse through Hyderabad and Madras State it is joined by ten tributaries on the left and by eleven on the right. The LiiJigulinf (modem IAnguliya) rises in the hills at Kiiliihandi and flows south through the district of Ganjam to empty itself into the Bay below Chicacole.m rises from the Sahya or Western Ghats and flows north-east to join the Tapti below Chopda in Khandesh. It i. K~. The Devi and Prochl are the two aftluents of tbe Maha- n&d'i on its right side forming two deltaic rivers in the district of Puri. The Burbalang which represents the lower course of the Karksi. which is an internal river of Ganjam. through the district of Balasore from north· west to south-east.t Sihoa and passes through Bastar in Madhya Prades.l. The Vaitaral)i which is one of the most sacred rivers in India. rises in the hiUs in the southern part of the district of Singhbhum. the important among which are the Pii~{J. It receives two tributaries a little below the point where it enters Orissa. It is fed by five tributaries. The Salandi issues from the hiUs in the Keonjhar Stste and flows through the district of Balasore above the Vaitaral)" The Kumiiri which is identified with the modern Kumiiri. The Paliisini (modern Paras) is a tributary of the Koel in Chota Nagpur. XLI). The Briihmal)i is equally sacred. It also flows through Bilaspur and Raigarh before it enters Orissa in Sambalpur. The VatpSadhara.lsirii or Antyiigirii). south-east from the Sahyiidri mountain to meet the Godavari on the western boundary of the Nander district. according to the Hindus. 11UlratHIti on the left. but it seems that they are one and the Bame river t the J. falls into tbe Bay at Kalli\gapatam..n' on the right.-The Godavari i8 the largest and longest river in South India. The Panjhra is an important lower tributary which rises from Western Ghats and flows into the Tapti a little below Shirpur in Khandesh. It takes its souree in the Nasik hills of the Bombay Presidency and cuts through the Hyderabad State and a good portion of the Madras Presidency. The Bori riSllS from the Western Ghats and joins the Tapti a little above Amalner.-The Mahanadi is the largest river in Orissa which riSllS from the hiDs at the south-east corner of Berar. like the VaitaraI)i. Ilft'IIODlJ(7l'lGI< 37 only two tributa. branch of the Vindhya range and meets the Tapti a little below Burh.tsikulya is the northernmost river in the district of Ganjam which flows into the Bay past the town of Ganjam. SindphaM. It follows a oourse from north-west to south-east through the district of Balasore and reaehes thc Bay at Dhiimrii. It is joined east of Angul by an important tributary called the Tikkirii (identified with Anta\.easterly course and flows past the town of Cuttack and reaches the Bay at FaDs Point.. The Piirna flow... It is fed by two streams.n ancient river according to the Padma Pura'ia (Ch.tsikulya are mentioned in the Puravas as two separate rivers. It rises from the Western Ghats. It falls in three main streams into the Bay of Bengal in the district of Godavari forming a large delta at its mouth.ri1l8 on the right. (vii) The MaM1UUli Group. and the Maiijira. The J. The Cho~a-Mahan&di rises in the hiUs north of the district Ganjam and meets the Bay at Candrapur. Hyderab&d_ . The Gin. It then follows a south. and it flows. forming a large delta.t~ikulyii signifying that the name ~... (viii) The Godavari Group..

They are the Kritamii/ij (~tnmiilii of the Kiirmapurii7)a and the Satamiila of the Vartihapurii7)a) . was situated on the south bank of the Kiiveri.. (x) The. The Tunga and the Bhadrii rise from the Western Ghats on the western border of Mysore and combine to flow together under the name of Tuitgabhadrii.iyakapata and the Tiimraparni are the two rivers noted for pearl-fishery. the PU/!paja and 8mpaliivati (Utpaliivati). which represents the united flow ofthe Waingaitga and the combined waters of the Varada and the Pengaitgi (Pennar).. Madr"". It joins the Krill1)ii opposite Amaravati. The Kinarsani is reoeived by the Godavari opposite to Bhadrachalan in the Bastar State. The Kaveri flows through such sacred spots as Snrangapatnam. the TamrapaN). The Bmma which figures prominently as the Sahya river in the Purii1). noted for its pearl-fishery. flows south-east through MY80re and falls into the Bay of Bengal in the district of Tanjore in the Madras State.i (Tiimravan.ta of the Brahma- p"rii7)a). hills and flows into the Godavan north of Koratla. at its mouth. From the north-east of Alampur to a place below Jaggayyapeta the Kri<1)" flows forming the southern natural boundary of Hyderabad. rivera in south India are noteworthy. The Maner flows north-east to meet the Godavari east of Mantham. and then it tnrns south-east and reaches the Bay of Bengal in the distric. it falls into the Bay of Bengal. takes a south- easterly course and Bows into the Kl'~:Q. The Coleroon issues from Trichinopoly and faJls into the Bay. The four important Malaya. In ancient times the Kaven.a.dam takes its riae in the NirmaJ range of the Vindhye. In its course through Hyderabad and Madras it is joined by fifteen tributaries on the left and four on the right.iya. Kr~wi 8ystem. Siva- samudram in the Mysore State and Sriraitgam near Trichinopoly. Tbe Dhon. The Palar rises from the hills north of Nalgonda and flows into the Kris1)ii. The Tamra- pamI is a large Malaya river which must have flowed below the southern boundary of the kingdom of Pii\l<. It follows a south-westerly course and joins the Godavari below Bhopal- patnam.. The North Pennar flows north. It takes its source near Mahabalesvara. The Hindri which is a lower trihutary of the Tuitgabhadrii. Its course lies through the Bombay State. The Maiijira is also a lower tributary which rises from the BiWighat range and flows south-east and north to join the Godavari. The Pranhitd is one of the two uppermost tributaries of the Godavan. The Sindphana is a western lower tributary of the Godavari. a tributary of the Kri~1)ii.. flowed down into the sea through the southern portion of the ancient kingdom of Cola.. It may be identified with the . The Pii1)<. Uragapura (modern Uraiyur). Kiive. flowing east through the Deccan plateau and breaking through the Eastern Ghats in a gorge. Daviu_ Its lower course is known by the name of Ponnaiyar. the ancient capital of Co!a. north of the district of Raichur.. the State of Hyderabad and the State of Madras.-The Kiiven which is a famous river in South India rises in the Western Ghats hills of Coorg. It is met by ten streams on the left and eight on the right.. meets the Tuitgahhadrii. The South Pennar flows into the Bay of Bengal at Fort St.' 8ystem. The Indravati takes its rise in the hills of Kalahandi in Ori. (ix) The. Hyderabad.t of Nellore on the Coromandel coast. The Tuitgabhadrii is the most important among the lower tributaries ofthe Kri~1)ii. at the town of Kamoo!. rises from the Western Ghata hills and joins the Kri$1)a. north-east up to Pamiui in the district of Anantapnr. 38 HISTOIDOAL GBOGBAl'IlY OF ANODINT INDIA The Ka. The Munar is the most eastern upper tributary of the Kri~1)ii.a8.-The Krif. The Varadii which is a tributary of the Tuitgabhadra rises from the Western Ghats north of Anantapur and meets the Tuitgabhadrii. It forms a large delta.1)& is a famous river in South India which has its source in the Western Ghats.

p. Africa.. ancient or modern. the Kosa Nag. Among other lakes of Kashmir we may mention the Anchar near Srinagar. A number of salt lakes are found scattered in Rajputana. the Raj Samand. The most lovely lakes in modem India are fouud in Kashmir. the capital of the Pa!)<. IV. the Didwana and the Pu. 1 Jat. its only rival. LaketJ India. The Kritamala may be identified witb the Vaigai which flows past the town of Madoura. It flows through Madura town. There are some artificial lakes in Rajputana.. is Mahiipadmasara. . and aome again are mere expansions of river-channels. the Guudolao in Kishengang. the Pichola. 101. and the Machkund in Dholpnr are important artificial lakes. the important of which are the Sambhar. the Nil Nag. V. Eight rivers flowing east and eleven flowing west from the Malaya range are noticed in the modern atl. both great and small. Yet the sheets of water. some are artificially constructed by putting dams in river-beds.. There are two small islands in this lake. There are a few lakes in Gharwal. Some of them in modern times are natural depressions fed by the drainage of the surrouuding districts. 419. and the Kyulll. . According to the MnMvarpsa Commentary (p. the Nandan Sar. The beautiful lake of Kollar Kahar stands in the midst of the Salt range of the Punjab. The port of Korkai stood at the mouth of this river according to Ptolemy.' This lake still remains unidentified. Europe or America. meaning turbulent.Iya kingdom). The Wular. cannot boast of lakes of such immense dimensions or awful grandeur'as are found in some parts of Asia.la. The Sambhar is situated on the horders of Jodhpur and Jaipur States. Ariguttara. There was a lake at Vai8au called Mark.. 101. the Sarbal Nag. (ancient Madbura.jkara. D. It was one of the seven great lakes of the Himalayas. The Moghal emperors greatly enhanced the beauty of this spot by planting terraced gardens rOlmd it. There was a lake in MadbyadeSa known by the name of Ku!). According to him. The Ghona is important. Ariguttara. S DWyaoodiina. The Vaigai is the principal river in the Madura district. The Dal is situated close to Srinagar. the Indus. like the Ganges. spread out in many places into lakes.. The Debar or Jai Samand..ta which was visited by the Buddha. 306) the holy water of the Anotatta lake w88 used during the coronation ceremony. the Dal and the Manasbal are the most beautiful.. Its scenery is lovely. as pointed out by Arrian. known ) lakes are by no means rare in India. according to some. The name Wular is supposed to be a corruption of the Sanskrit word Ul/nla. It takes its source in two streams draining the two valleys of Cumbum and Varushanad.. Even the greatest sinner by bathing in it is able to remove his sma. In the chronicle of Srivara the lake is called Dala. This lake is generally supposed to be the same as Rawanhrad or Langa. the capital city of K""hmir. INTRODUCTION 39 modern Tambravari or with the combined stream of this river and the Chittar. The Manchar lake in the Larkana district of Sind is formed by the expansion of the western Nara and fed by several hill· streams. 200. Its ancient name. IV. The sanctity of the fujkara lake is great. The Wular lake has an area of 12! square miles. in the Udaipur State.' In the Uttarapatha there was a lake called Anotatta which was visited by the Buddha several times.

It lies in the Kitsna district. The Cclair (the Kolleru or Kolar) lake is the ouly natural fresh water lake in the Madras State. The Lonar lake occupies a circular depreseion amidst the Deccan traps of the Buldana district in Borar. There are two fresh water lakes in this region. which extended as far north as the KAmyaka forest. Mahavana out- Bide the town of VaiMli lay in one stretch up to the Himalayas. the Chalan Bil on the borders of Rajshahi and Pabna districts. A long sandy ridge separates it from the Bay of Bengal. In the Hyderabad State there are artificial sheets of water known as lakes.A1WDlNT INDIA.. which run almoat parallel to the sea and receive the drainage of the numerous streams descending from the Western Ghats. the largest being the Pilicat lake situated just to the north of Madras. is exceedingly picturesque. On the western coast of the Deccan plateau one of the most striking physical features is th. The valley of Nainital contains a pear- ahaped lake.P. The Talbahat of the Jhanshi district has a lake covering 528 acres formed by two small dams. At Mahoba there are two artificial lakes called the Kirst Sagar and the Rahilya Sagar. for instance. was a wild region in the Kuru realm. Trees were cut for wood and timber. the Nandaur. the Karambai lake.. Most of the Ccromandel coast is fringed with lagoons. A crescent-shaped lake is found four miles to the north of Balia town (Balia district). The kingdom of Uttara-PaiicaIa was founded in this jungle tract. Some of the chief perennial lakes are situated in the Gorakbpur district. In the far-west of India. Some natural lakes and depnl88ions. the largest and most important is the Pakbal lake in the Narsampet taluk of the Warangal district. The LalBarya. the Pakaria. the Koregaon and the Pangaon lakes of the Solapur district. There is another lake called the Bara Talao. The Bakhira Tal is the finest piece of fresh water in India. The Sagartal is a fine lake.. There are alBo lakes in Maihar. Th. It was 80 . The Aiijanavana at s&keta. the Rangarh. The Kurujangala. the Enamakkal and the Manakoddi. formed in the old beds of rivers.. The soenery of the Chilka lake in part. Some natural forests (sayal!JjatsvanA) existed in the Middle Ccuntry (MadhyadeSa) in the 6th century B. the Dhol- samudra marsh of Faridpur district of Bengal. There existed a regular industry of catching birds by means of snares. the Pota. There is an embanked lake near Godhra in the Panch MahalB. the Narhar. namely. The Ramakri of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. and roughly elliptical in shape. For~ In ancient times there were forests all over India. and the Kalang lakes of the Nowgong district and the Saras lake of the Goalpara district of Asasm as well as the Logtak lake of Manipur deserye mention. the Mahavana at Vaisiili and the Mahavana at Kapilavastu were natural forests.C. are found in the Uttar. the Chillera and the Boori Tal. In Central India the city of Bhopal stands on a great lake called the Pukhta-pul Talao.ft) HIBTOmOAL GBOOa4PBY O• .). in Gujrat and the Bombay Presidency mention may be made of the Nal about 37 miles south-west of Ahmedabad. the Seraha and the Tataria are all located in the Cbamparan district of Bihar. There are some lakes in the Basti district (U. and the Bhatodi lake of Ahmednagar. namely. E. A number of people liked animal hnnting in forests. Prade8a. continuous chain of lagoons or back waters near Ccchin. On the eastern coast of the Deccan plateau there is the Cbilka lake.

Early Hi8tory oj ... Some have identified it with Bithoor.. II. . a part of it was called Janasthana.lya (or Upalavrita. Kurujiiilgala.nnf. IV . 366. II. G. namely. 74) there were nine sacred foreste (arat'ya. 437. was ca. S Atig. The Lumbinivana situated on the bank of the Rohini riv. Majjhima. according to the MaMbhiirata (Vanaparva. Even the gr888 did not grow there.. 1894. I. • Mahavamaa. covered by it. Hastinapura. 7 8amantapiUiidikii. according to Pargiter..: D. Vlllltu .vipura"a (Ch. Sa~. 87). Here 8ita gave birth to Lsva and KuSa. 97.iakav&na in the DakeiJ. Jambumarga. There W&S a reserve·forest of Parileyyaka in Vataa (rather in Ceti)..bhiirata (Adiparva. The Dan~akiiral)ya.. It is a holy place of the Hindus frequented by pilgrims from all parts of India. I. Ch.mbi lay through two villages. 32).mbi. 19. II.10.. Ch. was situated in Kurujangala.oa . 'I ealled becauae of the large . II.UIn Chwang.t K&pila. 10 J. the way from Prayaga to Kau8ii. It is the modem Nimsar. I. I..na.ia.' The Niigavana in the Vajji kingdom.. KatMvaUhu.B. 20 miles from Sitapur and 45 miles to the north·west of Lucknow..tinapura. I.lao lay in one stretch up to the foot of the Himalaya..8 oj BuddAirm lJnd JainWm. the Bhesakalavana in the Bharga kingdom. 87) was situated in Paficala. According to the MalW.. the eapital of the Kurus. s As pointed out by the Chinese pilgrim. the way to which from Kau8ii. 1 8urnangalaviLirini..rea.'naya. The Piirileyyakavana W&S an elephant forest at some distance from K&usambi and on the way to Srivasti. 95. Many Purii'f!48 were written here.lled by this name. C. 10 According to the Riimay<i~a (Uttarakiin~a. III..ll The Lalitaffistara (p. 352. 309: Safllyutta.. According to the Utwra·Ramacariia (Act I) it was plaoed to the west of J &n8Bthiina.:~). the 8i'!l8"P"vana at Kau8ii. 91) it is situated on the left bsnk of the Gomati. 6.gha. The Utpaliiral)ya. 1. Cb.country situated in Sirhind north·west of H . p.ar&l)ya). 8aindhava. XVI. 164ff.he Dtkkari. Ch.. 96. Dan~akiiral)ya. III. 91. The entire Kurude" . 2. as we find in the MaMbhiirata (Adiparva. ara. the one near Alavi and the Pipphalivana of the Moriyas may be cited 8B typical instances of natural forests.<)..242. 11 R. 559: ManaralluJpUrani. 29·30..- According to the n. Milinda. Puekara and Himii- laya.A. Bhandarkar. Digha. 6 It was a forest with· out any human habitation (agamnA:tvq.5. Hiuen Tsang. It W8B also known as Utpalavana. 26)..The Yin· ihi~avi represented the forests surrounding the Vindhya range through which lay the way from Pataliputra to Tamralipti.. cf. StwnailqalavWi. 316. 14 miles from Cawnpore. Ibid. 665.. 4 Jat4ka. was also a natural forest. 316) refers to the Dal)c. This forest remained burnt for many years. Dipat1am8a. The NaimitaraJ)ya was the holy forest where sixty thousand sages (~is) lived. India as described in early ta/. 201) and Vamana Purii"a (Ch.B. where the hermitage of Viilmiki was situated.liipatha..' The Mahiv. 8 B. Naim~. Ch. V. Udiina. II. fj2ft. 213. Law. V. lit 3 Samyutta. 309. 146ft'. Some hold this forest to be the same as Mahiriietra including Nagpur. On Y1. According to the Ramliya~ (Uttarakiil)c. UtpaliiraJ.7 The Dipavari!sa refers to the Vindhya forest which one had to cross while going to Pataliputra (XV. comprised all the forests from Bundelkhand to the Kri. the Salavana of the Mall.. IV. Riimaeandra lived here for a long time. Sec. I. 130. 81) it w&s situated between the Vindhya and the 8aivala mountains. the one to the north of Setavya in KoSala. I. XIX. at Kusinara.mbi lay through a forest.. I Watters. The Kurujailgala w&s a forest.

The AnguUaTa Nikaya 6 of the Pali BuUa Pilaka mentions sixteen Maluijanapadas in Jambudipa. Avanti. Ancient India as described by Megaaeh. II. LambaciiJ. No.lha (Rfu. II. Gandhara and Kamboja. 463. Berlin OataJqgtu. p. while thc Cullaniddesa. Gandhara and Kamboja..' SIXTEEN GREAT STATES (MAHAJANAPADAB) An account of sixteen great states in Jambudipa is one of the most important topics of the historical geography of Ancient India. The hollows in the mountains and hills served as dens for them. Km·K. Aasaka.. As many as fourteen of these great states may he said to have heen included in the Madhyadesa. Vajji. Kosala. Banga (Vailga). 1 cr.tnn and JainiBm. No. At the time of the M aluibluiraja some M1eccha tribes lived near Pu~kars and the Himalaya (Sabhaparva. The Himalayan forests were infested with wild animals. Vol. and the remaining two countries. Koccha. They are as follows:-Ailga. & Aneienf India. Kuntala. Maccha. I.patha or the Deccan. 32-35) the countries in MadhyadeBa were Matsya. Magaha (Magadha). Here an attempt has been made to give a succinct and systematic account of them.. 32). 252. Ceti.llJ (Ob. Jiitaka 9 mentions the followingjanapada8: Sura\iha (Surat).ka. Assaka at least. Kasi. omitting the last four. may be said to have heen located in Uttariipatha or Northern Division. o Strictly speaking.rga was situated between Pu$kara and Mount Abu according to the Agni PUTiityl (Ch. 260.BOla. Ch. 37-Anga ca MagadM ca Kalinga ca K<i8i caKooald ca Vajji ca Malla ca Ce~i ca Va~ ca KtWij co Pancala co MacchQ co BtlraBenaeaA8Ia- Jrij ca Auami ca YQfki ca Kamboja ca. Ka. etc. Moli (Malia 1).nadi and the Godavari. 7 Digha. if not Avanti. Sfirasens. Law.. Ancient Geography. p.sj.enu and Arrian. Magadha. 202·203. The Pu$kars forest is situated at a distance of six miles from Ajmere.8B mentioned in early Buddhist texts. Kusula. It is interesting to note tbt according to the Miirka1J4eya Puraf. Vaccha (Pali: Va'!1sa). 439. 109). 42. III. Pulinda.Si. Accha. p.Surasena • • NWle8a. 116. The . The Jain& BluJgavati ButTa (otherwise called Vyiikhyaprajnapti) gives " slightly different list. Dakkhil.t of Arafijara (Arnfijaragiri) in the Majjhima. each named after the people who settled there or colonized it.Iha (1). C. Da\l?aka forest (Dal. Li<. Bajji (Pali: Vajji). .Pantiila and Maccha. Malia. McCrindle. 10 Kasala. Malava. Kuru. Vol.l?akiraiiiio).Jaina list seems to he later th&n the Buddhist list given in the AnguUara . 57. 3 Cunningham.Iha).T. The Indriya. n. pp. Kosala. Vrka and Govardhana- pura. reptiles. 64ft'. ed.. Kumbhavati· nagara and the hill tr. snakes. Vol.. Kulya.. Avanti is included in Aparanta. p. 256. p. Kuru. 10 Aoconling to Weber'.a.Vikiiya. Pancala.waka. pythons. 591.2." The KaliiJgiiranya lay hetween the Godavari river on the south· west and Gaoliya branch of the Indravati river on the north·weet. a B.42 HISTORIOAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANOIJlNT INDIA The Jambumii. They are said to have abounded in elephants 1 living in herds. Yajji-MaUa.xt8 oj Buddhi. birds. IV. Av&ha (Avaha 1) &nd Sambhuttara "" Subhuttara (Snmhottara 1). P. 13 will beK. S Arlguttara. 213. Atiga-Magadha. Ka..S. V8J:!lsa.' Acconling to Rapson it existed between the Mahii. as ducribed in early te. lay outside the borders of the Majjhimadesa. adds Kalinga to the list and substitutes Yona for Gandhar&.. Avanti. S. should be considered Be situsted in Dakkhil). They are as follows:-Ailga. padesa. India. Arvada.lapatha. Oe!i'Y/J1?IM>. The DigluJ Nikaya 7 gives a list of twelve only. p. Pii<. for both the settlements found mentioned in Buddhist sources. t Jdtaka. 27. Malaya.

32. Assaka and Avanti. XlI. Apana is mentioned as a township in Ailguttariipa. ae it was mentioned as such by Ananda while requesting the Master to obtain parinirvar. 11 DipOOOm8G. According to tbe Ramayalja Ailga or body of Kamadeva (love god) was consumed here and the country was therefore called Ailgl>.1 A similar reference is alBo found in the Lalitavistara witbout the traditional list (8arvasmin Jambudvipe 8O<fn. VII.s. It was a big town and not a village. 2 . No.fter them: the Kauravas. but there is no enumeration of the list (Jamhudvipe sD<ja- . Campa was ruled by A.. however. 48. 6. Ailga W88 one of them having Campa as ito capital. the traditional record of the sixteen big states of Jambudvipa.re mentioned to have been inhabitants of their I.l2 According to the Maluibhiirata Ailga may be supposed to have com- prised the districto of Bhagalpur and Monghyr.s.a. h . Cedi.i Jiitaka. 181. B Vol. 97. Sivi. the Salvas. p. 179ft'. the Paiicalas. It was one of the six great cities of India. There the following tribes a. Matsya. Daiakumciracarita.s built by Maha- govinda. Kiisi. Vayu. the Na~a. The ancient name of Campa was Malini or Malina. 243ff. p. The Maluibharata.s. 508 . Malalasekera. The way from Bhaddiya to Apana lay through Ailguttariipa (Vinaya. An interesting account of the tribal characteristics of the peoples of differentjanapadas is given in the KaI'l)aparva of the Maluibhiirata. further tells us that Ailga was 80 called after ita king Ailga. 1 It is stated there that Gautama distributed knowledge among the people of Ailga.. Diet. nrI'BODUOTION 43 The M aMrost1/. 32.. up to the river Kosi.. Ailga was a powerful kingdom before the time of the Buddha.s a river 1 Vol.. 49.. 7 Digha. III. and traders sailed from here to Suvarl. Mbh. JO VSMya P#ak. I. 4.tters.000 villages and Campa was one of them. 22)... Surasena.. Paiical. 99. 1. This list differs from the Pali list inasmuch as it excludes Gandhara and Kamboja but includes Sivi and DaSal1J. At one time the kingdom of Ailga included Magadha and probably extended up to the sea. . II.The kingdom of Ailga bad 80. the Cedis.§ahi maMja1/llpadehi). 272). the Matsyas. I. II. 235. 01 Pali Proper Names. the Ailgas. n.. Magadha. 34. the Kosal. It bad " watch-tower. and the Madraka. No.. . A careful study of the Maharostu shows that in a different connection it enumerates a list of sixteen big states. The order of the enumeration is also somewhat different.. 363). 146. II.l8 who sooms to be identical with Ailga Vairocani mentioned in the Aitareya Brtihma". Dhammapada Commy.. Anga. Malia. Kuru. 6. Wa. 2. his sons and grandsons. 8 Ibid . Vajji. 7 Ito actual site is marked by the villages named Campanagara and Campiipuri which still exist near Bhagalpur.a!la~ I.labhiimi (Lower Burma) for t."8P"ctive janapadas named a. situated on the river of the same names (modern Chandan) and thc Ganges' at a distance of 60 yojanas from the Videhan capital named Mitbilii. and extended northward. 13 Adiparva. 639. p. Vatsa. Kosala. CIV.7.• II.w in ons of the big cities. Hariv. the Surasenas. e Jmaka. 4179ff.8a- jana~p. II. 105·6. VI. . Io Among the seven political divisions into which India was divided according to tbe Digha- Niktiya (II. ~tI Vin. DaSaTI)a. . the Magadhas. S Jiitaka. Campa gradually in- creased in wealth. walls and gates.. the Gandharvas. 235). 22). 22). .he purpose of trade. l1 It w"" here the Master prescribed the use of slippers by monks.. 28. There wa. 437.179. On Yuan ChwafllJ. Matsya. a tract which lay north of tbe river Mahi.-The kingdom of Ailga had its capital named Campa. It wa.. Onoe Magadha came under the sway of Ailga (Jat.oka's son Mahinda. evidently a part of Ailga on the other side of that river (Paramatthajotikii..a (VIII.

.. 20. 8) a brahmin of Campipuri presented king Bindusiira.. I ~. 28Iff. 30. Miigadhapura. 70.. but Magadha haa always been included in the MadhyadeSa as the Buddhist holy land. I. namely.. AbhidMnacimdma~'.. . with a daughter named SubhadriIigi.. C... activities in Ailga and Campa may be known from the V inaya PifD!.ihana (another name of Benaras) conquered Ailga and Magadha..' and Kusagampura.'. That Ailga became subject to Srer.' Biirhadrathapura. . p. Hi.lpha. Ailga was a prosperous country inh. In Buddha's time Ailga lost her political power for good. 24. 87 D.ra and enjoyed the revenues of the town which was given to him by the king (Digha Niliiya. The Life oj Yuan Ohwang.ya/>. 312-15)...nts who used to go to trade with many caravans full of merchandise to Sindhu- Soviradesa (Vimdnavatthu Gommy. The Lalitavistara (pp. Brihm"l)a and Sutra periods M. Pal)<.bitated by many merch. country which the Bodhisattva is said to have mastered. Ill). VI.' Bimbisarapuri. 2(. and Gaya districts of Bihar.. • MbA. L. Mitr. It was ._.).l culture. 279).. I..' Giribbaja (Skt.a-Magadll<ilt·. According to the Asokavadana (R... and waa therefore looked down upon by Brabmanical writers. V""abha. 113.44. III.-Magadha roughly corresponds to the modem Patn.llya Bim bisara is proved by the fact that a certain brahmin named Sonadal)<. • B. 1 In Vedic. 24Iff.• The Magadha country seems to have had a oepat'ate . inhabitated by a Nig&rijii who helped the Magadhan king to bring Ailga under his sway by defeating and killing the King of Ailga.. • MahGbMrata.t which the Bodhisattva is said to have mastered. II. I.. p.' Variha. n. 87).. Vebhira. the chaplain of king MahiikosllJa.a (I..ll 1 Divyavadtina.H.. Aggidatta..a. 332..nd Supana). p. Queen Gagg&ri of Campi dug a tank called Gaggaripokkharal)i ISummigalavila8ini.Iava and GijjhakUj.lao known as Vasumati. The Buddh& dwelt on its bank with a large company of monks while he was at Campi (Digha. Girivraja or ancient Rajagrha was the earliest capital.ta". 32.. Nepalese Buddkiat Literature.gadha was considered to have been outside the pale of Aryan and Brahmanic. I.. The Himalayan sages came to the city of Kiija-Campii in Ailga to enjoy cooked food (Jat.ia lived at Campi on the grant made by king Bimbisii. father of Pasensdi- Kosala. KiTra. Law. Caityaka. 181-92. 3.AJ. 7 The ~gveda mentions a territory called KIka!" which has been alluded to as identical with Magadha in later works . IV...).l<. II. I. cr.. • Bhiiga. The Master while dwelling in the city of Assapura belonging to the kingdom of Ailga. while he was ruling at Pitaliputra. 82. 425. • P. p.. Magadha. ~igiri. 337). • Lalita. . 125-26) refers to a script or alphabet of the Aitg.). 454-5).. In course of his journey from Riijagrha to Kapilavastu the Master was followed by many SODB of the householders of Ailga and Magadha (Jat. 7. It is described as a beautiful city with all kinds of gems. I. 11 Vwnan-avatthu Oommy. HISTORICAL GEOGJUl'HY 01' ANOIlINT INDIA . Vepulla (VaIikaka . Th< Lij' and W""k oj Buddhag/io8a.ata Purona. 8a". I. Ailga and Magadha were cODBtantly at war during this period (Jtit.tween Ailga and Magad/la.125·126. preached the Mahii and Gulla A88ap-ura StdtanliuJ to the monks (Majjhima. Iliff. 256). Girivraja) was encircled by five hills. p.. lived in Ailga and Magadha after giving up his household life and he was given charities by the people of these two kingdoms (Dhammapada G<>mmy... Iaigili. p. 7 Beal. King Manoja of Brahma va<..



Khannmata 5 which was also inhabited by brahmins. I.17 and Kolitagriim" a. 149. 166. who built the new city. 63.. 16 R.L. III. e Dhammapada Commy.na and KaJandakaruvapa which belonged to Rajagaha have often been referred to as dwelling places of the Maater. 7 Kathiivatthu. 1& MaJuivaatu. Mitra. Really speaking Rajagriha waa pro- vided with 64 gates. Magadha was an important centre of Buddhism.\Iowed to enter it. says that it waa AjataSatru. Life oj the Buddha. 10 Pargit. IV. and the people from all parts of Northern India flocked to this city for trade and commerce. 251-260. 9-10. 16 Ibid.li Kukkutaramavihar&. Rrijagriha in Ancient IMtrature. A Buddhist Council waa held at Rajagrha. 1 Vinaya Pifnka. 441.id to have a daily income of four hundred thousand Kahiipw.T . The king then prepared a road for the Buddha and caused the ground from Rajagrha to the Ganges to be made smooth. I. S. Mitra. the king went to the cemetery and bnilt the new city of Riijagrha.E. 17 • 18 B. p. C. I 27ff. p. Law.le Uruvilva. N.. I.16 Grdhrakfita hill.gga.'" It had also a fort which was once repaired by AjataSatru's minister Vassakara. 18 Vmaya PiJali.B.L. s Bimbisiira was a Btannch follower of the Bnddha.B. not even the king.. Many merchants passed through this city or dwelt in it for trade. AJ.' " Ibid. &Ild the river Tapoda flowed by this ancient city. pp.er.' Almost a.B. 116-17. 45. He is sa. 52. 184-85. IV. and Siddhattagama 6 were some of the villages of Magadha. PrabhiiBavana. . Nal&- kagama' where Sariputta delivered & discourse to a wandering ascetic named Jambukhadaka.\I these important localities in and around the city of Rajagrha are intimately connected with the Buddha and Buddhism. 81f. and not Bimbisiira.. e Rockhill. L. II 6.19 after qualifying himself as a physician from the university of Tuila.• p. 6 Digha. Magadha can rightfully claim Jivaka as its citizen. 166-67. I. 11 Culla va.. Y~tivana. The Narada- grama. II. ll Rajagriha had a gate which used to be closed in the evening. 17 R." Veluv". 439-40. I. In Mob's time Pataliputra was the Magadhan capital.! Senanigama2 which was a very nice village of Magadha. I. who became the court physician of king Bimbisiira. 18 Samantapdsadiiro.tas from the four gates of this city. however. gram.H. 250.' o He cured the jaundice of king Pradyota of Avanti being sent by king Bimbisiira of Magadha. N. 89. 12 V inaya Pifaka.. 3 Samantapii8c'idilai. Yuan Chwang points out that when Kusagarapura or KuSiigrapura (probably named after the early Magadha king Kusagra).lO was atllicted by fires.a. IV.. I. was a. 11 th Khandhaka.. ~ Majjhima. and nobody. L.. belonged to Magadha. 174. Here Sariputta and Moggallana were converted by the Buddha to his faith.1 S Doring the early Buddhist period Magadha was an important politie&l and commercial centre. 29. III.- Rajagriha was burnt down by fire during the reign of Bimhisiira when another new capital city called the new Rajagrha was built. 10 Vinaya TutB..\I the missionaries who were sent to different places to preach Mob '8 DhamtnJJ. INTRODUCTION During the reign of king Bimbisiira Magadha contained 80. Fa- Hien.000 villages. Ekanalaa inhabited by brahmins including Bharadvaja who was later converted by the Buddha. The Buddha while he was at Rajagrha told the king that he would pay a visit to Vaisali. 172-73. 8 SaTflyutta. II.

98. Digha Nikiiya. 119-20. 14 Jritaka. 420ff. KfdMvatthu. Sudassana. 11 Ibid. Both the Magadh"" and the Licehavis had equal rights over this river.. 73. Here he gave his first discoUl'!l& on the Dhamma<:lJkka or the Wheel of Law in the Door Park near Benar. III. but a kingdom. BuJdluu:aritak. 82-85. Surundhana. 315tJ.. (Majjhima. IS According to the V tiyu PurtiTja.r. 12 C. namely. m. Ajatasattu became the most powerful king of Northern Indi.. P"taiijali in his MaI1iib~ (Ed. 8 Baranasi is said to have been situated on the bank of the river VaraJ. after defeating the Kosalans. It w"" known hy various other names. p. 20. time KiiBi lost its political power. 87. Saundara· nandaktivya.. 9 MaoovMtu.. Ramma and Molini." Once the king of Benaras conquered both Ailga and Magadha. During the reign of Ajatasattu Magadha also came into conflict with Veaiili of the Vajjis. II.n kingdom. 3 Ibid.llowed by the feet of the Buddlta who came here to preach his excellent doctrine. vs. 10. p. l1 The earliest mention of the KiiBis as a tribal people seems to be met with in the Paippaliida. IO It w"" not troubled by deceitful and quarrelsome people. It was tbe most powerful kingdom in tbe wbole of Northern India. XV.-KiiBi w"" one of the sixteen maMjanapa</a8. and Ajiitasattu of Magadba for the possession of KiiBi. 402. 97. VI. I.ia.. The city of KiiBi is stated to have been situated on the VaraQiivati river.i&. U Sometimes KiiBi extended its suzerain power over Kosala. Sa1{lyutta....' It w"" twelve yojanas in extent. I. v. 262fT. Before the Buddha's time KiiSi was a great political power.l The river Campa flowing between Ailga and Magadha formed the boundary between the two kingdoms. 1700.. III. I. 6 There was a war between Pasenadi of Kosala and Ajat""attu of Magadba with the result that Ajiitasattu succeeded in extending his sway over the Magadbas with the help of the Liechavis. Pnpphavati. K<iBi.46 HISTORICAL GBOOIU.a Suttanta.ll According to the Rdmiiya1}a it was not a city. Baran""i was the capital of the people of KiiBi. 1 Divya11OdOna.a. p. La1itavistara. KiiSi was finally conquered and incorporated into the Magadhan kingdom. 15 The city of Benaras was h .---Sonad&1JQ.. IV. 30ff.. 1.. conquered Kiisi. '7 JatGka. i Jiit. IV. extensive and populous. Pt. It was incorporated into the Kosal&n kingdom for some time and for sometime into the Magadb. Under Bimbisiira and AjiitB8attu Magadha rOBe to such eminence that centuries later till ASoka's Kaliilga war the history of Northern India is practically the history of Magadba. 454. VI.' The two kingdoms of Ailga and Magadha were engaged in battles from time to time. " Jataka. 2 JdIako.. Vol.HJ. 559..PRY OF ANCIENT INDIA The Ganges formed the boundary between the kingdom of Magadha and the republican country of the Licchavis. XII. Jat.. recension of the Atharvaveda.83-85. the kingdom of KiiBi seems to have been extended up to the river Gomati. Brahmava4~ana. 16. but in the Buddha '. V.. Vinaya T~.. 55. 117. 413) mentions Kiisi cloth.11.. . I.. 10 Divyavadiina. lit Sa'f!1yutla.. 454-55. p. 6 Sarpyutta NikAya. p. V. a Ibid.l<. IV. II. 272. IV.' The Magadhan kingdom once came under the suzerainty of Ailga. and sometimes KoSaI .. 160. 11 Adik. There were fighta between Pasenadi of KoSaI. Kielhorn.t The city is described 88 prosperous... Magadha maintained friendly relations by marriage and other alliances not only with the northern neighbours but also with the maluijanapada of Gandhara from whose king Pakkusati she received an embassy and a letter. 115f£.

13).• II. and Ayodhya were identical but Rhys Davids points out that both the cities existed in the Buddha's time.>ecame an unimportant town (Buddhist India..¢ika and Visiikha·Migaramiitii. 429. m.. He delivered a series of sermons at SoJa.. Be- sides Siiketa .nd Sriivasti there were other minor towns like Setavya and UkkaHha in Kos. father of Pasenadi. (R. Mahtiparinibb<l_ Suttanta). IV. p.• II. 26Off. The brahmin house. 2.12. were inhabitants of Sriivasti. K08ala. 190-192). themselves became famous. during the time of early Buddhism.-The Vajjis were included into the eight confederate cl~ (a@uzkulalca) among whom the Videhana. ·s time Ayodhya J. L. The ancient Kosala kingdom was divided into two divisions. A fierce fight took place between the sona of Mahiikos. 1l0-1l2). III.• Ibid . was an important kingdom. p. and sciences (Jat .280. and between Benaras and Taxila (DlULmma.). Sa". 20.• 279. In the Buddh.• p. 237. Mabakosala.. A wealthy merchant came to Benaras with the object of trade (Mahtivaatu. . Vin. daughter of Pasenadi and got poasesaion of KitSi (8a1{O. The great banker named AniithapiI).. IV. III. p..• I. 285ff. Texts.. 166·167). laden with merchandise (cf. III. A good number of famous monks and nuns belonged to Sravasti (DlULmmapada Commentary. 180ff. It was at Sriivastj that the Buddha. A Koaalan prince married a daughter of the king of Benaras (Jat . 123). 4.il.. 342ff. 101).• I. 286).L .. I.. Pasenadi and Ajatasattu respectively. 399ff. 82-85. The Master is said to h . I.lika made a gift of his Jetavana grove to the Lord. 211- 213).la. Theragathti. the most liberal·hearted lady. 342ff. He went to the Buddha who was then in Kosala with another brahmin to have his dispute settled by the Master (Suttanipata. Kosala had matrimonial alliances with the neighbouring powers.• I. sattu married Vajira. The Buddha spent a great part of his life at Bena. . holders of the brahmin village of Venagapura also accepted the Master'. III. 124). AniithapiJ. 102-108. The capital cities of Kosala were Sravasti and Saketa. Jat. and the brahmin house- holders were converted to the new faith (Majjhima.la (Dia!o!Iues of the Buddha.la proper. were also converted by the Master (Majjhima. 47).-Kos. . III.ve once taken up his residence there (Mahtivastu. Some think that Siiketa...). another brahmin village of KoSala.. A famous Kosalan teacher named Bavari built a hermitage on the bank of the river Godavari in the kingdom of Asaaka. 320-322.). the capital of KoSala.. 105.) The Buddha spent much of his time at Sravastl. n. but saketa . There existed trade relations between Benaras and Sravastj.lc... The people of Benaras used to go to Taxila to learn art. III.la KaSala. Pt. Mitra. Rich merchants of the city used to croBB high seas with ships.. and Siiketa the next.). 34). ~ . I. palla Cammy.). gave his daughter in marriage to Bimbisiira of Magadha (Jat .nd Sravastj were two of the six great cities of India (Cf. Mahtivastu. • Benaraa was a great centre of trade and commerce. Ajiita. Therigathti. 290ff.. The Siikyas of Kapilavastu became the vassals of king Pasenadi of Kos.la and Bimbisiira.• III. the Licchavis and the Var .106.• 27Off.. HOff. creed (Ang . II. 392. the river Sarayii serving as the wedge between the two: that to the north was called the Uttarakosala and the one to the south was called Dak.7 4. 80). But the two kings came into a sort of agreement. a brahmin village of KoSala. Vajjis. The other confederate ciani! were prob.• I. The brahmins of Nagaravinda. According to the Epics and some Buddhist works Ayodhyii seems to have been the earliest capital.. p.). N. 27Off. 115.B. and here he delivered BOrne of the most important discourses and converted many people (Ang . permitted the womenfolk to enter the Buddhist Sa'!lgha (Majjhima. I.

p." Buddha's activities were not only confined to Magadha' and Koiiala but also to VaiSali. In Buddha's time this city was encompassed by three walls at a distance of a giivuta from one another and at three places there were gates with watch towers and buildings. zealous and active. 18 The Magadhan king Ajatasattu made up.4. n. 267. In other words. 321ff. Ditlyiivadiina. the Jfiiitrikas. diligent. 3. pp. and not adversity. 268. It had many buildings. pleasure grounds and lotus ponds. 2. harvest was good. 253fL .. Saf'atthap.kdsini. I: Vinaya Texta. II. 215. and one conld earn his living by glean- ing or through favour. 231. 20 pallava.. II. II. l l The Political relation between Magadha and Vaiaiili was friendly. 117. Ugras.• Vol. Kautilya distinghishes the Vrijikas from the Licchavikas.trium- phal arches.It was well provided with food. II. 8. pinnacled buildings. The eighth one is unknown. charming and delightful. 47. The city really rivalled the domain of the immortals in beauty.. Bhojas and Aikshviikas.. Summigalaviliisini. That Ajatasattu is called Vaidehiputm goes to show that Bimhisiira established matrimonial alliance with the Licchavis by marrying a Licchavi girl. they were governed by organized corporation. and another from VaiMli to Kapilavastu.? The Licchavis of VaiSali made a gift of many caityaB or shrines to the Buddha and the Buddhist Church. 11 Samyuua." The Buddhist Council held at Vai~iiIi is important in the history of Buddhism. The Vajjis like the Licchavis are often associated with the city of VaiBii. prosperous and populous. This city was gay. I. . 131). proeperity would be with them.' The inllabitants of VaiSali made a rnIe that daughters of individuals should be enjoyed by gafJOJl and should not therefore be married. 386ff. II. Alms were easily obtainable. I. It may be identified with Beearh in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar. 100. S. 50. pa. i Bodhisattvii'lJQ(]jjna-kalpalatd. I. III. Ill. XI. 12 Samyutta. p. 8 Law. 171.a. 1• The Buddha prophesied that as long as the Licchavis would remain strenuous. The Vrijika was not only the name of the confederacy but also of one of the constituent clans. 44. p.B. The Vajji (Vriji) is referred to by P"l)ini in his A~!iidhyiiyi (IV. Majjhima. The Buddha once visited it being invited by the Licchavis. Lefmann. the famous courtezan of VaiSiiIi. I. Many Sakya ladies from Kapilavastu came to receive ordination from the Buddha who was then dwelling in the Mahavana. p.E . Vinaya TextB. pp. pp. 21. 1 It had three districts. his mind to destroy the Vajjian power. Lalitavista. ANCIENT INDIA. 210-11.9 There exiBted concord and amity among the Licchavis. covered courtyards. Ill. I. .. II. Papa1lca8Udani. 125. Ambapiili. He further foretold that if the Licchavis would be given to luxury and indolence.- A road lay from VaiBali to Rijagrh&.101.68... Ed.a. The immediate cause that led to the outbreak of the war J Papancaaiidani. The Vajjis formed the sa'l'llM or gaTJll. n. they were sure to be conquered by the Magadhan king Ajatasattu.48 mSTORIOAL GBOGBAPRY 0 . 19. p. 7 Ibid. 10 Buddhist Suttaa.12 The Licchavis were also on friendly terms with king Prasenajit of Koaala.llfoMvo8t'U.E. 38• • Vinaj'a TeztIJ. Mahiivastu. etc. Many of his discourses were delivered here either at the mango-grove of Ambapiili or at the Kii\iigaraaiila in the Mahavana.. It was so called because of its extensiveness. p. also presented her' extensive mango-grove to the Buddhist congregation.1i which was not only the capital of the Licchavis but also the metropolis of the eutire confederacy. Ch. It Majjhima. opulent.

160-61. 203.aa. 16 Hariv ." The Cetard{l(ra was 30 yojanas distant from Jetuttaranagara. 228ft". The capital of the Cedi country was Sotthivatinagara. 50 and XIV. H The origin of the Vatsa people is traced to a king of Kasi.-The ancient Cedi country lay near the Jumna. II.... but in the Buddha's time when the monarchy was replaced by a republican constitution. 514. 12 Va1l'8a." The Buddha went to the Cedis to preach his doctrine.. No. XII.-The kingdom of the Va'!'s.15. 83. 167 n.akara was successful in bringing about disunion among the Licchavi princes. 111. 157-61. pp. Ang. 4 .. Il<TBODUOTION 49 between him and the Licchavis W&l! that there existed . No. II. The Mahdparinibbiina Suuanta refers to Kusiniirii as a small town.. 4Iff. Ajiita. identical with modern Kosam near Allahabad. cr. the name of the city was changed to KuSinarii.' Malla. IV. The story of Bandhula.aa. 6 Sahajiiti and Tripuri were other im- portant towns of the Cedi kingdom." Cedi. 14 Law. 20. pp. p. a Smith. He was the son of the chaplain to king Udena of KanMmbl. 15 Kausambi is mentioned as one of the great cities where the Blessed One should attain the Mahdparinih- oona. 200.. 17 PBa/ma of. 90. p. III. but the Blessed One selected it as the place of his passing away by narrating the former glories of KnMvati. 201.. VI. Sunidha and Vassakiira. 355. Oarmichael Lect'Urea.'.I. their capital city was known as Kusavati. ' Ang . & Jat. but there were occa- sional rivalries. was situated near Hira~yavati. 2.'7 1 Digha Nikiiya. 139. E.ttu and ha.-The kingdom of the Mallas was divided into two parts which had KUBa..he Brethren.7 The road from Kasi to Cedi was unsafe. Kusinara may be identified with Kasia on the smaller Gandak and in the east of the Gorakhpur district.mriya Tribes oj A~ India. 80. The Siila grove of the Mallas where the Buddha died. 1918.J"6". 11 Bhandarkar. half of which belonged to Ajata.' Buddhism appears to have attracted many followers among the Mallas. 18 Suuani. II...a. Thus the Licchavis were destroyed by Ajatasattu.. pp.. II. The political relation between the Mallas and the Licchavis was on the whole friendly. port near the Ganges.' When the Mallas had a monarchial constitution.. Saundarananda-Kavya. S Jat. a leader of the Jatilas. 146-47 • . 9 It was an important centre of Buddhism. to sow the seed of dis- sension among them. .• 29.ttu found the Licchavis too powerful to crush.H. Mbh.l3 The city of KauSambi was built at the site of the hermitage of one Kusamba.• III.. Law. twelve miles to the north-east of Kiisia. its dependency. There W&B a mine of precious substance at the foot of the mountain stand- ing not far from it. So he sent his ministers. 9. 72ff. It corresponds roughly to the modem Bundelkhand and the adjoining region. into Bengali. III. the birthplace of Vessantara. It had the Bharga state of Sumsumaragiri . 5 Vinaya Text8.'6 Pingola Bharadviija dwelt at Ghositiirama at KanMmbi.• n. Paal'ffl8 oj the Brethren. He himself said that KuM- nira was ancient KuSavatL8 The Mallas had a Sa1f'fJharajya. AnuruddiIa while dwelling among the Cedis won ArahatBhip.. Tr. probably identical with the city of Suktimati of the M ahdbhdraJ. • Mbh. identified probably with Gandak. V.. 11 Ibid. 4ff. llO-I!.vati or Kusinara and Pava as their capital cities. V.355-56.lf to the Licchavis. Some K. Digha. 80. 684. The city of Kausambj was visited by the followers of Bavari. 49. 73. and Pava with a village named Padaraona. 63.. or Vatsas had Kausiimbi as their capital.. Commy . 1. 48. U Digha. 353.

.'5 Visakha who was the son of the daughter of the king of the Paficalas. 73·74) northern Paocala had its capital at Ahicchatra. King Arjuna of Hastinapura was in the habit of killing those holy men who were unable to aatisfy him by answers to the questions put by him. 11 Vedic Index. " 3rd pa. The ancient literature refers to two Kuru countries. U Jeitaka. n. 10 MaOO'OO8tu. The district included Sonapat. Ratthapala was a Kuru noble who is mentioned in the Majjhima Nikiiya as holding a religious discussion with king Koravy. 94·95. 1 The Buddha while he was at Ghositii. As to the origin of the Kurus a Cakkavatti king of Jambuwpa named Mandhatii conquered Pubba Videha. III. identical with modern Kampil in the Farukhabad district.v8..12 According to MaluihMrata (l38. Karnal and Panipat.. Uttarakuru and Dak. 107ft'.. 12 Cowell..Sudhanu. II.- The ancient Kuru country may be said to have comprised Kurukeetra or Tbaneswar.l' and had its capital at Hastinapnra. Pafictila... 361..J. 65ft'. II. e Mahiivll8tu. Vinaya. The Kuru country was 300 leagues in extent and 'the capital city of Indraprastha extended over 7 leagues. No. feU in love with a kin""ri in a distant conntry and came back with her to the capital where he had long been associated with his father in the government of the kingdom. 29-32. 233.\ra had court at Uttara Paficalan. While returning from Uttarakuru a large number of the inhabitants of that country foUowed MandhiWi to Jambudipa.225. while southern Paficala had its capital at Kiimpilya.mbi and PiJ.' A large number of people in the Kuru country embraced Buddhism after listening to a number of religious discourses delivered by the Buddha. the Bhagirathi forming the di· . II. son of Suvahu. The Buddha delivered some profound diacQurses to the Kurus in one of the Kuru towns named Kammasa- dhamma. 408: P. Aparagoyana and Uttsrakuru.I<Jola Bbaradvaja. 13 Jiitaka.lla. No. r.26. 9. ol Majjhima. p.'ma gave discourses on Dhamma. and was situated between the Sarasvati on the north and the D!'$advati on the south. 7 The Bodhi. J Papanea8"Udani.-Kalpalata-S definitely states that Hastinapura was the capital of Kuru kings. Sometimes Uttara Paficala was included in the Kuru~tra. 25. 64th pallava. No. 520. IV. 55ft'. Amin. 230.l' Sometimes kings of Kampilyarii. identical with modem Ramnagar in the Bareilly district.50 HISTORICAL GEOGBAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA A conversation on religions subjects took place between king Udena of Kosa. V. II. 1. another king of Hastinapura. 513.A.. I Vinaya Tezt8.mftvdvadii7UJ. III. 469-Sa1!fhikJpanifad Brahmana. 505.. 5OIff. Digha.~inakuru.'.. p.. 116. 6 Atigultara. The ther. but the Kumbhakiira Jiitalca mentions Kampilyanagara (Kampillanagara) as its capite!. .... 537.ll The Panciilas were kno"n as Krivis in the Satapatha Brfihmll1)a.-The Panciila country was divided into two divisions. Satrlyutta. pp. and the place in Jambuwpa where they settled became known as Kurura. etc.H. succeeded in his title on the death of his father. p.gara. 85. III. 261ft'. "" .iding line. 110--12. Jiitaka. The Vedic texts refer to the eastern (Pracya Paocala) and western divisions of the country. I. 7 Jiitaka. 323. According to the Divyiivadiina (p. northern Pancala and southern Pancala.. N06. 55fT.. at other times kings of Uttera Paficala· ~m had court at Kampilya.-Tbere was a janapada named Kuru and its kings used to be called Kurus. 435) the capital of Uttara Paficala was Hastinapum. 1& Ibid. at other times it formed a part of the Kampilyariifitra.' Kuru. I. 1 Sa". I. .s Papancasiidanf. 92-93. Majjhima.tra..

.G. It included the whole of the present territory of AIwar with a portion of Bharatpur. (P. 01 the BrdAr"". cf. Gopatha·Brii..- Mathurii must have formed a part of the Maurya empire when Megasthenes wrote about the BuraseOM. According to the lJ.. The ancient Greek writers refer to the Surasena country a8 Sourasenoi and its capital as Mothora. Mathura is generally identified with Maholi. Jiitaka.T. TMra-tMrigatM. which is located on the Godavari. 4llI. . Siirasena. INTRODUCTION 51 He renounced the world ..Iuna\la.S.. Assaka represents the Sanskrit ASmaka or ASvaka which is mentioned by AsaIiga in his Smrti_ lailJcara lIB a country in the basin ofthe Indus. 152-53. Buddhism was pre- dominant in Mathura for several centuries.. II Jataka. 706. 1 Paiicala was originally the country north and west of Dellii from the foot of the Himalayas to the Chambai. (Biblictheca Indica S . 137. which should be distinguished from Madhura or Madura. king of the Matsyas.I. ' VJmanavatthu CommY'J 259ft'. 9. p. 2.!a was ita capital. the second capital of the Pandyan kingdom on the river Vaigi in Madras.8..77. Many images of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas have been unearthed here. Farukhabad and the adjoining districts. • vn.' the country of the lIIatsyas lay to the south or south· west of Indraprastha and to the south of Stirasena. 18. 8 Jrjtaka. so-called because it was the capital of Vira!a.trike terror into Asaka or Asika- nagara. which had Potana or Potali as its capital. 3 Cowen. but they later lived amicably. a mention in the Suttanipata (V. AsaIiga's ASmaka seems therefore to be identical with the kingdom Assakenus of the Greek writers. 7 Law. 27.laka Yakkba. Mahakacciiyana delivered a discourse on caste in Mathura. 6. 977) of another Assaka country in the Daklliniipatha. Viratanagara.R. pp. of the Hiithigumphii Inscription are probably identical with the Assaka of the Suttanipdia. 4.B . It roughly corresponds to modern Budaun. 83ft'.. 5 miles to the south-west of the present town of Mathura.yveda.47). p. It again became important as a centre of Buddhist religion and culture during the KWiiina supremaey.The Buddha while proceeding from Mathura to Veraiiji halted under a tree and he was worshipped by many householders there.).O In the Hathigumphii Inscription of king Kharavela we find that king Kharavela caused a large army to move towards the west and . A son of Satrughna was Siirasena after whom the country was 80 called.llI.• Letrers. Vol.. 6 O.A. 3t>- R. which lay to the eMt of the Sarasvati at 1 Poal"". The Assaka of the Cullakafuiga Jiitaka and the Asikanaga. of.fter listening to the Buddh& 's discourse on Dhamma. No. L.' A88aka. II. There i.8 A king of the Assaka territory was ordained by Mahakacciiyana. They witnessed a dice-play between Dhanaiijaya Korabba and PW:ll.1.. The Epic and Pauranic story of Kamsa's attempt to make himself a tyrant of Mathurii by overpowering the Yiidav"" and his death at the hands of Srik~na is not only mentioned by Pataiijali but also in the Ghata-Jataka. King KaliDga of Dantapura and king Assaka of Potall& were not on friendly terms.. Matsya.). or Vaira. Majjhima Ni1:tiya. p. VI. No. 1947. 3-0. Matburii was built hy Batrughna.. Potana was the Paudanya of the Naka. 1.-The Matsya country comprises the modem territory of Jaipur. Mitra's Ed.. 454. The brahmin Bavan lived on the banks of the Godavari in the Assaka territory in close proxilnity t() Alaka or Mulaka.-The Biirnsenas had Mathurii as their'capital on the Jumna. bhdrala (1.-Assaka was a maMjanapada of Jambudvipa. 'Mathuri in Ancient India.A.' J. the brother of Rama.

The Behistun inscription of Darius (cir.. These two royal marriages were necessary for the maintenance of the political independence of Kausambi which served as a buffer state between Avantj and Magadha. The ABmak... was So contemporary of king Bim bisara of Magadha. Udana. in marriage to Udena. Ch. 120. (II. 261-264.." Gandhiira comprises the districts of Peshwar and Rawalpindi in the north Punjab. p. 9. lay outside the pale of the Madhyadesa.. Bhattasvam!. 54. Many leading theTfUI (elders) and therls (female elders) were either born or lived there.\. Theragithii. Gandhiira. w.mati. I.' Maha- kaccayana was born at Ujjayini in the family of the Chaplain of king Cal)c. are placed in the north· west by the authors of the Miirka1}rjeya PurJ~a and Br1w1 8m"hiti..tra or located on the Godavari. Avanli.Da\{'<il)apatha had.. He waged war against king Pradyota of Avant! who was defeated. Psalms of the Brethren. Trade relationship existed between Kasmira-Gandhiira and Videha. He gave hi. 363-69. a The1'agatha Commentary. D.52 BISTOBIOAL GBOGBAPHY OY ANCIENT INDIA a distance of about 25 miles from the sea on the Swat Valley. Avant! under Pajjota. II. There was rivalry among these powers. Isidatta was one of the converts of Mahakacciiyana.. daughter Viisabhadatto. the commentator of the Kautiliya ArthaSiistra. This apparently refers to the Avant! country in the Dak~il)apatha.57. &>ally speaking the Asaaka country of the Buddhists. the Gandhara kingdom was 1 D'it:'aoo1!'l-8a. 31.C. SaTfl. • MohaooJ'f'Ml. m... R.' He belonged to Avanti. III... 516 B. 223. each trying to extend his supremacy at the cost of another. identifies ABmaka with Mahar9.. The Gandharas were an ancient people whose capital was Takkasila.. Of these king- doms Magadha under Bimbisara and Ajatasattu. Sol)a Kutikal)l)a was also ordained by him. In the latter half of the 6th century B. 10) Avant! and Ma~mati are stated to be two different countries.' In the Buddha's time India was divided into small independent kingdoms. Avant! was an important centre of Buddhism. in the political drama of India in the sixth and fifth centuries B. Pt.. 2 According to the Mahagovinda Suttanta of the Digha Nilaiya Miihissati w . 7 Jiitaka. . IV. 46: Maijhima. played important rOle.C. 107. Ujjayini which was built by Accutagam!.C. pp.lapajjota. tried to extend his supremacy over Udena. He is said to have sent an embassy and a letter to his Ma~adhan contsmporary as a mark of friendship... In the MahjbhiraW. 23. one of the sixteen great janapadaa. This matrimonial alliance saved KosambI from being conquered by Pajjota. 6.-It is included in the list of sixteen great countries. 3. Theragiitoo. 369.its capital at Miihi. Kosala under Pasenadi... 1918. p. the capital of Avant! with Vessabhu as its king. divided into two parts: the northcrn part had its capital at Ujjayin! and the southern part called Avant!. 2 Carmichael LeCfU1'ea. V.) refers to Gadara or Gandhara which was one of the kingdoms subject to the Persian Empire.. Bhandarkar rightly points out that ancient Avant! w . Udena also established a matrimonial alliance with the king of Magadha. 101 . 39: TherigiitM Cammy. In early Pali tem Asaaka has always been associated with Avanti. Pajjota. IV. XII. He converted the king to the Buddhist faith. Atig. 4. Nimar and adjoining parts of the Central Provinces. the king of Gandhara. 32. 5 Dhammapada Commentary. whether it be identical with Mahiir'8.194.liira. and Kosambi under Udena. Moggali- putta Tissa sent the thera Majjhantika to Kasmira-Gandhara for propagat- ing Buddhism. 117.1 Pukkusati. p. V. but he could not achieve his object. Vinaya Tests.l Avant! roughly corresponds to modern Malwa.-The capital of Avant! which w. III. V.

- Dviirakii occurs along with Kamboja. The Kambojas were supposed to have lost their original Aryan customs and to have become barbarons. It is defective because it omits in general the grounds of identification. 208.' we learn that many Kambojas who were not Aryans told that people were purified by killing insects. is a collection of articles eliciting geographical and topographical information which will be of value especially to geographers of ancient India. Keith incorporates all the geographical information contained in the most ancient Sanskrit works. Sorensens' Index to the MaMbhiirata and Malalasekera's Dictionary of Pati Proper Names are very useful from geographical standpoint.) and later incorporated into his Geographical Essays published by Messrs. It is certain that Kam. Luzac & Co. 1934.menid kings. C. . etc. The Thera Mahiirakkbita established the Buddha's religion at Kamboja and other places. Ed. in 1937. Watters. The Jitaka tradi· tion is corroborated by Yiiska's Nirulda and YU&n Chwang's account of Rajapura and the adjoining countries of the north· western India. Both these works are wanting in relevant inscriptional data. • J_. N. ·&ua~. . 176 and 472. L.n. no r.49. It is not expressly stated if it was the capital of the Kamboja country. London. Oct.-It was one of the sixteen maMjanapadas. 1 The Kambojas occupied roughly the province round about Rajaori or ancient Rajapura including the Hazara district of the North·Western Frontier Province. boja must be located in north·west India. 2. Geographical Essays. 210. by way of a supplement to the above work. I. Vol. not far from Gandhira. flies. 124. The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects by the late Professors A.o are mentioned in Mob's Rock Edict V. In early or later Pali texts there is no mention of the capital city of the Kambojas. and on those of the Greek writers.. A. In it the geography of southern India has been neglected. The Kambojas had a city called Nandipura mentioned in Luders' inscriptions Nos. 284ft'. On Yuan Chwang. Cowell. Kamboja. Luzac & Co. The G&ndhiira. B. In Mob's time Gandhara formed a pm of bis empire.-Jany.- IMPORTANT PUBLICATIONS ON ANCIENT JNDIAN GEOGRAPHY We have at present some useful works on the early geography of India. I Jata1ta. and a second edition was published in 1927. The first edition of the book appeared in Calcutta in 1899. Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India is mainly based upon the accounts of Fa·Hien and Hiuen Tsang.. I. bees. frogs. Majumdar (Calcutta. 1 8umangalavilaaini.. • INTBODtrO'l'IOl!l 63 conquered by the Ach". The author's own great archaeological discoveries have also been embodied~ This work has been re·edited with introduction and notes by S. but a dictionary and a very useful hand· book. It may be added here that the same author has also written. VI. Dey's Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India is not a systematic treatise. B. It was noted for good horses. Macdonell and A. N. an article entitled Geographical Data from Sa1Ulkrit Bwfdhist Literature published in the Annals of the Bhandarkar OrienWl Research IMtitute (XV. From the Bhuridt1#a Jiitaka. snakes. 1924). I. by Messrs. Law's Geography of Early Buddhism attempts for the first time at presenting a geographical picture of ancient India drawn from Pali Buddhist Texts. VI.

Jean Przyluski and Jules Bloch. B. Law's Ujjayini in Ancient IMia published by the Archreological Department of the Gwalior Government in 1944 gives a connected account of the ancient city of Ujjayini based on the original literary sources. Pt. Vanga. Ancient Mid-lMian K~atriya Tribes (1924). C.phy.yfeya Puriif]. B.ToaaJ. (3) Kalinga-Trilinga. C. are the historico-geographical studies which present a systematic account of the mountains and rivers of India based on the materials available from Indian literature. T propose to examine some of them here: (1) K08ala. Indological Studies. in 1949 will be of great value to geographers. (6) Kamariipa-Namariipa. C. etc.54 HISTORIOAL GBOGRAPBY OJ' ANOIBNT INDIA B. and the itineraries of the Chinese pilgrims. differentiated between themselves only by the nature of their initial consonants. Raichsudhnri (Calcutta Uni- versity. Law's Mountains ollMia aM Rivers ollMia puhlished in 1944 by the Geographical Society of Calcutta. epigraphic and numismatic materials as well as on the accounts of the Greek and Chinese travellers in a handy form so as to render them useful to the archreologists and historians. C. Pre. his translation of the Jliirk". contains a brief account of almost all the important sacred places belonging to the Hindus. the itineraries of the Chinese pilgrims. Pargiter's Ancient Indian HiIlWrica1 Traditicm. Kirfel is " valuable work which is so much interwoven with geography and which is not unrepresented in the Buddhist Pitakas.S. translated into English by P. C.a. 1932) is a collection of detached essays. the accounts of the Greek geographers. Studies in IMian Antiquitiea by H.a elicit geographical information from the Purilll'l8.B. which originally appeared in the Jourmd Asiatique.y. Kaviilmlii in Ancient Literature and PancMla8 aM their capital AhilXhatra published by the Archreological Department of the Government of India as their Memoirs Nos. Die Kosmographie der Indor by Prof. of which five are geographical.A.. 60 and 67 contain exhaustive and systematic accounts of the four ancient Indian cities based on literary. 50. Pre-Aryan ~M Pre-Dravidian in 1Mia i. Law's Holy Plaw< of India.' . 58. Law's 1Mia as described in early texts 01 Bwidhism aM Jainism published in 1941 and his book entitled Some Jaina Canonical Siftras pub- lished by the B. C. C. and Tribes of Ancient IMia (1941) deal with the history and historical geography of a large number of ~atriya tribes. B. I and II. hy B.R. Levi included in this book. The location of the place occupied by each tribe and the extent of its kingdom at different periods of time have been dealt with in detail. C. It begins: 'The geographical nomenclature of ancient India presents a certain number of terms constituting almost identical pairs. C. arranged regionally and illustrated with maps and sketches. Buddhists and Jaw. Law is a helpful aid to the study of ancient Indian geogr!. the title given to a book consisting of French articles by Sylvain Levi. (5) Pulindo- Kalindo. C..a and Wilson's translation of the V. Bagchi (University of Calcutta. Vols. published by the Calcutta Goo- graphical Society in 1940. Law's Sravasli in Indian Literature. Tome COIU (1923). B. Ancient Indian Tribes. (4) Utltala-Mekakl.Aryan and Pre-Dravidian in 1Mia is an article by Prof. Law's Some K~riya Tribes of Ancient India (1923). B. 1929). T. (2) Anga. B. Law's Historical Gleanings (1922) may be found useful for a geographical study of ancient India. Rdjagriha in Ancient Litera- ture.upuriif]. and the relevant epigraphic and numismatic evidences.

. 1-4) by L. 1932). The Commer"" and Namgatw. 1927. Vogel (B. Mahendragiri. The In1JfUJion 0/ Alexander the Grem by J. Two notes on Ptolemy's Geography 0/ India by E.A. Kodumbara or Odumhara was taken from J. Pi~!apura. The Sa1l1Jafa 0/ Alexander's HisWrians by Hutchison (Journal 0/ the Punjab University Historical Society. Ant. CCVI. Nov . and his paper on Alexander's Campaign on the North. 1910). 1879).77. W. 1912. Vol. H. Paris. Wilson (Oxford. 1898. and Acyuta by V. pp.A. 1898. Johnston (J. 1926). Smith. 1876.).26) is also included in this book. Renou. and Sir Aurel Stein's On Alexander'.DanJnpura by Sylvain Levi was first published in the Journal Asiatique. INTIIODUOTION The paper entitled Na11l£8 0/ Indian TOW1UJ in the Geography 0/ Pwlemy by Jean Przyluski was first published in the Bulletin de fa Societe de Li1l1Juis- lique. Ph. Ancient India as described in Classical Literature by J. Trade 10 the Indus (London. I). Paloura. W. Pitul)\fra by Sylvain Levi (J. 1881. 1941). Smith. Calcutta.Tsang's Journey from Patna to Ballabhi by J.R. H. 1925.. Geography of Rama's exile by F. The Sarasvati and the Lost River of the Indian desert by Oldham. 1898. Schoff. Pargiter. 1882). They are as follows: Nole8 on the Indica 0/ Cle8ias by H. And.S.. Przyluski's article: Un ancien peuple du Punjab: les Udumbara. 1884. Watters. Calcutta. Pithul)o. The Periplus 0/ the Erythraean Sea. l00l.. E. H. xii. et en particrdier sur l'Inde de Poole""". 1897. 1925. W. 1926. LXX. Journal Asiatique. by Vivien De Saint. new ed. I). 1893. A. 1836). ·Reames. Holdich (London. For a systematic study of our ancient geography we find the works of classical writers very much useful.. McCrindle (reprinted from Ind. 1885). Vai~1i by V.ia. Calcutta. new ed. Calcutta. A. 515ff. Kausambi and Sravasti by V. Smith. Pithuo. A ncient India as described by Pwlemy by J. McCrindle (reprinted from Ind. A list of noteworthy contributions published in different periodicals is given below: Journal 0/ The Royal Asiatic Society 1873.Matin.. W. xiii and xiv.nnotated hy W. Pt.. McCrindle (reprinted from Ind. Smith. McCrind1e. A. Etude BUr fa Geographie Grecque et /Aiine de l'Inde. 417ff. Ant. W.. In this connection mention must be made of The Gates 0/ India by T. Ancient India as described by KIe8ias lhe Knidian by J. 1894. Alexander'. The birthplace of Gautama Buddha by V.-.. Fergusson. CCVI.. The Geography of the Kandahar Inscription by J. 0/ the Erythraean Sea by J. London (Vol. Dec. passage 0/ the Jhelum by Sir Aural Stein (The Times dated the 5th April. 1898. McCrindle. A. 1896.S. Ant. Vol. 1925.O. Kapilavastu in the Buddhist books hy T. Hiouen. La geographie de Pwlhnet l'Iude (VII. The History 0/ Be1l1Jal..West Frontier in the GeographiMl Journal. Nole8 on Pwlemy by J. The kingdom of Kartl1'ura hy Oldham.. Calcutta 1877. 1929). (Notes Indiennes). translated and a. I.S. 1897. 1002.A. London.. 1926.ia.. W. Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian by J. published by the Dacca University (1943) contains much geographical information concerning Vanga. McCrindle (re- printed from Ind.

1909.~rika. etc. the ceremouial designation of Kanci or Conjeevaram (1918). the famous Nadi-81uti. It identifies the ancient Miiliaka kingdom as mentioned in the MaMb/uirata. Smith (1920). Smith.. The Modern Name of NaJandii by T. Saketa. (1919).firoti<m 011A< 'Ka-p'i-li wufltry' of Chin_ authors by V. Proposed identification of two South Indian place-nam. and concludes that 'these Satiyaputras were a Western people.. 1905.. Sravasti by J. Mailga\i8a Rauavikriinta... A. Dimensions of Indian cities and countries by J. Mahiljamau<. Fleet. Krishnaswami Aiyangar refutes the above identification. Subrahmanya Aiyer (1922). which adjoins Coorg in the Western Ghats (1919). Sabs. Stein. F. Kausambl by W. 1906.rritbry 01 Suutkrn India by K. V. and VaiSi1i by W. Mo-Ia-p'o by R. W. Yost and V. A. Vogel. 1917. in tbe Mabakuta pillar inscription of the Western Ciilukya king.JadeSa by B. The Five Rivers of the Buddhists by W. A. Itlemi. . Kausambi. Smith. F. 1913. and the Susomii with the Sohan. Kambojas. Yavanas. Ramagama to KuBiniirli by W. He identifies the Marudvrdhii with the Maruwarowan. Ve~hadipa by G. Some notes on the Periplus of the Erythrman Sea by J. the Asiknl with the Ans. Yost. mentioned in the second Rock-Edict of ASoka. S. Sha-chi or Pi-so-Jtia by W.. V~ "nd Au. could it not be the collective name of the various matriarchal communities like the Tulus and the Nayars of the Malabar and Kanara districts of today!' (1919). KiiAapura. F. Bloch. Venkateswara makes Satiysputa. Some river·names in the ~-Veda by M. An unidentified T.. V. 1903. Sagara and lhe Hailiayaa. Hooy.. V. S. 1904. W. Burn.. 1912."etra. the latter being derived from the form' Aurdiiyiini' as in Patanjali (1918). R. CuIikas. Yost. in the Periplus by W. 1910. Khasas. Mr. Gau<. 75). Thomas writes a short note on Uayiina and UTai. H. The Kambojas by Grierson." by V. F. etc. KuBiDAra or KuBInagara and other Buddhist holy pi"". and Videka by Pargiter (1918).!ala and Miihmmatl by J. CoJas. 1907.. Sir Aural Stein discusses the identification of the rivers mentioned in ~g-Veda (X. Pargiter. 1916. Ma~ikas. Fleet. 1908. along the Western hills. Darv. 1907. with Irimakuo:lam on the . A. 1903. Kapilavastu by W. Pahlavas. Druhyus.. Setavya or To-wa by W. A. Hooy. equivalent to Satyavrata-K. Yost. Where was Malwa! by A. 1907. A. Ph. 1905..W. Grierson. If so. BTtiirata-Nii!1Ja-Sii8lra and in the inscrip- tion of Khiiravela. by F. E. Smith accepts that Satiyaputra should be identified with the Satyamangalam Taluk in Coimbatore. 1903. 1903. Hoomle. and that it is likely that the Satpute are their modern representatives. MagadJw. 1904. Schoff.56 HISTORICAL GBOORAl'llY OJ' ANCJElIT INDIA 1902. The Middle country of Ancient India by T. 1906. and have to be looked for between the Keralas and the Rii>. The author discusses geographica\ocations of the Haihay. Rhys Davids.. V~upurii1. Kennedy. C. Yost. Mazumdar.


west CoMt of the Deccan extending from Tulu or South C&n&ta to the
Kerala dominions.
S. Krishna.swami Aiyangar denies that in the days of Mob the Kosar
were" people so closely &sSociated with the Tulu country that they gave
their name to the region (1923).
Kauliimhi by Dayaram Sahni (1927). The identification of the
ancient Kausam bi with the village of K06am in the district of AIla.habad,
which was first proposed by Sir Alexander Cunningham, i8 llnally proved.
Kauliimhi by Sit.. Ram (1928).
Two Nole8 on 1M Ancient Geography 01 India by J. Ph. Vogel (1929).
Hathur and Arora by Jwala Sahai (1932). Hathur near Ludhiana
i8 identified with Arhatpur of Jaina fame and Amra near Hathur identified
with Ahicch"tra.
Indian Antiquary
Note on Pau7J4ravardhana by E. V. Westmacott (1874).,
TM Geography 01 Ibn Batuta's Travels in India by Col. H. Yule (1874).
On 1M identijimtion 01 plMes in lhe Sanskril Geography 01 India by
J. Burgess (1885).
The Topographicd List 01 1M Brihoi.Sa1{thiUi by J. F. Fleet (1893).
The Topographicd List 01 the Bluigaoota Fum'.'a by J. E. Abbott (1899).
Four villa{}es 1Mntioned in the Nasilc Cave Inscriptions by Y. R. Gupte
Kollipa/ca by Lewis Rice (1915).
801M liUrary relore""", to lhe Iaipalana Migaddya (Samath) by B. C.
Bhattacharyya (1916).
TM extent 0/ Gautamipulra's Urritory as described in 1M Nasik cave Inscrip.
lion by D. R. Bhandarkar (1918).
Ccmirib1dions to 1M study 01 lhe Ancient Geography 01 India by S. N.
Majumdar (1919 and 1921).
Ducan 01 tM Salavahana period by D. R. Bhandarkar (1920).
The early course of the Ganges by N. L. Dey (1921).
The Mtih~i 01 Kartavirya by Munshi Kanaiya1al (1922).
Geographical Position 01 certain plMes in India by Y. M. Kale (1923).
Histary 01 Important ancient lawns and cities 01 Gujarat and Kathiawa4 by
A. S. Alwkar (1924).
Trilinga and KuliJiga by G. Ramdas (1925).
TM capital of Nahapana by V. S. Bakhle (1926).
A possible identification of Mount Devagiri mentioned in Kiilida8tJ'. Megha-
dfita by A. S. Bhandarkar (1928).
To tM East 018amata!a by N. N. D... Gupta (1932).
TM river courses 01 the Punjab and Sind by R. B. Whitehead (1932).
Mandara HiU by R. Bose (Vol. I).
Frescoes and architedure 01 tM Ajanta caves (Vols. I, II, III, XXII, XXXII,
Nilgiri Hills (Vo"'. II and IV).
Ra,11i1J(Jrh Hill (Vol•. II and XXXIV).
K ",mbhalcanam (Vol. III).
Khandesh (Vol. IV).
Account 01 Champa (Vol. VI).
Nepal, (Vols. XIII, XIX, XXII).
A note on Ptokmy's Geography by V. Ball (Vol. XIV).
Identity 01 Nandike8vara (Vol. XIX).
Proposed identificaJion 01 Kong-Kin-na-pu-w with Karntd (Vol. XXIII).
Antiquilies at Mandasor (Vol. XXXVII).


RaWek, Nagpur Di8t. (Vol. XXXVII).
BudJhi8t caVe8 in Malwa (Vol. XXXIX).
The Mandasar PraSasti af VatBabha!!i (Vol. XLII).
A nate an a few IocaliUe8 in the Nasik Dist. mentionM. in the ancient copper-
plate grants by Y. R. Gupte (Vol. XLII).
Chawlra's conque8t of Bengal by R. G. B_k (Vol. XLVIII).
Contributions to the study of the ancient grography of Iwlia by S. K. Bhuyan
(Vol. XLIX).
Asiatic Re8earche8
Descriptian of the oov... or euavations near Ellora by C. Mallet (Vol. I).
Remarks an the city of Tagara by Lieut. F. Wilford (Vol. I).
Same account of the caves in the islawl of Elephanto by J. Goldingham
(Vol. IV).
On the wurse af the. Ganges throngh Bengal by Major R. H. Colebrooke (Vol.
The principal peaks of the Himalayas by J. Hodgson and J. D. Herbert
(Vol. XIV).
GetJgraphy af Assam by J. B. Neufville (Vol. XVI).

JouTMl of The Asiatic Society of Bengal
Geographical notice of Tibet by Caoma de Koros (J.A.S.B., Vol. I).
Further /lCC()unt of the remains of aneient town discovered at Behut near
Saharanpur by Capt. P. T. Cautley (Vol. III).
Notes on the locality of Rajagriha of the town of that name in Behar by T. R.
(Lt. T. Renny) (Vol. III).
H. P. Sastri'a identification of the names of-places ruled over by the allies
and feudatories of Riimapa\a as mentioned at the beginning of the
,"cond chapter of Sandhyiikara Nandi's Ramacarila (VoL III) is note-
worthy. R. D. Banerjee's identification of those places (VoL IV).
Excursions to the ruins awl site af an ancient city at Bakhra 13 Cos north of
Patna awl 6 narth freym Singhea by J. Stephenson (Vi'L IV).
Nate an the above by James Prinsep (Vol. IV).
SOI'M account of the seulptures at M ahabatipuram U81UJlly called the Be.,.,.
Pagodas by J. Goldingham (VoL V).
Observations upan the past awl present lJI»Ulitian of Onjein or Ujjayini by
Lt. Edward Conolly (Vol. VI).
The wur•• af the Namuul;i by Lt. Col. Ouseley (Vol. XIV).
Notes on the viOOras awl chailyas af Bihar (Vol. XVI).
A comparative essay 1m the ancient grography o/Iwlia by Col. F. Wilford
(Vol. XX).
The Rajmahal hill8 by W. S. Sherwill (Vol. XX).
An auaunl 0/ the Antiquities 0/ Jaipur in Orissa by C. S. Banerjee (Vol. XL).
Independent Sikkim by W. T. Blauford (Vol. XL).
Contributian.. ta the geography and history 0/ Bengal by H. Blochmann (Vol.
Nate on MaOOslOOn near Bagura, Eastern Bengal by C. J. O'Donnell (Vol.
TM Kaimur range by C. S. Banerjee (Vol. XLVI).
On the temples 0/ Deoghar by Dr. Rajendralal ~fitra (Vol. LIT).
Antiquiti.. 0/ Gayii by T. F. Peppe and C. Home (J.P.A.8.B., 1865).
Antiquities at Baira!, Ajmir, Gwalior, Khajuraha awl MaMba by Major
Genl. A. Cunningham (1865).
Remarks on. same temples in Kashmir by Bishop Cotton (1865).


Note on Mah~i or MaJoeAvara (Mahe8ar) on f}u, Narrruulii and f}u,
jicatitm 01 Hiauen Thsang's MaWvarapura by P. N. Bose (1873).
Notes on Sunargaon, Eastern Benga! by James Wise (1874).
Ancient dwellings and tombs in Baluehistan by Capt. E. Mockler (1876).
Antiquities 01 Bagura (Bogra) by H. Beveridge (1878).
Ancient Countries in Eastern India by F. E. Pargitcr (1897).
Notes on Chirand in tM distrid 01 Saran by N. L. Dey (1903).
Notes on tM history 01 1M disf.rid 01 Hnghli or 1M ancient Ra4ha by N. L.
Dey (1910).
A lorgutUn kingdom 01 East Benga! by N. K. Bha.ttasali (1914).
Notes on aneient A1i{/a or 1M District 01 Bhagalpore by N. L. Dey (1914).
A1i{/a and Campa in Pali Literature by B. C. Law (1915).

J ouma! 01 TM Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society
Notes on tM Shrine 01 MaluiMle8vara by V. N. Mandlik (1871-74).
Notes on tM HMtary 01 Antiquities 01 ChaiJ.1 by J. Gerson Da Cunha (1876).
TM Sudarsana or Lake Beautilu! 01 tM Girnar Inscriptians (B.C. 300-A.D.
450) by Ardeseer Jamsedji (1890).
Besnagar by H. H. Lake (1914).
Aneient Pii!al.iputra by J. J. Modi (1916.17).
TM antiquity 01 tM Poona Distrid by D. R. Bhandarkar (1930).

Journal 01 The Bihar and Orissa Research Society
TM Magadhapura 01 Mahiibhii.rata by Sir George Grierson (Vol. II).
Sites in Rajgir associated with Buddha and his disciples by D. N. Sen
(Vol. III).
Hinen Tsang's Route in Soath Bihar: an identification 01 tM Buddhavana
M ouatain and a discussion 01 tM most prohable site 01 th€ K ukkuja-
pddagiri by V. H. Jackson (Vol. IV).
A Note on tM Ko~goda Couutry by Binayaka Misra (Vol. XU).
Ajapura 01 Skandagupta, and 1M area round Bihar by P. C. Chaudburi
(Vol. XIX).
Indian B MtaricaJ. Quarterly
Radha or tM A ncient Ga1igiir~!ra by N. L. Dey.
The RamayafJa 01 Viilmiki mentions two K 08a1as by L. P. Pandeya Sarma
(Vol. III).
TM Study 01 Ancient Indian Geography by H. C. Ray Cbaudburi (Vol. IV).
TM Study 01 Ande'll Geography by H. V. Trivedi (Vol. IV).
Eastern India and Aryavarta by H. C. Cbakladar (Vol. IV).
PM Karoura 01 Ptolemy by K. V. Krishna Ayyar (Vol. V).
Identification 01 Brahmottara by K. M. Gupta (Vol. VII).
Some Janapadas 01 Ancient RikJha by P. C. Sen (Vol. VIII).
Udayapura.nagara by D. C. Sirear (Vol. IX).
Pu1J4ravardhana-i18 site by P. C. Sen (Vol. IX).
U#iyana and Siihore by N. N. Das Gupta (Vol. XI).

Indian CuUure
TM Va1i{/as by B. C. Law (Vol. I, No. I).
TM Geography 01 Kau,ilya hy Rarihar V. Trivedi (Vol. I, No. ~).
Some Notes on Tribes 01 Ancient India by B. C. Law (Vol. I, No.2).
Yavana8 in early Indian Inscriptions by O. Stein (Vol. I, No.3).


80fM Ancient Indian Tribea by B. C. Law (Vol. I, No.3).
KauAil&ii and Ku8iarii by K. L. Barna (Vol. I, No.3).
Ko8ala by B. C. Law (Vol. I, No.3).
(}wgraphical DaUJ 0/ the Dekhan and 8rndh India Q8 gathered from the
Ramiiya1}a by V. R. Ramachandra Dikahitar (Vol. I, No.4).
The itkntificatian oJ SaJiyapma by B. A. Saletore (Vol. I, No.4).
Candradvipa by N. N. Das Gupta (Vol. n, No.1).
NoIe8 an the /Jakaa by Sten Konow (Vol. II, No.2).

Qu4mrly Journal oJ The AndAra Rt8elJrch Society
The Pat/0k8s countri... 0/ the La4h08 by B. Singh Deo (Vol. II).
T08ali and Tosala by B. Singh Deo (Vol. III).
Hippokoura and SiiWkaNJ,i by Jea.n Przyluski (Vol. IV).
Capital oJ Brhatpholayanas by D. C. Sircar (Vol. VII).

Qu4mrly Journal 0/ The Mythic Society
The Se.,."" J>wipas oJ the Pura'fjaB by V. Venkata.cheUa.m Iyer (Vola. XVI
a.nd XVII).
The Sringeri Mutt by K. Ramavarma Raja (Vol. XVI).
Identification 0/ Sopatma and PhrlfUnan 0/ the Greek write" by S. Soma
Sundara Desikar (Vol. XXI).

Ceylon Historical Review (April 1952, Vol. I, No.4)
The Geographical aspect oJ the Ptili ChronickB by B. C, Law.

CR.u>Tlm I


Abaatanoi.-The Abastanoi corresponded to the Sanskrit Ambll4~h... ,
who were the same as the Sambastai of Diodorus, Sabarcae of Curtius and
Sabagrae of Orosius. In Alexander's time the lower Akesines (Asikni)
was their territory and they had a democratic government. They sub·
"mitted to Alexander (McCrindle, Invasion o/India, pp. 292tJ.; Law, Indo·
logical Studies, I, 31ff.).
Aciravati.-The river Aciravati was also known as the Ajiravati or the
Airavati.' It was known to the Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chwang ... A.ehi.lo,
Howing south·eastwards past the city of SravastL2 According to r.Tsing
Ajiravati means the river of the Aji (dragon).s This river i.s mentioned in
the Jain texts as Eravai.· It has been identified with the modern Rapti
in Oudh, on the weBtern bank of which stood the ancient city of Sravasti,"
the third or the last capital of Kosala. If Saheth·Maheth
. )
on the south
bank of the Rapti be the modern Bite of Sravasti, it is positive that the
Aciravati of the Buddhist fame is no other than the modern Riipti. The
author of the Da.sakumiiracaritam knew this city as situated on a river
which seems presumably to have been the Aciravati or the Riipti, though
our author does not unfortunately name the river. 6
The Aciravati is a tributary of the Sarayii which has its origin in the
Himalayan range. The long description of the origin of the five rivera
Ganga, Yamuna, Aciravati, Sarabhu and Mahi from the Anotatta lake, is
given in the Pali commentaries. 7 Some five hundred rivers are mentioned
in the Suttaniprita Commentary.' Only ten of them were to be reckoned
according to the Milinda-Panko.- Of the ten rivers 10 the Aciravatl w""
one of the five great rivers,ll which constituted the Ganges group and the
rest constituted the 8indhu group. The Aciravati was one of the sacred
rivera of the Buddhist Midland.," As it feU into the Bea, it lost its former
name and was known as the sea.l 3 According to the SarrtYutta Nikdya U
the Aciravati along with the Ganga, Yamuna, Sarabhii and Mahi flowed,
.lided and tended to the e""t. It was a deep river as its water was
immeasurable. 15
The Buddlla stayed in a mango grove at Manasakaia, a Brahmin
village of Kosala, situated on the bank of the Aciravati, to the north of

1 AvadanaAataka, I, 63; II. 60; Put:ilni'sAfl¢dhyiiyi, IV. 3.119.
I Watters, On Yuan Chwang, I. 398·399. II Tra'IJw, p. 156.
" Kalpasiitra, p. 12; Brihat.KalpasUlra. 4. 33.
~ Identified with modern Saheth.:Maheth .
• Weber, Ueber Das DaAakurwiracaritarp, in Indische Streijen, Berlin, 1868.
1 PapaiicasUdan'i, Sinhalese Ed., II, 586; Manorathapiiratl'i, Sinhalese Ed., ii,
759·60; Suttanipata Commy., P.T.S .• 437--439.
8 ParamaUliajotika, II, 437. (I Ed. Trenckner, p. 110.
10 MarkalJ{i'Wapurii~la, 57. 16-18. 11 PancamaMnadiyo.
11 Vinaya. II, p. 239; Visuddhimagga, I, p. 10.
11 Vinaya. II, p. 239; Ang .• V. p. 22; Ibid., IV, 198·199. 202---Gailga. Yamuna
Aciravati Sarabhii Mahi til. mahiiBamuddarp.pa.ttA jahanti plll'imAni n8.magottimi
ma.h8.samuddo tveva samkhalll gacchanti.
l4. II, 135; cf. Satp.., V, 39, 134.
16 tw o!Ukaram udakaBsa pamdpa1?a gatu=tuf!l-"'8am., V, 401.


ManaAAka\a, inhabiwd by many distinguiohed and wealthy Brahmins.'
'Plere was a grove of fig trees on the bank of this river.s A small stream at
Sravasti called the Sutsnu, which was visiwd by the Buddha's disciple,
Anuruddha, must have fallen into this river."
The river Aciravati flows through the districts of Bahraich, Gonda,
and Basti and joins the Sarayu or Gharghara (Gogra), west of Barhaj in
the district of Gorakhpur. According to the Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chwang
it flows south·eastwards past the city of Sravasti.' It is fed by no less
than three tributaries on the left side, all in the district of Gorakhpur, and
by a small tributary on the right in the same district. During the hot
season it ran dry leaving a bed of sand.' Two S;;'vatthians, who adoptsd
the religious life, came to this river. Mwr a bath they stood on the sand
enjoying the sunshine and tslking pleasantly together. 6 This river was
crossed in rafts.' It nourished wheatfields on its bank. s A Savatthian
Brahmin cut trees on its bank in order to cultivaw the land. Crops grew
on it but the whole crop was carried to the sea by .. flood.' The revered
Ananda came to this river with 80me monks to bathe. Mwr his bath he
stood in one garment drying his limbs. lo A Savatthian householder, who
gave up his household life, went to the river Aciravati, took his bath, and
saw two whiw swans flyil)g by.1l A fisherman belonging to the village of
Pan\lupura on his way to Sravasti saw 80me tortoise·eggs (kacchapa.afJ4ani)
lying on the bank of this river." The Chabbaggiya monks used to catch
hold of the cows crossing this river by their horns or ears or necks or tsila
or spring up upon their backs. l • The people on the bank of this river were
in the habit of casting nets for fishing.'o The early Buddhist records refer
to the swimming of the cattle across it.16
S;;'riputta, one of the famous disciples of the Buddha, took his bath in
this river.!· Four daughWrs of a rich merchant alao bathed in this river
before entering into a mango.grove. 17 Nuns were in the habit of bathing
in this river with prostituWs being naked.'o
A certain country monk came to the ferry on the Aciravati and
expressed his desire to cr088 this river before a ferryman with the help of
his boat. The ferryman asked him to wait but he refused. At last he was
put into hi. boat. Due to bad steering his robe was wet and it became
dark before he reached the farther shore.'. Thi. river could be BOOn from
the terrace of the Kosalan king Pasenadi's palace."O Five hundred lads
who used to visit this river engaged themselves in wreotling on its bank."
Vi<.\ii<.\abha, the 80n of king Pasenadi, met the Sakyas on its bank and
1 Digha I. 235ff'. 2 Suttaftipiita Commv .• I. p. 19.
3 Samyutta, V, 297. 4- Wat-ters, On Ytian Ok-wang, I. 398-99.
, Arlg., IV, 10l.
• Jataka, II, 306-Aclravatif!1 gantua naIwim:i oolikapuline ~ tappamdna
adnJ~iyakatha1]l kalhmtii anharn.llU.
'7 Vinaya. III, 63.
I Suttanipata Comt'J1omlary, P.T.S., p. 511-Aciratlatinoditiff yatla~ ~.am"i
I:beuam 1:aBati.
t 'Jat., IV, p. 167-8abba,!, 8G88af!' .amudda7!l paveaui.
10 Atiguttara. III. p. 402. 11 JiUako. I, p. 418.
1t Dhamroopada Commy .• In, 449.
13 Vinaya, I, pp. 190-91-Chabbaggiya. bhikkhii Aciravatiya nadiya givinarp
tarantinsl1l visinesu pi gar:lhanti, kSt;lQU6U pi gw;ilianti, gfvaya pi g&Qhanti, cheppiya
pi pf,lhanti. pi~~,him pi abhiriihanti.
14. Doona Cammy .. p. 366, 1& Vinaya. I, 19l.
141 Ang. Cammy., Sinhalese Ed., p. 315. 11 Jat., III, p. 137.
18 Vinaya, I, 293-Idha bhante bhikkhu"(tiyo AQtravatiydMdiya vesiyahi 8addhi~
nagga "katitthe nahiiyanti.
a Jiitaka, III, 228. 10 Vinaya, IV, 111.12.
n Jataka, II, p. 96.


completely routed them. 1 Sometimes this river became 80 full that di&&e.
trous floods occurred, in one of which Vi<.\ii<.\abha and his army were
swept into the sea.- Anathapi.Qcpka, the great banker of Siivatthi, lost
eighteen crores of his wealth by the destructive floods of this river which
swept away his hoarding on its bank.' A merchant had a treasure buried
in the bank of this river. When the bank was eroded away, the treasure
was carried into the ooa. 4
AdraiBti Country.-It was situated on the eastern side of the Hydraotas
(Ravi). Pimpriima was their stronghold. The Adrijas mentioned in the
Drol)aparva of the Maluibluirata (Ch. 159, 5) are supposed to be identical
with the Adraistai of the Greeks. The Adraistai or Adh¢.as are said to
have bowed down before Alexander's army (Cambridge History 0/ IOOia,
I, 371 and n. 2; B. C. Law, I'IUtological Studies, I, pp. 21-22).
Agaru.-It is a forest lying in the Kuru country between the Candra-
kanta and Siiryakanta mountains (Viiyu, 45. 31).
AgroM.-It is situated on the metalled road between Hissar and
Fatehabad at a distance of 14 miles from the former. It appears to have
been mentioned by Ptolemy who .calls it Agar... As a result of the excava-
tion at the site, coins, beads, fragments of sculptures and terracott·as have
been discovered. (For details vide Excavation at Agrolui, Punjab, by
H. L. Srivastava, M.A.S.I., No. 61).
Ahicchatra.-It was the capital of northern Paiicala (Mriluibhiirata,
Adiparva, Ch. 140; cf. Rapson, Ancient IOOia, p. 167). The river Bhag;.
rathi formed the dividing line between the northern and southern Paiicii.la.
The Vedic texts refer to an eastern and western division of the country
(Vedic In4ex, I, 469). Pataiijali refers to it in his Mahab~a (II, p. 233,
Kielhorn's ed.). The Yoginitantra mentions it (2/4, pp. 128.129).
According to the Divyiivadii7la (p. 435) the capital of northern Paiiciila was
Hastiniipura, but the Kumbhakara Jataka (Ccwell, Jataka, ill, 230)
states that the capital of northern Paiical.. was Kampillanagara.
Paiicala was originaUy the country, north and west of Delhi, from the
foot of the Himalayas to the river Chambal (cf. Cunningham, A.G.I.,
p. 413, 1924 Ed.). The capital of southern Paiiciila was Kampilya.
(Mahabluirata, 138, 73-74) identical with modern Kampil in the Farrukha-
bad district, U.P. In the Pabhosa. Cave Inscription of the time of
Udlika (1), Bahasatimitra appears to b. the king whose coins have been
discovered at Ramnagar (Ancient Ahicchatra, capital of Paiiciila, Bareilly
District, U.P.) and Kosam (Ancient KauAambi, capital of the Vataas,
Allahabad District, U.P.). In the same inscriptions we find that
Ahicchatra was ruled by Saunakiiyani. The Allahabad Pillar Inscription
of Samudragupta refers to a powerful king named Acyuta whose coins
have been found at Ahicchatra, modern Ramnagar, in the Bareilly district,
U.P. It was still a considerable town when visited by Hinen Tsang in the
7th century A.D.. This country, according to the Chinese pilgrinl, was
more than 3,000 Ii in circuit, and ita capital was 17 or 18 Ii in circuit. The
country yielded grain and had many woods and springs and a genial
climate. The people -were honest and diligent in learning. There were
more than ten Buddhist monasteries. Deva-temples were nine in number

1 Dhammapada Gommy., I, a59.60.
2 Digha, I, 244·245; Jat .. IV. 167; Dhammapada Commy., I, 360.
I Dhammapada Commy., III. p. lO---attM-raaa1ropi-dhana1!l.
"Jataka, I. 230-Aciravaiinaditf're nihitadhanatp. nadikule bhinne aomuddom
fHWi#ham auhi.
I; B. O. Law Volume, Part n. 1946. pp. 239-42 .
• Smith, Early HUtory oj [tldi<>, 4th Ed., pp. 391-392.

I. 42. I. Majumdar.Q. No. p. held a canopy of his thousand hoods over his head and coiled himself round his hody. C. 432. 134. Arjuna gave the city of Ahicchatra together with that of Kiimpi- Iya to Dro!)a after having defeated Drupada in hattie. 90. caused an incessant shower of rains inundating the entire earth. Cunningham. (McCrindle. 408.A. B. p. Adhi· cchatra is the name found in the PabhoM cave inscription of Ashii\lhaseDa dated about the beginning of the Christian era (E. inimical to Pa. 245).. Bkandarkar. 331). Aklkanandd. C. XXVI. p. rising in the mountains of Kedara in Garh- wal. Hodgson who describes it as the ruins of an ancient fortress several miles in circumference.. C. N.l. 2. S. Pt. which appears to have had 34 bastions and i. Some Jaina Ganonical Sutra. 14). regarding the Mandakini. Ahicchatra seems to be the correct form. 1243). Buddhist Records o/Ihe W . which may be identified with Kali-Ganga or Mandagni.r8vanatha. Luders' List of Bri. Ch. Ancient India U8 de8cribed by Ptolemy. Dro!)a. Ajudhan. I.). p. V¥~lupura1Ja.western Provine"" and Oudh.. Pacivanatha was immersed in water up to his neck. PirBvanatha wandered about in this town. Vayupura1Ja. Mandakini is one of its tributaries. p. Rivers 0/ India. According to Cunningham the history of Ahicchatra goes back to 1430 A. Report 0/ the Epigraphical and Architectural branche8 0/ North.18.\u's Fort. Gwgrophy.I. Majumdar Ed. pp. McCrindle. III. Law. accompanied hy his queens. 19).P. II. The Ganges may be supposed to have assumed tire name of the Ganga. 1. the foremost of victors. Iff. . known as the Pa!)<.. Its upper tributary is constituted of the PiI:u)a and another stream at the confluence of which is situated Srinagara in Ga-rhwal. For an identi- fication ofthis place. 41. Inscription 0/ Gautam'mitra.S.A . pp.. No•. met by the Mandakinj (Law. Law.G. Tribes in Ancient India. p. (Watters. Index) which is nearer to the Greek form of Adisadra of Ptolemy. Brahma1J¢apura1Ja. 74. 21. 34. Adiparva..l. B. In modern times Ahicchatra was first visited by Capt.A.H. 41. 6. Law.Bhiigirathi from the point where it i.l. 1941.75).36. Law. 28 miles to the south· west of DepiHpura and 10 miles from the present course of the river (G. 90 and 905. G.. Imperial Gazetteer 0/ India. p.-This ancient town is situated on the bank of the old Sutlej. XX.24. 67. p. N. p. HISTORICAL GBOGRAPIlY 01' ANCIENT INDIA. appeared on the scene. Her course can be traced from the Gandhamadana mountain (Bhagavatapura7J<'. 56. 169·170. a headwater of the Ganges.hmi Inscriptions. (Inscriptions 0/ NortMrn India revi. Luden' List. 255tf. 21.D.S. 2. 200·201. That is the reason why the town was named Ahicchatra. IV.. II.R. V.. Sa'!1khyavati was the earlier name of Ahicchatra. The Bhiigirathl·Ganga is joined on the left side by. 168). the AIakanandii at Devaprayaga (B. Ancienl India lUl described by Ptolemy. 1924. It represents the upper course of the Ganges.34. 125. p. To protect him the Nagaraja of the place.. 412.l The old name of Ahicchatra is Adhicchatra (preserved in an inscription. The name is written as Ahik\letra as well as Ahicchatra (Serpent- umbrella). 11).. A. C.12. Progr"". Archaeological Survey Report. Kamathasura. M. On ¥oon Ghwang. see E. U.ed by D. Ancient India as described by Ptolemy..-It is identical with Banda district. Beal. gave away Kampilya to Drupada (Hariva~a. Rivers o/India. 1891·92. R. XXI. Ch. April.l.. For further details see B. Ajayagm!h... I. Paiichalas and IMir capital Ahicckatra. (McCrindle. 134). p. 133). It was also called Chatravati (MaMbharata. No. According to the Vividlmtirtka· kalpa (p. Having accepted both the cities. Vol..tem World.25-35).-A river in the Garhwal Himalaya.... 1 Cunningham.

Geiger identifieB it with the town of Alexandria founded hy Alexander near Kabul in the ParopaniBadae country (Mah'iva"f'Ba. 516). 14) and the BMgavata PuriifJa (X. NOBTIDRN INDIA A/a8anda. 52. 18). 21·3) they probably settled themselves in the Punjab.ghari range of the Himalayas. the Sulaiman range in the Punjab. 85).22). and ViinU (II.ta}. The Takht·i-Sulaiman (Solomon's Throne) is the highest peak (ll. the Amb88thas are referred to by the geographer Ptolemy as the tribe which is deBcribed as settled in the east of the country of the Paropanisadai (McCrindle. 23} refer to it. a celebrated shrine of Siva in a cave in the Bhairava.-It was situated at SravastL The Elder Annruddha fell ill while he was here. The monks approached him and asked him the cause of hi. 374).D. 14.!1d in the Marlca1J4eya PUffl1. Holy Places of India. When the Ma. in the Basti district of Oudh.-It was the chief city of the Yona territory. ll). It is mentioned in the Ramiiya1f'l (Kil. 3. 74. 48. Anoma. 36-48) it was made up of gold. 1. C. 133). bodily suffering (Sa'lf'yutta. It is also mentioned in the Jaina Ava8yaka-cilr~i. Anotatta (Chinese A·nou. Geiger's Translation. 31. For further details vide B.F. separates the N.-The country of the Amba<thas WM situated on the lower Chenah. I. It overlooks the Gamal river on the north and the Indus on the south.-This mountain does not seem to have been far oft' from the Himalaya (A pad ina. p. As early as the time of the Aitareya Briihma'l}u (VII. 345).mo·Ch'iang}. Tribe8 in Ancient India. 82-83. It is also mentioned in the Brahmii1J4ap. 97. Province and the Punjab (P) from Baluchistan. p. 83. According to the S/candapurri~a (Chap. Law.5) a.W. V. Matsyap. Andhavana. (p.-This lake may be identified with the Rawanhrad or Langa.) A~lha Country. C. The Sulaiman mountain.15) mentions them as north-western tribes. Law. 3.la (58. 37. I. 73ft'. It i. AW>Tr!'i-(Chinese lio.-It was a deer park in Saketa where the Buddha dwelt.). PaI)ini also refers to it in one of his ltiitras (VIII. known to the ancient geographers as the Aiijana- giri. 54. 550). see Law. They were intimately connected with the Sivis and the Yaudheyas and were settled on the eastern border of the Punjab (Pargiter. It was visited by the Buddha JJ:lany times (Ang. 22). Vayu (99. Cambridge History of India.. Aiijanavana. whereaa the northern part is huilt up of limestones. 97).-Anoma is the river Aumi in the Gorakhpur district. It is considered holy by the Hindus. The MaMbMrala (II. (48.. The Buddha after leaving Kapilavastu pro_ded to the bank of this river and then he adopted the life of a monk (Dhammapada Cootmenlary. V. The MaMbMrala (II. pp. 5 .295 ft.). During the first quarter of the 2nd century A. pp. Aiijana Mountain (Aiijanagiri}. The southern part of the main range is composed of sandstones.21). 311- 12). I.-It was sitnated in the Mahavana (Jiitaka. 194). a wanderer named KUI)9. The range is pierced by a number of gorges through which run the main routes from India to Baluchistan. 31ft'.nan. They seem to have migrated in later times to some place near the Mekala hill which is the source of the Narmada (B. It has been described in the Milimropaiiha as an island where king Milinda WM born in the village of KalMigama (Trenckner Ed" pp.-About sixty miles from Islamabad lies Amaranatha. I. p. Ancient India as tkBeribed by Ptolemy. p. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. 302). 109.kindhyakan~a. Amaranitha. (For further details.ster was here. 2M). SI. V. (Sa'lf'yutta. InOO- logical Studies. Carlleyle identifies this river with the Kudawa nad.aliya had a discussion with him on religious and philosophical topics. (III.

pp.di). IV.. A~mati. Law.. of the Sutras and Madhyadeil& of Manu are designa. IV. Geography 01 Early BuMhiom. For further details vide B. The Bulandshahar district lies actually in this Antaravedi. 59-61.-Pal)ini mentions it in one of his BiltNUl (VI. 37).ted. 2. 352. Law. 3). p. Fonr rivers i8Bued from this lake: the Ganga to the east. p. the Valuiu (OXUB) to the west and the Sita (Taril!l) to the north (Northern ltulia =rding to the Shui-Oking.) is the country lying between the Ganges and the Jumna' and between Prayaga and Hardwar. ArulJacala. C. 5. I. AntaravedI is the doab between these two ri.-It was in the kingdom of the Mall. I). 342).!>sa district where a king named Mahiika'!l8" reigned (Jut. A8paBian temtory. 21. The Sivi kingdom may be identified with the Shorkot region of the Punjab-the ancient Sivipura or Aivapura (B.. p. p. Vinaya. Indological Studi"" I.ka or Mmaka tribe (Oamlmdge History 01 ltulia.1. He. SB . According to this inscription. p.. 24ff. Bhavi-mapum~)Q. Arail. Anupiya-ambavana. According to the Shui-ching-chu this lake otherwille known as the Anavatapta (the unheated) was on the top of the Himalaya. Gautama spent the first seven days after his renunciation on his way to Rajagriha (Jat. I). On the appointed days he nsed to visit the alms· halls to see the distribution made.. I.-It was in the K&.P" where a stone pillar inscription has been discovered (l.. The Aspasiana. Ch. according to the KiivyamimQl!l8G (93).. os Antaravedi which extends up to Benaras (Vina6ana Prayagayo~ Gariga. He was made viceroy during the lifetime of his father and after his father's death he became king. 3. a lamp was maintained in a temple of the sun (BUrya) at Indrapura out of a perpetual endowment made by a Brahmin named Devav~l)u (0.A. p.1."" Antarave. 9. III. 79). 14). Their country 1 cr. Apava. YamunaY08ca antara. He used to distribute each day six hundred- thousand pieces of money. vide also Skatulhapurt1lJa.. p. 101).Oku. Ch. He ruled his kingdom righteously. This king was educated at TaxiIa.-It was a minor state in Alexander's time. 173ff. A~!4pura (Pali Ari!!kapura).gveda (VI. The Aryavarto. Early Greek writers refer to a country in the Punjab as the territory of the Siboi. 52).-It is a village situated about 10 miles north of Fatehpur U. II. Pt. ABita'. The Iranian name Aspa corresponds to the Sanskrit Mv!> or Mvaka (Law. as they were called by the Greeks. VoLIn).221). 2.-This mountain is situated on the west of the Kailiisa range (Law.-This ancient village is situated on the right bank of the Jumna at its confluence with the Ganges (Allahabad District Gaze#ur by Nevill.. IV. Antaravedi. 86. 13.D. Indo- logical Studies.. p. ISO). I. A80ka.-The traditional Antaravedi mentioned in the Indore copperplate inscription of Skandagnpta (466 A. n. may be regarded as denoting some western branch of the Mv.veT'S.-Thia mountain does not seem to have been far off £rom the Himalaya (Apadana. XVI. 100). C. Asni. 2'7. the Sindhu to the south.-It is mentioned in the If. 65-66..-It was situated near the Himalayas (YogavriSiffha-RumayalJa. 13) as a river in Kurnkl[letra. VITI.V~!ka-a8rama. He bniIt six alms-halls at the four gates in the midst of the city and at his own door.sislha is said to have cu~ Kiirtyavlryarjuna for the latter burnt his hermitage. MountaiTUJ 01 ltulia.6. It was the capital of the Sivi kingdom. Apava V.66 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIBNT INDIA.).:jananagara. III.

34.. 174 . 8 VividhaJ. Sumati.l l It is menti(>ned in the Rii. According to the Skandayurii1J.re Lord Adiguru attained . v. According to this inscription Ayodhya was the seat of a Gupta Jayaskandhdviira or camp of victory as early as the time of Samudragupta.miiya7)a as the earli.' Audumbara.mitra performed two horse sacrifices or aSvamedhas during his reigu. cf. Indological Seudie8. It is one yojana in extent in the east. p.la literature it is d.nt. 19). the king of the Calukyas.Hien. 6 Avaa8a1i:a Nirjjuti. 13 Vividhatirthakalpa. Ch.4 B.!###BOT_TEXT###amp;dhyayi (4.H. saw the Buddhists .ilkar...in tirlha.-It is ..-Par.r capital of Kosala.ntified with the Kailiisa mountain.'O identifi. p. 52 note. Som. one yojana from the Sarayii in the south. He also 1 Raychaudhuri. situated on the river Sarsyii. Ayodhya seems to have been included in the kingdom of PUIlyamitra Swig. H.. C. p. 3ff.'" It was the birthplace of ~~abha.. 5i. Th.S..!!. Law. Here still exists the temple of Nabhimja. Pt. installed a J aina image in this city. p. 9 Chap.. In the Buddhist period KOSala was divided into north and south.. from Tamasa in the north. 3 B. p.ia city is also known as saketa. 16 E. . p. Ananta and Acalabhanu. It was an un· important town in Buddha's tim•. 11 Buddhist India. 's tim. According to the Vividhatirthakalpa many sages and the sons of ~abha . lD17. I. 24.. Some: Jaina Canonical SUtraB. 244a. An inscription found here mentions the fact that Pu~y. Sa..' It was the birthplace of the first and fourth Tirth..s existed in Buddh.. 382.. Kumarspala. Tribe& in Ancien.ncient India. but Professor Rhys Davids has been successful in pointing out that both the citi. I.y be id.lve yoj .A.1.-It is one of the seven holy pl. For further details vide B. According to BOme it was situated in Suviistu (modem Swat Valley).. 4th Ed . ? Airoreya Brah. Vinita was . Geography of Early Buddhism. p. In BmhmaJ.. it is situ. Fa·Hien calls it Sha·che and according to Ptolemy it is known as Sogeda. Law. .ttained perfection.. C. 17-25.' Ayodhyd.!" 11.. III) about six miles from the Fyzabad Railway Station.. account.A.1< A!l<'Ording to Alberuni.... I.. Udiina. • The BMgavata Purli~a rerers to it . One of the cities of the Aspasian territory is said to have stoed on or near the riv.. 355. J. 101.R.... Some Jaina Canoniool SUtNJ8.me for this city. one yojana in the west. who visited Ayodhy& in the 5th century A.d with the Ghagra or the Gogra in Oudb (0. 237. Riimapuri and KoSaI. 10 Cf. 7 Th. Law. C. II. 34. capital of the southern Ko§aia was Ayodhy&. Tribu in A. 1. Iksvlikubhiimi (A_saka Nirjjmi 382). 173. a city (IX. '! • J i i . great J . 8.cribed as a villag•..a 9 Ayodhya looks like a fish. Arig.. think that sak. P. p. Fa. Ayodhya was tw. This country may be located in the Pa!hRnko! region.' A~!lipada.." The Chinese pilgrim. XX. 135. Law. 64-65. Iff.I.. tributary of the Kabul river.irlhakalpa. C.nlightenm.l"" not in good terms. 12 B.. ISO). and one yojan.' The AlImakas were the first Indian people to bear the brunt of Alexander '8 invasion.Uni refers to it in his A:.nd the BmhmaJ. 173).nother n .. 5. NORTHBBN INDIA 67 lay in Eastern Mghanistan (Law.D. Siitikhyayano S'rauta Sutra. XV. :I Avassaka Cammy.! India.r EU88pla which is supposed to be identical with the Kunar.. VII.ted about 150 miles south·east from Kanauj.nas long and nine yojanas broad according to the Jain. p. IV.1... Ajita. 2 Law. 5.I.. p. It m.ces of the Hindus otherwise known as Ayojjha or Ayudba. 197.ta and Ayodhya were identical. Vinaya. Abhinandana.. .. The spurious Gaya copper· plate inscription of Samudragupta mentions this ancient city..

D. 50·51. Vd~u. 6.- Ayodhya is important in the history of Jainism and Buddhism. full of wealth and granaries of paddy. 85. V. Asailga. v. well·watered and decorated with flowers. was clothed with luxuriant vcgetation and had rich fruit orehards and genial climate. died at Ayodhya at the age of 83. who were students of Mahayana...tika-vibhiisii-rostra was composed. They had to fulfil their respective duties and obligations..68 m8TOBICAL GBOGRAPBY OF ANCIXNT INDIA saw a tope there where the four Buddhas walked and sat. It WB8 the home of skilful artisans and craftsmen. I. He says that Ayudha is Saketa. the BriihmaJ:las. The three Buddhist treatises referred to by Yuan Chwang were communicated to Asailga by Maitreya. TIl.4ya7J. according to the pilgrim. v. etc. '7 R<imiiya1JG.. Yuan Chwang. 241.. Vasubandhu began his career in . and llinayana.avel8 of Fa-Hien. e MaMbhd. Sciratthappakanni. 140ft'. .' According to the Ra11l. west of the mango-grove was a Buddha relic tope. green bowers and mango·groves. The country yielded good crops. 354--9. 22-24.. Above lOO paces to the north. school of the Sarvastiviidins.660. a RliTwIyana.a. It had lofty gates furnished with doors and bolts. This city had Kamboja horaes and mighty elephants. pp. endowed with auspicious signs.. who visited India in the 7th century A. pp..' According to the Mmiiya~a there were four grades of social order at Ayodhya. expounding and defending MahayiiniBm. Api.The succession to the throne of Ayodhya was generally determined according to the law of primogeniture in the IkFiiku family.. It WB8 a delightful spot on earth. p. vs. Within the capital was the old monastery in which Vasu· bandhu composed various sustraa. • WAtters. On Yuan Chroof1{J.. In a. 8. 270. Mataya.. It had spacious streets and roads.> Ayodhya bed many well·known kings. large Buddhist monastery with an Asoka tope to mark the place where the Buddha preached his excellent doctrine. There was a hall in ruins where Vasubandhu explained Buddhism to princes and monks who used to come from uther countries. Stevenaon. 36. e.. The people had good manners and active habits and devoted themselvea to practical learning.. a city. 387.w. the Vaisyas and the S'ld. p. The city was rendered impregnable being surrounded by a deep dit. 4. i. 3·4..ch filled with water. 309. it is called 'puJ:lyalaJu.. Four or five Ii west from this monastery was a Buddha relic tope and to the north of the tope were the remains of an old monastery where the Sautrii:n. Ayodhya was the temporary residenoe of Asanga and Vasubandhu. Bariva".ata. There were 10 deva temples and the non-Buddhists were few in number. It was fully protected. 2.e. There were more than 100 Buddhist monasteries and more than 3.. 77.. 11. pp. 50. Close to the Ganges was a. Padma.000 brethren. etc.g.aJ:la' that is.. Sam. 90-98. Vasubandhu who composed several treatises.. 32. 6 Ibid. Heart of Jainiam. T.. VB. It was a crowded city and frequently resounded by musical instruments. mango grove 5 or 6 Ii to the south· west of the city was the old monastery where Asailga learnt and taught. Ayodhya. 54·55 . 114. I. Vay". p. n.272 J ~7. 20.' In the MaMbMrala.Ihid. After the death of Asanga.' Another Chinese pilgrim. A large number of pinnacled houses and lofty seven-storied buildings existed there. e S. began his religious career as a M akiArisam and afterwards became a Mahayanist. 320. after travelling more than 600 Ii and crossing the Ganges to the south. It contained palatial buildings. p. 99." The kings of Ayodhya were connected with the 1 Legge. 13~62. 4-6. According to him. Ayodhya w. Kunna. the Koatriyas. p... reached the Ayudha or Ayodhya country.

pp. 11 .ka (li'ausboll). B. I Mah.i~a (Ch. An elder named Khemaka while dwelling here feU very ill.ll It is a small tributary flowing past Thaneswar.' DaSaratha sought the help of the rustic !. 160. 22. 126ff.ions this hermitage_ According to Ba(la's Kiidambar. p.. 7-18. 9 and 10. Padrna Pur. IV. U3ff. 27 miles north-east of Etawah. 9 There was a temple called Agga!- ava close to the town of A!avi where the Buddha once dwelt. 362. Tirtha- miiMtmya). 82·83. Here the elder Rahula set his heart on the observance of the rules of monkhood (Jat. It is near the Sarasvati. VI. • Ramiiya~.T. 7 A large number of coins were found at the site of Ayodhya.6. Va1f'8auhappakiinni (P. III.4ikha (141.A.-It is a river mentioned in the IJgve.. C. It is known to Bome as a branch of the Chitang river. 10.da (III. 3. The Pali texts refer to some more kings of Ayodhya.. 94)_ According to the Skanda Pur.27-34) refers to it.l. pp.. G. 6 The Yoginitamra mentions this city (2/4. Arjuna and Krish(la visited it (p. lO Apaya. Some have identified it with the Apaga as a' name for the Ganges. Pt. Ayomukha.ya. XXIV.s AlaVi. It was a Buddhist retreat where the Master once dwelt.l~a. I. 37. The Yoginitalltra (2. I. 4 The eastern and southern kings and kings of the distant Punjab were invited to Dasaratha '8" horse sacrifice at Ayodhya.) ment. For further details vide Law.. p.8m. 53--59) a sinner becomes free from sins by visiting this holy place. etc .. 14). 167ff. IV. I~ p.bMrata (90. 23.!: lay disciples and sisters came here to hear the truth preached. 64). Badarikii8rama. pp.' The kingdom of Ayodhya rose to gre&t eminenoe under YuvanMva II and especially his son Mandhatr. La. I I . Ayodhya again became famous under Bhagiratha and Ambar~a Nabhiigi. cf. 133) mentions Siirasvatatirtha in Badari. 160.. NOBTHBBN INDIA 69 Vaaifrtha family. 127 . lndological Studies. 314. IS. III.2 The supremacy of Ayodhya waned and the Kiinyakubja kingdom rose into prominence under its king Jah(lu. p. Vol. 1 Jiita.yutta. 83. Pa<:t.S. III. 1.-The KOsal~l Inscription of the region of Maharaja. I. e Tawney's Ed . Vaisravana refers to this locality situated in the vicinity of Kausambi (E. 4) flowing between the Dn.G. IV. 141. Ayodhya and the Vasi~thas had no association then with the brahmanically elite region. 708. 44. Badarikiiriima. 88. 13. VI. 68. I. 10 Jutp/ro.AllindMcAu hben. Pt.• I. It also mentions Badarikatirtha (85. Linga. as Pargiter points out. 21-22. 1883. ~ Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. 24.-According to the Varaha P. Badari..-It has been identified by Cunningham and Hoomle with Newal or Nawal in the Unao district in U. 68). p.R.bMrata (III. enquiring how he managed to bear pains (Sarp.I. Ch.). Padma. I. The Kathiisarits .t.w.S. but 1 V~u. J . 21. 18.-The Ma/uJ. The Haihayas overcame Ayodhya and the foreign tribes settled there after its conquest.p'!ga from AiIga. 128-129).a This river is alao.mi"a (141. Many femal. m.ma.P.. XI. The Padrna Purii~a (Ch. 219. 3 Vciyu. • G. Some have identified it with Aviwa. . The Vaai$!h"" were their hereditary priests. 171-2. There are two holy places here called Indraloka and Paiica. .advati and the SarMvati. 147).). according to Zimmer. 66.S. Here a great piljii (worship) is held.-According to Cunningham it was situated 30 miles BOuth- west of Prstapgarh. mentioned in the Ma/uJ. 1) it is a secluded place in the Himalayan region.ribMrata. At this time many elders staying at the Ghosita- rima sent one of them named Dasaka to him.A. p.gara refers to the camp of Nanda in Ayodhya. 126.RJI. Geography of Early Buddhi.

-It is a village two miles to the north. Near the source of the Alakanandii the temple of Nara·Niiriiyal)a was built on the west bank. 39).umati. Its junction with the rivers Maradiirika.1. 101-4) . XXXI. L.-It is about 25 miles "from Shajahanpur where a plate of Hal"\!a was discovered (E. 2.Ba{e8i.ient India. B<l8ahi. 15254.-It is a town in the Agra district on the right bank of the . 148). The Marka1!4eyapurarys (Ch. p. Holy Placu of India.P.ia..risrohi. Ratnavali. Siintiparva. 1. 1199. (Ibid. a sacred river of the Buddhists in Nepal. Dey. 7). Rajamafijari. (For further details. 291.I. Barbarika (the Barbarei of Ptolemy). DoJ. I. .la and Timbaru. 388tf. containing an ancient mound (E. a feeder of the Rapti in Oudh (N. The Marka~<!eya Purdra (LVII. It was a market town and a port situated at the middle mouth of the Indus.-It is in Garhwal. It is a peak of the main Himalayan range. as it was created by the Buddha Krakucchanda by the word of mouth during hiB visit to Nepal. Uttarai<hal)<. It was one of the towns of the islands of the Indus delta (McCrindle's Ancient India as de8cribed by Ptolemy. Ed.ia. Ciiy.). The MaMbMrata connects the people of Barbaradesa with the Sakas and Yavanas (MaMbMram. p. which opens with an invocation to Vi~Qu and then gives the genealogy of the family from Mahiiili to Madanapiila (1 . 208). According to the Sivapuml)a Gaun was turned into the river Biihudii by the curse of her hushand Prasenajit.ya Pura'Q4. Bagmati is also called Bachmati. Majumdar. Rijamafijari. 70 mSTORIOAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA no worship is held for six months every year when it is covered with snow (Padma Purdva.39) places them in the Sindhu country. 39) may be identified with the Bigmati. 16). 22.!. The country of the Barbaras (BarbaradeSa) seems to have extended to the Arabian Sea. Sankara. U. 18. Geographical Dictionary. now called Dhumela or Burha-Rapti. Kil)kindhyakiil)<. Hunter. Bhi~maparva. which was accordingly named Bilhudii (MaluibMrata. pp. Ba1Ulkhera. 9. 165.. 35 miles south-east of Agra. Harivam8a. The Biihudii is also called the Bahukii according to the Majjhima Nilcaya (I. p. 322. 12). Jumna. 7653. AnuBiisanaparva.-The Bahumati (Majjhima Nilcaya. Sabhiiparva. 57) connects this river with the Himalayas along with the Gangii and Yamuna. 39). The sage named Likhita had his severed arm restored by bathing in this river. 41. 287ff. Marka'IJ4R. IV. SuIaki!al)ii.D.. This temple is said to have been built by Sailkariiciirya in the 8th century A. p. I. I. Mar.. Vanaparva. W. see Law. Lassen identifies Kakanthis of Arrian with the river Bagmati of Nepal.92). Riimaya'Q4. Bahumali. Some have identified it with the river Dhavala.. 92).-It is evidently the Barhsricum or Barbaricon emporium mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. 55 miles north·east of Srinagara. Pramodii. (Law. Siintiparva. 7560·61). Imperial Gazetteers of India by W. the last two cannot be identified. 13). It is also mentioned in the Jiilaka (V. pp. and the Brha/· 8aTfthittl refers to them as north or north· west tribes. Biihuda (Bihnkii or Bahukii). XIV.) along with Gays. The Buddha bathed in this river. CCVII. p.-Pargiter identifies this river with the modem RamagaiIgii which joins the Ganges on the left near Kanauj (Pargiter. p. Jayi and Gokarl)& respectively (Variiha. Prabhii· vati and Trivel)i form the tirtha8 (holy places) called Siinti. There was another river of this name in the Deccan (MaMbMram.ar. . An inscription has been found here. Many people could remove their sins by taking their bath in it. 207).east of the headquarters town of the Bindhuna tahsil in the Etawah district. Badriruith. Trihe8 in Am. CCLIII.

IbW. On the bank of the Bagmati river stands Vatsal" (NepilmiiMlmya. 1911... situated halfway between Kanpur and Hamirpur.. 1908-9.. The Belkhara stone pillar inscription has been discovered in this village.. and populous city. the Buddha went out on a begging tour and came here.Lit . This park evidently belonged to Prince Bodhi who became an ardent lay supporter of the Buddha. 127. B~/(. 10 Bhe.. 11 Majjhima. 12 It was an important Buddhist retreat and early centre of Buddhist activity in the Val<!a country. m. 3Divyiioodana. 7 Rama together with LaIu. 128ff.arak'letra. pp.' Rama himself admitted that this hermitage was not far from Ayodhyii. Jat.-It is in the Kanpur district containing a big temple. pp.l:u1a. l l It was &I. V. NOBTHBBJii INDIA 71 purii1J(J. Btiriinasi. 295. of Ancient and M6!liaeoal India. This city later came to be known as Tak~Mila because here the head of Candra- prabha who was its ruler was severed by a beggar Brahmin. n.aI Report. Ch. i.-This market-town lay on the way from the Pari- leyyaka forest to SravastL After spending the rainy season at Savatthi.-The country of the Bhargas became a dependency of Vataa.a. but" the location of the place is uncertain.maI)a and Sim came here. Ch. Ch. pp. L... a village situated about 12 miles south-east of Chunar in the Mirzapur district. 215. V.. Ch.A.l Bhaddavatiki. pp.. 360. '61. A.• Sarga M. Vinaya. prosperous. with SUI]1sumaragira as it<! chief town. 10 0"'11.• 32.B. Dey has identified it with Prayaga without assigning any definite reason to his identification. 91. cf. Bharga.. J4MJI«J. They then duly greeted the &age and informed him that they were going in exile for fourteen years to fulfil the pledge of their father.-It was a rich.-The sage Bharadviija had his hermitage which was situa. It is Hampi in the Boilary distriet.so known as Keaaka!avana.According to the BodhiBattvavaa-ina.-It i.• II.KalpalaM the city was situated to the north of the Himalayas (5th Pallava. Mitra. 157. 11 Atig. n.aa being defeated in the fight with the Vitahavyas . 232. 513ff. lI Bhimrgaon. s Some place it between VaiSiili: and Sravastl. Bharata in course of his wanderings in quest of Rama came here with his family-priest VMi..S. MaJJ1Itma.B..-See KMi.• XI." 1A.. MajjhimQ. 9 N. 268. I Barga. 87. 61.' BhadraSi15. < Bharadviija-tiArama. 315. U. 310. also known as Bhitrigaon. V).R . In this city there was a royal garden.I . • E.-It is mentioned in the inscriptions on the copper- plates from N utimadugu. p. 763ff. I. Svayambhilpurii!. Near this market- town there was a grove where the Master dwelt.ought refuge in this hermitage. A. p. m. above which there is a smaJl figure of Gal)esa. o Ramaya1)a. 85. which is incised on a stone pillar.S. 157. J. " R.• p. 24. It was 12 yoja1UUl in length and breadth and was well·divided with four gates and adorned with high vault<! and windows.ted at the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Yamuna at Prayag3 or Allahabad. IV. • Jiitaka. . 513ft'. II. I. V. 91.-It was in the neighbourhood of SUI]1Sumaragiri or SUI]1sumaragira of the Bhargas where the Buddha stayed. 9.. AdikiW8. ill. Did.. J3 MajihiJ1'tfl.• XXV. IV. Be1klwra. .. It was visited by Ramacandra on his way to DaI)(ia- karaI)ya and he sent Hanumiin to Bbarata. King Divodii. 2 and 6). I. .akaf. n. From this town he went to Kosambi. 228. Pt. p. 20 miles to the south of the former place and 10 miles to the north-west of Kora Jiilianabad.8J.tha. 8 Ang .. N. 39). 54.iivana. 5ff. This village. Ayodhyak8. I.P. 2nd ed . L.. • Ibid .

western Bilsad. pp. T G. Annual Report. Hiuen Tsang describes the kingdom of Brahmapura "" 667 miles in circuit. 340. refers to it 11. Allahabad Diat. 1911.1o CandrabMga. the chief town of the Sayyidpur tahsil of the Ghazipur district. 407ff. 11 pp. It contains three ancient temples of which the largest is of atone and dedicated to Mal)imahe~a.B. a town mentioned in the Viracaritra as having flourished at the time of Mahs.s connected with Kortripura of Samudragnpta's Allahabad Pillar Inscription. . The climate of the place is said to be slightly cold and this also agrees with the position of Vaira\a.-The Apadfina.tone pillar inscrip- tion of Skandagnpta.A. Law.. a Pali canonical text.l. Vol.R. 1909·10. p. It meets the Ganges west of Gogri in the Monghyr district. 704. mentioned in the Bhitari . by Nevill./. On Yuan Chwang. • J.<. The first western tributary which it receives to the north·east of Matihiirf in the distrirt of Champaran. 277. situated at the confluence of the Ganges and the SarayiL Here Parasurama regained his energy which was taken away by Riima Dasarathl.-It is situated 14 miles from Kanpur and contains the hermitage of sage VAlmiki.' According to Cunningham Brahmapura existed in the districts of Garhwal and Kumaon.. an incarnation of Siva.• Vol. It consists of three parts.A. p. 234 .I.-The MaMbMraia calls it Bhrg1Uiriha.470) mentions 1 C. III. For further details.A. Bhilati. 8 Watters.29-94. I. Brahmapura. III. is nothing but a united stream of six rivers. The Jaina 'fhanatMla (5. ill.. Candapaha. pp. 46-52. eastern Bilsad. and the third. see also J. 1927.5 Bilsad.12.herwise known as Bilasand occurs in the Bilsad stone pillar inscription of Kumaragupta.' Bhifii. According to the Milindapaiiha (p. C. 114) this river issues forth from the Himavanta (Himalayan region).-It has its origin in the hills of Hariharpur in Nepal.S.lo. Vol. 4 King Vitahavya is said to have fled and taken shelter in this hermitage.iita Santisarman.-It has been identified with the old Bitbhaya. II. 2 The ancient remains of Bhita near Allahabad have been described by Gen..8 . This text refers to BitbhayapaHana as the seat of king Urlayana who embraced Jainism. situated about four miles towards the north· west of Aligunj in the Etah district. 2 • A. 99.pallala. 329 . 139ff. vide B.Ga~t!ak. is situated about five miles to the north·east of Sayyidpur. mostly of wood. which was granted by KarIJadeva to the PalJ.' For further details vide A.A. • MaMbM. Cunningham who visited the site in 1872.-Thi. III. 0/ India.' Brahma· pura was also known as Po.lo. is dedicated to Lakemal)adevi.-It is a

mag~ in the Kosamba. village.I.I.is hermitage at Ralia in the Uttara Pradesa.I .G. 10 E.O.pu.-This village ot.R. the second temple of stone is dedicated to Narasinha or the Lion incarnation of V~IJU. River. 40.R. 24." Bithur. p. • O. 199. Bhrgu. and Bilsad suburb. pp.S.• 1898.vira.ata. 86W· 6 Cf. Xl. The sage had h. C. ECUJtern India.aSrama.lih. In these districts reigned the Katur or Katuria raja.J . Matin.. According to Cunningbam Brahmapura was another name for Vairatapattana.-It is the ancient capital of the Chamba State in the Punjab. 291.mo. Through the good grace of Bhrgu king Vitahavya became a Brahmin.pa\lana. p..I . Buri. Ga%ttteer.72 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIBNT INDIA. 694ff. It must have included the whole of the hilly country between the Alakananda and the Kamiili rivers...

lI' •• Ch.-This beautiful mountain finds its place among the holy places mentioned in the Padmapurli1Ja (Ch. 1949.-The NiigarjunikoQ<. 11 Jdtaka. 8 The Uttaracarita1p. March.-It is situated in the district of Benares on the left bank of the Ganga..' It stood at a distance of 20 miles (10 kro. also seeIDs to support the same contention 1 but it is difficult to identify the second stream.Sa8) from the hermitage of the sage Bharadvaja. 19. According to the Miirka1). II. 239.lhwa stone inscription refers to it. 176. p. Cavala. April.tgvedic AsilU)i.. p. The Ga<. where two copperplates of the Giil\a4avala dynasty were discovered.B .S. 47. 85. )i6. I.H.R. JII.-This mountain has been described to be not far off from the Himalaya. 18 It was noted for its waterfalls (Raghuv.S. Oitral:iita (Pali CittakUta). 2 Ut." It existed in the Hima· la.t. 13). XIII. 7 Raghuv. 451. 47). 5 Chatarpur.lo The Bhiigavatapura1}a mentions it as a mountain (v.. Arrian's Akesines and Sandabaga or Sandabal of Ptolemy..• Vol. The ancient capital was Varmmapura. a famous hill. 161·162. NORTHERN INDIA 73 it along with other four. 24) refers to the road on the bank of the Kiilindi leading to the Citrakuja mountain. wherefrom it Hows in a south-westerly direction forming a doah between it and the Vitastii (Jhelum).Q. 16). XIII and XXI and J.I . 208 .8tara (p. 65. va. 28. 6 Cina... 4 Chamba. J. • C. p.~a. • J. Himavantapadesa is stated to be the Cinarattha in the Pali Snsanava'f[!8o (p.• XVIII. The Apaddna (p.-This district includes the valleys of all the sources of the Ravi and a portion of the upper valley of the' Chenab between Lahul and Kaahtwar. According to the RamayaQa15 Rama dwelt on this hill situated on a z:iver called the Payasvini (Paisuni) or Mandiikini. According to Kalidasa it appears like a wild bull playfully butting against a rock or mound. It has been identified with Kiimptanathgiri in Bundelkhand.iiyu1)Q. 224. p. .A.P.. confluence of two hill-streams.he Banda district. v. about 20 miles north·north·east of Kalinjar.. 129. It lay to the south· west of Prayaga. 391) refers to it as a hill.8rakhal). XV. 1949. 1894. It was a pleasant spot U It was a spotless place. 56) associates it with Kiilafijara. 1894.A.R. It is the modern Citrakii!a.It is situated about four miles from the modern Citrakiita railway station.6) as Cittaku<:Ja.R. 10 C. p. It is the same river as the J. • E. .S.2. Ayodhyiika~«:Ia.C.A. XIII. From Kishtwar to Rishtwar its course is southerly. • Ram. The Candrabhaga or Chenab appears to flow just above Kishtwar as a. It is known in the Jaina Bhagavati-Tikii (7. LdurB.-This viJlage existed near Sheorajpur.I. 4 Apadiina. 9. Sarga 54. 50) vaguely locates it to be not very far off from the Himavanta.S. 21 miles north-west of Kanpur where a copperplate inscription of Govinda Candradeva was discovered.. U. 16 Ayodhyikfu. It flows past Jammu.R. 322-27. 3 .I. 11 Jalaku.yan region and it had a golden cave and a natural lake. a5-3Sp II I. It is usually identified "\oith the mountain of the same name in t. (Act. The Lalita''. The Mah(7bhtJrata . Condrlivati.\a Inscription of Virapuru~adatta mentions it. 12 Jiitaka. No.. lying 65 miles west. 126.. III..I.A. pp. VI. He came here after 1 Bhi~maparva. 21-7'irtOO- miiMtmyo).i!eyapurd1}a there were two rivers of this name.14 The MoM- bMrala (III. As regards its identifica- tion we may alBo refer to A. II.Bouth·west of Allahabad. It lay in the Himalayas beyond Ciliita or Kiriita. Vol. The Padmapurlil}a 2 mentions this river.

to rule the kingdom righteously and to win the hearts of the people. AyodhyakBJ)c.. living in the golden cave which it containcd. LVI. 7.-This river is mentioned in Plil. For further details vide B. by NeviU. S Rai Bareli Dtatriet Gcudtus. which seems to represent the modem Bnndelkhand. 369. included the tract ofthe lower and middle hills lying between the Jhelum and the Chenab. p. Jrlt. The A\avikarajyas included A!avaka (Ghazi- pur) as well as the forest kingdoms connected with l?avili (l?abhila) or Jabhalpore. V. l39ff.43) which. 39. II. 696. which is the older form of :Qahala.ia.. it 2~28. It is a town of great antiquity and of considerable historical and arcbaeological interest.l. I). No. 212. according to Stein. 3.. Bhandarkar.A.a. Stan Konow. The Nila forest joined the forest on this hill.da.-This monntain seems to have been located in the Himalayan region.5. 4th Ed. 423-424. 91.' This beautiful moun. P. JO 01J. Deolia. GaztUeer by Nevill. The forest at Citrakiita does not appear to have heen isolated. V.. a tributary of the river Ravi (Mlirka"""yapuTii7!a.-This hermitage lay on the other side of the Sarasvati. Vol. p.H. .-This place is mentioned in the MaMbluirala (VII. AyodhyakAI). According to some it rougbly corresponded to the Punch and Naoshera districts in KMmira and was probably an offshoot of the old kingdom of Kiimboja (Ray- chaudhuri. Law. 29-30. is identified with the plain of Chach near Taxila! Cuklia. I. IV. 6 Riimnyana. tain was an abode of many gee. Dalmau. 160ft'. (Inllcriptw..137- 138).. V. There were t"':o rivers at Citrakiiia called the Mandakini and Malini . It stands on tbe bank of the Ganges at a distance of 19 miles from Rai Bareli. 9 Davali. LTV. I J(itaka. Jat. Cuk. 1-18.• ~th 00 .1. DeviM. 292." some of which were swift and some golden. in the Yoginitantra (2.. 381. 58-59) refers to the Citrakiitaparvata and the Mandakini river.I. 33.The MaMbluirala (85. 200).t:la. 11 EJ' J VIll.. and in the Kalikipura1Ja (Ch.8 Dal'{lakahiraiiiia. V. It was 3 yojanas distant from Bharoovaja·Mrama.-The Khoh copperplate inscription of Mahiiraja Samkhoha mentions it. Pargiter has sought to identify this river with the Deeg.. oj Nurthern India revised by D.). The sage Dadhici gave up his life for the good of hnmanity. 24. 233). 2M-287. E. n. 352.-This village is situated on the south or right bank of the Jumna at a distance of II miles south-west from Allahabad and abont nine miles west of Karcana (Allahabad Dist. Dadhici-lihama.74 BlST()RICAL GBOGRAl'HY 011' ANOI1INT INDIA Cl'OBI!ing the Yamunii while returning from the hermitage of Bharadviija.A king act out for this mountain being instructed to observe the moral law. 7 Buhler. R.The Klilifcii- pura~a (79. 3.1... 107. l1 Darvcibhis<ira. 17-18..-It is the capital of the paTgana of the same name and the headquarters of the tahsil Dalmau. D. The Vlima"" 1 AyodhyakiI). It contains a fort which really consists of the mins of two Buddhist stiipas.. p. pp.n..lini's A~!Mhyayi (VII. • Jat. 337. .. S.. Droria. C. LIV. C.. . Pt.P. 143) points out that a mountain called Kajjala stands to the east of the Citrakiita. IV. p.. according to Stein. r..--Curu. P.H. 1393).AJ .'..-It is located in the Partspgarh State in U. is the present Chach in the north of the Attock district. 54. m. p.a occurring in the Taxila Silver Vase Inscription of Johonika. note).. Raychaudhuri. IndologicaIStudi. LVI. pp. • Jiitaka..• The Mandiikini is stated to have heen on the north side of this hill.

35-38) mentions this river. The origin of this river may be traced to the hills of Sirmur.a (Ch. 50). 26). Dhammaptilagiima. vs. Imperial Gautteer oj India. In the KaliluipuriiT}a (Ch.Iavas started on a pilgrimage as described in the Vanaparva of the Mahiibhiirai. were not the one and the same river. The Padmapurli~a (uttarakhat:u. 181). The Anusasanaparva of the Mahiibhiirai. Pt.R. 25. pp. According to the Agni Pura~a (Ch. The Vamana Pura7}.l.!. 58). III). 77ff. The Yoginitantra (2.6. It was considered to be a free land over which there was no sway of any monarch. p. in D. This river hfU3 also been identified with the river Deva or Devika. pp. The confluence of the Dff. it seems to have formed one of the boundaries of Kuruk~etra (Vanaparva. p. VII.S.).-This river which is mentioned in the lJgveda (III.18.la. 51.. 23-4) has been described as the southern and eastern boundary of what was then known as Brahmavarta (II. XXVII.1l3) mentions the river Gal)<. 89. (Sa1{!Yutta. ll2. 200) it flowed through the Sauvira country. Here Miira suffered a defeat at the hands of the Buddha.advati and the KauSikj was of peculiar sanctity. while Cunningham found in it the river Rakshi that flows by the south-east of Thaneswar (Arc1weoWgical Suroey Report.262).Iavas lived in this forest during the period of their exile. 10).Iaki and Cakranadi according to the BMgavatapura'(la 91:. 23. IV.) men· tions this river..-It i.-The Pal)<. which is another name for the southern course of the Sarayfi (Agra Guide and Gazetteer. According to the Mahiibhiirata. The Kalikiipurii7}. 81.138) refers to its source which is in the Mainaka hills in the Sewalik range.lhwa stone inscription of Candragupta II refers to this fort comprising several villages in Arail and Bars parganas in the sub- division of the Allahabad district (C. 139ff.laki. 51. According to the Mahiibhiirai. 21) considers it as holy. The Yoginitantra (2/1.. IlL) Ga4hU>i. X. According to the Kiililuipurii'(la it flowed between the Gomati and the Sarayii. Ch. The Padmapurii'(la (Ch. 71.A.a (Ch. Vol.a it was close to a desert and the Sarasvati flowed through it. Ga1J4aki (Gandak). ll. II.) it is mentioned as looking like the Ganges (Ganga). pp. NORTHERN INDIA.B. XIV).. 75 PuraFa and the Mai8ya Pura'(la support this identification (Cha. also called Gal)<. In passing through Nepal it receives four tributaries on the left side and two on the right. 84. VI.I. 120. (E. This inscription locates Gadhwa in the Kareana suh-division of the Allahabad district. 19.. Elphinstone and Todd sought to identify it with the Ghagar flowing. 79. ll3).P. I. He gave instruction on dhamroo being surrounded by a big assembly of householders. 22). The Bhiigavata Pura'(la also refers to it as a river (V. It is a great upper tributary of the Ganges. 7645 and 7647) suggests that the Devika and the Saray. Some have identified this river with the modern Chitang or Chitrung (J.A. It was not far from tho Himalayas lying between Tangana on the north·cast and Kuruksetra and Hastinapura on the south-east.-This village was included in the kingdom of Kii. It was from this place the Pal)<.a (sis. JUly 1948. Eka8iila. through Ambala and Sind but now lost in the desert sands of Rajputana (J. Dvaitavana. It was so called because there was a lake called Dvaita within its boundary. The upper tributary of the Gandak on its right side joins it at a place to the north·west .-The Gw.-Jt was a Brahmin village where the Buddha once stayed among the Kosalans.137.7. Dr~vati. 3l9ff. p.. V.§j (Jiilaka. 5074). 34) takes the KauSikj to be a branch of D!'\!advati..a. This river has been identified with the modern Citrang which runs parallel to the Sarasvati (Rapson. 1841.S. Ancient India. 17). which has its origin in the hills in south Tibet.

29.a (Uttarakhal)da. while its lesser stream bifurcating at Basarh flows down into another river..!. Vanderbilt Oriental Series. Ibid. and the lower tributary called the Ripti joins it juet above the district of Camparin.. The people of Gadara (Gandhiira) appear to be one of the subject peoples of the Persian empire (Ancient Persian Lexiwn and the Texis of Ach.descended. Law. I. 121). According to the Divyavadiina (p. p. P.syapurii1)a..I. The Gandhiiras. Ga!. The Malsyapurril. Studies in the MaMbMrata. 75 and 86). Ch. This Purii!. RamayaVa.' which is one of the sixteen MaluJjanapatlas mentioned in the Pali Texts (Ang. VB.41) and the V(7yupuriiJ. 1345. 452). according to him. Thus it lay on both sides of the Indus (Raychaudhuri. 5-7) King Purnrava lived with UrvaSi for ten years at the foot of the Mount Gandhamlidana. It is described in the Jataka as a rocky mountaio. p. 22-23) has been identified bv some with tbe Gandhara country. 252. 50. 11).T.-Gandhiira. 58.A. Rivers of India. The Gandhara country mentioned in' the Rdmiiyaruz is said to be situated on the banks of the Indus (Moti Chandra. C. 126. The country. 133) there was a tirtha (holy place) here called the Sugandha.57). of Nayakot in Nepal. 25. It is mentioned in the list of countries given in the Behistun Inscription of Darius I (522-486 B.. p. 114.a (114. It included Rawalpiodi and Peshawar districts.S. which was visited by king Vessantara with his "ife and children (Jataka. No. V. a part of the Kailasa range. This mountain was visited by the Buddha. I. A certain ascetic came to Benar. 35-38) mentions Gandhamadana. Hiuen Tsang found the country of Gandhiira to be above 1.!. 94). I. X..). P. It is also referred to in the big Susa palace inscription of Darius.H. 7).-The Gandharva country mentioned in the MaMbhirata (II. The BM{/avatapu7l.a (IV.. 52. 68). Goo. the keeper of a hermitage. According to the Hariva1['. by H.' of the Himalava (Kiidambari. C. 519).000 Ii from east to west and above 800 Ii north to south. I. According to the Padma- puTii~a (Ch. and was planted at the place where the Buddha showed miracles.-It is the Gailgotri mountain at the foot of which Biodusarovara is situated (Mat. Tomen. Biil)ft descrihes it as one of the summit..nts of Gandhara. This mountain had a big sivalitiga (Kiilikiipurii1JA. from this mountain to see the king (J(it. when a Brahmin used to live at its foot (Bodhi- sattvavadiinakalpalaUl. 113.. 79. There was a cave in this mountain known as the Nandamiila inhabited by the elect (8iisanava. This mountain forms a part of the Rudra Himalaya and according to the epic writers. 28.gaparvata. XXVI. Its maio stream flows into the Ganges between Sonpur in the Sara district and Hajipur in the district of Muzaffar- pur.a (45. 213. 8. 31). Gandhdra. which is equivalent to the North-West Punjab and adjoining regions.76 mSTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA.C. 4th edition.lidasa mentions the Gandhamadana in his Kumiirasambhava (VIII.oa. who were an ancient people known to the Rgvedic times (Qgv. Kale. Gandharva. It is said to have been watered by the Mandiikini. Gandha171iidana.ae"".-The Yoginitantra (1115) mentions this parvata (mountain).'a (Ch. 169) and in the Niigiirjuni- kOl)la Inscription of Virapur1L<adatta.nian Inscriptiom. III. For details.. 23-24. is also mentioned in Pal)ini's Af!ddhyiiyi (4. To the east of this mountaio there existed the Kama mountain (Ibid. 5th Palla va. 11. VI. and 260).70). I. pp. had luxuriant crops of eereals and a profusion 1 Luders' List. 78. p. 157) Asoka's tree was brought from this mountain by Ratnaka. Ed. IV. 48. 115). p. pp. Vol. 3) refers to it as a mountain upon which Brahm5. VII. vide B. 116) refer to it.. VI). are mentioned in Asoka's Edict V as the inhabita. and Eco. Kii. 256. .

2. I. 124). Some hold that the kingdom of Gandhiira included KMmira and TaksaSila region (Raychaudhuri. 21. II).S. 218. 10 Ch. I. west and north. The stream which flows to- wards the Gandbamiidana mountain from the BOuthern side of the Sumern 1 J.. VI. xm. . Geography Qf Early Buddhism..a (pp. 01 the l.. v. 69. According to the M{irkaweya PuratJ. I. • Murkan(leya Purii'l. but this is not corroborated by the evidence of the Jataka (Vide Jat. those who dwelt between the Ganga and the Yamuna were especially honoured. p. On Yuan Chwa11fJ.B. 75. mentioned in the I!gveda 5 and in the Satapatha Brahmara (XIII.b<Jve 1. 242-243) the Ganges is described as Tripathag. 73. according to Hiuen Tsang (Watters. Indological Studies. 56.A.A. the former being situated to the west and the latter to the eMt of the Indus. the famous a. i. 670). XIV. Adik81}Qa. X. 39. 23. it produced much sugarcane and prepared sugar- candy_ The climate was warm. t BMgavata Purrlna.e. 9 According to the Hariva1[1-Sa 10 king Pururava lived with UrvaSi for five years on the bank of the river Mandakini which is another name of the Ganges. It comprises the districts of Peshawar and Rawalpindi in the northern Punjab (Mahtiv. III. ll The stream which flows in the east towards the Caitraratha forest is called the Sim which proceeds towards the Vanu)Oda. I. It was visited by Rama and LakpmaI)a. 95. 24 . Here a fragmentary inscription was found by Vogel..Sarovara... 4. Zimmer. The early capital cities of Gandhara were Pw)karavati or PlL5kalavati and Tak. 20). 8. 436. 6. The most ancient capital of Gandhara was Pu~karavati. Wilson's ed. 7 The Yoginitantra refers to it (1. 36. On Yuan Chwa11fJ.G. 121. pp.imini. Gane8ru. m. VIII. 36. was a native of Pu~karavati.I. 29. VII. 9.aticm.. 49-50. then she bifurcated herself in four streams flowing east. the southern stream was allowed by Siva through the intercession of king Bharata to flow through India. NO&THBRN INDIA 77 ()f fruits and Bowers. 9..lavati which is found in the Atharvaveda (IV.. 2.8che8 Leben. 20 . 45. f. I. . 57. 5-7. 26.-It is near Mathura-. p. Many topes were in ruins. 198-99). The Ganga is aIso known as the Bhagirathi and Jah"avi. but they Were utterly dilapidated. G. 50-52) M well as in Kiilidasa's RaghuVQrpAa. 1912.R. There were mllre than 100 Deva temples and the various sects lived pell-mell (Ibid.42.5. I. 4). a Transl. • IV. The VaraJ. Geiger's tr. pp. a BhUgavata PurU('a. . I) seems to be the Ganges according to Ludwig. " BMgavata PuraJ1a.. Vol. son of Bharata and nephew of Rama (V¥1IU Pura~a. 6 X. 11 Ramayatwl. p. p_ 82. 18. IOff.7. 3. Vasubandhu. BOuth.-The Ganga which is aIso called AIakananda2 or Dyudhum"3 or Dyunadi' is. pp. 75.lgveda. According to the Taittiriya Aranyalw (II.5). The victory on the Ganga represents the furthest extent of the Kuru rule (Vedic Index. Law. 6. 202).000 Buddhist monMteries in this country. 2. I. IV. 2. P. 4th Ed.a-"ila. Altindi. This inscription reveals the name of a satrap of the ~aharata family called Ghataka. There were . which was about 14 or 15 Ii in circuit and was well peopled. Patafijali's Mahtibhtifya mentions it (I. 4). Tribes in Ancient India. 3. The Ganga or the modern Ganges is said to have issued from the foot of the NaraysQs and followed her course on the Mount Mern.. 1.1ja (II. XI.n. Ch. For further details see B. n. III. 95. VI. 48. X. 214). IV. 1 Oa1iga. 8. The people were faint-hearted and fond of the practical arte (Watters. VIII. 9ff. 210.uthor of the Abhidkarmakot}akistra. 4.. 5. 26-42. having three COUTSeB. It is also mentioned in the BrahmiiTJAJapurO. XXVI. I. Pt. which is said to have been founded by Pw)kara. Raghuv. 7. p. 365). C. sarg& 23. VII.2). 1-12..

.002 ft. Ancient India. identified with the modern Ghazipur. i8 called the AlakananWi which falls into the Min_rovara in strong currents. Law. high. NaJini. and the land was regularly cultivated. p. namely.la. Gaurismikara. II. This Pura1]. 14} agree substantially. 84ff. 87.-It is the Mount Everest in Nepal. 88-98. (For the interesting account given in the Vayu Purarm. Devadhuilga. vide Law. C.. The Padmapurarm (Ch. a great river. Ganga and Sindhu (Svargakhanc.-It was a town on the Ganges. and the people were honest. Goographieal E8say. The Vayu and Mataya Pura!"J8 give almost the same description as the Marka1J4eya of the descent of the Ganges. Sita.000 Ii in circuit. pp. a tributary of the Chambal (0. The Great Epic traces the source of this stream to Bindusara. Its Chinese name is Chen-chu.PHY OF ANCIBNT DfI)1A. From Allahabad down to Rajmahal she has an easterly course.) GaTgaTii. There were ten Sailgharamas and twenty Deva temples (Beal. 2. Sarasvati.a refers to the seven branches into which the Ganges is divided. The climate was temperate. the river Sonoe and the Sittokatis and the Solomatis which are also navigable and also the Kondochates and the Sambos and the Magon and the Agoranis and the OmaIis. the Ganges is much the larger. Some hold that Radhanath Sikdar was not the discoverer of the Mount Everest.la's Kiidamhari (p. III).. Como Kankar.-It is a town in the Meerut district situated on the right bank or the Ganges. (Law. Vol.1. Buddhist Records oj the We8/ern World. . besides. The Padmapurarm (Ch. The discovery of the Mount was due to the combined . According to BiiJ. while the V~u. Geographical E8says. 6). Ch.siigaTa-sailgama which is considered holy. It Wa<! also known as Garjanapati. 190-91). Como Lungma. 78.g. Law... Chelungbu and Mi-ti-Gu-ti-Ca-pu Longnga. ..-It is the name of a river. 77) the Ganges which flows to the BOuth of the Vindhya mountain is called the Gautamiganga and the Ganges flowing to the north of it is ealled the Bhagirathigangii. 75) the Ganges while being brought down by Bhagiratha happened to wash off the altar of JahJ. From Hardwar to Allahabad she flows almost parallel to the Yamunii. The Gangdhar Inscription of ViBvavarman mentions this river Gargara. Rivers of India. Como Uri. She enters Bengal below Rajmahal. while the Pali works to the southern face of the Anotatta lake.. e.lu who was performing a sacrifice. Moreover there fall into it the Kommenases. 85). 78 HISTORICAL GBOGBA.its Ganga temple. Jambunadi. The Bhiigirathi- ganga comes to light in the Gangotri in the district of Garhwal. ' (McCrindie. From Hardwar down to Bulandshahar the Ganges has a southerly course after which she flows in a BOuth-easterly direction up to Allahabad where she is joined by the Yamuna. Moun/nins oj India. It is known by various names. The M ahiibhiirata (84. pp.. I. Vaiodakii. l7ff. the ancient name of the modern river Kiilisindh. It is 29. BIuiga- vaIa and Padmapura!"J8 as well as the MaJuihhiirata (85. 68). 4. (For further details. v. 2. This Himalayan peak which is really situated on the Nepal-Tibet border is regarded as the highest mountain-peak on earth. 50 miles east of Benar. It receives. v.1. v.000 other streams joining it. According to the BrahmapuTarm (Ch. and the Kakouthis and the Andomatis . Vol. 29) rerers to Saptagangii. 61). The soil was rich and fertile. Garhmukhtdvara. It is a holy place of the Hindus and is famous for . 21) mentions GailgO. vide B. 107) mentions the confluence of the Ganges and the Sindhu as a holy spot. It was 2. . Some useful information is supplied by Artian regarding the Ganges and its tributaries when he observes: 'Megasthenes states that of the two (the Ganges and the Indus). GarjapuT (GarjapatipuTa). According to the Jam1raditJapa~­ natti the Ganges flows eastwards with 14. .

II. p.4). I... 228). V.. L.t this site has resulted in the discovery of an inscription which helps us in locating this famous aruma.-This monastery was at KauSiimbi built by a banker named Ghosita. Sa". p. I. Goka'1l". It is famous in the history of Vais1)avism. 194). (Digha. during the reign of king Dut(hagiima1)i (MaMva11l8O. 159-60). 370-71)_ ASoka built a 8tftpa above 200 ft_ high near the Ghositariim . 76-77. p. 2. Oue of them was Gokarn. Survey of India-Technical paper No. When Fa-Hien visited Kausiimbi in the 5th century A. 157.S. The Kukkutiiriima and the Piivarika (Paviiriya)- ambavana stood to ita south-east and east respectively (Ibid.svara in Gokarna. NOBTHBRN INDIA. 292)_ A monk named Channa was an inmate of this uruma. pp. The Buddha pre- scribed the Brahmada7J4a for him at the time of his demise (Vinaya Text&. Some thirty thousand monks of this aruma headed by Thera Urudhammarakkhita visited Ceylon in about the 1st century B. 5. II. P. Gulatee haa pointed out that the Mount Everest haa defied any attempt at finality both as regards ita height and local name. 46). II. 390). 24 miles to the north-east of Etawah and 36 miles from Sankisa in the district of Farrukha- bad (N. 111). Gokula. 574). of Fa-Bien.-According to the Svayambhftpura1!.I. Dey.lissa and Jiiliya interviewed the Buddha (Di{Jha. VaIlabhiiciirya who was " contemporary of Sricaitanya and who founded the Vallabhacari sect of the Vai~I)avas.. 26. In 1953 Hillary and Tenzing reached its summit and found it to be a perfect cone covered with snow on which they were free to move about. p. saw more than ten sailgMru11UJ8 all in utter ruin (Watters. the Ghositiirama was tenanted by Buddhist priests 'mostly of the Lesser Vehicle' (Legge. which is identified with the river Bagmati (R. Viieudeva being afraid of Ka!)lsa crossed the river Yamuna and left Sri Kn. 366). It contains the temple of Gokulaniithaji.C. 59). 133ff.. 139-146). T. . Lit.1)a in charge of Nanda who used to live here. p. used to reside here (cf. 32). II..B. The recent excavation a.. 7. N. X. Mahiikacciiyana and Upavii1)a (Ibid. p. Hiuen Tsang who visited K&usambi in the 7th century A. GavidhurruIt. built new Gokula in imitation of Mahavana. There was a forest near Gokula known as the Brhadvana (BMgavata P.. Pin?ola Bharadvaja. III.D. Paramatthadipani on tM Petavaithu.. 184)..a Svayambhii produced eight boly men. 96).-Tbe BMgavala Purii1]. 7~ efforts of the department of the Survey of India (Mount Evere8t-ita name and height by B. Out of the ten monasteries one was the famous Ghosit&rama situated to the 8outh·east of KauSambi. 3. Law. X. GhasiWrama. Geographical Didionnry. III.T.. 253. 115..-It may be identified with Kudarkote. It is situated on the left bank of the Yamuna.. 140--144). p. Here two wanderers named Ma1)<. 5. p. 370). 157. TraveL. It was named after him (Samantapri8lidika.a mentions it as a village (X. It was occasionally visited by Siiriputta. XI. Gulatee. Pataiijali in his MaMbMIJYQ mentions it (2. which was situated on the outaltirts of KauSiimbi in tbe south-east corner. On Yuan Chwang. Geographical E8say. Goharwa. Here Ananda was met by Channa (Ibid.). I.D. Papa~ni II. L_ Mitra. P8al11l8 of tM Brethren. This site seems to be not far off from the Jumna. who was instru- mental in the conversion of Udayana to the Buddhist faith. X 7 38).-This village is situated in the Manjhanpur tahsil of the Allahabad district where the two copper plates of Karnadeva were found (E. p. This iiriima was a favourite resort of the venerable Ananda even after the Buddha's demise (Sa1ftyutta. 159. The Buddha after leaving Anupiya came to KauSiimbi where he stayed in this aruma (Vinaya. 21.

SO). 331). 129). the defensive wall.-The ruins at Harappa are situated in the Montgomery district of the Western Punjab (P). 36.sa (VI.A.-This river i. 75. Some have attempt- ed to identify the Dhutapiipa as a separate river with the modem Dhopiip on the Gumti. B..L GBOGRAPHY OF ANCI1!:XT INDIA Gomati. 18 miles south-east of Snltanpur in Oudh. X. 13.-This mountain does not seem to be far from the Himalaya (Apadi1Ul. etc..lantra refers to it (1/14). Gomatikol!aka. 29) and Hariva""'a (Ch. XXII. 57 and 231. River.J. 80 IUSTORICA.1. The Harappa culture extended much beyond the Indus valley proper. rising in the Shahjahanpur district. 178). It has also been sought to be identified with the modern Gumti which joins the Ga. 115). 19. ll.G. D. C. The people used . The Padma- purdrja (Uttarakha\l<ja. p.-This hill is situated 18 miles from Brindaban in the district of Mathura. Dey. 11) mention this river. Vol. on the west by Madiiwar. The district of Govisana was 333 miles in circuit. p. lV. According to the 8karuia Puriirja (KasikhaJ)<ja. Harapp'i.42). Ch.. The 8karuia Purdrja mentions another river of the same name (Avantikhs\lc. The' AB' mound at Harappa. L. VS. Haliddavasana. III).-The Deo Baranark Inscription of Jivitagupta refers to it. It rises in the Shiihjahanpur district and flows into the Ganges about half-way between Benaras and Ghazipur (I.. It was confined on the north by Bmhmapura. On Yuan Chwang.-It was situated somewhere north of Moradabad. In the village called Paitho Kro\la is said to have taken this hill on his little finger and held it as an umbrella over the heads of his cattle and townsmen to protect them from rains poured upon them by lndra (MahiibMrata. Ch. show that the Harappa civilization was much advanced. it was a tributary of the Ganges near Benaras (N.A. formerly known as Gopala. Udyogaparva. and on the south and east by Ahicchatra. The MahiibMrala (Ch. Ch. The excavations in 1946 at the site have brought to light a ceramic industry which lay under the mud-brick defences. 59). It was also known as Govisanna (Watters. X.. Geographical Diet. Ch.). pp. 49). 16. aovardhana (G0va44hana--Jat. 79. Kiilidasa in his Raghuva". passes Lucknow and Jaunpur and flows into the Ganges about half-way between Benaras and Ghazipur (C. I. Govisa1loli. 1893. 51) mentioll8 this hill. X. 60). which. 6) which is probably the modern Oomal. 21).-It was a village in the Koliya country visited by the Buddha (Sam. 55) that Govardhanagiri contains the temples of Harideva and Cakresvaramahiideva and also the image of Srinathaji. 19.la. It is also mentioned in the Bhiigava/apuriirja (V.409ft'.-It may be identified with the GokaF\l& of the Ramiiya~. Riimpur and Pilibhit extending from the Ram Ganga on the west to Ghiigra on the east and towards BareiUy on the south represent the district of Govisanii (C. and as being crowded with cattle (Ayodhyiikii\l<ja. evidently it flowed through Gujarat with Dwarakii on its bank.a (1. almost certainly identical with the ~gvedic Gomatl (Rgveda.nges below Benaras and which is des- cribed in the Ramiiya1Ja as situated in Ayodhyii. a western tributary of the Indus. The people of Harappa used to bury their dead in graves dug into the earth.. The Yogin. Golama.l. V. pp. oj India. It must be looked for somewhere along the river Oomati (modem Gumti). 35--38) also mentions it. p. 18. Vol. Uttara. Gamukhi. 162). 84. 73) and the Bhiigava/a Puriirja (V. The modern districts of KaSipur. Law. The old fort near the village of Ujain represents the ancient city of Govisana which was visited by Hiuen Tsang in the 7th century A.

p. It is in the Saharanpur district. XII. 9.rakha~9-a (VB. 31. 13. 110). A. Viijasaneyi Sa1!l-hiUi. X. ~abh". 11.128. It is called the 1 A. 7 Atharvaveda. 6 Pargiter.. 21.• pp. XXIV.miM? V.T. The Piinc)us were reconciled to the aged Dhrtarru. MaMbhiimta. According to Cunningham this town may have been called Mayiirapura.a (\. He possessed all the noble qualities of a dutiful king. I. IV. and he and his queens finally perished in a forest conflagra- tion. Kurmapuni~a. Ramaya~a.' It was ruled by King Dhrtara~tra. 112. 13. 17.. 702.13.. 1. vide B. was an inhabitant of Hastinapura . p.!!)a"as in Northern India. 4. A. p. 45.-It is a holy place of the Vail. 30. grandson of Arjuna.).H. It is mentioned in ancient Indian texts. 48. 12. I Cunningha. I. and according to VaisJ. 11.lava literature it is known as Mayiipuri. J. Exrovaii01l8 at Harappfi.tra. 4: Taittiriya Sa". He had three BOns. XIII. He was highly intelligent and a great hero. VIII. " Bhagavatisiltra. Mayora was the ruined site of Mayiipura at the head of the Ganges canal.691.44. II. p. the first Tirthailkara. It has been traditionally identified with an old town in Mawiina tahsil. According to the MaMbMraia it is called Gangiidviira.I. Vats.29. Hemavata. Haimavata a. X. 3. ~gveda.. 20) lend support to this fact. 14. Ajamic)ha and Dvimic)ha. who retired to the forest after remaining at Hastinapura for fifteen years. Law. C.I. According to Hiuen Taang this town was known as Mo-yu-lo or Mayiira situated on the north-west frontier of Madawar and on the eastern bank of the Ganges. who were connected with Hastmapura. Merat.m. I. This city is also / called Gajahvaya according to the BhiigavaJa Pura~a (1. I. 5. situated on the Ganges in the Meerut district of the United Provinces. Trade and commerce had considerably advanced. 1940. 16).G. 80me Jaina Canonical 8iliras. son of Adhisima ~I).. and they originated separate dynasties. was the ruler of Hastinapura. 3. Himadri. as many peacocks were found in the neighbour- hood.. Ajamic)ha continued the main Paurava line at Hastinapura. 45-48: Yoginitantra . According to the Chinese pilgrim it was 31 miles in circuit and very populous.-It lies in the Barabanki district where a stone slab contain- ing the inscription of the reign of lsanavarman Mankhari was found (E. 5.68. 9) and the BMgavaJa Purii7J. 1-11.apura7. 8) refer to the Gajahvayas. cr. 1053-4) and the Bhiigavatapurii~a (IX. S. 111. During the reign of Nicaksu. For details vide M. Hasti or Hastin had two sons.-It was the ancient capital of the Kurus. 50.-The Himalaya mountain was known in ancient times 88 Himavan. 121.' The Hariva"wa (20. 17. 1. 51ft". He installed Bharata on the throne. 22. NORTHERN INDIA. Here the Ganges descends from the Himalayas. 15. 9. the Kuru capital. Pariksit. IX. and the king is said to have transferred his residence to Kausambi· The Marka?J4eyapura~a (LVIII. 6 . 35-38) which gives a list of geographical names. XIV. I. X. Hastiniipura. Utta. 703. On the bank of the Ganges Vidura listened to the Srimad-BMgavaia read out by the sage Maitreya. 8. He divided his kingdom among his relations. l'Mna1!Zga. He was a pewerful bowman. Tills city was often visited by Mahavira. 8 Padm.I.16. Dynasties oj the Kali Age. HaTlihii. Himacala.stina- pura on the bank of the Bhagirathi according to the Vividhatirthakalpa. this city is said to have been carried away by the Ganges.!G. Vol.G.a. 1. 1. 30.nd Himavat. 172. Ill. 402ff. King Hasti founded Ha.For further details. Pii~ini's A~tadhyayl (IV. 68. 40. 38.I . Haridvara. 6. 11. 81 to lead a happy life.. 30: XXV.6 Himavantapadesa. a Pargiter. BhiigafJOla- pumJ:iQ. p. AitareyaBriihmatia. l For details vide Imperial Gazetteers of India. 57. the founder of Jainism.9.

leyapuriina. The two loftiest mountains the Kailasa' and the Himalaya (Himavan) stand to the south of the Mem mountain.no. 54. v. 16. 14. IV. Mvagho<a refers to the Himalaya (Himavan) and places the Madhyadesa between this mountain and the Piiripiitra. I> MarkaT.J. Vanaparva. Vanapa. 24. 6..5S-60.pav. 13 Ibid. 11 In the Himalayan region there also existed a mountain called the Daddara. 62. XIII.rva.830. Miirka''Jf'. it mainly comprised the Kulinda.. 6. III. The people mostly used to worship the violent and most powerful Yakkhas. VII) Arjuna subdued the Mount Hemakiita in order to complete the Rajas. 8 Jiitaka. 8 Pargiter. Buddhava1'!lsa.. 376.E.:'i~a. 3. 1. II. 1 Anguttam.s The Kailasa mountain frequently mentioned in Sanskrit literature was on the north of the middle portion of the Himalayan range. 32. 23. J(itaka. ain called the Dhammaka where a hermitage was built with a cottage for the first Buddha Dipa')lkara. and some parts of Dehra Dun.a. I. p. 536. It may thus be taken to include parts of the modem Himachal Pradesh and adjoining tracts..1a. 12 In it there were four ranges of mounta." the Haimavata region waa situated jUBt to the west of Nepal (Nepila·vi. II. Rcimiiya1Ja. 500 leagues in height.~asas were found on the top of the Kailasa.. The Himalaya is described in the K u:dila Jiitaka S 3<l a vast region.. I. p. The Himalayan region (Himavanta- padesa) of the Jambudvipa (continent of India) extended northwards. 10 The Mainiik mountain was a part of the great Himalayan range. p. . . I. 338. 18 St'i8anava~a. III. 15~901. No.ldahiibodhiv. XII.' The Lord Siva who dwelt on the peaks of the Kailasa and the Himalaya was propitiated by the songs of the two nogas. Thii. III. Har~acarita (Ch. Markan¢eyapurti'IJ-a.lf. I. Ch.ins with a. Barua. 43.51. 132. • Mahabhdrata..U/.152.l7 He converted the hordes of Yakkhas living in this mountain. 82 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OJ' ANCIENT INDIA Parvatariija 1 and NagiitlAirlijt1. CXXXV. and 3. v.ahiibh. 14-16. 40 Yoginuantra. I. Samantapiilliidt'lcii.20 the Ra.• p. 114·115. The state- ment ofthe Miirka1J4eyapuriir. Pt.l.lagiri stood and close by there W3<l a great forest. The author of the M(irka1J4eyapurii1)a (54.694·5. In Bii!)a's Kiidnmbari (oJ.stya riik§asas are connected with the Himalaya mountain. According to the same Epic. 10.'" The Elder )Iajjhima was sent to the Himalaya to propagate Buddhism. forest and a naturallake. 1& MaM'008lu. representing the region of high mountains in which the sources of the Ganges. 130.vi~ya (Ptolemy's Kunindrae). It was near Kailasa. 20 Pargiter'8 Tr.eyapuriiTJ. I • The Paula. p. Sabhiip.. 1). cf. v." The eastern Himalayan region extending up to Assam and Manipur roughly constituted the Haimavata division of the Jambudvipa in respect of which ASoka introduced the Nabhakas and Nabhapamtis in his R. 57. I. 1S Near the Himalaya there was another mount- . 274.. cf. Jumna and Sutiej lay.ya sacrifice.a is supported by the Mahiibhiirata (VI. 7 According to Ba!)a'.000 leagues in breadth. v. 169. Ch. p. Ch.t Epic. 1. 6. II KumiirlUKJ"whava. 17 Mahiiv. Kiilikiipur. 101.§aya). m.l 9 According to the Mar/ca't!-t1eyapura1. 14. 59) knew the Himalayan mountain (Himavat) to have stretched from sea to sea like the string of a bow (KrirmukMya yrnMi gu[<a«)." By the side of the Himalayas a mountain named Cal)<. 6B . 29. 16) this mountain was white with CI')rstals or made up of crystal rocks. 3) and Kumiir<UJambhava (I. 11 Mbh. B Saurninrananda Kii1Jya.' According to the Grea. They were given to understand the doctrine of the Buddha"" explained by the five Elders. 10 Pargi1-er.- These two mountains stretch east and west and extend into the ocean.. 253. p. 277. III. A80ka and His inscription8.l. 7 Ibid. I I . 68.12. p.

57. which is a mino of various kinds of gems. 437). Niscirii. is not marred by the glacier (Kumfi. and Sobhita (p. the Asokan monoliths at Nigliva. 3). The Kailasa was a mountain with high peaks. !frirka1J4eyapura'(la. 16 E. 3). 381). the Ganga. 166). Vitasta. The river Uha is staW<! in the Milinda·Panho (p. Candrabhaga. a These are importaut rivers out of 500 rivers issuing forth from the Himalaya.000 monks (Thilpav. The Himalayan mountain is the only Var§aparvata which is placed "ithin the geographical limits of BMralavar{Ja. Sumeru (Pali Sineru). Lum bini. The river Migaaammata flows down from the Himalaya and enters the Ganges (Jc. Df$advati.. The Kiriitas. for details of these rivers. Sindhu. vide Law. Geo- graphical E8say. Kukkuta (178). 328). Vasabha (p. and those in the district of Champaran.a (Ch. Kuhn. BMrika (440). Vipasii. Ranksu. Samanga (p. Dhutapiipa. The sages take shelter on the sunny summits of the Himalaya (I. Accord- ing to the Kumfi. Gal)daki and Kausiki (cf.. The beauty of this mountain. Sarasvati. 84-95). the Sakyas and the Koliyas. p. Satadru. were transported by the Buddha to the Himalayas and the Buddha pointed out to them the various mountains in the Himalayan region. Haimavata division of India is indicaW<! by tbe Kiilsi set of Rock Edicts. and by Rhys Davids with the Central Himalayas.. Iriivati. Kausiki river in the Himalaya mountain. (p. the eaves of which are covered by clouds (I. De\iki. the wild tribe of hunters.. 31) points out that Siva and Piirvati went to the fall of the Maha. Ptolemy points out that the Imaos (the Himalayan mountain) is the source of the Ganges and the Indus as well 88 the Koa and the Swat rivers. 70) to have been 10caW<! in the Himalaya. Ganga. Yamuna. 26.a takes it to be a separate mountain. Aciravati. 114). 162). viz. 73). It contains various kinds of minerals on its summit (I. 38). 4). 13.2 but the Miirka1J4eyapura1j. Vetravati~ Vitamsii and Candabhiiga 3 take their rise (Milinda.rasam. 5). V.. Vangabiisi ad. 79.. a Pali canonical text: Kadamba (p. 362). NORTHERN INDIA 83 according to the Pall accounts. pp. Mahi. It was of pure white colour (Mahiibodhiv. stood Sudhammapura (Sisarzava'!'8a. Lambaka (15). 14). Mern and N~adha which are described aa Var{faparvatas in the Pura:1}a8. The Kiilikiipurii". i Mataya Purii1:za.a and it is engulfed by the sea on the east and west. It refers to a small river called Darpa! flowing from the same mountain (Kdlikii PuraTja. I J . 382). 72).t. Kosika. Gomati. Sarasvati. 61. Bahuda. 2.. Paduma (p. From the monastery on this mountain the elder Suriyagutta eame to Ceylon with 96. The Monghyr grant of Devapiila refers to Kadara which is situated in the Himalayas. Aceording to Albernni. namely. situated about 25 miles to the north of the Miinasasarovara.rasa1!'bhava (I. VI. 412ft".! The KaiHisa mountain formed a part of the Himalayan mount· ain. Yamuna. viz. Ch. 88 far 88 the south side of the Mt. 121.. by Fergusson with Nepal. were connected with the Himalayan chain~ The Himalayan mountain is the source from which the ten rivers. Ibid. can trace the course of the 1 Jiitaka. Sindhu. According to ancient geo· graphers the name Himavata waS applied to the entire mountain range stretching from Sulaiman "long the west of the Punjab ami the whole of the northern bounciary of India up to the Assam and Arnkan hill ranges in the east. I) the excollent Himalaya mountain stands on the north of Bhiiratava". I.padesa) haa been identified by some with Tibet. 45 and 79). v. The Himalayan region (Haimava/a. The two ancient Indian tribes. On the top of the Kailiisa mountain which is the Kangrinpoche of thl> Tibetans. but the PuriiTja8 mention more tltan ten rivers issuing from the Himavat. 14. Sarabhu. A few other mountains in the neighbourhood of the Himalaya are men· tioned in the Apadana. 16-18. Gotama (p.

when asked. rhinoceros. ParamaUhajotikii.• nr.101. replied that they would wait for the king on the Hemakii(a (HemakU!a8ikhare) which is the Himalaya mountain. I 1. O was associated with the Kailasa and Citrakil(a peaks. According to the southern Buddhist concep- tion the Himalayan region extended to the north up to the Gandhamadana range.? The Himalayan region had fair women who brought utter ruin on all that fen into their power. The Anotatta (Anavatapta) lake or the Manasasarovara. ~lfaMv . which was one of the seven great lakes situated in the Himalaya mountain. Le. 8 Mahavaf!UlO. 9 They contained horses of diverse breed. 10). 155. breadth and depth is too symmetrical to inspire confidence. 451. frogs.. washed away by the water from the ice (I. buffaloes. to A fuIl·grown goose. breadth and depth. deer.\amuw.18. The self-luminous roots and herbs give light to the Kiratas at night living with their wives in the dark caves of the Himalaya (I. 759. This mountain was resounded by the songs of 1 Pargiter. killed a buffalo and ate its flesh. peacocks and peahens were found on this mountain. Afijanaparvata. and the description of their length. but the Epic writers take it as a part of the Kailasa range. red and white lilies and white escrdent lilies... Mandara and Haima. 443. p. 36. 11).!aUi seems to be right in pointing out that there were two lakes each called Mahapadmahrada. KUlJiila. 1. The Hemakiita region is also known as KirflpurW?ava~a and the Haimavata region as Kinnara-kllalJo.. It then took a draught of water and came back to its cave. The Himalaya is noted for the yak having white fur (I. the region around the Miinasasarovara. IV. Their names are such as to defy all attempta at a correct identification. Rathakara. 101 j Manorathapiira1)I. M ahiibluirata. l!i~..& None of them can be satisfactorily identified. IT. Angultara. ' The Himalayan tract which is thickly covered with snow is troublesome to those who walk on it (I. In between Bharatava~a and Hariv~a are placed the Himalayan range and the Hemakii(a. l l The rivers and lakes were full of fish and the birds were numerous.sa. The Himalayan lake called the Chaddanta was 50 leagues long and 50 leagues broad. 100. reptiles. The nymphs. Elephants.- The Buddhist texts mention seven great Himalayan lakes: Anotatta. pythons. one connected with the Western Himalayan range (K~ra-Himavanta) and the other connected with the Eastern Himalayan range (MaM-Himavanta). The rays of the sun cannot dispel darkness with which tltis mountain is enveloped (I. which lived in a cave in the Citrakii(a mountain in the Himalayan region. Ibid. 113_ 11 Ibid . Act 1. 6). p.la. water-snakes. lions on this mountain. 322 f. which kill elephants.18. p. This is the setting of the countries and mountain ranges to be found in the Jaina text called the J amhudivapa'J~aUi and the Great Epic. Chaddanta. etc. 13). • Ibid.n. This lake contained white and red lotuses. ! VikramorooBi. the former lying to the south of the latter. VI. which is a part of the Rudra Himalaya. . HISTORICAL GBOGRAPHY OF ANCIllNT INDIA. Murkmu!eyapuni1}.Each of them is fifty leagues in length.a. Hiilgulaparvata. 497. Among the Himalayan peaks mention may be made of the MaQiparvata.. p. Mandakini and Sibappa- pata. The Jamhudlvappa~1. 37 . etc. . V. 8 The Himalayan mountain was the home of wild animals. took the wild paddy that grew on a natural lake. 208.' KaI:U. The chief territory of the Kiriitas was among the mountains: Kailii.• 4. although the mark of blood i. • Ibid.la. Sanuparvata and PhaUka- parvata. MaMbodhiv.. 152. The Himalayan forests are said to have abounded in elephants living in herds or as rogues. A lion dwelt in a cave of the Hima- layas. 12). 6 Jalaka. 1 Jiitaka~ V. p. III. V. II.

about 20 miles from Haridvara.Five hnndred ascetics came down frpm the Himalaya to procure salt and vinegar from Benaras. etc.grm·e of the Mallas of KuHniirii existed on the bank of thi.. 340). river (Digha.340-44. 75). Hirannavali (Hira1.85.171. The hermits and ascetics built many hermitages there. IV. The Buddha once stayed here in the Icchiinangalavanasaw)a (Ang. 101.c.. Ibid. 53.4 but we may cite 8.seeds could be procured from the Himalaya . V. Dey. I. 193. • Jataka.431. V.. went to the Himalayan region.143. 10 Ibid. 415).. l3i). VI. IV. III. 14 Ibid . IIr. There they lived for a long time on the forest roots and fruits.72. 272. 1 Jamb.pur(l1. 1. 58. possessed supernatural faculties and at last realized what was bliss. 6 Saundaranandakiivya. 74.§i country adopted the religious life of an ascetic in the Himalaya after his mother's death. called by the name of Hiilgula or Hingulii.khpur about eight miles to the west of the great Gandak and falls into the Gogra or Ghogra (Sarayu). Geographical Dictio1UJ.-It is in the Himalayan region (Jiitalca. .. 1 In winter trees were fonnd all 1I0wering as well as the blooming lotuses. hunters. Y.131. CLVIII. realizing the misery resulting from desire.s. nI. He dwelt there peacefully. II. 30. VI.541-3.10 A Brahmin helonging to the Kii. e Ibid.. Hingliij is situated at the extremity of the range of mountains in Baluchistan. 1I5). 3m 11 Ibid. II.395. 12. 390. 79. S An ascetic named Narada. 143.423. • Ibid. VI.n the Ganges on the road from Hardwar to Badrinath. VI. IccMnmigala. It is situated o.. Divyiivadiina.230. 371. went into this mountain and em braced the ascetic life. VO-naparva.130.ry. few of them. VI. The name of the village is given as Icchiinailkala in the Suttanipata (p.? Four rich householders of Benar. L. 11 Ibid.. 41.417.406. .. Nildiya. CLXXVII.57.272. The Siila..351. • NORTHBBN INDIA 85 birds.• This mountain region was penetrated by the hermits. where he took up the religious life. It 1I0ws through the district of Goro.!a. I. 437. 6). l l The king of Videha gave up his rule in the city of Mithilii.262. III. ete. He then climbed to a great height of this mountain. 361.-This mountain is situated 24 miles to the north of Hardwar. (N. Mahiibh.-It is the little Gandak and the same as the Ajitavati near Kusinarii. HmkeAa. 2'. which was the hermitage of Devadatta (VaraTw.353: III. • Ibid.411. p.232. 5 The famous hermitage knuwn as V~aparvan'B hermitage existed near the Mount Kailasa in the Himalaya. Ch. 14 Hiitgula Mounlain (Hiitgalaparvata). 37. p.284. 447.. 41. 8 A wealthy Brahmin adopted the life of an ascetic and took np his abode in the Himalaya after developing supernatural power.258. The examples are too numerou8. 497. who dwelt in a cave in the Himalaya spent seven days in meditation. the water was breast. There he killed deer and pigs and ate up their flesh. Accord· ing to some this hol:v city of the VaJ!?DavR-s is situated on the Ganges.. 548. 7 Jiitaka.!yavati). There when the pleasant stream ran full.269. VI.. and kings on hunting expeditions. 8 Ibid. 341 . Il.. IV. 37. .430. The hermitage of Kapila was by the side of the Himalayas not far from the river Bhagirathi. 65.. about 20 miles from the sea· coast on the bank of the Aghor or the Hiilgulii river. 4:65. 77.high." A king of Benaras after having entrusted his kingdom to his mother entered into the Himalayan region for killing deer and eating their lIesh)" Another king of Benaras went to hunt deer in the Himalayan region with a pack of well· trained hounds. MahdvaBh. 43i.-It was a Brahmin village in Kosala.6. l! Ibid. living on fruits only.Edible illy... cf. 5.

situated on the road from Kangra town to Nadaun. 17-18) Indra performed many religious sacrifices in this city. According to the K<ilikiipur<i~ (Ch. 77-78).-It is in the Tirwa tahsil of the Farrnkhabad district of the United Provinces where an inscription of the time of Virasena has been discovered (E. Isukira (RiBukiira)... 1. 48. It was 1. V. Isipatana-Migadaya (l!sipatana. Law. .. built on the bank ofthe Jumna ab(}ut two miles sonth of modern Delhi. pp. and beautiful town existed in the Kuru kingdom (Uttarridhyayana 8iitra. Vol. Mandi and Sukhet on the east and ~atadru on the south-east.I. X. XI. city (X. I). situated on the Ganges.).000 Ii or 167 miles in length from east to west. the chief town of the Dibhai pargana in the sub·division of the Bulandshahar district (G. p. 24). 01 India.n. 46). Acc(}rding to the Padmapurii~ (200. Indrapura. the first Piil)<:iava brother.. XXVI. III). I. following a south-westerly course.-This wealthy. This river appears first to our view at the south-west corner of Chamba in Kashmir. I. 58. It was the capital of Yudhi~thira. p. 25). Jiilandhara. pp. According to the Padmapurj~a (Uttarakhal)<:ia) it was the capital of the great daitya king Jiilandhara (G. It is also called Brhatsthala in the Mahiihharata. and the new city erected by the Piil)<:iavas has now become the seat of the government of India. No.. II. (For further details. L. XV.-Patafijali refers to it in his MahiihluJ. Dey. 30.I..-The Yoginitamra mentions it (1/ll.-This large and lofty mountain mentioned in the Ind(}re copperplate inscription of Skandagupta stands ahout five miles to the north· west of Dibhai. 2/9). p.-&me as Siirniith. and 800 Ii or 133 miles in breadth from north to south. (For further details. and meets the Chenab or the united flow of the Vitastii and Chandrabhiigii between Ahmadpur and Saraisidhu (Law. Indraprastha (the modern Indrapat near Delhi) was the second capital of the Kurus. while he assigned to his nephews. 85). It extended over seven leagues (Sattayojanike Indapattanagare-Jdtaka. XIV. 31. The length of the course of this river in the Himalayas is 130 miles. p. Jlinkhat.1. The ancient capital of the Kurus became insignificant in course of time. C. 140) this river has its origin in the Ira lake. 156ff. The blind king Dhrtar~tra rnled the old capital Hastinapura. which lies in the Baas Valley. p. 1). 24. the first being Hastinapura.wa (2. 10. a district on the Jumna. From Chamba it flows past Lahore. B. 8. where they founded Indraprastha. 2. see Law. XI.184).73. Since then this place became famous as Imrra- prastha. 71. • HISTORICAL OBOGBAPHY OJ' ANCI1I:NT INDIA I~mali. Indrastharw. Jiilan- dhara included the state of Chamba on the north.-It i8 an ancient site in the Dera Gopipur tahsil of the Kangra district in the Punjab. the five Piil)<:iua. p. f. Pt. vide N. 53).A.l. It is mentioned in the Kamauli plate of Govindachandra (V. as its ruins testify. It was once a considerable and opulent town. Jawalamukhi. Geographical Dictionary.S. This river rises in the rock-basin of Bai:tgahal and drains the southern slopes of the Pir Pafijal and the northern slopes of the Dhaula Dhar.-It is a river in Ku~etra (Bhiigaval4purri~. 212. 537. Rtver. XI. lr<ivali. worshipped Ramapati several times and offered many treasures to the Brahmins in the presence of NirayaJ)a. identified with the present Meerut district of the United Provinces. the Greek Hydraotis or Adris or Rhonadis. Holy pltJces oj India.Mrigad'itJa). 33.-The BMgavatapurri~a mentions it as .G. It is the modern Riivi.A. 18). It has been identified with Indraprastha (E. 1. famous.. p. It is now chiefly famous for the temple of the goddess Jawalii- mukhI..!. Geography oj Early BuMhi811J.13).

tanks.-It was one of the royal gardens in Northern India which became a favourite retreat of the Buddha (Digha. M. No. by Nevill. For further details vide B. Jhusi. According to Alberuni the great battle between Vikramiiditya and the Sakas was fought here. To complete this work of piety a huge amount of money had to be spent.lika. Kahrar. service halls (upa!!Mnaacilci8). I.I. According to the Vinaya account the banker caused to be built therein a number of buildings. 22ft'.. Gayii and BwMhagayii.nent centre of Buddhism in K08ala proper.. XXV. 27-31).laviila king of Kanauj.-e miles to the west by south of Salampur·Majhauli. p.G. p.. In this viMra the Buddha lived for some time (Dipa- fI<l".a Cammemary (P.. 407). Vol. This locality at Sriivasti occurs in Luders' List. halls with fire-places in them (aggistilci8). The Karerikuti. 104-5. II..I. the Gaha<.S. A Buddhist inscription from Bodhgaya ofthe reign of Jayacandra- deva points out that Govindacandra.. the chief town of the Salampur-Majhauli pargana. 245). the purchaser of the site (PapancasiiJfuni. e. This monastic institution is represented as Anathapil).a.. 1924..).S. Kadamba. pp.c. which perpetuates the noble deeds of Prince Jets. pavilions. 50 miles to the south-east of Multan and 20 miles to the north-east of Bahawalpur (C. tiravasti in Indian lJiteraiure. closets. wells. It was a Buddhist monastic establish- ment in the suburb of Sravasti. 382).1. 59). Kahaum. 102).T. p. The ~ottamapuri plates of Ramacandra refer to this mountain (E.liks's cir':ma to perpetuate the memory of Anathapiuc.g. store-rooms (koffha- kas). retiring rooms (parive~aa). p.-The ancient town of Jhusi stands on the left bank ofthe Ganges at a distance of 14 miles south-west from Phulpur (Allahabad District Gazetteer.. set apart several villages for the support of the monks living in the Jetavana Vihiira (E. As soon as the Prince agreed to sell it..-The Kahaum stone pillar inscription of Skandagnpta mentions this village.. the Gandhakuti and the Salalaghara were the four main buildings in the Jetavana (SumangalaviUisini. Barh1d.<. II.l. 1/12). Prince Jeta's garden appeared to be the desired site. bath-rooms. p. according to the Mahiiva". while the Bodh-gaya relief illustrates only the scene of fulfilment of the term of purchase (Barua. p. cloisters.lika W&8 erected the first perma. C.. dwelling rooms (viMras).5 (Barna and Sinha. Barna. It w"" situated at a distance of one mile to the south ofSravasti (modem Saheth-Maheth). 68ft'.. married to a Buddhist princess named Knmiiradevi. I. Mahiiva". 2Off. No. p. NOBTHK&¥ DIJlIA Jetavana.A. II.. 1. particularly in SravastL Mter his return to Sriivasti from Riijagrha the banker AniithapilJ. which is also known as Kakubha or Kakubhagrama. 731 as well as in the Jiitaka Label No.A. 21.60-61). Barhut Inscriptions. who w. are represented in the Barhut bas-relief. etc. 7).I. 50. III). . Kaili8a. With the construction of the Jetavana monastery and the formal dedication of the same to the Buddha by Anathapil)<. in the Dewaria tahsil in the Gorakhpur district (C.a. who is said to have laid out the Jetavana garden. 178) and an early centre of Buddhism.-It is mentioned in the Yoginitantra (1/1. situated about fi.I.lika was on a look~out for a suitable site for constructing the iirfima. the banker employed his men to cut down the trees and clear the site. Law.).-This mountain does not seem to be far from the Himalaya (Apadana. It is interest- ing to note that all the stages in the process of construction of this monastery consummated by the ceremony of dedication. the Kosambakuti. It was at this place that king Prasenajit of Ko8ala became the Buddha's disciple (Samy-uJla Nik<iya. XI. 277).-This ancient town is situated on the BOuthern bank of the old Bias river. The whole of the site W&8 laid with gold.

1upura granted the village of Usitha to a Brahmin.. Sf.IO 1 B..e Jaina Garnmical Siitras. • MahflbMrata. Law.ini's A~fadhyayi (4.!. Rivera oj India. p. C.7 Twenty ·one copperplates of the kings of Kanauj t()gether with four other inscriptions are said to have been found in this village. 82.-It is an upper tributary of the Ganges. vide B. 23. erected three 8tUpas.-The Kambojas are supposed to have occupied the Western Himalayas. Bharata built . 83.ima. It is known to the Jainas by the name of the A. L. p. I. 7). pp. It is the Kangrinpoche of the Tibetans.-This village stands near the confluence of the Bama and the Ganges at Benaras.l1'TI.. 71 Bnd r. Law.four Jina images together with his own.Narapati. Ch. Santanu lived on this mountain and also on the Gandhamadana (Ch. mountain where the BOns of ~abha and many sages attained perfection. caitya called SiI)lhanir..oka's Rock Edict. 5.bharata range in Nepal. Law. It takes its rise in the lIfahii. 4 Law. Law. 13. • E. Ch. They are referred to in Piil). It may be identified with the VaidyfItaparvata.) refers to Kailiisa (Ch.-It was situated in the island of Alasanda or Alexandria. B. 4. 92-94. 24).~iipad .rajatraytUhipali originally used by the Kalacuri kings of 1?ahala.nd then proceeded to the Sa.. River8 of ImJia.88 HISTORICAL GBOOBAPHY Oll' ANCIENT INDIA Pt. i Milinda. Geography of Early Buddhil1'm. 7 E. 9. Kalidasa refers to KaiIasa in his Kumiirasambhava (Nirl)ayasiigar Ed. 3 He then arrived at the mango-grove a. 3 Digha. Law. Dey. RiivaJ:la was attacked by BalLI The Kailii. .. This mountain. p. 22. 8 E.! . 27). p. p.!a-grove of the Matias near KuBiniira. the lower course of which is known as the Ghugri.. It miles to the west of Chitiyaon in the Gorakhpur district. Mountaim of India. The Kamala receives two tributaries on the right side and five on the left. p. The MaMbMrata (Vanaparva. V. An inscription has been found here which records that Maharajaputra Govindacandra from his victorious camp at Vi. Indr. 134ff. 50 miles behind the latter. situated about 25 miles to the north of Minasaasrovara. I. and twenty. It is called a king of mountains. Carlleyle has identified it with the river Ghagi. 83. 156) includes the Kumaun and Garwal mountains in the Kailasa range. XXVI. I. p. 6. viii.-Panha.23).ma is said to be situated on this mountain.':iJ. II~ 358-81. :J9. M. 37. Goographical Dictianary~ pp. Geography of Early Buddhism.8 Kamboja (Kamboja). 6). Chs.Sakumiiracaritam. 25. The Buddha while going from Rajagriha to Kusinara had to cross this river which was near KuSinara..-It is a small stream called Barhi which fallB into the little Gandak. 82. Kamauli.m. Ch. p. I For further details. It was visited by Siva and Parvati (Ibid.sa range runs parallel to the Ladakh range. 14. IV. It is also known as BhuWagiri surrounded by the river Nanda also called Ganga (Bhiigavatapurii>. Pt. It is also called Hemakiita according to the MaMbhdrata (BlW. Bhj~Bparva. 129. For further details.- Kalasig.adya..a (Vailgabiisi Ed. 97ff. Baru8~ AJoka and Hu in. Badarikasra. 1 KakuttM. 10 B. He assumed the ambitious titles of A8vapati- Gajapati. a king of Ik!?vaku~s line (Da. Udnna.. It was the birthplace of king Menander . C. vide N. p.n. 5. and joins the Ganges at Karagola. C. 16. 54). IV. 1.!. II. p. The Kiilikiipltrii1).• Kamali.ally they are located in the north . eight miles below Kasiii. VIII. in south Purnea. V.8Cripti0n8. also known as the Sailkaragiri was visited by Virasekhara. Geographic. It contains a number of groups of giant peaks." It was Govindacandra who re-established the supremacy of his line over Kiinyakubja and the territories depending on it.. 144.maparva.31). 7. 317. Bon of Manaaavega and grandson of Vegavat. 174. II. 175) and in Patafijali's MaMb~a (1. V). 175) as well as in A.

100). . Ch. 548). 36. p. 101). Agnip.Srama.K. A. 9·10. I I . 243) or Kapilahvaya- pura (Ibid. Vamanap. The famous Rummindei Pillar marks the site of the ancient Lumbinl garden.-It was the capital of the Sakyas among whom the Buddha was hom. 396. pp... I. It was surrounded by seven walls accord- ing to the MaMvaslu (Vol.tiipas (Northern India according to the Shui-Ching. C. Kamboja was famou.. This mountain is continuous with the Hindu Kush on the west. 399. VI. 'From Lampa to Rajapura the inhabitants are coarse and plain in personal appearance of j rude violent dispositions. B.. 28). Kapilav(Ultu (Chia... 7) Kankhala (Kanakhala). LiivJap. 4. 2). the city is described as Kapilasya vastu (B. 50·51. Ch. According to the Shui·Ching·Chu the city contained some Upa. 30).. 12. 36). C. of Ancient India.. Ch. It is also known as Kapilavastu (Divyavadiina. 75. According to some it was situated on the river Cham bal (MaMbMrata. 47. MountairM of India. Ch.ta. X. On Yuan Ohwang. and is hence older than the Himalayan proper. Chu by L.. pp. Smith hag placed this country among the mountains either of Tibet or of the Hindu Kush. NOBTII1mN INDIA. with Piprawii in the north of the Basti district of the Nepal frontier. The Padmap1lriir. 94). C. the Karakorum or the Black mountain (Viiyu Puriir. Rhys Davids takes Tilaura Kot to be the old Kapilavastu. 109) while in the opinion of others it existed on the bank of the river Narmada (Padmap.. 397. 82. 14-Tirtha- miihiitmya) mentions it as a tirtha or a holy place (cf. . and got considerably folded and faulted subsequent to its uplift (B. Himalaya (Jiilaka. v. Geography of Early Buddhism. Mahiibhiirata. the traditional scene of Siikyamuni's birth.-It is situated two miles to tbe east of Hardwar at the junction of the Ganges and the NiiadhiiriL It was the scene of Dak. This mountain is of Hercynian age. I Jaina 800M (S. 13). Ch. Law. 7. X. Kafirona Mouniain. p.. They completely repaired the dilapidated . pp. Indological Studi. . I.-It is the Uttar.ta (Ch. Ka~hagi". Vanaparva. Ch.E.1 V. country (II. Petech. 1 Watters. p..). Trib . 4 and 34.Yueh). Wei.B. .akas (lay disciples) and about 20 householders belonging to the Sakya family.-This i.-The hermitage of the sage Kii!)va who adopted Sakuntala as his daughter was called Dharmara!)ya. for its horses which were speedy and were of perfect form. same as Kn"lagiri mountain (Kanheri) (Ludera' List. They were eettled to the north·west of the Indus and were the same as Kambu· jiya of the old Persian inscriptions. II. 82. Kapilapura (Lalitavistara. In the BuMl!acarilakavya." For further details. Vincent Smith is inclined to identify Kapilavastu. p. No. Pt. I. Speaking of Rajapura Yuan Chwang says. 284ff'. 67). flowing through the districts of Saharanpur and Oudh.<a-yajfia of the Purii!)as (Kflrmap. 1123). It i. pp. p. The people of this city highly cultivated religious energy and still maintained the old spirit. Some haye placed them in Rajapura. Law. . U. Law. which lay not far from the Lumbinlgriima. Ka!1va(Kattva)·d.Io. 89 The Kambojas appear to have been one of the early Vedic tribee. Vol. Some have assigned it to the country round modem Sindh and Gujrat. The Bhiigavatapurti'1}a refers to it a8 a. 35. 84. According to modern geographers the Karakorum mountain was uplifted earlier. Chs. The Yoginilanlra (2-6) mentions it. Vana- parva. I. they do not belong to India proper but are inferior peoples of frontier stocks '. The Divyiivadiina connects Kapilavastu with the sage Kapila (p. . Ch. 33). I. situated on the bank of the river Malinl. vide B. II. 75).

. 77.r of Kohistan. Tribea in Ancient India.-KapiBa (Chinese K ia-pi-8hi) i8 the Capissa of Pliny and the Caphusa of Solinus. poverty could not find any place there. The villages were few and desolate. Rummindei is only 10 miles to the east of Kapilavastu and two miles north of Bhagaviinpura. HISTORICAL G80GBAPKT or A. 98.d by the beauty of a lofty table-land (BudtiJuuarita.. II. Th.d with fur.-pi-lo-fa-. 281f. pp. The climate was cold and windy. had no supreme ruler. 123) Kapilavastu was a great city.. -ti.. Orography of Early Buddhillm. Vol. which is the headquarters of the Pro- vincial Gov. Between this city and that of Koliya the water of the river Rohi1.U was caused to be confined by a Bingle dam (Dhammapada Commentary. It was an abode of the learned and a resort of the virtuous. hundred convents.re four city gatas and tow. 58. I). They used gold.rs set up at various places..nts used hair garments and garment. to have occupied the Panjshir and the Tagao vall. According to Ptolemy it was situated 166 mil •• north·. The king of the place was a Ksatriya.. 0' Pa. p. and the monasteries were more than 1. vide B. 264-65). 248-49. p. trimm. situated in the Nepal Tarai. As there was no improper taxation. the city was thinly populated. I..rnment of Tarai.. and honoured this city because the Buddha was hom here. l82ff. I. high and convoked an assembly called the Mo~amaMpar~ when alms were dis- tributed to the poor and the wretched... two miles north of Tauliv8. king ABoka personally cam. I. Th. pp.000 li in circuit. There w. II. 2.rji agrees with Rhys Davids and identifies Kapilavastu with Tilaura. He erected a stone pillar to mark the site of the Buddha's birth. III. and the language was rud. Law. sangluiriima8 and deva temples (Beal.. silver and copper coins. 19). made Lumhinigriima free from taxes.Hi. full of gardens. soft and obliging (Beal. According to Hiuen Tsang. 254). C. It produced various kinds of cereals and fruit tree. avenues and market-places. The city had intelligent ministers (Suundaranandakavya. Mter the passing away of the Buddha topes and shrines were huilt at or near Kapila- vastu (Watters. 3481f. inhabit. Buddhist RuordA of the We8tern World. were cruel and fierce. it was about 4. where prosperity alone shone resplendently (Buddh=aritakavya. . Kapi8a. Every year he used to make a silver figure of the Buddha 18 ft. 68. v.. 4). Accord- ing to Hiuen Tsang this country was 10 Ii in circuit. He loved his subjects very much. It was rich and fertile and was cultivated according to the regular season. by Legg<>. 541f.1. 102.. According to the Rummindei Inscription.. C. 1 T. and the villagers had to pay an eighth share of their produce (C. north of Gorakhpura.. In this city there was the Mote Hall (8antMgara) where the administrative and judicial business was carried out (Buddhist India.ast from Kabul. 64. BwUhist RecordA of the We8tern World... pp. 113. 14).' Here he saw toW. pp.I.000 in number. inhabitants of the plac. With arched gateways and pinnacles it was BUr- round.. 4).. pt. According to the Lalitavistara (pp. For furtber· details. 101..ys in the north bord. Mukh. stu pas.NClENT INDIA P. III.. Julien supposes this plac. pp. Orographical E88ays. m. There were Deva temples where different sectarians worshipped. The MaMvattlu (I. The Shen horses were bred here. vv. p.. H. This town which was known to the Chinese as Ki..) gives a story of the foundation of Kapilavastu. I. According to the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hien. There were on. The climate was uniform and the manners of the peopl.). On Yuan Chwa/nil. Vol. I ndological Studie8. and 3i miles to the south-west of the Nepslese village of Nigliva. 6). all over the city..

V. LXIV. This park was given to the Buddha by a banker of Saketa named Kalaka.-It is one of the names of the Mern mountain. Kama-d8rama. II. pp. It i. 1949) refers to Kausamyapur. 18. 34)..Ja. 15. Sari'" 33. published in J. C. A. In ita eastward course it meeta the river Karatoya having the At.dikal!r)a. 465ft'. It is also mentioned in the Yoginitantra (2/4. XXVllI. E.I. Savatthi. Vol. Karm'lsadharma.. Klimpilya (Vedic Kamrf. Cowell. X. Kri/akiirrima.l4 (Adik" v. It seems to have largely shifted ita course (Pargiter. 140).-It was a sm.. 13. Sinhalese Ed. IV) on the authority of Megasthenes . 9). 1895. 23. (Dhammapada Cammy. v.. Barhut Inscriptions. Kiikandi was originally the abode of J.-This hermitage was situated at the confluence of the Sarayii and the Ganges.. E. Dangur Inscription of D. the dangerous and uncertain nature of its bed and chiefly for ita constant westerly movement. the abode of Siva (Siri{Jv. •On changes in the course of the KuSi river and the probable dangers arising from them'. 12.I" Vol.asa. Saka 1329.-The Ajayaga4!> stone inscription (vs. 2). XXIII. 219ft'. Jrit" V. SkanMp. 94-95. Anguttara Cammy" Sinhalese Ed. W.). The Mahabharata (138.A.-This is the same as Kakandi of the Jaina Patjiivali and of Buddhist literature. 79. 19) describes it . Vol. V. 8) as a great river issuing from the Himalaya.t~i Kakanda (Kakamia88a nivtiso K'ikamli). V. Ift'. The Bhiigavatapurri1)a mentions this river (I. 194). p. III. IX.ll town in the Kuru country visited by the Buddha (Ang" V.-It was the capital of the Koliya country which lay to the east of the Sakva territorv (Jataka. pp. vide B. 19.. Geographical Essays. is probably the ri"er Cos 80anaa mentioned by Arrian in his Imlika (Ch. IIIQRTHKRIi IIIID14 III Kara. Hunter in his Siati8tioal Account of Be:nga! (Purnea) 1877.. Pt.. July..-It was the capital of southern Paiicaia. For further details. The location of this place is unknown.-This place of historical importance is situated at a distance of about five miles north-east from Sirnthu and 41 miles from Allahabad (E. note). pp.dikiil)da. p. 1345. I.--':It is the modern river Kusi. Kosambi. 73-74) definitely mentions Kiimpilya as the capital of sonthern. being one of the navigable tributaries of the Ganges. 482ft'.. v. KOSi. 34. Pt.la. beautiful as the abode of Indra.r Inscription of Yridava M aJuUeva-raya.. II. Ch. 18). Balakiil)<. remarkable for the rapidity of ita stream.S. it was like Makandi.l4.-It is Mount KailMa.a. 29-30). But . Ch. which flows into the Ganges through the district of Pumea in Behar (Rrimoiyal. KakaJ?Uli. Paiiciila. KauJamyapura.B. This river is mentioned in the Rrimaya1. III. Krimagrima.sa. 128-129). A. Pt. J.. which seems to be identical with KauSiimbi or Kosam in the Allahabad district. Varrihapurri1)a. PaJi Kampilla). cf.varaya M aharaya. The Rrimriya1)a (A. also known . KauAiki (Pali: KoBiId. 36.. Kar?}ikricala. It appears to view under this name in the southern part of eastern Nepal as the united flow of four rivers.. Shillingford. Ch.I. 37).).. 292. Avanti- Khal!r)a. as pointed out by W. Law.-This monastery was at Saketa where the Buddha onos dwelt. (Rrimaya1)a. p. Markargeyapura1. RQ{}huva"... three of which have their origin in Tibet. XXII. Mahadeva is said to have destroyed Madana in this hermitage with the fire of his third eye on his forehead. Kavif.i and the Tista for ita aIBuents (vide F. that is to say..). 18. KrilimlL-See Yamuna. p. This river. and Kapilavastu (Barna and Sinha.

It was dug out by many warriors and the lesser tunnel was dug out by seveD hundred men. the initiation and th~ Jinahood. • Kri8ikavrtti. 413. 104 and llS. etc . Ad. II. who was celebrated as Paneal. Ch. L. It was well decorated (for details vide Jlitaka.i Brahmanatta " . 19. Ch. namely. Railway). which was the the capital of Paiicala. The tunnel was bnilt up with bricks and worked with stucco... VI. the Jatakas erroneously locate it in Uttarapafieala. The entrance into the greater tunnel was provided with a door fitted with a machinery. 379. 1 Ranriya~!a. According to N. Kiimpilya was a very rich town. instructed 1 J{daka. 50) definitely locate it on the bank of the Ganges. 36. 128·129) mentions it.a.It was a sacred place of the Jainas. 88).<.• V.73) and the Jain:. The Yoginlta7!lra (2/4.lava.taka. 410)." son of king HarYaSva. . According to Borne the renowned astron0mer Sri Varahamihira. 8 JiJ. Altindisches Leben. Kiimpilya i. 8. e V~~upurii~a. A. Dey it was situated at a distance of 28 miles north·east of Fatbga. YI.B. Adiparva. Taitti· nya Briihma>:>a (III. 2. IR4. This city witnessed Svayamvara ceremony of king Drupada's daughter named Draupadi who chose of her own accord the five Pal). 3 Indische Studim. 21.hita (VII.. the disciple of KaU1). III.I . Barga 33.).<)inya and Gard8

Related Interests

ali. There were many chambers a. 6). King Cli!a!).hitn (III.I. The loos. 23).< The Mahlibhlirata (1. the thirteenth Tirthailkara.nd lamp.aka Nirjjuti (383) also mentions it as the birthplace of the thirteenth Tirthailkara. The epithet Kampilavasiru which is applied to a woman. O.. A. U.lain... 12l. 4. the king of PI1!thi Campa. . the coronation. It is only five miles distant from the railway station of Kaimganj (B. 37 . occurs in the TaiUiriya Sa". 329ff. brothers of the MaMbMrata rame.. 3). • Hari~e~a. Weber and Zimmer take Kampila as the name of a town known as Kampilya in later literature. 3911f. 20). was born in this city (B.. 1 It was an ancient city of India to which Pa!. Ibid .G. Vividhatirthakalpa (p. who was a son of king K. the nativity. the descent. Brahmadatta. idcntical with modern Kampil on the old Ganges between Budaon and Farrukhabad.92 mSTOBlCAL OROGRAPHY OF ANCIENT nfDlA. this city was also known as the Paficakalyal. Ch. son of Nipa of th" Ajami<. 2. 12.C.138. Ovavliiya . Law Volume. I). VI. 9. pp. 19. 240). Ibid. .uya (39) mentions it. Adikiit:l9R.lini refers. 391. (GeographiMl Dictianary. who renounced the world a.. Ibid. a V~upura~. On account of the happening of these five incidents.B. 4. I.P.'. and prosperous. Part II.. were the rulers of Kampilya. Here in Kiimpilya Gagali.dava brothers as her husbands (Mahlibh.! in the district of Farrukhabad.tavarman by bis queen Somadevi.' A highly artistic tunnel (Ummn. VI. was converted to Jainism by Gautama. before he left for the Himalayan region. 255 . II. Cunningham. Ibid. instructed by the learned Brahmins in religious and secular matters (Ja/aka.. 214. Nos. 138. father of Draupadi.la dynasty. . KathakofC!. Drupada. and Satapalha Brahma'l}a (XlII. IV. 433...'aka. The mouth of the greater tunnel was on' the bank of the Ganges.. The Brahmin. Maitrayani Sa". Ch. saint..gga) was dug out from the Ganges to the royal palaeo at Kampilya. 3 The Jain. the .S. I. and Samara...lIi Bhagarotapurat)a. Riimliyar. It was hallowed by the five auspici()us incidents in the life of Vimalaniitha.nd attained liberation here. 22. the wife of the five Pan<. This city was ruled by many important kin~s.cells in it.. . There was a king named Paficiila who gave shelter to a learned Brahmin in his royal garden. i9. It also claimed Arijamitra.7 Kampily.

I.I. 283). When the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited it in the 7th century A. The people were honest a. Priieina Mudrii. picked up a quarrel with him.he close of the 11th century A. It was the birthplace of Visviimitra (Riimiiya1)a.avardhana was the reigning sovereign. Yadus and Yavanas wore forced to acknowledge Cakriiyudha Ila the king of Kiinyakubja (R.KalpabLta of K. p. p.nd Gra..tapurii1)" (VI. The Ratnapur Stone Inscription of Jajalladeva ()f the Cedi year 866 mentioIlB that Jajalla was allied with the ruler of Cedi and honoured by the prince of Kanyakubja Jejiibhuktika (E. 1040-1070 A. • 66th pallava.' Kiimpilya was ruled by good and bad kings. According to him the Ganges w.I.. D.21) as a city of Ajaruila.000 Ii in circuit. who was " contemporary of king Naggaji of Gandhara. Kanyakubja was under the rulers named Avantivarman a. pp. p. and king Brahmadatta to whom the MahiivCMtu also refers (Vol. Malsyas. 33).attvl1t'{1Mna.I.4) refers to it. 299) KaImakujja or Kiinyakubja was visited by the venerable elder Revata from Sankassa (SaIJ1kasya). It had a dry ditch around it with strong and lofty towers. VI) menti(lllS a princess of Kiinyakubja named RiijysSri who was cast into prison. S Dharmaruci was a very pious king of Kampilya who carried his whole army to KiiSi through the air hy virtue of his piety when the king of Benara. son of Gangeyadeva (R.". 379ft". IV. The old capital of Kiinyakubja was originally called KUBumapura (vide 1M A.D. Vol.llahabad posthumou". His ministers were also unrighteous. The subjects were also oppreased by the royal officers who used to plunder them by day and the robbers robbed them of their wealth at night. p. III). 79tf. subjects by heavy taxation.D. It is also mentioned in the Bhdgava. For clothings they used ornamented and bright. as related in the Mahiibluirata (Ch.H.-It was also kn()WD as Giidhipura. Pt.. It was visited by ViSvamitra. XVIII. observe the fast days and to be religious (Jiitaka. Banerjee. 15). on the west side of Kanal'j and not on the cast. This kingdom was about 4. 167-69). V. noble and gracious in appearance. 17). • JiiJ. 4 and 68th pallaVB.. Hiuen Tsang saw 100 Buddhist establishments at Kiinyakubja. The climate was agree. 87. Intro.l The BooM· ..havannan.a. I UUOf'iirlhyayana SiUf"a. Towards t.40. slaughter. The people were well off and contented. 1. II. Kiinyakubja. KnBasthala and Mahadaya.).. as hcld by Cunningham.). 98ff. Bal. able and soft. s!<me pillar inscriptirm of Samudragupta-C. " Vividhalirthakulpa.emendra 2 mentions king Satyarata who was very pious. 39.nd sincere.shining 1 Jlitaka. Balakiinda). It contained flowers and woods. lakes and ponds. I. Kanyakubja came under the sway of Karnadeva (C. p. King Dummui<ha. Han. . III. I. III. p. • Abhidhdna·Rajendra. 246). p.I. 50 . King Safijaya of Kampilya gave up his kingly power and adopted Jainism being instructed by a monk not to indulge in life. The city of Kiinyakubja existed in the kingdom of Paneiila (E. 1S It is modem Kanauj. who were the descendants of Susthitavarman Maukhari (Gupta Inscripti01Ul. renounced the world after having listened to the religious discourse delivered hy the four Pauekahuddkas. According to the Vinayapi(aka (Vol. A copperplate discovered at Khalimpura points out that the kings ()f the Bbojas.i> in his HarJ}acarita (Ch. NORTHERN INnU 93 the king to keep the moral law.. 215). 9. Kurus.- The modem town of Kampil contains two Jain temples which are frequenred by visitors from all parts of the globe. D. Viiligiiliir Itihii.D. IV. Banerjee. The Yoginitantra (2. An unrighteous king of this city oppressed hi..

Kiloi is included in the list of sixteen MaMjana- padas (Ang. They were fond of learning. XXVI. 51. Paliisapura and A!abhi within the kingdom of Jiyasattu according to the Jaina Ut-asagadasao (pp.. April. p. The Kamauli Plate of Govindacandra. E. Two copperplate inscriptions refer to the reign of the MaMraja- dhiriija Mahendrapala of Kanauj (E.).. MaMbMrata. r. He devoted his heart and soul to the performance of good works. 2.32. 1184) refers to it (E. 163). He brought the monks together for examination and dis~ cussion.mma and Moliru (Jataka. There were believers in the Buddha and heretics equal in number (Beal. giving reward and punishment according to merit and demerit. pp.. Panini in his A§tiidhy'. and Palaftjali. I. I... 213. 81.. 13.. p. p. lcubjanarendra.l. Pt. XVIII.). II. namely. who was his rival. 63) it lies in the midst of the rivers Varal)ii ~nd Asi.I. KaAi. VIII.. which have been generally identified with one and the same place. 7).I. 0.uj (E. 78). 1941.I. 71). He was an indefatigable worker (Watters. 35.-This is a small village.23. 19-23) and the Yoginitamra (1/2. first attempt was foiled (E. 101). 53. I. According to tho Kfmoopurii7Ja (Pul"

Related Interests

abbiiga.55 and XII.yi (4. V--Karitaldi 8tom Imcrip!ion of La~ma'l}l1rrija). refers to Kusika. v. Ch. No. 105..9aviila king Govindacandra were discovered at Kanauj (E..I.lern World.. II. and two were devoted to religious works.. The Surat grant of Trilocanapala' contains the earliest reference to a. of which one was given up to a. Kosalas and Kuru. Dharma- pal. 58. as a town.ffairs of government. 30. of 1184 V.. Pupphavati. appear to have been under the Gurjara rulers of Kanauj. Dhailga obtained exalted sovereignty after defeating the king of Kanauj (Krinya.. which was the chier city of the ancient kingdom of Kiisi. 244). IV. IV. The Kamauli plate of Govin<lacandra (V. X. 15.nd also Buddhist monasteries.I.. 61-66). X. IX. Rii~rakula family at Kan"uj... 71. Surlassana.!\lhana. 256. HISTORIOAL GBOGRAPHY 011' ANCIB. did not give up his ambition to occupy Ranauj even though hi. 2/4) make mention of tllis holy city.85..I. Five copperplate inscriptions of the Gaha. 197). 66. 116).S. I..Iikula (E. The king!s day was divided into three periods. The Gwalior Prasasti tells us that Pratihara Vatsariija wrested the BOvereignty of Ranauj from Bhal)<.. I.tcs inform us that Ra~lrakflla Dhruva defeated Vatsariija. 343-44). 149ff. VI.A. XV. 1.s. Giidhipura and Kanyakubja. the headquarters of It tahsil of the same name in the Jabbalpur district (E. The Skandapu'rrirpa (Ch. 206-207). 1. 260).. Ra. of.'! Records of the W . 17) also mentions this city.. It is situated 80 miles below Allahabad on the north .I. IV. King of Kanauj. Ch. Pt. It was an important town like Kampillapura. who in his tum inflicted a defeat on the Gau<. Brahmava<. The king also made visits of inspection throughout his dominion. The territories of the Malavas. It was known by different names in different ages.:a- vardhana was just in his administration and punctilious in the discha. 84. 46j. Ranauj was the capital of the Maukbari kings before the time of H"~"vardhana. 5.I. K'. That the Ra~trakfitas lived in the vicinity of Kanauj is definitely proved by the Budaun Stone Inscription of Lak~­ mal)apiila (E. occurs in Lliders' List. 90. 10. Gariyapitaka. Budd". in his MuhahMma (2. X.la king. 160. Yuan Chwang. ur. Tbe reigning king of Ranauj in his time named Ha. 29 miles north by east of Mnrwam. the modern Kana. It was Govin"acandra who re-established the supremacy of his line over Kanyakubja and the territories depending on it. 925.ritaldi. I. 84. 32). Surundhana.NT INDIA fabrics. Kalikapurii'l}l1. XXVI.-Among the holy places of India KiiSi or Varal)asi stands pre- eminent (Saurapurii1Jl1.rge of his duties. 252. XXIII. 22. p. 95. mention KiiSL The Bluigatyjtapurii~ a (IX. Pt. 8. The Wani and Randhanpur pla.n. 199. He erected many topes on the hank of the Ganges . 84. Viira!)asi. . 57. I. p.

(2) lUjadhiini-Varii.:vati mentioned in the Atharvaveda CIV. I. Rdmdya. I. Vol.I.g. 316).' and Asi. Some Jaina Carumical SiitrU8.. N. The people were humane and were earnestly given to at.A.T}asi-here lived the Yavanas. WR8 included in the list of great cities suggested by Ananda as a suitable place for the parinirvd!.. 7. III. the Vam. Ii. 445. 197.\[adana-VariiQasi. XVI. Jat. 18). It was a most populous and prosperous country (Doom.asi was known to the Chinese as P'o~lo~ni-sse. 174-175). XlV. cf. a_ ..000 Ii in circuit and was very densely populated. Ana·.. From the joint name of the two streams. According to the JainI' VividOOtirthakalpa Viiral)asi is divided into four parts: (I) Deva-VariiI. The VaraI. Brhadiira1)yaka Upan~ad. 478. Buddhist and Jain literature.Viirii"asi (Law.. It was built by S[. India Office Plate of Lak.. HORTHON INDIA 96 bank of t·he Ganges. VaraI). XXVI. Varal). II.'iIii. and Vatsa on the west (Cambridge History of India. 34).287. pp. (3) . 467ff. 5. I. It was visited hy king Hariscandra accompauied by his wife Saivya and son (Murkaruf.04. 608) was 12 yojanas. 213. dominions from Benaras and Kanauj to the confluence of the Sarayil and Gharghara (Gogra) in Ayodhya Wvzabad district). 109. II.. II.. 355.lapal)i Mahiideva. 87). mentioned several times in the Vedic literature and in the Epics (8ankhyayana 8rautasiltra. 5. 2. 71). The climate' wa. I)..Northern I1UJcription8. 8. II. the crops abundant. which features fairly in Hindu. 429. S1ttfanip. Baudhayana 8rauta811tro. II. 75). III. VI. A Buddhist inscription from Bodh-Gaya of the reign of Jayacandradeva refers to !Cas. It .gharamas and 100 deva-Umples.ita Cammy.Tinapallas. Rawian Grant. The extent of the city &8 mentioned in the Jiiiaka (IV. From BOrne of the Gahagavala records (e. 29.P. It was a wealt. An inscription from Samath refers to the repair of some religious buildings in this city (1.450. 441f...la which is undoubtedly a considerable rivulet mew be identified with the river Varal). 377.hy and prosperous city (Afl. of. pp. Near Benara. I. I. They were mostly unbelievers and a fcw paid reverence to the Buddha (BeaI. The southem boundary of the city of Benaras extended at least up to the confluence of the Asi and the Ganges (I. Jat. I.338. 5231f. II..a.S. p. There were about 30 safl.. BOOndar- kar's Liat oJ. The Candrivat[ Grant of Candradeva (E.udy..eya- pural'a. 139-140). E. xm.a of the Buddha (Digha.si. 148).. 1. Dhammapada Commentary.tood on tbe left bank of the Ganges. l46). (DhammapaJa Cammy.. !Jatapatka Brahmal'U. VI. which bound the city to the north and the BOuth. DigOO. and the underwood thick in every place. No.).. of the Western World. III. VI. XVIII.~maflasena according to the lIfiidhiiinagar Grant (J. II. 391. Barhut I1UJcripti<JM. Cammy. 160. Variil~asi is also called Kiiiinagara and !Casipura (J..8. It could he reached from Sriivasti by convenient roads. V. p.ii. pp..C. VI. 123). Buddhist Record. the name Viira- nasi is derived.lasi-here stands the temple ofVisvanath wherein are to be seen twenty-four . 4..guttara. KitSi i. 151. 198. Pt.I. 115. The kingdom of Kiisi was bordered by Kosala on the north. 7. Vangavasi Eel. Magadha on the east.s soft.. V. III. KauSitaki Upan."ad. Jot. there was a locality named CundaHhila (Cundavila) which finds mention in the Barhut InsCriptions (Barna and Sinha. Majjhima Cammy. V. 377. pp. 222) we find that the Adikeaava_ ghat!a near the confluence of the Varu\la and the Ganges to the north of Benaras was then regarded as a part of Benaras.B.'1Tf!a'Mena). 193) shows the extension of Gahadavala. III. IV. the trees flourishing.taka. and (4) Vijaya.. 44. It was 4. XIV. p. A king of KiiSi is stated to have been defeated by Lak. It was a great centre of trade and industry and trade relation existed between it and Sriivasti and Tak\!a.. I. M. 19.

13th sarga.rtatiga. stone image inscription mentions this village. i Dhammapada Commll. IT. Majjhima. 136. pp.yutta. 87. 25. Bh~maparv. Ch.'ti.7. DivodMa who was the founder of the city of Bena"•• . Drol)aparva. 75). 146. 92. S. The ministers of the king were just a. Brahmap"ri~a. son of Bhimaoena.nd incorporated into the Magadhan kingdom. p. 90-8. 262ft'.. pp. a Jiitaka. This city figures prominently in the MaMbhdra. 487. Vol. Ki..-The Kasia.. I.si'g absorption into Kosala... 3. Heart of Jainiam. king of Magadha. Khuddakapa/ha Cammy. king of Kasi. S·wra/r.l"" contain several stories about the kings of Kii. 1 B. II. Vinaya. p. Adikal. 1-5. 15. 59. Mahiivira: HiIJ Life and Teachings. 3990". V"Y"purJf}a. 1.. 406ff•• 452.~sited by ma. Vayupuraf}a. 30-31.88.E. pp.ub-division are located in a big village at a distance of 34 miles east from Gorakhpur. 30. KiiSl also figures in the stories of Mabavira. C. I.l"a.. 172-94. Ch.. when AjataSatru. 95. 211ft'.la. pp. fled to a forest after being defeated according to the AnuSisanaparva of the MaMbluirata (Ch. I. 38. 241-2. Stevenson. Uvtisagadaaiio. 56ft' . 19. 924. and he preached here several sermons.. 22. 1. According to the Jainas Pa. pp. Sec. HOff. 92. 791- 806. . Cbs.hitaka. The king of Benaras was always on the alert to know his own faults. The Udyogaparva of the MaMbhdrata alludes to Kn-l)a's repeated burning of the city.t ministers had to rema. 360. 19. His father Mahakosala gave his daughter named Kosaladevi a village of KiiSi (Kiisigama) as bath money on the occasion of her marriage with Bimbisara. Vol. No false suit was brought to court. I." In the time of the Buddha Killi lost its political power. Ch.o. 237.a (Ch. defeated the Kosalans and became the most powerful king of northern India. Jrita1ea. 195-96.96 HISTORICAL GBOGRAPHY OJ' ANOIENT INDIA Utt&rak~"a. The MaMbMrata and the Puriil. 5!). 4. I. 105. It was here that the Buddha preached rus first sermon after hi. II. 1899-19(0). 8a". III). Ch. The headquarters of the Kasia . 5th AmSa. 359-60. 20: JdkJIaJ. 3). 392ff.8 Kasi was finally conquered a. 201). We have another version of Divodasa:s life-story in the Hariva". situated 34 miles east of Gorakhpur in the Padrauna tahsil of the Gorakh- pur district (C. I. 34). Vinaya Texts. . 270ff. 72. 8amY"ua.nd honest. 56. 420ff. Udyogaparva. of Magadha. 141.. 746) Divodasa.. 216. 8amanJapii&iidikii.1.. cf. 50. 2510".' In spite or' good government the country was not entirely free from crime.6 Kasi was ruled with justice and equity. Sabhiiparva. I An!7tdtara.. This city was . The place which was most intimately associated with the several visits of the Buddha wa. I.B.in idle for lack of litigants. D'igha. IV. V. I. V. Kii. I. the famous Deer Park (lsipatanamigadiiva) near the city. .. Vira\aparva.E.Si (Adiparva. 48-49. II. III.civanatha was born in Benams. III. pp. 13. n. 1700". ' Jiitaka. Jaina Siltras. 72.. 40th s&<ga). 342ff.kindhyakal)~la. Jaina SiUras.82-86. 714.... (Virtaya. 30.l.B. Anguuara. Vinaya. 343ff. I.. III. a. it is the Buddhist boob and particularly the Jiitakos that give us a fuller informa- tion on the subject. I. Ka. n. 97. the founder of Jainism and hi. 189.. II. Therigitha Cammy. Law. Although KMi and Benara8 feature fairly prominently in the Hindu and Jaina sources.289.nd some· times real CQ. enlightsn- ment (Digha.ny venerable Buddhist mow (Vinaya Tcxt8. S. 406. V~"J'U­ pura1)a. III.'Jes were 80 sca. 559). 387... II. disciples. 117. 16. Anguttara N. S.la (Ch." Enthusiastic youngmen of Benaras used to go to Taxila for their education (Dhammapada Cammy. II. Samyutta. According to the Udyogaparva of the MaMbhira. 31. was an accomplished fact before the accession of Prasenajit of Kosala. I. II. Vol. Udyogaparva. The Buddha converted many people of Benaras. 213. had a son named Pratardana. 198).nty tha. Dhammapada Commy. 105. V.

14)... 's time it wac included in the Maury.).). 1906/7.a...nce of outline. p. Saurap1lni~o. this city was peopled solely by the Nagas. contains an ancient temple which. Buddhist Records 0/ the Western World. also called the temple of the Sun.ra. This city was known to Piil)ini (4.2. The ruins at Kasiii were explored in 1876 when the main Nirvii1!a stopa waa oompletely exposed. 97 21 miles north·east from Deoria..I.na (p." It i.2.BN INDIA. and flowers could be grown profusely.Smir. The great structure was built by Lalitaditya in the 8th century A. The author of the SragdharCi8totm. The Brhat. v. is superior to all existing temples in Kasmira.ions it as a country (xiv... "eeIDS to have included Kumaun. two may be mentioned. It waa included in the Gandhiira kingdom.!?a lrulCriptions of Virapul"llijadatta. 72) refers to Kediiratutba. Annual Report.u<.S. religion and philosophy The Divyiivadii. C.la and Payech.R.. Law.hita also ment. I. The people were handsome in appearance. The kingdom of the Mall"" was divided into two parts having the capital cities of KuSi· niini and Pavao According to some Piivii may probably be identified with Kasia on the smaller Gandak and on the east of the Gorakhpur district (B.. C.. C. In ABoka.189.Artha8ii. 77).R. 67) and in the BDtihisattviivadiinakalpalatii (70th pallava).D. 11). the Kasperia of Ptolemy. pp. and hence cereals and fruits. 134ff.2.S. Holy Places 0/ India.. There were heretics and believers among them. 191O/11. 69. 1898. The kingdom of Kasmira waa ahout 7. The excavations at the ancient Buddhist site at Kii. Law. 1..mas were also found here (Beal. 1911/12. 7 . 1 Kedii.-Kasmira. 134ff. 148ff. I. have revealed the remains of many ancient buildings and other antiquities of great interest (A.) Ktltripura. KUrmapuN~. 1004/5. 198. 276).. p. The soil waa fertile. MB. p. The capital of the country on the west side waa hordered by a great river which was evidently the Vitactii. about six miles from the left bank of the Jbelum river.. in intrinsic beauty and elega. Geography 0/ Early Buddhism. Miirtiil)<.. pp. A monk named Madhyantika waa sent to this place aa a missionary by his spiritual guide Anand. and Kangra. diamond (vajra) was available in this city. 44ff. whicb lies about 19 miles from Srinagar under the Naunagri Karewa. vide B. 51. 267. 1.. 261). 8. Garwal. 45-48. 1905/6. separate school of Saivism having a philosopby similar to that of Advaita as developed by SaIikara. was sent to Kasmira for the propagation of Buddhism. Law. 43ff. 6ff. Ch. 83. " 11Cf. 2/9. Kasmira was the home of 8. It lies to the north of the Punjab. (For further details.. On Y"lUln ChwafllJ.-Tbe MahribMrata (Ch. The lJIupas and sailghiirii. They were fond of learuing. 1. 399) refers to this beautiful city.iii. p. After the dissolution of the Third Buddhist Council Moggaliputta Tis.. It saw interesting developments in literature. Among the numerous temples in Kasmira. dominion (oee Watters. 1 J. A. 1911/12. was a Buddhist monk of Kasmira. 45)...nds on a slope about three miles .rtii.. 133) and to Pataiijali (3.B. and 12 miles south·south·west from Padrauna (Gorakhpur District Gazetteer by Nevill. pp. 62ff..stra. st. NOBTIIlC.ia. Almorab. 188.-Kiitripur . In the Avadiinaiataka (p. It is also mentioned in the Yoginitan/ra (1/3. 30·31. mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar InsCription. 2:3. !iliya. 6.t of Islamabad overlooking the finest view in Kii. mentioned in the Yoginitantra (I.000 Ii in circuit and was enclosed on all sides by high mountains. pp. p. is mentioned in the Nagiirjuniko.. 30.71). p. Kr1'mira (KaSmira). Geographical E88ays. .A.8a. Payech. 29). (B. According to the Kau.. The climate waa cold and stem. The medicinal plants were found here.

G. 110). is called Kirrhadia by Ptolemy. VII. Geography of Early Ruddhiltnt... III. in order to do homage to the Pala emperor. p. 235-237.. According to the Khajuraho Inscription of YaSovarman. XU. The Kekaya territory. 15ff.I.A.-According to the Taittiriya Ara!. POOlemy's Kirrhadoi or Airrhadoi spread widely not only Over Gangetic India but also over countries further east. 18) rerers to them"" living outside 7B . Kiragriima. Ancient India... Kambojas.. II."Aa Briihma!. According to Ptolemy the Kiriitas were located in the Uttariipatha (cf. IV..ncient Binduka stream (Modem Binnu) (A. 12.68.-The Anguuara (I. A. It may be identified with the famous Kha0ava forest of the MaMblulraJa. They had their settlements in the eastern region as well. Indisches AUer/hum. p. MS. 113·114) Jay beyond the Vipa"ii or Beas and abutted on the GandMra territory. 6). 75...vyamim"1!Isii places the Kekaya country in the northern division of India along with the Saka. Pii\lini in his A~!ddhyiyi (7.s.. Pliny and Megasthenes also mention the Kiratas under the name Skyrites.I.. according to the Rimrl- yaf}a (11. 3. and the Kira king. I. 55. according to Kieihorn.3. IV. 69. 18). Pt. were a republican people at the time of Bimbisara. For further remarks on the location of the Kiratas. 207. Kirr- hadia. 2.3. HiiJ)a. it formed one of the boundaries of Kuruki...I. Cunningham ident.ho all dwelt in the northern region or Uuara. I.. pp. The Srimad-BMgava/llm (II. According to Strabo it was extensive and fertile having in it some 300 cities (H.s.. came to the Imperial assembly at Kanauj (E. 7. VII. 19. patha. Kamboj"". 2. 18·19. Ketumati.ya'(la. 86.libMrata (IT../.mc. They are referred to in the MaMbhtiraJa (XII..-It was in Kosala near the village of Nalakapana (Jiitaka. According to Megasthenes they were a nomadic people. Annual Report. This name also occurs in the Paw· tn. 188) mentions Kesaputta in Kosal.-The Khalimpur copperplate of Dbarmapiil. 188. Ketakavana. 's Tr. p. The people of this country were defeated by Dharmapiila of the Piila dynasty.. lIT. 12. VI.2) and Patafijali in his Malulblulwa (7. Jndological Studies.).. Vahli- kas. p. 61. X. Gandharas al!d Barbaras . 25Oft'.-It is in the Himalayas .2. XXIV. 4. The KiWimas who belonged to this place. 170).nd is possibly Tibet. _ Khtil1ifava. 71. 1929130.. 84. belongs to north·east India (E.-This country.B. 13.yaka (V. near B .-It has been identified with Baijnath in the Kangra district containing the Linga shrine which is picturesquely situated on the south bank of the .. 518). I.sekhara in his Ki. is mentioned in the Periplwl of the Erythraean Sea as lying west from the mouth of the Ganges..santam with his wife and children rested on the bank of this river (Jlitaka. 19-22. For further details vide lAw. R.3) refer to it. which. refers to this country.l.98 BlSTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 01' ANCIENT lNDLl Kekaya. which is mentioned in the Ma]. Pt.I. Kesapuua. McCrindle. The Rewah Stone Inscription of K3f\la refers to Kir. K iriita. VI. 122)..a (XXV.ijniith in the Kangra vaUey (E.etra.S. 30). 91).7) as well as in the BhiigavaJapuraf}a (X. The philosopher Alara belonged to Kesaputta (Buddhacarila. Kira. X. pp. 246). Vol. 1924. 1895. 43) together with the Yavanas. and F. received the image of VaikU\ltha from the Lord of Bhota (E. III.-King Ve.S. X. etc. I. 243.).ifies the capital of the Kekayadesa with Girjak or Jalalpur on the Jhelum (J. He crossed the stream and then went 00 the Nalika hill. He then reached the lake Mucalinda moving towards the north. pp. see Lassen. 277). the king of Kir. Law. I. the country or Kirrhadai. I. 243). The land of the Kirat. 20) has been identified with the present district of Shahpur in the Punjab. Riija.

p.. XXIV. E. C. I . 2. 124). VI. Ancient India. 22.~asthali which he built on the Vindhya range (vayupurii~a.ma's elder son named Knaa became the king of the southern Kosal. 4. X.I. 382). 2.vasti in order to distinguish it from South Kosala. For details. XXIV. became the ruler of northern Kosala and set up big capital at the city of Sriivasti. pp. count.Mi) was the capital of the Val~sas or_Vatsas (Vatsapatiana). emerges into importance. I. 164. Lava. Rapson. Law. probably the great Gandak (Cambridge His/Qry oj India. 146). 1. 8.ma the extensive Kosalan empire is said to have been divided amongst his own sons as well as those of his three brothers..'. each with its inner circles. 12. 8atapatha Briihma~. 239). 308. I. Ch.1. Al!lsa 4). 's exile the extent of the Kosala country in the epic period may be known.oka and His Inscriptions. Kirthar. the younger son. p... The Kosam Inscrip- tion of Bhadramagha's reign has been discovered in course of exploration of the ancient site of KauSiimbi (E. Kiau-Shang. Kosambi. M. 86. vide B. After lU. 10. XII. 20. In the Epic period Kasal. X. A.ini.. cf. and many of them were in some way associated with Pasenadi. outer districts and border lands. 58. IX. 198). which is mentioned in Piil)ini's A~tndhyayi (4. I. ancient Kausambi.viiku. 24). NORTHERN INDIA 99 the Aryan fold. For references from literature see B. Tribes in Ancient India. April.. 4. who lived as criminal tribes with predatory habits like those of the hunters and vultures (B. Tri/. C. 282·83. From the story of lU. to which king Udayana. 1. There was rivalry between KiiSi and KoSala. p. Law. V~~upurii~a. The Buddhist texts contain many stories a'bout men and women of Kosala. and transferred his capital from Ayodhyii to Ku. in Allahabad district (Kosam Inscription oj the MaMriija Va. X. Patafi- iali mentions this city in his MaMb~ya (2. Barna. I.uSiimbi. H). p. KMi was later absorbed by Kosala. The Kosalan kinge and princes received good education. 1938).re mentioned in the Nagarjunikol)<)" Inscription of Virap1lI1Loadatta. Pt. I. Ch. A Stone Pillar Inscrip- tion was discovered near Kosam.-Kosambi (Skt. Chinese.I. It was the birthplace of the sixth Tirthallkara (Avossaka Nirjjuti. Pt. 195) refers to Kosala under its ruler Kusumadhanvii whose wife was Siigaradatta. H. IV. lU.ry.-This mountain runs to the south of the Sulaiman between Singh and Jhalawan country of Baluchistan. traced its deBcent . the daughter of Vaisraval)a. The history of KOBala in later times is known chiefly from Jaina and Buddhist literature. I. Ka."ava~a of the year 107. Vaisraval)a was one of the rulers of Kausiimbt.-Kosala. It extends southwards from the Mula river gorge in a series of parallel ridges for 190 miles. 32. a merchant of Paialiputra.a. Mountains oj India. It lay to the east of the Kurus and Paficiilas and to the west of the Videhas from whom it was separated by the river Sadiinirii.) KoSala. tracing their descent from Ik$viiku (Sumu7igalaviw. (For further details see Law. 213. 1(0). p. In later times North Kosala came to be known as Sr. The Bhiigavatapurii~a refers to it as a country (IX. 88. They a. p. The Ko'alans belonged to the solar race and were supposed to have derived directly from Manu through Ik.m . (Pali: Udena) belonged.. 52. The Kiratas of the Uttarapatha are castigated as peoples. 29. The Da8akum6rarorita1!' (p.e$ in Ancient India.. cf. The Kosala country proper is said to have been divided into two.2. KiiSi and Kosala appear as two equally power- ful kingdoms flourishing side by side. 3. Kosala is ·known to the Buddhists as the land of the Koaalan princes. According to the Pauranic tradition the royal dynasty of the Vat. as it is known from this inscription for the first time. XXVIII. 171) was one of the sixteen great countries of India (A7iguttara Nikiiya.

The brick-built fort of king Pradyota still exists here. a branch of the. 60.66. Nor<". It contains the temple of Padmaprabhu in which t. continuous with the Hindnkush on the west. 381. Law. M. Some have identified it with the place where Gautama gave up his crown and sword and cut oft' locka of his hair_ 7 Kr~agiri. C. p. This city was hallowed by the birth of Jina. BadM- 8attviiva(liinakalpalatii. pp. Law. B. 16-17. Geography 0/ Early Buddh~m. . and the non-Buddhists were numerous. 35th Paliava. III).I.8... it yielded much upland rice and sugarcane.-Below the Kubhii or Kabul this Vedic river forms a western tributary of the Indus. According to modem geographers it was uplifted earlier and is hence older than the Himalaya proper. Mitra). Geographical ESIJaY8. R.uJdhist LitertUure (R.". According to him. KauAiki.sa\:lpala. Here Candanavala fasted for about six months in honour of Mahavira. and its capital 30 Ii in circuit_ It was a fertile country with hot climate. 41. Vol. who was the last Pratihiira king of Kanauj. Law. I.D..It is identical with the KU§i. 26-27. III).mhi in Ancien! IAtertUure. 8aundara'fjanda-kiifJya. 2.. Kosika. . On Yuan Chwang. C. B. which flows 1 Watters.I. C. Kooambi was one of the important stopping places of persons travelling along the great trade-route connecting Saketa and Sitvatthl on the north with Patitthana or Paithiina on the bank of the Godavari on the south (Barna and Sinha. The Kosam stone image inscription of Maharaja Bhimavarman (the year 139) refers to Kosam.-This mountain does not seem to be far from thE' Himalaya. 262-63 . Kosambi is identified by Cunningham with Kosam on the Jumna. 1036) records the grant of the village of Payalasa (modern Prii. L.. Maluivastu. C. pp.-illages stand on the bank of the Jumna Kosam-Khiraj at a distance of some 12 miles south from Manjhanpur and nine miles west from Sarai Akil.. 2 B. It is identic. KauM. pp. 7 B. it was more than 6.I. C. • Vdyupuni~. No. Canto I.. 136ft'. etc. 36... Its people were enterprising. Law. taxes. about 30 miles south-west from Allababad.For further details vide B. Krumu.A. Hiuen Tsang visited this country in the 7th century A. It is of Hercynian age.. e cr. p. 172-173. royalties.' An inscription on the gateway of the fort of Kara dated Sarp.-It i. L.- Kosiki. Ge<>graphical 11_0.vat 1093 (A. • ApadUna.. the ancient town of Kausiimbi (C.aw. Vol. and got considerably folded and faulted subsequent to ite uplift. Vol.-It is the Karakorum or the Black mountain..6 Kr¢7)Ilgrama. 269. Law. fond of arts and cultivators of religious merit. 1/. 135. Northern B. V. II. vide ante. Ch. BvddJoiln Lit. suggested in the iditat>istara to have been situated somewhere near Kapilavastu.iifJI }These twin ... 365. KosafJI-l-n. in perpetuity to his descendants by Mahiiriijadbiraja Y. 3 AllaluWad District Gazuu. by Nevill.. Mitra. There were more than ten Buddhist monasteries which were in utter ruin and the monks were Hinayiuists.-It i. The Allahabad posthumous stone pillar inscription of Samudrsgupta refers to Kausambi (C. B. p_ 12).100 HISTORICAL GJIOG1U1'BY 01' Al<CIB1IT INDIA from Pum and once held its royal seat in the Kuru kingdom with Hastin&- pura as its capital.I. 2.he image of Candanaviilii can be seen. pp. Smne Jaina Cancnical Sutrru.s) in the KaU§ambi-man<. C.! IWJcripti0n8. There were more than fifty D<>va-temples. Kosam-Iniim lies to the west and Kosam-Khimj to the east of the fort. Tribes in Ancient India.. • Ja(. BaTh.D.!ala to one Miithura-Vika!" of Pabhosii together with its customary duties..000 Ii in circuit.1 with modern Kuram.I. I. S This mountain i.Ganges.

to the north·east of Jiilandhar (G. As for the description of Kumk~etra. 8). The Vayu and Kiirma Purat. Skt. 30. It was the eastern part of the Kuru land and it is said to have comprised the tract between the Ganges and northern Paiiciila (see Kuru~etra). Kuruk~etra. The territory of the Kunls appears to have been divided into three parts. Its dust removes the sins of the sinners. CIX.130). 52. and appears tQ have 1 Law.etra or Thiin~v.a. Kurmapurii1J. RiveTS of India. The Kurujiingala. 1. Vanaparva:' LXXXIII.1.2.a. I Ptolemy. 95.). 261ff. a tributary of the Sviit. It flows int" the Indus a little above Attock (8kt. 172/176.etra to the south of the Sarasvati /tnd north of the Droa<lvati. Kurujii1i{Jala. The district of Kully in the upper valley of the Beas river exactly corresponds with the kingdom of Kiu·lu·to which is placed by Hiuen Tsang at 700 Ii or 117 mile. 83·4:. as if.-It was probably the wild region of the Kuru·realm that stretched from the KiLmyaka forest on the banks of the Sarasvati to Khiil)<.' Kublui.6..l. comprised the whole tract on the west of the Jumna and included the sacred region hetween the 8arasvatj and tbe D". vs.. It is appar. The Yoginitantra refers to it (2/1..iman range. LXX. 204-8.ra. Kubhii.. The ancient Kuru country may he said to have comprised tbe Kuruk.etra. XLVII.. identified with the modern Panj. The TaiUiriya ATa". AyodhyiikiiT)<.hu.15. Kuru~etra. 12) also refers to it as a: holy city (cf. I. 5. according to the Maluibluirala (83. the waste land of the Kurus.-Among the western tributaries of the Indus this Vedic river is the most important. The region included Sonapat. 45-48. 4.t by the Paril)ah (the Parenos of Arnan). Piirvabhiiga. 9.8teries according to Hiuen Tsang.yaka (V.A. Traces of Buddhism are still visible there. living in heaven. are. Hii\aka). 35-38). and was situated between the Sarasvati on the north and the Droadvati on the south.-This city. 1907. kora. receives at Prang a joint flow of its two tributaries called the 8viit (80a8tos of Arrian.' The Kubhii cuts a valley through the Sulaiman range. Amin. 2/7.a (6..Ia..8.According to some classical writers it formed the western bOlmdary of India proper. . I) points out that Kurukl.8.advati (Mah-ibluiral. was the eastern part of tbeir territory.--Same a.-It is the Kuliita or Kauliita of the Epics. VII. Adiparva..ya"(1a. It is mentioned hy Pal)ini in his A~!<Uhyayj (4. on the north by Tiirghna.In the days of the Buddha it was well known as one of the sixteen Mahiijallapodas.X. cf.. The Saurapura1J.etra was bounded on the south by Kban<. Kuru's country and the Kurnjiingala (MaMbhirata. NORTHBBN INDIA. Maluibluirata. vide MahdbMrota. which is described to have its source in the Imaos or Himavat. Padmapurii7. It is no other than the modern Kiibul river. ently the same river as the Kuhu of the PUrQ1}& and it may be identical with KOB of Ptolemv. 5071-78. 101 into the Indus at a pJaoo south of Ishl>khed. For furtber details vide Annual Report of the A . . 25. Suviistu) and Gauri (Garroia of Arrian).1. III..!ava.UJ.75. 12). 40. It pier. the cultivated land of the Kurus. 7073-76. Ra1n. p. 26. Uttarakhal)<. I ~.a grew up with the Kuru people and their country as its back- ground. 4337-40)..G. III.s through the Sula. Kamal and Panipat. The Mahiibluiral. Kuruk. I-S. Those who live at Kurukl.. K".. 162tf. 27).I&. 203- 208) is considered as holy.laB refer to this river (XLV.3). 15. K uUu. Here ABoka built a stupa and there were twenty mon8.Iava near the Jumna (cf.200. and on the w . the Kophes of Arnan and the Kophen of Pliny.

o mentioned in the Skandapurii7.S.. That it was not a city of the first rank like Rajagrba. 17-19).3 The great law-giver ~Ianu speAtks of the country of the Kurus and other allied peoples as forming the sacred land of the Brahmat'f}is (Brll. Ayodhyakiil)qa.). ii. 1. 19-23).D. p.D.Ul. 285. Vaisali or Sravastl in the Buddha's time) is clear from Aminda's utterance to the Buddha: 'Let not tbe Exalted One die in this little town. It i.i in 1043 A. 297). 278. MlJitriiyani Sa'f!lhita. 41)9). the Kiimyaka forest. 3 For au account of the part pJa. Ku. I.). 30. 5. Sabhiiparva.Tumna and the Ganges. 165).-It is an older name of KuSiniira where tbe Buddha obtained Mahiparinibbina (Jril. I.ng Thaneswar was the capital of a Vaisya (Bais) dynasty whicb ruled parts of tbe soutbern Punjab. ANCIENT INDIA. iii. 16.a. 152). vardhana of Thaneswara. It is a holy place as aL.ta (Ch.!.II. south-Panealas. 34. 648 a Chinese ambassador was sent to Ha~a.' According to Rapson tbe territories occupied by the Kurus extended to the east far beyond the limits of KUnlk'etra. For furtber details vide Kusinara. Drsadvati.nyakubja (modern Kanauj) and it finds mention in the KamauIi grant of Govindaeandra V. 294. The middle region between the Ganges and the Jumna seems to have been simply called Kuru's country. In A. V.t. This city was known to the Chinese 1 Aitareya Brlihma/Ja.R. The Kurus must have occupied the northern portion of the Doab or the region between tbe . 309ff• . I.a".I. 1908. This forest tract of the Kuruland extended as far ~. Sfinkhyiiyuna S'rauta8Utra. Sarasvati. 714. 18. Brahmiirpfa- pur. 12. 292. XV. It was near the modern village of Kasia on the smaller Ganqak. 3.yed by different nations ano t. is regarded as a particularly sacred country.igha. 's son Kusa. in the midst of the jungle. Mahiibharala. see J . LXXII. I. VIT. 1:-:1. the corner wbere the two rivers meet at PrayiLga (Allahabad) (Ancient Ind. 8 branch of Citang.. it was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni..-Kusiniira was one of the cities of tbeMaIlas(D.ta mentiolll! it (I.-It is said to bave been named after Rama. S. 14. having as their neighbours on the eas. p. iv..A. 83.1. 102 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF. XI. comprised the tract between the Ganges and northern Paneala (Rafl'Uiya1. called the Dharmakljetra or the holy land ""cording to the BMgavadgil'i. In the Braitmal)a texts 1 Kuruk~etrft. The field of the Kurus or the region of Delhi was the scene of the war between tbe Kurus and the Pandus in whieb all the nations of India... 713. and to tbe nortb-west of Bettia (G. II. III. 5-9j Jaiminiya Briihma~1a. 50). KuAika. north Paiiciilas and on the south. IV. II.G'!. XXVI. KuSivati. were ranged on one side or the other·. 1913. BroomafJarfalirtlKr-MahiibMrata..A. and the apaya.ttle of the PiI.D.S.-It is the same as Gadhipura and Kii. This site was snrroWlded on the three sides by the river Gumti (Gomati) (G. Pt. 2. cf. Thaneswar continued to be a place of great sanctity but in 1014 A. 1. KuAapura (KuSahhavanapura). XIV. for within its bounda.5.A. 4. IT.l~8V88 against the Kaurav88. 10. 1184 (E. it remained desolate for centuries. I ApBga or Oghavatt. 681f. .. in this brancb toWlll!hip'.hmanical sages) ranking immediately after Brahmavarta (Manu. 33. J. Hindustban and e""tem Rajputana. 293.. ~atapalha Briihmalla. XIX.UI.ribes who were Bnsyed in the great ba. 4.. 1. 126.B. who held the rest of the Doah as far as Vatsabhiimi. and althougb recovered by a Hindu raja of Delh.53. In the time of Hiuen Tsa.§iw7ni.hit<i.' The Bhiiga- vatapurri7.G. 793-94).ries flowed the sacred streams.A. He found tbat tbe Senapati Arjuna bad usurped his kingdom and the dynasty tben became extinct. IX. 165. II. 37 miles to tbe east of Gorakhpur.

p... 389-94) we read th . Buddhist Records of the Western World. A. Rhys Davids expresses the opiuion that if we rely on the account of the Chinese pilgrims.. political or religious. 31-32).. J. II. he Bent Ananda with a message to the Mallas of K usinarii. II... Near KuSinara the river Hirafifiavati (Hirat:tyavati) or the little Gandak. At the north·east angle of the city. When the Buddh.sudarBana. pp. There was . to the east of the Sakya land and to the north of the Vajjian confederation. It contained . But some would place their territory south of the Sakyas and east of the Vajjians (Buddhist India.i nilma rojadhiini ahcsi-Digha.. felt that his last moment was fast appro.. II. few inhabitants and the avenues of the place were deserted and waste. where the de&d body of the Buddha was brought for cremation. 170). The Buddh.irs. This account is corro- borated by whatAsoka says in his lithic records (R. The Buddha himself savs that Kusinara was ancient Kus. four gates and Beven avenues of palm. KuBinirii KU8iJ. p. 21).A. II. V. II. populous and in it alms were eMily procurable (Digha. eight miles below Kasia. 152). The Mallas of KUBinara had their santh':gara or Council-hall where all matters. According to Cunningham.. VIII).S.E. 493). The distance from KuSinari. 4th ed. According to the Divyrivadii'M (p. 278ff. h&d to cross the river K&kuttha while going from KuBin. to Pav8.. KuS...).'rii to Rajagrha. On receipt of the news they 1 Di{/ha N. V.l on the bank of which the Siila.9. It contained the old house of Cunda who invited the Buddha to his house (Beal.. The Buddha narrated the former glory of Kusavati which had seven ramparts. 170).trees (Digha.· covered bearing the inscription: 'PariniTV/i~. were discussed. Different scholars hold different views. 146-47. The villages were desolate.'vati. Smith prefers to place KuSinarii in Nepal beyond the first range of hills (Early Hiotory of India. NOBi'H1IRN INDIA 103 as Kiu-shi-n. 227) it was the beautiful city of Mahii. But later on in the Buddha '. 170-171). which was i2 yojanas in length from east to west and 7 yojanas in width from north to south (aya". p. about eight miles west of the great Gandak and falls into the Gogra (Sarayii). This is also clear from the fact that the Buddha hastened from KuSlnarii to Pavii during his last iUness.t first known as the capital city of the Mallas when they had a monarchical constitution (Jilt. The Mahiipariniboona Suttanta of the Digha Nikiiya mentions a set of officers called Pu~ among the Mallas of KuSinara. prosperous. This view has been strengthened by the f"ct that in the stiipa behind the Nirval)a temple near this village a copperplate has been di. 26). flows to the district of Gorakhpur. who are supposed to be a class of subordinate servants.a-caitya-tiimTa-patta' or the copperplate of the Parinirval'a·caitya. Kusinarii may be identified with the village of Kii.n. It was a capital city. known as the Barhi. 167. 5.R. according to Rhys Davids (Buddhist India. the name ofthis city was changed to KuSlniirii.vaJ.ching. 137. f. 1913.ak. time when the monarchy came to be replaced by a republican constitution.. which falls into the Chota. who were then assembled in their Council·hall to discuss some public aff.grove of the Matias of KuSinara stood. This river is a smail stream. was not great. the territory of the Mallas of KuSinarii was on the mountain slopes. galJ.. It was rich.siii in the east of Gorakhpur district (Ancient Geography of India.'vati was . p. Mallian shrine called Makutabandhana to the east of KuBinarii.. .-K'ie-lo. gate there was a stiipa built by Moka.t Mob visited this city where the Buddha attained M aMparinirviina. This identification appears to be correct. In the Divyiiv<uHna (pp..

Yuan Chwang mentions that near the ABokan pillar there was 'a small stream flowing sonth-east. VII. Law. Mr. They treated the remains of the Tathiigatn like those of a Oakravarttiriijd. Geographical E88aY8.-This city is said to have been founded by Lava..rge town in Western Rohi1khand near Bijnor. He made the village of Lumbini free of taxes and paying (only) an eighth share (of the produce) (C. They then erected a stiipa over their own share of Buddha's relics and celebrated a feast..G. Mukherji in his 'Anti- quities in the Terai' has shown that the extant remains of the Rnmmindei pillar of ABoka agree with the deseription given by the Chinese pilgrim.. v.-The Rummindei Inscription of ASoka mentions Lumminigama which is now Rummindei. Ladakh. P. temple at Rummindei comparatively of a later date. There is further evidence of the identification of the Lumbinivan. The Rummindei pillar of Mob states that when king ABoka was anointed twenty years. 264-265). p. Before proceeding to Kedarnath and Badrinath pilgrims halt here. Some have identified it with Madipura or Mo-ti.. C. they met together in their Council·hall to devise means for honouring the earthly remains of the M.pu-lo. Geography 0/ Early BuJJhiMn. Mountain8 0/ India.W.-The Ladakh is a lofty range parallel to the greater Himalaya and lies to the east of the Manasasarovara lake.. .N. and this river is now called Tilii. which contains a scnlptured slab representing the nativity of the Buddha. pp. also called Rnpadei. a small hamlet named after the shrine of Rummindei. pillar (situated 38 miles north-west of Uskabazar Station on the B. The inscription on the Nigliv.acu 0/ India.l. C. Rummindei is only ten miles to the east of Kapilavastu and two miles north of Bhagavanpur and about a mile to the north of Paderia. LachmanjlwU. Rly. 104 HISTORICAL O_1tAPIlY 0. the son of Rama.000 miles in circuit. Madavar..-It was " ia. Aft soon 88 the Buddha passed away. The people of this place. pp. Lumbinivana was visited by the Chinese pilgrims. v. He erected a stone-pillar to mark the site ofthe Buddha's birth. It is separated from the Himalayan range by a valley. 27) as situated in Kapila- vastu which is the birthplace of the Buddha.-Not far from HP1ikeSa there stands" beautiful spot famous for its mountain scenery. The place derives its name from a hanging bridge (Law. he himself ca.) shows that it was erected near the stiipa of Konagamana. some 50 miles wide (Law. 98ff. it was fifty Ii (9 or 10 miles) east of Kapilavastu. According to the former. pp. Law. Fa-hien and Yuan Chwang. and called by the people the Oil River'. For different views as to the location of the Lumbini-grove. p.~e and worshipped this spot beca.r-nade.-It is a village in the G<>rakhpur district. 21). which is " further proof of the identity of the place with Lumbinivana.. Afterwards the pillar had been broken in the middle and laid on the ground by a thunderbolt from a malicious dragon. There is also a. The tradition survives even today. LoMwar.27).A. Holy P/. vide B. 7). 226.I. 23. XVII.ter in a suitable manner. Lumbinivana is referred to in the BuM1wcaritalciivya (I. or the tell's or oilman's river. J. 29-30..J!CIB!lT INDIA hurried to the SiiJa-grove where the Buddha w. According to Hinen Tsang it was 1.. 185ff. It is called LabokIa by Ptolemy (G. Lumhinigrdma..I. Yuan Chwang refers to a stone-pillar set up here by ABob with the figure of a horse on the top. but it is not now in situ. with the place where the Rummindei inscription was found. which is 8 corruption of Telir-nadi. Uttara Prade"a (Uuited Provinces) where the plates of G<>vindacandra of Kanauj were discovered (E.use the Buddha was born here.I.).

. in 326 B.-The country of the Madras. H.). Pii. 2. and are known to the ancient geographers as Mainakaparvata. Milindapanha.. with ahout 100 priests of the Hinayana school.. Sakala seems to have come under Buddhist influence (Bee Mrs. Pt. high. Psal11UJ of the Brethren. Mainakagiri.bhii4ya. ful oountry. It contains a praausti of Paramardin and mentions his battles in Ailga. 38) mention is made of a Buburb of Mathura named Mathuravanaka. Patafijali also refers to it in his MalW. 3. Mahoba. According to the Milindapanha this king was converted to Buddhism.). Mirashi (Bharata Kaumud!. p..l. well·watered and hilly. Records of the Western World.G.2. Dl&y be the Mathae of Megssthenese. 321ff. VII. The praBasti WILS composed by Jay. 26). pp. Law. It contained many hundreds of alms· halls of various kinds. Madhuban. Psal11UJ of the Sillter. It is the Siwalik range extending from the Ganges to the Be. 4. It is also mentioned in BaI. was built by ASoka (Beal..131.. J..-The name of Madhuravana occurs in the Mathurn Buddhist Image Inscription of Hu~ka. 4.1. 8. Tribes in Ancient India. pp. In the Uttara Prade. I.2.la's Kadambari (p. 1~2.D. The capital was Sakala. west of the monastery. Madrade8a. 86). VaIiga and KaliIiga. (O. 176. roughly corresponds to the modem Sialkot and the surrounding regions between the Rav. Some have identified it with Madhuvaoa or Madhura (modern Muttra).rdin of the Vikrama year 1240 was discovered by Cunningham in 1843. 619. which occurs in Luders' List (Nos. There was a monastery here. mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription. country were an ancient K\latriya tribe of Vedic times.D.lei. 48. Ch. The old town of Sakala (She. pp. The Buddha once dwelt at Kiitagara hall in the MaMvana. ed..1I96. Martin.-It is in the Pargana Nathupur in the Azamga4h district of the Benaras division (U. Menander (Pali. III.. Mahavana.). 3). Suttanipiiia. vide B. 291). Even before Menander's time.I)ini refers to Madra in his A~lfidhyayi (4. VIII. p. was about 20 Ii in circuit. a powerful Greek king.. 155ff. I. 2033. 399ff. p.). (1.C. 128-129). About 78 A. to the Ganges. 1.-It is the ancient Mahotsavapura in the Hammirpur diBtrict of the Uttara PradeSa. IV. 40.. 345. 4. I Milindapaiiha. It is a tributary of the GaI!~ak. In the fourth century A. p.4. the great forest stretching up to the Himalayas (Vinaya Texts. C.to). The Madras were a corporation of warriors and enjoyed the status of rap. Milinda).-It was at Kapi/avatthu (Sa1!'!fUiUI. 108). p. Here a stone iIlBcription of Param.. This inscription has now been edited by V.). Rhys Davids. the Siwaliks are known as the Churia and the Dundwa ranges and J Mahiibhiirata. Trenckner. In Luders' List (No.a was dis· covered (E. p. and the Chenab rivers. I. Sakala or (Pali) sagala! was a great centre of trade.-It is one of the five great rivers mentioned in Pali litemture (A1iguttara. p.A. 166ff. VII. 2..P. 359).. It was situated in a delight. the Madras paid taxes to Samudragupta.' identified with Sialkot. 114.I. The Siwalik hills proper extend for about 200 miles from the Be.-The Yoginitantra hILS a reference to this hill (2.108). p. 433ff. 101. pp. Sakal" came under the sway of Alexander the Great. and a stiipa to the north. Madhuravana. where the inscription of Ha". about 200 ft.). Mahi.pala of the Viistavya family. 288. I . The people of this . 2. 1. ruled at sagala or Sakal. For further details. 2. V. pp.. according to Hiuen Tsang. NOBTHlIlIB INDU 105 according to Vivien de St.

1902. On the banks of this river there was a mango grove.".a. king Dhanabhiiti. At this the Macedonians spared none of them (Oambridge History of IMia. MaMikini.Mathurd. also No. I.-It is in the Himalayan region (Jat. 125).-It was the capital town of the Assakenoi according to the Greek writers. the son of A~araiu (Ailgiiradyut) and Vatsi. one cannot but be led to think that Mathura was then placed in a territory contiguous to the dominion of the Suug.. 869). It was the kingdom of a ruler called Assakenos.-The Yoginitantra has a reference to this river (1/15.3). with the arches was dedicated by him together with his parents and the four sections..S. I>Uk>logicaIStudie8.cription. The name of the prinoe Vii.-A place of pilgrimage also known as M. Bdrhut Imcriptions. When the town capitulated. the Bon of Dhanabhiiti of the Mathurii Buddhist Rail In.1.1... the son of king Dhana· bhiiti.T)ikaran on the Parvati. 3. If prince Vadhapiila the son of king Dhanabhiiti of the Biirhut Inscription.S. 87-89).. Vol. visited by the Buddha with five hundred monks (Diglw. Mankuwar. as it seems very likely. p. Vol. The name of Vadhapala's father. It is the western Kan (Kiiligailga) which rises in the mountains of Kediira in Garhwal. I. 687. the monks. IV. upiis"kas and upiisikas of the Buddhist community.t Mathur. 11. (Law. nuns.) Ma~ikart). Ma.. figures prominently as the donor of the ornamental gateways of the stupa of Barhut (Ibid. 235). secretly pla. 36). son of DhanabhGti (1) and Vatai. pp. p. Viidhapala (1) Dhanahhuti. (Sugana.-In one of the Mathura Buddhist Rail.. No..A. A... is recorded as the donor of a railing (vediM) and arches (tOTatl"8) at the Ratnagrha for the worship of all Buddhas (Luders' List. Cunningham identifies it with Mandiikin.. 2. raje) (Barna and Sinha. pp. To the north of it flowed the Aciravati. The railiml.) Maaakavati. p. pp. II. cf.-It was a Brahmin village in Kosal. The mercenaries who were unwilling to help him. Ma7UJIJikala. It was stormed by the troops of Alexander.. No... Prince Vadhapala's inscription at Barhut is written in ASokan Prakrit.106 mSTORICAL GBOGBAPIIY OF ANCIENT INDIA lie between the Ganges and the Jumna.. Law. about nine miles in the south-westerly direction from Arail. 101). 7). It is expressly recorded in the Barhut gateway inscriptions that the gateways were caused to be erected by King Dhanabhuti in the dominion of the Sung. XXI. 882).' marks a transition from the ASokan Prakrit to the typical .-This small village mentioned in the Manknwar stone image inscription of Kumaragupta iB situated near the right bank of the Jumna. Here the hills riae abruptly from the plains and slope rather gently northwards into the valley of Debra Dun. Viidhapala introduced as Vadhapala (t) Dhanabhiiti must have been a ruler.iparvata. 92)..88.dhapiila.. Iff. p. Nos. is recorded as the donor of a rail of the Barhut railing (Ibid. .B. be the same person . 353. pp. a large number of mercenary troops agreed to join the army of Alexander. From the existing fragment of the inscription it cannot be made out if the epithet of king was affixed to the name of Viidhapala (1) Dhanabhiiti. It is a tributary of the Alakananda (A7iguttara Nikdya. a small trio butary of the Paisundi in Bundelkhand which flows by the side of the Citrakutaparvata.. III.nned to escape. (0. I. while the language of Vadhapala (1) Dhanahhuti's inscrip- tion . (Cunningham.. 4. the chief town of the Arail pargana in the Karchana tehsil or Bub-division of tile Allahabad district. a tributary of the Beas in the Kulu valley (J.). Mountains of IMia. and the grandson of king Visvarleva. otherwise there is no reason why in the dedication he should have been associated with his parents (presum- ably aged) and a big retinue of all the four sections of the Buddhist community.pillar inscriptions the name of Viidhapi\la (1) Dhanabhiiti.R.

6 Cunnin~ham. Mathura was the capital of the Siirasena country. I.ma's brother Satrughna after killing the Yadava Lavana at the site of the Madhuvana by cutting down the forest there (Pargiter. Mathura was the centre of VisJ. The difference can be easily explained on the supposition that Biirhut and Mathurii were situated in two contiguous but slightly different linguistic areas. e MahcibMmta. Smit·h.120) also refers to it. it may be legitimate to assume that Viidhapiila (1) Dhanabhiiti and his predecessors were local rulers of Mathum and that prior to the Ku:.lu cult. I.E.. . 3.l a disciple of Vasubandhu. Upagupta. 1.j. . Dhruva. 50). 2.kacciiyana. Cunningham identifies it with Ke~avapl1ra. 170). 2. Arrian notices this city in his Irulica (viii) on the authority of Me!!asthenes as the capital of the Siira.< S. Many rich men and big merchants lived here. 1. p. On Yuan Chwang. This city was known as Madhupuri. p. In the absence of any reference to the dominion of any other ruler or dynast. The Bbagavata religion. The Chinese pilgrim Fa·hien called it Ma·t'uou·lo or the peacock city (Travels of Fahien. 2. 127. 199. ArchaeologicalSuTvey of Indin. 223. I Indi8CM Altertumskunde. pp. The interval of time between the two inscriptions was not long enough to account for such a marked change in their languages. Hiuen Tsang named it as Mo(Mei). p. Ancient India a. The . There is no mention of Mathura in Vedic literature. 42). 45. grims. VI. Mat.'napura. also arose here.lryapura. 707. XXX. It was built by R. The city is on the Jumna. BodhiMJttvdoodiino- K'11palal/i.iil)a rule. p..mahana. S.- According to the Greeks Methora (Mathurii) was situated on the banks of the Jumna hi~her up than A«ra from which it ws 35 miles distant. pp. p. 98." described by Ptolemy. Its alphabet too stands midway between the ABokan Brahmi and that of the Kusana period.nt in Mathuni for several centuries. It is situated 217 miles in a straight line north-west of Kausambl. 3:i8). 1. The Jains knew it as SR. I.<wrical Traditi{Jn. 3. 301).Jomanes which Howed into the Ganges through the Palibothri between the towns of Methora and Chrysobara. PtoIemv aIso mentions it (VII. I. NORTHERN INDIA 107 mixed Sanskrit of the inscription of the Ku«ana age.rva.' The way from Sravasti 1 Ati. and is included in the Agra division of the United Provinces. Eaf"ly History of India. This city was situated to the south of Indraprastha. 8.589.uripura or S...y. 67. N. p. V. S. 1.navism. 56.C. The ruling family of Mathura was the Yiidava family. 4. onwards. 588. I.Jains seem to have been firmly established in this city from the middle of the second century B. Patafijali in his MahiibhiiMla mentions it (1. Heal. of Mathum may be identified with it. 2 Lassen transcribes Chrysobara as KfI'. 19) calls the river Jumna the .hura was a rich. 191. SabhApa. Ancient Indian Hi. p. ll06-6. N. XX. 1. N. the guide of Asoka. Majumdar Ed . which is the present Maholi. Majumdar suggests that G0kul on the left bank of the Jumna and five miles S. Pliny (Natural Hist. There was a bridge of boats between Mathura and Patali· putra. 82) and the Greek and Chinese pil. The Yogin/tantra (2. Records~' the WMtem World. of Mathurii. s He locates it at A~a.S. flourishing and populous city. 72nd Palla-va. Report. Gunaprabha.. :Majumdar Ed. Berras. n. t'u·lo (Watters. n. A.2. p. Here lived the famous disciple of the Buddha named Mahii. p. the parent of modern Vai. p. and Vasavadattii. the famous courtezan. 53. Buddhism was predomina. five miles to the south·west of the modem city ofMuttra. Ancient Gw. The city was known to Panini (IV. The Greeks were acquainted with this city by the name of Methora and Madoura (the city of the gods). I. of India. I 'IcCrind1e.

IV. IS5-6. The V!1!!l)is &nd the Andhakas being afraid of the demons left Mathur. Dktionary of Pal..l$ Jarii. There were Buddhist monasteries and deva-temples and the professed adherents of different non-Buddhist sects lived pell-mell.. Mathura had some disadvantages. It has moved to the north owing to the encroachment of the river. The soil was very fertile. 8 Brahmapumna. seven Naga kings reigned here.tal of the Pa. five miles to the south-west of the modern town of Mathura. U Ibid .J.. extended his supremacy around and as far as Mathurii.... 11 Vayupurd~a.<. VII.'bha on the throne of Mathura. BMgavat<Jp •• IX. they were full of dust (bahuraja). 4.. 42. 3 Kscc8yana. 10 Skandapurd~.'. I Watters. was att&cked by demons. built the capital city of Mathur. Pall.' There also existed three topes bnilt by Moka. . Hiuen Tsang found it to be above 5.• p_ 279.' Buddh- ism was then growing in this city.. which was ruled by Andhaka's descendants. Ch.. and KauSiimbi. I 13 Pa-rgiter. king of Magadha.Q. III. wild animals and demons (va{ayalclclla)6 and the alms were not easily procurable (dullabhapi1J4<i). n.ukhslJ.' in the country thenceforward called Siirasena. Ill. p. '1 A1igutfara Nihiya. 930.46.. Ibid. 12 Viiyup. .7 Mathurii which was the home of the V!1!!l).sekera. The Andhakas ruled Mathum which was the chief Yadava cspital. with a huge army.thas into other kingdoms. p. 88. 63. • Legge. 171. 99. Anc~ Indian BUtorieGl Tmditicn. the capi. 186-7."a. The climate was hot. 62. 189) but the word Viilil means Boa·constrieto1'8 and other wild animals. Fa-him. Satrughna. 1 Mathum was situated on the right hank of the Jumna and it stood midway between Indraprasth. 94. may have led some of the V"'i\. From Sankissa (Sanskrit SaJ!1kRSya) on the Ganges the distance of northern Madhura is said to have heen four yojanas only .m·Madhuni (modern MaduriL). Fa-hien saw many monasteries at Mathura.l yakkb808' (The Book of the Gradual Sayings.14.is and Andhakas.hu and Siirasena. The country also produced a fine stripped cotton cloth and gold. p. On Yuan Ohwang.IY88 in South India.dhava Lavan&. 3725-39. where KaIJlsa. (ffamma. Propef' N ame. 11 Satruglma reigned in this city with his two SODS Suvii. 37.!' Bhlma Satvata expelled Satrughna's sons from Mathurii and he and his descendants reigned there. XIV. Brahma7J40p. full of monks. 18 Pargiter suggests that the conquest of Siirasena and Mathur. 10 On the eve of the rise of the Gupta power. 256. Ramaya~a. king of Magadha.. there were ferocious dogs (ca?J4asunakhii).000 Ii and the capital about 20 Ii in circuit. The roads were uneven (visama). • Harioof'!'8a. p.. VililI. 211. III. At the time of his great departure Yu~thira installed Vajran.. I . p. 301.. 1 MaIaIa. Vol. Ch. Strictly speaking it is the Uttam Madhura. V~"p. I. and agriculture was the chief industry.• Modern Mathura is not on the ancient site." After attacking the Siitvata Yadavas on the west of the Jumna and killing Mii. rose to the highest power. 6. II MailOlJh.. • Hare transla:tes it as' festia. acknowledged him as overlord.. the Yadava king. Book m. I Mathura of N orlhern India as distinguished from D~ir.2 which is identified with Maholi. who married two of his daughters. 11. 1Z Ugrasena and Kal!lSa were the kings of Mathur.' by Rama's brother Satrughna a little esrlier than the reign of Sudas. I. 108 HIl!TORICAL OEOGRAl'IIY Olr ANCIENT INDIA to Mathum lay through an important locality caJled Verai'ija.' and established their capital at Dvaravati.sandha. Ch. The manners and customs of the people were soft and complacent. Chap.. D It was also besieged by Jariisandha.

l. 27. 4th Ed.. t Cf. 8 Sten Kanow reads the name of the Greek king 88 Diroita and identifies him with Demetrios but the name of the Greek king cannot be completely made out from Khiravela'8 Inscription. p.. the ruling family of Mathura was the Yadu or Yadava family. Political History of Ancient Ind'a. V. before they were subjugated by Samudragupta.. 13. their country must have been included in the Maurya empire.uavism. king of Kabul and the Punjab.C. the tyrant king of Mathura. Smith.nd his suppression by K1'\lI)a.T . 10 Ray Cbaudhuri. spoke about caste in this city.. cf. 83ff.. 1S Majjhima. .· The Nagas and the Yaudheyas reigned at Mathurii. 1.' was under the sway of Huvjska.? In the first century B. pp. the Ku. . and after the Mauryas their capital Ma. was included in the Sunga dominion or not is a matter of dispute... was the centre of Viouu cult.. 41.2.B. NORTHERN INDIA. Early HiBtory oj the V~ Sed. IV.n.. Whether Mathurii. p.'ga Statuette Inscription amply proves the prevalence of serpent.. killed the elephant of Kamsa and at last put an end to the life of KaI)lsa.dhura came under the sway of the Bactrian Greeks and the Ku.y Chaudhuri. is considered as the birthplace of VaL.N.iiuas.42). Hagiimasa. Extended.R.When Megasthenes wrote about the Siirasenas. A Greek king" went back to Mathurii. Jaina account there was a powerful king named Vasudeva in the town of Sauryapura (Mathur. Skandha X.l O The Mathura.iina king. . the hest of towns.Ku~. I. In the Saka. :: Olden berg's Ed..- According to a.bow.In the second century A. occupied it. Mahavaf!UIG (Ed.. Mabakaccayana. The Yonas as Bactrian Greeks founded principalities in India establishing their suzerainty even over Mathur.l8 on the death of K8J:!lS& 8 according to the V~ttpurofla (V.O. p. which is important in view of the story of Kiiliyauiiga a.thura which was the birthplace of Sri Kl':'ua. ~3. Buddhism existed also in Mathurii.S.) P. 109 According to the MtiluibMraia a.. rewarded a weaver for dressing him and his brother Balarama (BMglJvatapura~a.. A. 4th Ed. related on the maternal side to the royal family of UjjayinL The Dipava1(l8a tells us that the sons and grandsons of king Siidhlna ruled the great kingdom of Madhura or Mathura.').. therefore. 286·87. HathigumpM Inacnption oj Khiiravela: Madhtlf'Of'!' apciyato Yatlonamjcl. bore the title of Avantiputrs a. Early History oj India. p. Malalaaekera. for several centuries. This is con· firmed by the evidence of a splendid Buddhist monastery which bears ·his name.. The Yadavas were divided into various septa. the region of Mathur. XIII. p. Cunningham.worship in Mathunl.. II. 11 Ibid. p. 238. . with his army in fear of any counter-attack on the part of king Khiiravela of Kallilga while the latter was engaged in besieging the city of Riijagah& (Rajagrha) (J. Mathurii. Early Himnv Arch. satraps who probably flourished in or about the first century A...ll It was visited by Sri Kl'\lI)a with Akriira after attending the Dollilii ceremony at Vrinditvana. granted the boon to the garJandmaker named Sudama. "th Ed. 236)..ve the celestial beauty to a hunch· back named Trivakrii.! In Buddha's time.'" J Vi?~up. e Ibid. 0' India. 210. Survey RepoT~.sena W8S placed on the throne of Mathurii by K~J.D.D. pp.. J V. Vayup .. A.. M. 391.Menander. g. broke the Indra.nd was.' The Hindu kings of Mathura were finally displaced by Hagana. a king of Mathunl. Ugra.• 96. Here he kiUed " washer· man. cf.. Rs. Ch. Mathur. p.' passed from native Indian to foreign (Saka) rule. period the city ceased to be a stronghold of Bhitgavatism.. a disciple of the Buddha. 99. 1.S.'.. Smith. 21) . Riijuvula and other Saka.nd the Purii7JtJ8. 241 and r. !QQ..

Oambridge History oj India. Sabhaparva. 32.-According to the Jaina Bhagamti8iitra the Mal&va country is included in the list of the sixteen MaMjanapadas.H. The name of the Malavas is alBo ""sociated with the well- 1 Watte1'9. But before long they seem to have migrated southwards and settled somewhere in Raj. which date mostly from the time of the later Ku.. p. I.. 306. Sivis and Ambal%h. 4th Ed. Le. • Oambridge Hiat""t oj India.: i. note 357). 1903.s. 1.B.. Malava.I. .atrapa Nahapiil)a.ntry below the confluence of the Jbelum and the Chen&b. greater extent of territory comprising the modern Doab of the Chenab and the Ravi and extending to the confluence of the IndllB and the Akeaines identical with the modern Multan district &nd portions of Montgomery (Inva&ion of India. afford sufficient proof that the Jain community was not only established but had become subdivided into small groups at an earlier period. III. son·in·law of KJ. 68). This city was visited by Mahavira (VivJgasiiya.. The Malava occupation of the Nagar arca near Jaipur in Rajputana is proved by the Nasik Cave Inscription of U~avad.lav&S.- The artistic traditions of the north· west obtained a strong foothold in the Jain reliefs of Mathurii.. The Mii. They offered determined opposition from their fortified cities which ultimately fell to the sword of Alexander and his genersl Perdika.etra on account of the perfection duly attained by the two sages. The MahiibMrata (Dror. Indo· logical Studies.A. struck Mahmud of Ghazni with such admiration that he resolved to adorn his own capital in a similar style. The temples of MathunJ. and ninety.nearthed here. p. after 78 A. W88 invited at the Na\ava\a vihara.ta the S&ka.7. very im· portant in the history of Buddhism. p. alBo caUed the Malloi. 167. They then left their city. According to Vividhatirthaladpa (pp. 1774ff. 7) probably locates them in the same place when it couples them with the Trigarttas. pp. X. P. llO HISTORICAL GROGBAl'RY OY ANClRNT INDIA Upagupta who W88 the teacher of AAoka. p. The people of MathunJ. 631). The Malava tribe is mentioned in the MaMbMwa of Patafijali (IV. According to McCrindle they occupied . The Scythian invasions and conquests could not destroy the tribal organization of the Malavas. Smith thinks that they occupied the cou. the country comprising the Jhang district and a portion of the Montgomery district (J. App...S. p. 1200.. 5Off. were defeated by Alexander's army. I. I. Pt.six neighbouring villages instaUed Jain idols in their houses and courtyards (Brhat BMgavata.. Ch. putana where they seem to have held their ground at the time of Samudragupta.>aparva.S. On Yuan Chwang.I. The Upagupta monastery at Mathur. Some have located them in the valley of the lower Rivi on hoth b&nks of the river (Raychaudhuri. The peeple of this country known as the Miilavas were settled in the Punjab.) MathunJ.). for they are mentioned in the list of tribal states of the western and Bouth·western fringe of Aryavarta mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta. Numerous inscriptions from Maihura. Annual Report.1 Jainism was firmly established in this city. 205). 6). But it is difficult to locate exactly the territory they occupied.e. The Malavas seem to have occupied their territory in the Punjab for some time afterwards. I. while at MathunJ... 17.. . came to be known as Siddhakl.D. Ch.ndated Buddha and Bodhisattva images have been u.. as he succeeded in converting in this monastery Dlany people. 641... pp..A. For explorations at Mathura) vide A. For further details Vide Law.' Many dated and u.jal)a kings i..

-The Khoh copperplate inscription of Maharaja Sarva- oatha (the year 214) mentions this town.labha.1. 17). VIII. lruk>logical Bt:udieJJ.ava inscription is to record the erection of a pillar called a dhvaja or standard of god Visl). Ch. Abhiras. Tribes in Ancient India..lii<. Ch. Bk. The great sage Silailkayana meditated on this mountain (Kurmapurii. 7).-It starts from the north· western extremity of the Himalayas. It is near the Badarikasrama and is probably the Mount Meros of ArtiaD.i$iras.-lt is also known as Mar-koh near Jalalabad in the Punjab (P). This Vail. 42).I. VI. 9-10). 1938.nupada (the hill containing the footprint of Vilmu) (O.. I. on the southern side stand Kailasa and Himavanta. In later epigraphic records we have mention of Sapta-Malavas.-This mountain otherwise known as Hemiidri and Svarniicala (Hultzsch. NORTHERN INDU III known Krta or Malava-Vikrama era (cf. V. seven countries called Malavas(E. son of king Pasenadi . and are des- cribed as dwelling along the Pariyiitra mountains (Bhiigavatapu. city and two miles to the north of the road leading from Mathnra to Govardhan (E. This mountain is known to modern geographers as the Hindnkush. C.72). and on the northern side stand Spigaviin and Jarudhi (Mer- lca~t!eya Purii1. and extends south-westwards.!. A. pp. 194)..-It was visited by B~ma who was duly enter- tained by the dwellers of this hermitage.e. 10). Miirlca~t!eya-ii8ral'lUl. which is a corruption of Mihirapuri. 84) places it at the confluence of the Gumti and the Ganges. about 47 miles in a south-easterly direction from Ucahara and 32 miles south-east of Karitalai (C. Ch. 240). Mauniaina 0/ India. i.000 and 18.. Geo- graphy of Early Buddhi8m. XIII. A number of spurs run from tbe main range. v. Mora. Miinapura. XII.. 229.. 3-4. Moriyanagara. Vol.I" V. B. 166).mmmatii. C. Ch. According to the Padmapuriil.O. January.-King Vibhrija repaired to this lake (HarifJtJr!'Aa. Vi~~upur. p. Vol. I. first dividing India includ- ing Pakistan from Afghanistan and then through north-eastern Afghan- istan. p. 16) the sage Mark:aJ:>o.leya practised asceticism at the confluence of the Sarayii and the Ganges. 229). Avantis.-The Meharanli posthumous Iron Pillar Inscription of Chandra mentions it. Miga. XIX.~adha and Piiripiitra.B. The range is much dissected and dne to steep gradient there is very little soil capping with the result that nothing hut grasses can grow there. 144.000 ft.ii<. The Mahiibhiirata (Vanaparva. 150) where the Ganges takes its rise (Law. III.-This city was bni1t hy some Siikyas when they Bed to the Himalayas being oppressed by king Vi<. Meru.-This river had its source in the Himalayas (Jat.u on a hill called ViI.. Vailgaviisi Ed. On the western side of this mountain stand Ni.R. Pt. and the Kokcha spur dividing the Kokcha drainage from that of the Kunduz. p.il"l..1a. 27ft". VoL IIIl_ In the Pural. 1931-32.I. Law.. III). Brahmii1)<ja PUTii? a.I.I.000 ft_ in the eastern section above which rise several giant peaks to an altitude of 25. which is probably modern Manpur near the river Son. II.l).!"" we find the Malavas ""sociated with the Sanr3.-It is a small village. Vol. seven miles west of Mathnrii.l. Ill).1}a. Law. such as the Badakhshan spur separating the Oxus from the Kokcha. XXIII.. is identical with the Rudra Himalaya in G~rhwal (TherigiUhii Commy.1.a (Ch. Pt. p. Pts.I. C. (Law. 36.I. I.. Merw Mauntain. Mandasor Inscription of Nara- varman. Miilyavat Mountain. XXIV. Suras and Arbudas. a village nine miles almost due south of Delhi. Ma1Ul8a-sarovara. a. The height of the Hindukush varies between 14. Meharauli. p.. For further detaiIB vide B. 8. p. which was visited by Alexander the Great.

.. pp. According to Strabo (H... II.. 112 mSTOBlCAL OBOORAPHY 0 . 785.H.-It is identified with the modem Jalalabad in Afghaui- stan. 96). Koryagaza.) MOU8ikanos. etc. A<:cording to St. On Yuan Chwang. They seem to have occupied an extensive territory. & F. They never liked to go to law-courts by creating constant disputes. The pl. C.8.D. I. Yuan Chwang visited Mou-lo-88n-pu-lu (Skt. Ph. III. They made no use of gold or silver.-The territory of Mousikanos was well known to Alexander's historians. pp..'s Trans!.-Its other equivalent is Muiijavant which occurs in the Maluibhiimta (X. 1 J./iki. The Moriyas of Pipphalivana obtained a share of the Buddha's relics and built a stupa over them. 29.las with the Lampakas. pt. the Lambat&i of Ptolemy. 215. follows that the Muru(l<... They studied the science of medicine with due attention. Mukte8vara. where it is read as Maujavata. Trihe& in Ancient India. II.-The MuruQt.ther of ABok. see also Tran8lation oj the lJuveda by Ludwig. therefore. Martin Kelydna had some relation with the Kalinadi or Kalindi river. 119-21). Kondota. It is the name of a mountain in the HimaJaya. 4. It occnrs in the lJufJeOO.-It was situated on two islands in the Riivi. who were located near the source of the modern Kabul river in the region around Laghman and it.las as a mkccha tribe. 3.0. Kelydna.bounding in peepul trees.las are mentioned for the first time by Ptolemy in the 2nd century A. Hema- candra's AbhidJujnacintama7}i (IV. 93-94. Northern India according to the Shui-ching-Chu. Sinhalese Ed. pp.A. Kaspeira.. In the Siddhanta Kaumudi on Pal)iui (IV. N . the Moroundai of Ptolemy were the same as the Moredes of Pliny. ANCIBN"r INDIA of K0881a (Maluiva1!Wl-!iro. XIV. says that it was one of the lower hills on the south-west of KiiBmira.16).. all to the east of the Ganges: Boraita.8.I.. 180. . XIV..YU/}) identifies the Muru(l<. under the name of Moroundai. 26-Lampiikastu Maru~ . (Mahava'JUla. Cunningham has identified Miilasthana with Multan.las had a settle- ment in this region as well.. . Zimmer in his AUindisches Leben. Alexander took them by surprise and they had to submit to him (C. Miijavant. vide B. Muru1!tf. grandf. The VayupunilUl speaks of the Murun<. Petech.. It is now genemlly accepted that Candr. Law. Mulaathrifw (Miilasthiinapura). Vogel. The classical writers mention it as Kaspapyros. I. X. 34. 377). on Pklkmy (B. Mulasthana) which he located 900 li to the east of Sindh (Watters. 119-21). the Great. According to Cun- uingham. According to some it was a bill from which the people took their name.. Aganagora and Talarga.a country. Vol.-It is the headquarters of the tahsil of the Same name in the Ferozepur district in the Punjab. I. they used to eat in public and their food consisted of what was taken in the chase. p. They had six important cities. (Digha.. 198). and Agana- gora with Aghadip (Agradvipa) on the eastern bank of the Ganges a little below Katwa (Ptolemy's AlIdent India.gnpt..ce where this city was founded was always resounded with the cries of peacocks. p. nO) we get another variant Manfijavata. belonged to the Moriyan cl&n which had its seat of Government at Pipphalivana. They employed youths in the flower of their age instead of slaves. 2M). probably the whole of North Bihar on the east of the Ganges as far as the head of the delta. Sinhalese Ed. pp. Here a great Sikh festival takes place every year. It stood &round a lake in a forest tract . Nagaraluira. 80). For further details. 1 Fa·Wei seems to imply that in his time it was a part of the kingdom of l'ut-w!apura (L. 167.

Agnipun:irw. 16-Tirlhamahiitmya). 363) mention Naimifiya which denotes dwellers in the Nai- mi~a forest. 361ff.31. In the 8th century A. The boundary of Nepala is &B follows: on the east flows the river Kausiki. Nepala is mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription as an autonomous frontier state. Neptila. 6.<J" vs. VII. In the beginning of the 5th century A.• II. X. north of KiiIsi.. III.! . on the north Sivapun (Kailiija) and on the south flows a river. at. According to the Deopara Inscription (E.. 3-5).l9. The Pancam". 20ff. 84. sis. Uttarakha.B. 109. Nepal was a buffer state. 1. This tax is similar to the Taru~kadal.. 253).S. on the west the TriSiiIagailgii. 153ff. about the middle of the 12th century A. C. 1-12) the twelve-year "". p. 309) Nanyadeva. Nanyaura. the water of which is cold and pure (Ch. 155).45-48) makes mention of it among other holy places of India (cf. 1151f.I .D . It was 14 miles in length and 4 miles in breadth (cf.. 4) and the Jaiminiya BrahtrUlrw (I.. 1/11.A. V. The temple of PaSupatiniitha or Pasupati in Mrgasthala in Nepal is one of the cele- brated Hindu temples situated on the western bank of the Biigmati river in the town of Devipatan founded by Mob's daughter . 14. The Thankot inscription of the time of Manadeva Ji.53·54).20. In the Varahapurii'f'l (eh. was somewhere between the North-Western Frontier and the western coast of India..) locates it on the bank of the ~dvati.D. The Vayupun:il'a (1. X. (E. 14.. 1. BMgavatapurii1JQ. it was simply called Na·kie by Fa·hien. 60).-This village is situated about It miles north-west of the Kosam Pillar (E. 1938... Niirada was honoured by the sages when he visited Nai~iiral. Some think that Niibhaka and NiibhapaJ!lti were central Himalayan states.Supatirtha or PaSupatitirtha is on the river Bagmatl. 4."ugupta refers to the tax called Manakara which is collected in the Nepal Valley. VI.avala of Govindachandra.P. ll04-54 A. 1837. I. VIII..30.• I. Naimi!'iirafJya (modern Nimsar). N. IV.-It is situated on the bank of the Gmnti in the Sitapur district.. ~ 30.. • Nauhiii. Pa. NO&TIIKRN INDIA 113 p. which is mentioned in R. April. 20..A. In the N eptilamiihiitmya (Ch. 78.. V and XIII of Asok. Pt. is erroneous.:.. IX.D.! . 2/2). 98ff. which was then an independent state governed by its own king. pp.. 3). the Nepal Valley originally consiBted of a lake called Nilga Bilsa.D.• is said to have been defeated and imprisoned by Vijayasena with many other princes.. Nagara. 1924. 973) which seems to be doubtful. I think.na. XI. 100ff.las here. 79.. 30) the former name of Nepiila was EHOIjmiitalm- va. Ch. L. about 8 . In the 7th century A.-The Niinyaurii grant refers to this village in the Panwari- J aitpur tehsil ofthe Hamirpur district.-The Yoginitantra mentions it (1/7.E. llff. Dey. p. the ruler of Nepal. 7. It is an important place of Hindu pilgrimage being one of 51 Pithasthiinas (holy places) and an abode of the ancient Aryan &ages who wrote the Puriil. 981f. 109-111.S. Geographical DictWnary. The MaMbhiir!J1.a (83.D. It W&B conquered by Samudragupta. 5~) refers to this holy city.a in the inscriptions of GahaQ.• XXIV..rilice was held in the Nai~a forest. 116ff. p. Pad'1TlOpun:i1JQ" Ch.. 140)..lya (PadtrUlpuMl'a. The Yoginitantra (2/4) mentions it. Some take it to mean Tippera (J. c. 15.219. 77·78). she shook off her dependence on Tibet. which. at the time of Hiuen Tsang it was without a king and subject to Kapisene.hira was identified by Laasen with Nagara or Dionysopolis of Ptolemy situated midway between Kabnra and the Indus. VII.Ciirumati. In the 7th century A.D.sa BriihtrUlrw (XXV. U. The Kiirma PUMfJa (Piirvabhiiga. It was alao called Udyiinapura (cf. 321ff. Nabhaka . According to the Padmapun:irw (VI...l.Niibhaka.

caves in the neighbourhood of KauSiimbi to the Kii.I. Law. Pa~ and their Capital Ahicchatra.1. LIV.'''' India.) and in the other we have mention of four generations of kings beginning with Saunskiiyana (B. 6ff. Paderia.l . 168).. Pt.hitii they were located in the south- western region of ledia (VtigupuTa'!'a. For further details. M. p. Ie one of them the donor King A~a~basena is introduced as the maternal uncle of king Brhaspati. Ch. V. According to Dr. I.-It is a corruption of the word Parthava.ttrritory.1. They were the allies of the Haihaya-Tiilajanghas according to the Epic and Pauranic traditions. vide B. There is another temple here dedicated to the god Tri· purantaka or Siva under the name of Mihiresvara.. mitm (LOders' List. No. Law.• In.tern hank of the river fronting the temple there is a hill covered with lofty trees and jungles.. This village stands ciose to an ancient temple dedicated to ParaSuriima.. Nigliva.-Tbis mountain which was not far off from the Himalaya.. They fought on the side of the Kurus in the K~etm war. called by the Greeks Paropanisos. Mtirka1J4eyapurli1Ja Ch. Pt. 247). 36). Nisahha.. Oxykanos.-The inscriptions record the fact of dedication of the two Pabhoaii. I. 1).. 37.n. 2). six miles east by south of Dhiiniipura in the suh·division of the Gazipur district. Yavanas and others.Syapiya Arhata by king ~hasena of Adhicchatr. 68.114 BlSTORlCAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA three miles north-west of Katmandu. pp.. f. App. C. p... Pahliidpura. p.-It is an ancient town and a place of pilgrimage in the Kaithal tehsil of the KarnaJ district in the Punjah situated on the sacred 8a . I.. now called the Hindnkush (cf. N irmlind.A.. Law. Indological Studies. It is called the golden mountain . 21 miles north-east of Plach.• V.. 9. in the north. 12).1.manta and Maharaja Samudrasena mentions Nirmiind.ia. Cunningham thinks that the territory of Oxykanos lay to the west of the ledus in the level country around Larkhana (InM8ion 0/ AlexantI. Brhatsa1{lhita. p. 904. Apadlina. 14).kas and Yavanas.. (Jat . mentioned in the Jata. p.ion mentions thia village situated near the right bank of the Ganges.. V.r. the ledian name for the Parthians (Rapson. Pahlava. Sa. Fuhrer it is situated about 13 miles from Nigliva (E. The VtiyupurlifJa places the territory of the Pahlav. The Juniig"llli Rock Inscription refers to a Pahlava official named Sivisaka.I .-It lies 38 miles north·west of the Vska Bazar Station of the Bengal and North·Western Railway in the Nepalese tehsil of Taulihva of the Butaul district (E. w.-The Pahliidpura Stone Pillar Inscript. 67).. 129). On the e. C. Ooins 0/ India. E.• X. Oxykanos tried to oppese Alexander but in vain (Oambridge History o/India. 115. IOIS-22).a and the Brhatsa". pur of the same district.. 45.I .S. Pabhosci Oave. They were annihilated by king Sagara along with the Sakas.. 39·40. III). Ch.. and Gautamiputm Satakarl)i is credited in the Nasik Cave Inscription as the uprooter of the Pahlav..-It is in the Himalayan region (Milinda.-Curtius speaks of the people of this territory as Praesti correspending perbaps to the l'roith"" mentioned in the Mahi'i. while according to the MIiTka1J4eyapuTtir. the chief town of the Plach tehsil of the Kulla or Kulu division of the Kangra district in the Punjab (0. pp. Pahawa. NeMtparvala. Vol. bMrata (VI.• No. p. p. situated to the west of the Gandhamidana and north of the Kabul river.".-It lies two miles north of the Nepalese tehsil of Bhagaviin. Tribes in AM. 67. 61). 377.-The Nirmand Copperplate Inscription of the Mah. Indolo(lical Slndi. Law. a village near the right bank of the Sutiej. p. According to the Ramliya'fja the Pahlavas were created during the dissension between the famous sages VaS~t ha and V~viimitra regarding the pessession of the Ktimndhenu (Adikiil)o. 1).

Taittitiya lra1Jyaka (V. The problem of the origin of the name Paiicala and its prohable con- nection with the number Five struck the authors of the Pural). p. I.ce in K~etra mentioned in the Pancam1f'ia Btiihmav-a (XXV. 4. 156·157. mentioned (Kathaka·8a1f!hitii. Satapatha.). 94..-This village is situated two miles to the north of Bhitargaon in the Kanpur district containing a ruined temple (A. 1.S. 273ff. NOBTHIIRN INDIA. 8. Holy Places of India. 1. pp. it again became important under the Gaharwar dynasty. Jataka (Cowell). Cha. 3. Ch. 115 river Sarasvati. 13.-It comprised Bareilly. S. It seems to have been bounded on the east by the Gumti and on the south hy the Chambal. 512. p. p. Patanjali in his Mahiihhd1ya (1. No. (Law. p. ll3ff. pp. Farrukhabad and the adjoining districts of Rohilkhand and the Central Doab in the U. Ancient India.7. 3. 202). pp. Paiicdla and its princes figure in Jaina literature (Uttariidhyayana SUtra.-It is a village in the Dhuriapar psrgana of the Bansgaon tehsil of the Gorakhpur district. Gopaiha·Brohma1)a.S. Paii. 1. 1.la8 and lheir Capi/aJ.213. 5.a1f!hitii.W. p. I.). V~u.!. was invaded by the Greeks. 19th Chapter. 8.ne~var. IV. 1169. etc. 513.avardhana but from about the 9th century A. Pancalade§& continued to be one of the great and powerful countries in northern India down to the time when the Buddha lived (A7iguttara.atta (M.4. 252. In the Upsni. Paiidiladek. . 104. XIII. The Vedic literature refers to the kings of this kingdom (Aitareya BriihmafJ/l. Pal)ini mentions Piineiilaka in his A~!iidhyiiyi (7. 198. 87. 172-194. 16 miles west of Thii. Chiindogya. I. Jaina 8Utra. It contains ancient temples in ruins (vide Siddha. 61. Drol). under Bhoja and his son it became the principal power in northern India extending from Behar to Sind. 67). 253. XLIV. XII. II. 278). Pt. 12. p. 4th Anka. 9-21.D. 4. 634) also mentions it as a janapada. Annual Report. Vayu.!. Budaun. 19. Vol. In the post·ASokan period Paneiil.-It is a small hamlet in Patti Khas situated in deep valley some 12' miles north· west of Devaprayiiga standing at the confiuence of the Ganga and the Alakananda. 360)..). Taittiriya Briihma1Ja. Vanaparva. 2. Ahiw.I.. XI. I). 830. It extended from the Himalaya mountains to the Chambal river (Cunningham. 13. V. 1908/9..E. 2. vata... Ancient Geography. 2. Karnapsrva.as (Bluiga. Agniputii(la. etc. 2). Viratapsrva. p. Vaj""aneYi . p. I. Prade~ lying east of the Ganges and north· west of Oudh while tbe southern Paneiila included the country between the Jumna and the Ganges on the east and south·east of the Kurus and Siirasenas (Rapson. 2. V. 1012-1013. VI.ads and later works we find that the Brahmins of Paneiila took psrt in philosophical and philological dis- cussions (Brhadarav-yaka Upa1l~ad. VI. Northern Pafieiila included districts of the Uttar.). Ch.Briihma~a.). 3. 167). 37.. 60. where plates of Govindacandra were discovered (E. Batapatha BtiihmafJ/l. Udyogaparva.A. XXX. I. I. Siinkhyiiyana Brauta Sulra. 6. 400). 9. 23. Pariv-aio.-It is the name of a pla. VIII. 99. 570). Ch. In the 12th century A. Pati. For further details vide Law.3. 256 and 260. I). Bhj~mapsrva. The kingdom of PaficaJa passed through troublous times after the death of Han. II. Ch.D.6.P. In the later Vedie 8a1f!hitas and the Briihma1)aS the people of Paneiila are frequently .B. Pa/e!hi. 1. 26). 1.Bhiiraii. in K~etra. 4. Many are the stories told about the people of this place in the Mahiihharata (Adipsrva. Parauli. The great kingdom of PaneiiJa was divided into northern and southern PaneiiJa having Ahicchatra and K!impilya as their respective capitals. pp. I.apsrva. I. 13). 22. Ch. It lie. 17ff. p.

-It is situated in the Indus delta. Sa.-One of the Vedic rivers (~igv. is found in the BaudMyana-Dharrrmritra (1. X.. Pa. Sindhu.116 HISTORICAL GBOGRAPHY 01' ANCIENT INDIA lA!1Jdyana Brauta SUtra (X.va.O.Mahiivagga. Mahakassapa while coming from Pava to Kuainara heard of the decease of the Buddha. Pt. Ph. It is known as Po-li-ye-ta. It has been identified with the Ravi. 6.: Pareraka). Petech. Ktitydyana Brauta BUtra (XXIV. The Pari- yiitra is the western part of the Vindhya range extending from the sources of the Chambal to the Gulf of Cambay. The earliest mention of the Pariyatra or Pari- pith. HisWry 0/ tM Delckan. P.ti. XVI.. It was the oapital of a separate prinoipality for a long time before the Gurkha conquest of Nepal. 15). VIII. p. the Veda- smriti. Carroanvati. VII. 286).1). Noka on Pwlemy.8 (Barna and Sinha. a place of great antiquity (A. 3).yutta. Vedisa. (J. 34) and Biinkhyiiyana Braum SUtTa (XIII.A.". 19.-It is the same as the Paripittra mountain.. 62).-Pii. B.lo to the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang with a Vaisya king as its ruler.S.-It is situated three miles south of Khii\maJ. 57. Cunningham has identified Pav. It is that portion of the Vindhya range from which the rivers Chambal and Betwa take their rise (Bhandarkar. It appeared like a lake or pool because of the accumulation of rain water in it which was really a large hollow. Aooording to Fa-hien's version of the Mahiiparinirv5~a- 8iUra he was at Dak~inagiri. 84. III. It is considered as one of the sacred places of the Jmns. Patala. Most probably this forest was not very far from Kausambi (of. Pa~i. p. 25) as the southern limit of Aryavarta. 1123. acoording to the Vinaya of the Mahiisanghika he was at Grdhrakiita (NorIMTn India according to the Shui-Ching-Chu. Papa or Pavapuri is the same as Kasia. the Buddha came to live here and spent one rainy season.va.a.' with Padrauna. Piirireya (Pali: Piirileyyaka. by L. 29. 27). Some of the rivers had their sources in this mountain namely. PiiriVlita.-This was the name of a woodland guarded by the elephant Parileyyaka.i (cf. 19-20).a the centre of Bharatavar. Four beauti- ful Jaina temples were built at the spot where MaMma breathed his last. situated on the little Gandak river to the east of the district of Gorakhpur. 1. Barhut Inscriptions. Sipra and AvarQ.. Vogel. 4.B. vide Prasthala).. I. . 32). Mahavira left his mortal existence when he was dwelling in the palace of king $as\hipiila of Pavao It was at this city that the Buddha ate his last meal in the house of Cunda the smith and was attacked with dysentery. p.-This cave existed somewhere in the neighbourhood of Ghositiiriima and KauAAmbi. Skt.itan. Vedava.W also refers to it as the farthest limit of the K umiirikha?J4.W. 18. which is situated to the west of Bhopal together with the Aravalli mountains (Vide Pargiter.R. The Mallas used to reside in this oity. Mahi. 118).. Pilalckhoguhii. Sadanira. 74. Seo. 75. Failing to settle the dispute among the monks at Kauaambi. The Parileyyakavanasat0a occurs in the Barhut Jataka level No. Pdva.lo:lu. whence ita Greek designation of Patalene. Vinaya. The way to this woodland from Kauaambi lay through a village.ted.. It was evidently the capital of the province watered by the lower Indus. I. Miirkaweyapurii1. 94·95. Miirka'J4. p.S. VeQ. 63.rgiter identifies it with that portion of the modern Vindhya range. being attended by the elephant Parileyyaka and a monkey. Its location is unknown. who were devotedly attaohed to Mahavira and Buddha. The Skanda Purii1. Vetravati.eyapurii1}a. XIV. south of Rajagrha. X. 6). It occurs in Luders' List No. The mountain seems to have lent its name to the country with which it was associa.

1856). I. C. It was 333 miles in circuit (C. Gupta Empire. 252-253). 37ff..). (R. The Yoginitantra (2. Vol. pp. XXVI. The village of Piprawa (Birdpur Estate). Some have identified the Adrijas with the Adraistai of the Greeks. 79-83).. pt. 2. (Majjhima.I. according to Fleet. p. The Kiirmapura1Jf1 (Piirvabhiiga.S.. sarga 54. Pilo8lulna.D.-ThiB was the land of the Moriy"s (Digha. 78).A. the ancient Kausambi. 29). C. 167). PoI<J#. is three miles to the north-west of the great fort of Kosam. 1906.A. it is the holiest of all places in the whole world. 42) tells us that Kumaragnpta who won victory over the Maukhari .Khicaj. p.S. which is the only rock in the Antarvedi or the Doab between the Ganges and the Jumna. PrMlIulla (Patala). 240).la. It wa. 9) it is highly spoken of by the great sages.A.-The oldest northern document was supposed to be the dedication of the Buddha's relics at Piprawa (I.'adhvaja of the 3rd or 4th century A. in tehsil Manjhanpur.. Prahhasa.G. Prayaga.-The modem village of Pabhosa stands on a cliff over- looking the northern bank ofthe Yamunii. La~maJ!. Indological Studies. 423). Pimpnimd.. Long after Alexander's invasion it passed under the mle of the Bactrian Greeks (Hamilton and Falconer.B.I. pp. 30. Jan.-It is supposed to have stood at or near the site of modem Bahmanabild which is the most ancient and which includes extensive prehistoric remains (J. 13). The Aphsad Stone Inscription of !dityasena (Fleet No. wanderer named Sandaka who was oonvened to Buddhism by !nand.B. it was one of the principal Indo.A.A. p. Pt. 711-12). mention the followipg kings who were associated with Prayaga: (I) Maharaja Gautamiputra Sri-Sivamegha. II.B. Law. p. marks. II.I. According to the Mahiibharata (85. About the middle of the 2nd century A. 32 miles south-west of Allahabad. According to the Hariva1!>Aa (Ch.C..I. 180.Scythian possessions according to the geographer Ptolemy. Piprawd. For further details vide B.. Rhys Davids takes it to be the new city built after the destruction of the old city by Vi(lii(labha (B. 371 and n. vs. which represents the ancient site of Prabhasa. Vol.D.(l8. and (3) Mahiiraja Gsutamiputra V!'. the findspot of the famous Piprawa Vase..-Its limits may be defined approximately as extending from Bulandshabar to Firojabad on the Jumna and Kiidirgunj on the Ganges. C.. the site of Kapilavastu (J. p.-It may be identified with Poial in the Hindol State (E. 117 It bec&me dried up during the summer. 35-38) also mention this famous holy place.B.-It was the stronghold of the Adraistai who lived on the eastern side of the Ravi (Hydraotes). vs.513ff. Mookerjee.D. 2-5) points out that Rama. 117-24).. It wa. The little state of Patalene as called by the Greeks is generally identified with the Indns Delta. II. 45-48) and Padmapura1}a (Uttara- khaJ!. and it later on came to the hands of Saka or Indo-Scythian rulers from the clutches of the Indo-Greek mlers. Pipphaliva1Ul. I. I. One finds an echo of its name in that of Piprawa. XXVI.. 119) refers to it. 1907. a village in the Birdpur estate in the district of Basti. 1897).s visited by . 2). It is situated in the north of the Basti district on the Nepal frontier (Archaeo- logical Survey. Law.-The Ramayana (Ayodhyakanc.H. (2) Rajan VasL~thi­ putra Bhimasena of the 2nd or 3rd century A. NOBTJIBRN INDIA. where some inscrip- tions were discovered (E. XXVI.s probably named after its capital city Patala. K. The hill of Prabhasa. Some inscriptions discovered at :Shit.. The AdraiBtai or Adhrlltas are said to have bowed down before Alexander's army (C. Geography oj Early Buddhi811l. p. 11.I..a and Sirn saw smoke coming out of this holy city when they came to the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna after Ayodhya.

universally considered as holy. Gazetteer. Kalidiisa refers to this confluence in his R"i/huva7pAa (XIII. pp. According to him. Prayiiga (Chinese Po-Io-ye-kia) is modern Allahabad. 125-128). Lak~mana and Sita noticed at the confluence of the Ganga-Yamuna two kinds of colour of the water (Rimaya1)a.. I. Here green products and fruit trees grew in ahundance. Btimiiya'{la.000 Ii in circuit and the capital above 20 Ii in circuit. 2-5).16). 178). darkar Volume. according to the M<lMbMrata (Chap.navarman. They were fond of learuing (Beal.l. The majority of the inhahitants were non-Buddhists (Watters. The 8Ilngama is considered by the Hindus as very holy. III.81). 139. I. (cf. SO). the hero of the VilcramorvaBi.. Law. 14. 39). Du. The Buddha delivered the Agganna 8utlanta while he was dwelling in the palace of Migaramatii (Di{/ha. there were only two Buddhist establishments and many Deva-temple. I. v. (Papa~ni. was the son of Ekarnja of Pupphavati. C. Pupphavati. 10-12). Ayodhyiikii!).. p. 1918. p. I.<.118 HISTORICAL GJIOGRAl'IIY 0)' ANOIBNT INDIA. is said to have been the ruler of this place.<. 50-51). and Bharata ruled it. 122). the Gahadavala Jaycbandra took his bath in the Veni at Prayaga (E. king IM.\a. 54-57). forgetting all about her valuable necklace which she took off her person and left behind in the monastery. according to the Bhiigava/a Purri1)a (VII. BIta. In the early Buddhist texts Payaga or Prayaga is mentioned as a tirtha or ghat on the Ganges (Majjhima. 414). the daughter-in-law of the banker Migara. who is reported to have entered into beatitude by abandouing his body in the waters of the Jahnavi and the Kalindi (E.-It was a Buddhist monastery situated in the neighbourhood of Srnvasti to the north-east of Jetavana and erected by Visakha. named Kuru.. I.. IV.A. and the people. Canda- Kumar. Carmichael Lecture8. By bathing at this sangama one accumulate. which gave way to Prat~thanapura towards the latter part of the Hindu rule (Nevill. much merit. The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang found this country to be above 5. Prayiiga was in the possession of Dhanga. I. Riima. 10). 195).5manta.\a.-It was one of the names of Varn!). sarga 54. For further details vide B. C. B.8. 50). The Sarasvati sangama is. 67. According to the Brahma Purri1)a (Chs. On getting it back she refused to wear it and sold it for a big amount.. 384--420). He offered charities whole-heartedly and he never ate anything without first giving it to . It is a K¢ra . 7). refers to Ganga-Yamuna sangama. Ayodhyiikal). vs. One day ViSiikhi returned home from the Jetavana Vihara. He praised the country. beggar (Cariya-Pitaka. The people were gentle and compliant in their disposition. She ntiliBed the money in purchasing a site whereupon she built a monastery and dedicated it to the Order. three king. The Saurapurri1)a (Chap. . V. X. Srrivasti in Indian Literature (M. The circum- .I. This monastery was known as Pubhiirnma-Migaramatupaaida. Wood and stone wcre the materials used for the construction of the monastery which stood up as a maguificent two-storied building with innumerable rooms on the ground and first floors (Dhammapada Commentary.asi. R.tances which led to the erection of this monastery are related in the Dhammapada Commentary (Vol. 82. the capital of the KMi kingdom (Bhandarkar.79. I. Pururava. p. Ed. the climate. p. The climate was warm and agreeable. lSO.. 54 sarga. No./. According to the Kamauli grant (A. p.. Yamuna and Sarasvati at Prayaga. 361).D. There is the confluence (sa1igama) of the three rivers: Ganga. B-uddhi8t Rum-ds 0/ the Western World. Here the palace occupied by Mahiipanada was submerged. 230). Allahabad Dis!. Law. 30.6). On Yuan Chwang. 1172). Purviiriima (Pubbjrtima). performed religious suicide at Prayiga (D. pp. 146).

rsada). Dey.-It was . 9Off. J. 14.-It is Amritsar in the Punjab named after a Sikhguru who built a hut near a natural pool of water which w. The KU1. It was the capital of an Indian prince named Hasti (Greek Astes) at the time of Alexander's expedition (326 B.l?a called the Riidhaknl.. XIX (1885).-lt has been identified with Rajaori to the south of KiiBmira.B .H. belonging to the Ik:I. iii.· It i. Ramagama. said to have been founded by ~kara. Wilson Ed .). 175).).. the consort of Kr. II (1871). Early HiBtory oj India. J. RamaJii8apura. 000. watered by the river Ghargharii. situated to the west of the river Indus.l?a...A. city (XIV. who had 1 A. S. The Buddha brought about a conciliation between the Sakyas and the Koliy.. A caitya w.'ii1a. For further details vide B.8a"!'hita . Kanu. Here Dharmanatha. son of Bharata and nephew of Rama.-It w.G. otherwise known as the lotus city. Raibhya.la. on the south by Bhimbar.. the favourite resort of Niinak (N. 1902. 165). Vol.. C. Hence they came to be called the Koliy.U. The district of Rajaori i. little above the junetion of the Swat with the Kabul river (V.. Pt.C.• 1889.pu. may be identified with the modern Prang and Charsadda.BJ.. NO:&TlI1IBl!i INDIA nil P~lcaliivati (Pm!kariivati.. one at Riimagama and the other at Devadaha. Indologico1 Studiea. Coina oj India. The Koliyas had their settlement here. A.l .-Betwcen Farukkabad and Hardai the Ganges reoeives a tributary called the Ramagatigii having its origin in the Kumaun range above Ahnora. . 'Iff. pp. 24).Jataka (Jat . According to some this city. Riidhii had also a pond dug by tbe side of the Syamakul. C.560. The PeriplUB oj the Erythraean Sea..• V.!a.• XXVI..1(9). It came under the Saka rule during the reign of Maues (cir. This pond w . As Riidha. Radluiku'!4a.A. 1942. Cunningham...I . 4th Ed .-It is Rampur Deoriya in the district of Basti in Oudh. The Suma1igalaviltiBini (pp.viiku family w.... Diet .S. 57ff.BJ.A.• p. 75 B.Io). A. Law. on the west by Punsch.. and on the east by Riltasi and Aknur (G. 183·84. Pt. It is identified with the modern Chiirsadda (Chii.-It is in the city of Benaras where two copperplates of Govindacandradeva.. Pt. IV..C. 352-55) the Koliyas were the descendants of the sage Kola.. Peukelaotia of Arrian and Peukalei of Dionysius Periegetes). (V~upura~a. Brown. According to the Mahiivaatu (I. 26). Society. p. 4).3 (1904)..R. I. built in honour of Dharmanatha(B.. I.. used to dwell in the Kola tree. pp. VI. 96ff. were one of the republican clans in the Buddha's time having two settlements.n. Vol.. refused to touch his body because he killed a cow. Law.lna.. 1). April.R. called the SYiimakun<. 277. Some Jaina Canonical SiUraa. he bad a pond dug for biB bath and for removing the sins accumulated by him.).8he.I .. •• son used to live here according to Tiiriinath (vide V. Agraw. Ratnaviihapura. p. 17 miles north·east of Peshwar on the Swat river (Schoff. 1. A.P..-It is also known as Ari~ because 8l"ikpjna in tbe guise of an ox killed the demon called Arma. Rimaganga. Ptolemy calls it Proklais which was a very large and populous city. Ch.t Kubjamra at a short distance to the north of Hardwar (Haridviira). were unearthed (E.. (13) says that the Koliy. Geographical DaID in Pa1jini'8 A?!t1dhyayi. p. Smith. L...• p.k. wife of king Bhiinu. 260-62) records an interesting story of their origin.• 1924. The Koliy. 268ff.-It was an earlier capital of Gandhara.• 148.G. pp.• Vol. f.iUrama. Rtijapura (Ko·/o. XVI.... 18). It is mentioned in the Brihat..). born of Suvrata. (Vide Cambridge Hi8tory oj India. Rajgluit. a town in Kosal.I .. p. bounded on the north by the Pirpanchal.

Citraratha and Art.-The Greek' eqnivalent of this Indian name is Sambos. now called Kiilinadi between Atranji and Kanoj and 23 miles west of Fatehgarh in the district of Etawab and 45 miles north·west of Kanoj. a village in the Farrukhabad district of the U. V. The ancient city of Ayodhyil IItood on this river to which the BMgavaJa Purri~ often .53. There is a mention of the Sarayii in PiI}ini's A~Vidhyiiyi (VI.64.). SaTf'kaSya (Pali: SaTf'kassa). It has been identified with Sehwan. According to Pataiijali 's MaMh~ (Vol. Rohi~i.H. 327. This river issued forth from the Himalayas (Milind4panha. I. Bihar. and 40 miles north·north· east from Etawah. Invasiun 0/ Akzander.kes •• is Sailkissa or Sailkisa Basanta. 20. The capital of this conntry is called Sindimana. '. 27). single dam and they cultivated their crops by means of water of this river (JiUaJw. Vitasta. 1927. 1. Rama and La~maJ.P. 56). 21911". III. Sambos submitted to Alexander. 21. 18. 40). 114).. Can<l!"abhiigii. Cowell. V. Jilt. E. Samhhu.-The Iliimiiya~ (AdikiiI. 56). 604.la.la visited the confluence of the Sarayii and the Ganges. V. The Yoginitantra refers to it. This river joins the Ganges in the district of Chapra.3.-This river formed the bonndary between the Silkya and the Koliya conntries (TherogiUM. 1. it is four yojanas distant from Gavidhumat (2. Cowell. Satadru. IX. and the Koliyas had the river Ro~l confined by a. X. The seven Sindhus are the following:-Iravati. 179. 120 BIBTORIOAL GBOGRAl'lIY 01' ANCIlIJIT INDIA long been in conflict. IV.>a are said to have been defeated by the TurvaBas and Yadus who crossed this river. vs. p.U. 14 sarga. According to classical writers Sambos ruled the mountainous country adjoining the territory of Mousikanos. I. pp. 139) mentions Saray" as " sacred river. 529..-It has been identified with modem Sankisa. 4.pura situated on the north bank of the river Ik~umati.. According to some Sa". Many foremost Brahmins took part in it headed by Ri.. Cunningham identifies it with the modern Rowai or Rohwaini. 17) refers to it.. 455).j. 9). V.. The Krililr4p"'rri~ (Ch. 24.180). VB. a tributary of . 9. 23 sarga.la. p. (2/5). a small stream which joins the Rapti at Gorakhpur.S.u. Sarahh. the Ganges. p. Sahaliitavl. The MaM· bMrata (84. vide A Sfnne Inscription from K urf<jrlro!4. There was no other relation save that of mutual jealousy and animosity between these two neighbours. (TherogatM.-It is the Punjab where the early Aryans first settled themselves after their migration to India (lJgveda. v.!yaBriilga. 70) refers to this river as Sarayii. XIX. or Gogra. I. Pataii· jali's Mahiih~ (I. VIII. It was the Ghagrii. The Silky. It is mentioned in the Rf/veda (IV. Buddha succeeded in restoring peace among his kinsmen when a quarrel broke out between the Siikyas and the Koliyas regarding the possession of this river (JiUaka.-&e Vatatavi. Sapta·sindhu.!. Sindhu and Sarasvati. a city on the Indus (McCrindle. 99-118). XIII.404). For Archaeological remains. on which stood the city of Ayodhyi..la.. Kilidiiaa mentions it in his Raghuva'l!lia (VIII. 11 miles south·south·east from Aliganj in the Azamnagar Pargana of the Etawab district.174). It is also mentioned in the Padmapurri~ (Uttarakha(l<. p.P. I. It is the Sarabos of Ptolemy and is one of the five great rivers mentioned in early Buddhist texts. p. (Sarayii).5). see excavation at Sailkisa by Hiriinanda Shiistri (J.2) points out that king DMaratha performed the AAvametiha yajna on the bank of this river. 24. situated 36 miles north by west from Kudiirkot. p. Adika(l<. 35-38). V.. (RiJmiiya~. VipiiSii. 30. 95. At the north· west corner of the district of Bahraich it receives a tributary from the north· east which goes by the name of the Sarayii. 529. 207).3.

Lii!ydyana Brauttuiitra (X. 32. 19. 50. The river which still survives flows between the Satadm and the Yamuna. VII. 32. 66) people olfer pi1. 30. It is considered sacred by the Hindus. 6. Ch.lilya performed austerities here. 184.12. .12. 9... 23. 26).. croBsed this river and proceeded to Mount Kailasa (B. 2) mention this river. This river issued forth from the Himalayas. 8arasvati. p. sarga 123. IX. 29) refer to the sacrifices held on the bank of this river as of great importance and sanctity. king of KaSmira.. mentions it in his Raghuva1{'ia (III. According tAl the MaMhharata (83. cb. It flows southwards through the Simla and Sirmur States forming a bulge. The Satadru is the Zaradros of Ptolemy and the Hesydrus of Pliny. p.. 30.-This holy Bite is on the right bank of the Kiasenganga.><. 19. a tributary of the Ganges. 3. 46). 3) and 8iinkhyayana Brauta. 1.2.. Batadru.-It is modem Sutlej. l The Taittiriya 8a1f'hitli (VII. 6. 49. 36. 84. X. v. p. MoMIJlIdnUa. 17. treacherously Jtilled a king of Gau<. For further details. 18). 82.7. Law. 75.terly river of the Punjab.. 5. v. A 8tudy of the Maha- va8tu. pallw Briihma7!a (1.8. J. 10. 2/5. XXIV.ltf.X. called the Sewalik and emerges intAl the plains at Ad-Badri in Arubala. liOBTlIBBN INDlA 121 refers (V. It is also mentioned in Yaeka's Nirukta (IX. Even the celebrated sage SaIikaracarya was not allowed tAl enter this temple till he answered the questions put tAl him. 13. its basin lies mainly north of the Himalay. 1. 52. It is also mentioned in the lfgveda (1. The sage Sal). 54. I).li the Sarasvati is correctly described as a river which is visible in one place and invisible in another. III. 7. Manu applies the name of VinaSana to the place where it disappears from view. C. 33. This river is mentioned in the IIYveda (III. I) the Sarayii river is situated at a distance of half a yojana from the city of Ayodhya..19. 46. the Arubikitvana (Bhii{javatapum1. 18. 3. 43. 4). l. 22).5. 39. 19. X. The BM- gavatapurii7!a refers to it as a river (V. There existed on its bank " forest sacred tAl Ambika known . 6..42. kit.lgved. vide B. Ii. Bata. In the Siddhanta· siromaI. 13. Padmap. 179). 19.I6. In Arnan'stime this river flowed independently intAl the Gulf of Cutch (Imperial Gazetteer 0/ India. while going tAl the Himalay. the Bengalees entered KaSmira on the pretext of visiting this temple and destroyed the image of V~nu mistaking it for that of Parihaeakesava. 3.89. 14) and the Aitareya Brahma7!a (H.-The Sarasvati and the DriIladvati are the two historical rivers of northern India that flow down independently without belonging to the Indus group.la. near its junction with the Madhumati near Kamraj in Kii.. The Padmn- pura7!a (Smtikhal)<. C. The Kiityayana Brauta8iitra (XII. 2. l.. 2).. 20..9). Aavaliiyana Brautasiitra (XII. lI8). 164. 2/6) also mentions this river. The source of this river is traceable tAl the western region 1 cr.. who was the son of Subiihu. 8arda (Sardi). Kinnan Manohara. X. It was known to the Vedic Aryans as a mighty river which flowed into the sea (Max Mllller. The Yoginitantra (2/3. 151. 79.4. 15. 131. When Lalitaditya. V. 22. Pancavi1{'ia Briihma~a (XXV. tbe most e. It rises in tbe hills of Sirmur in the Himalayan range. Manu locates the region of Brahmavarta between these two sacred streams. Klilida. According tAl the Ramaya7!a (Uttara.la.aB tAl their ancestAlrs on the bank of this sacred river. KauAitaki Brahma7!a (XII. 1-18).I7. Rivera 0/ India. 21. 5) . 105) refers to the Gangodbhedatjrtha which is the meeting place of this river with the Ganges.4). .c..5.. 34. It is a trans-Himalayan river .mtra (XIII.8mira.6. 18. king of Hastiniipura. 8.la. 8. 12. 1. HAI. 2. The Sarasvati is described in the Milindapanlw 88 a Himalayan river.la. 3). Law. VI. 2.atJa1{'hita. 9). wife of Prince Sudhanu.

who placed it under the satrap of the adjacent territory between the Jhelum and the Chenab (Gambrid<je History of India. this city was a great centre of trade. p.kie. It is still known as Madra- desa. Rivers of India. p. XXII. 10).. w. Rhy. McCrindle. According to the Milindapaiika (Questions of MeMnder. Tribes in Amiem India.. 1(9). Travels of Fa-hien. V. 686). Sakala became the capital of the flu. From this region it h.3. There were matrimouial alliances between the kings of Madra. 1. p. 54/f. There was a monastery here contaiuing 100 priests of the Hinayana school. the Sogeda of Ptolemy and Shachi of Fa-hien (Legge. Jat. 22). Even before Menander's time Sa.. high bnilt by ABoka. 549.276). a we3terly course until it turns a little towards south. Sakala came under the sway of Alexander the Great in 326 B.D. The city is frequently mentioned in the M aM- bMrata (-it Sak4/a (siigala)·mabhyetya Madr~-pu!ahkedana". 112..E. was about 20 Ii in circuit. who in honour of his father Euthydemos. (Cowell.E. 193.. There was a stupa about 200 ft. 144-145. called it Euthydemia. P"t&fijali mentions it in his Mahiib~ya (3 . p.B. I. It was the capital . Mrs. For further details. It has been identified hy Cunningham with Sanglawala Tiba to the west of the Ravi river (Amient Geography.--S8. one of the Graeco·Bactrian kings.west above Mount Kamet.. p.. Psalms of Ike Brethren. according to Hiuen Tsang.) During the reign of Menander. the capital of the Madras (Mahdbk. XLV. Although its wall had been thrown down. II. (34). notes). 122/f.. 122 HISTORICAL GJ:OGRAPHY OF ANCIBNT INDIA of the western lake of the Ma.n. G. KaliDga and Benar. C. 54). best of steeds (' Sattaratkavinitiini '-Majjhima. p. 350. pp. The Macedouians destroyed Sagala. In ancient times it took an independent course to the confines of Sindhu (Pargiter. Jat. 180).2. 608). KalpasUtra. Amiem India as tkscribed by Ptolemy. ed... In the early part of the 6th century A.2).. The Divyiivadiina also refers to it (p. 291. pp. 246. 550).C. the people lived happily. Law. situated to the north· west of this monastery. p.I.kala seems to have come under the Buddhist influence (cf.. I.A.keta was the capital city of northern KOMia. 1884. It stood out prominently among the six gref>t cities or India (Dig"" N. p. (I. vide also Cunningham. Sa1:eta.D.3.. 32. 1927.. The united- streams of the Sutlej and the Baas are known . Sagala. the foundation was still firm and strong. It was situated in a delightful country. a Sarovara.lo). also called Euthydemia by Ptolemy... 1(6). pp.). The streets were well laid onto There were many magnificent mansions. II.--S8. 1. The old town of Sakala (She. Brave was its defence with many strong towers and ramparts. p. but it was rebnilt by Demetrios.vatthi by a chariot-drive with Beven relays of th. • sntras (UttaradkyayaM... 359). It could be reached from Sii. For further details vide Law.-It was another name of Mathuri mentioned in the Jain. I. Davids. S. Majumdar Sastri. It i.gala or Sakala. Miirk41J4eya Pur(1)a. 114. the Ghaggar. IV.)a con- queror Mihirakula who established his authority in that city and subdued all the neighbouring provinces (Cambrid<je History of India.G. It became a highly important city in the kingdom of Kosala where- from one might travel to Kosambi across the Yamuna. pp. It was the famous city of yore in the country of the Yonakas. p. vide B. 48. PsalmB of Ike Sisters.. Some have identified it with Sialkot or the fort of the Madra king Salya (Fleet's note in the Proceedings of Ike Fourleentk OMemal Gongress..N. a powerfnl Greek king rnling at Sakala about 78 A.. by S. S..B. well watered and hilly. p'. It was a town on the borderland of KOMia towards the south-west. 14)..2.. Sauripura.. The Satadru is also mentioned in the MaMhMrata (1.. 549·50)..A.

.I.r Fathgarh (J. 9) refers to the country of the Salvas.A. 228). A. I. 687). 282).. Pt. Law. Vanaparva.-It was situated in the country of the Sakyas. I. lIT. lfOBTJRBN INDIA 123 in the period immediately preceding the Buddha's time (Carmitlu:lel Lect:url!1l.had to stay at saketa. p. 386.. E. Yu- gandhara. 19. l Cunningham found it represented hy a fine wood. Thirty monks. 272. 1. the Salvas lent their support to Duryodhana against the Pii. .. It was the main centre of the Cathaeans who were the leading people among the free confederate tribes. Siimagiima. IX.-The Gopatha-Brlihma'1}a (1. 20. Siirnath (Bara. 76. I).. It was the kingdom of the f .. 169). also called Saubhaga- nagara (Mahiihh.7).I. Matsyapurii'1}U. 44. 16--18) and the Brahmapurii'1}U (Ch. 10. 1.). ITI. Siingala. 374ff. 2. p. There was a village named ToraI). 170ft'. For further details vide B.ganatha). who were dwellers in the forest. I. The Jiitakaa refer to Saketa as an important city (Vol. C. II.I.by. p. 289). 107). where the Buddha once dwelt (A7ig. It was a monastic centre in Hiuen Tsang's time. 12.. BhiiIiitga and SaradaI). 1 Majjhtrrw. 14). to the south of the raised mound rururing east and west over the remnants of the old monasteries of the Gupta period (E. It was at this city that the banker Dhanafijay.R. where there ~s a large collection of Buddhist ruins (C.A. I. Jivak. 243).I. 88). 133. Even the monks were robbed of their belongings and sometimes killed by the robbers.ini also refers to a town named Vaidhumagni built by Vidhumiigui in the Salva country (4. KcuMtKltthv. --18) place the Salvas in the west. lived (Dhammapada Commentary.R. came here and cured the ailing wife of a banker (Ibid. There was a large commrurity of Buddhist monks at Isipatsna in the 2nd century B.. 76). 319-28). PaI).ini's sfitra (4. 97. The road from saketa to Sravasti was frequented by robbers who were dangerous to passers. 2. Madrakiira. 253). V. 113)_ The Viroupurd'1}U (II. III. Chap.rnith Stone Inscription was dug out to the north of the Dhamek stiipa. 1903. pp. III. ImlologicalStudie8. p. 12Q. In the great Bharata battle. Chap. 81.. 81Iro. being unable to reach Sravasti in time.-The sarnith Stone Inscription mentions the ancient site of Sarnith in the Benaras district. saketa is especially s. The Salvas probably occupied the territory now occupied by the native state of Alwar (Cunningham... 13.S. V. 178) it is stated that the Salvaj .. Royal soldiers used to come to the spot where robbery was committed and used to kill those robbers whom they could arrest (Vinaya.4. 217. VI. 2. Chap. p. According to the Mahdhhdrata the Salva country was situated near Kuruksetra (Virajaparva. III). XX. 22. 15).2.)..I). Ch. . I. 2.. Majjhima.S..-Thls fortified town may be located somewhere in the Gurudaspur district nea. Tilakhala. 51).I. 309. cover- ing an area of about half a mile extending from the great tope of Dhamek on the north to the Chaukundi mound on the south (Archa~ological Report.. situated at a distance of about seven miles from Benaraa city. when the Buddha was staying there in the Jetavana of Anathapin~ika (Vinaya. 173. Chap. The capital of the Salvas was Salvapura. I. . husband of savitri (Vanaparva.avaa (Bhi~maparva. p.• Sa'!'yuIIO. Sariputta once stayed at Saketa (Vinaya.. I.id to have belonged to the Guptaa. 1918.<j."- vatthu between Siivatthi and saketa (Samyutta. p.migaramata. 2700. 659. The Sii.na- pada consists of Audumvara (Udumvara). _ Part I.C. 4.ther of Satyaviin.~a. In Piin. Vol. Vol. 420ft'. Patafijali in his MaJujh~ mentions it (4. IV. Ch. the father of VisakM.. Its ancient name is lai- patanamigadiiya (R§ipatana-mrigadiiva) where Buddha first turned the Wheel of Law.

173-7. 167-69.22.). XI. most of them are Buddhistic. a:J'!l8a 4).124 HISTORICAL GBOGB.AP1IY OJ!' ANCIENT INDIA for he found 1. which w"" necesasry for human beings. 392ff. Siamese ed. 1904/05.II. 500.sa. pp.. It can also be reached from Bahraich which is at a distance of about 26 miles.atthi). II...S . 201. 50) refers to Srutavarma who was once the king of Sriivasti. Digha Nik.. 384-6... Nik..A. pp. III. I. A. 112-114.B. 70). 59. Ancient lruIian Tribes. 1919·1920. 1908. It was so called because sages on their way through the air from the Himalayas. 681f.1928. (DaSalcumiiracaritam. 421f.. C. 1l0ff.R. Udiina Commy. 971f. 918..Siiriputta are noteworthy (Sa1[!yutta. A.A. It occurs in Luders' List (Nos. 1927. 21. IV.. (1937) may also be consulted. Everything was found there... used to aligbt here or start from here on tbeir aerial flight.. 279·80.6. I. p.. 29·30. This city is said to have been built by king Sriivasta or Sriivastaka (V~upurii'(la. 406-8. Sam.. Among the recorded conversions held at lsipatana.R.Xl. I. readers' attention is drown to the NigrodJlilmiga Jiitaka (Jtitaka. V. pp. 63-79. 901f. III. 1907/08. 8Uf. The KatMsaritsiirl. A.). where being tired he lay down to rest among vines in a part outside the city (Ibid. p. I..1915. 3991f.. According to the Buddhist oommentator Buddhaghosa this city was so called because it w"" originally the dwelling place of Savattha the sage. 138).. 1914. In addition to the preaching of his First Sermon several other incidents connected with the life of the Buddha are mentioned in the Buddhist texts "" having taken place at Isipatana (Vinaya.A. Therigiithii Commy. Some of the most eminent members of the Buddhist community seem to have resided in this place from time to time.. and some Brahmauical.ti named Devasena and Dharmavardbana respectively. p. I. I. p. lO51f. and can be reached from the railway ststion Balarampur. The entire site lies on the borders of Gonda and Bahraich districts of Oudh in the Uttara PradeMo. Majumdar's Guide w Sarnath. II. 392ff.. pp..-Siihejh. 22).8. Pramati oontinued his journey to Sravasti. 3. For a brief account of archaeological explorations at Siirniith see J.. p.B. 1906/07. pp.S. B. Isipatana (~ipatana) Migadaya (Mrgadii. Some sculptures have been found out at this Bite. The Deer Park was a forest given hy the king of Benaras for the deer to wander in it un· molested.I. B.. ParamJJtthajotika (Suttan. VII.I. pp. 1921. p. King Dharmavardbana had a beauti· ful daughter named Navamalikii.ara and the DaSalcumlira· carita (15. those between Bariputta and Mahiikotthita and between Mahiikot(hita and Cittahatthi. 1907·8.S. 300. 22-25). Ch. 3... I.4. 1910·11. III. 919) as Siiv""ti. p. Law. 33Off.. The Har~acarita (Kane's ed. hence it was called Siivatthi (saMa1[!. very few Jaina. 136).). In the MahqJa and Brahma PUrii1J(Ul (XII. II. 1908.... and the city subsequently grew up around it (Papa~ni. 145ff. Iff. 53) Sriivasta is mentioned as the son of Y u vaniiSva. 781£. 10881f. The M ahabharata represents Sravastaka as the son of Sriiva and the grandson of YuvaniiSva (Vanaparva. A~uttara Nik. 15ff. Ch. 1926..I. 431f. As regards the origin of the Deer Park at lsipatana. pp.500 Buddhist monks studying Hinayiina Buddhism there.60. J For brief account of archaeologioal explorations gee J.S. 119·20..thi (Sriivasti). A. 261f. Hariva". AiIgut· tara. . Dipava1[!8a. Savatthi figures throughout Buddhist literature as the capital of the kingdom of Ko§ala.A. V) refer to two kin!(S of Srav.. SiivaJ.. 105.I.va) was mentioned by tbe Buddha as one of the fonr places of pilgrimage which his devout followers should visit (Buddhavarpsa Commy. 1098ff. 220.pata Commy. It w"" at first a religious settlement. 141).R..Miibeth1 is the modern equivalent of the ancient site of Sriiv""ti.lI.

105. son of king JitaSatru.. maMmaI4na1{l . Among the wealthy nobles ofSravasti mention may be made of Prince Jeta who laid out. The Ja\ilas. Within the wall the city must have three broad ring. Savatiya".jotiki. I. 138ff. The Jetavana and the Pubbarama were the two well-known Buddhist monastic establish- ments and influential centres of Buddhism. 216ff_. . Saint Kapila came here for the purpose of acquiring knowledge. p.O. II. was the birthplace of Sambhava- natha and Candraprabhaniitha. 16)..ve been another high road by which one could travel from SravasU to Benaras via Ki~agiri (Majjhima. Heart oj Jainism. p. namely. 190-191.nd Assaka_ There must h .. councillors and their followers. Some Jaina Canonical Siitras. Svastika. central. ParamaJiJw.. took to cultivation to earn his livelihood.. the NigaI). 293. became a monk in course of his wanderings and afterwards attained per· fection (B. 32ff. I. either issued by or issued to the Mahtimiitr . outer and outermost. huilt in the life-time of the Buddha adjoiuing and to the south of the city of SravastL Sravasti was also an important and powerful seat of Brahmanism and Vedic learning. Sudatta. noted in the tradition of Buddhism as Aniithapi1)gika. J. 511). the royal palace and the court occupying the centre.000 families (Samantapa. private houses. 42). Majjhima.. Sumangolavilasini. 54-6. tioD of sites for quarters of officials. religious and educational institutions. The Sohgaura copperplate containing an order. full of kings. I.H. the .!lt one rainy season here (Kalpasiitra. It accommodated 57. p. 106..\h . gained an immortal fame as the donor of the Jetavanavihiira. AvaAya/casfUra. miuisters. etc. markets and even prostitutes' quarters.. Bhadra. 60).Q. 1907.S. a Brahmin of Sravasti.A. Shah. 614). stands out as a clear epigraphic record proving that store-houses were built by the State on public roads at reasonable distances and in suitable localities. 235.ces on the high road starting from Rajagrha and extending as far south- west as Ajak .. I.anakalpalaJa (61. Jainism oj Northern India. otherwise called by the Jainas as Candrapuri or Candrikapuri. I).. and ViSakhii immortalised herself by erecting the Pubbiiriimavihiira. According to the Lalitavistara.. 2)... C.B. X. According to the VividhaJirthakalpa a caitya adorned with the image of Srisa'!'bhavanatha stood in the city of Sravasti. 103.. It had an important Brahmauical institution under the headship of Jiinus- sol). It must have been surrounded by a wall prOvided with gates on four or more sides. pp. Subodhikatikii.R.. p. There was another famous garden near the city bearing the name of Mallika. The material prosperity of Sravasti was due to the fact that it was a meeting place of three main trade routes and a great centre of trade. 1. Sravasti was not only a great emporium of Indian trade but also a great centre of religion and culture. Law.sane). princes. 399. According to the BodhisaitvlivaJ. (Ch. or divisions. Stevenson. stocked with loads of ropes and other things useful to the caravans (Vienna Oriental Journal.. XXV.473)_ The city of SravasU was situated on the hank of the Aciravati (Vinaya- Mahavagga. this city w. the two famous Jaina tirthankaras (Jaina HarivurpAapuraQa. XI. p. There must have been proper alloca. 717. X. owned and maintained the famous garden bearing his name (Papafica8iidani. It was in this city that Mahiivira met Gosiila-Mankhaliputra for the first time after their separation. 175).R. 26).i (Digha.I. NOBTHBJtlrl INDIA 125 and S&vatthi and Vana-S&vatthi find mention as two important stopping pla. of Srav3Bti. the queen of Prasenajit of Kosala. Sravasti.a. Mahavira visited it more than once and spe. 221. The road arrangements must have been 80 planned as to facilitate patrol duty..A. 5IOff. I. A.adikii.

the Eka-sal&kas and the Paribbijakaa were very familiar figures to the people of this city so much so that it was easy for the royal spies to hide their secret miasion under the garb of those religieux (Samyutta. 29 sarga. This place was bounded on the east by the Sutlej.. IV.). A.. It is situated on the river Rapti in the district of Gol)<)a. the famous donor of the Jetavana monastery. 316ff.-It was a city of the Kosala country near Ukkattha. granted some villages to the Buddhist fraternity (E.I.. VB. C.I. in the 5th and 7th centuries A.. pp. 25.n.I. lost eighteen crores in business and eighteen crore8 by the action of the river Aciravati which swept away his hoarding on its bank (Dhammapada Commenlary. 3-4). No.R. on the south by Multan and on the west by the Indus. There was a road from Ukkatlha to Setavya (Ang. huted to a fabulous Raja Sor.R. 55. into Buddhism ([)igh. For further details vide B. continued to be tbe centre of Buddhism linking up with it the vicissitudes of a great religion through a passage of about 1.G. 14. The antiquity of the place may be ascertained approximately by the coins which are found in its ruins (G. It is a huge mound of ruins.S. TribefJ in Ancient India.s oj Fa-hi. I.. 37ff. died penniless after having spent fifty-four crores on the erection of the Vihar. 78)_ Many of the Buddha's most edifying discourses were delivered here. 377. pp. I. 20--26).. 281ff. 115ff. this city with its most important establishment the Jetavana. pp.-Tbis place lies at some distance above the junction of the Jhelum and the Chenah.. 27Off.la attained arahat- ship (Legge... When Fa-hien visited this city. which records that a donor after bathing in the Ganges at Viiriil)asi and worshipping Vasudeva and other gods. An inscription has been discovered here in a Buddhist monastery. Ibid. 19-20). Sramst.000 Ii in circuit. 233ff. Ibid.&l'HY 0'" ANCDlNT INDIA Acel&kas.. pp. Ibid.. and 42 miles north of Gol)<)ii..S.. From the days of Buddha to ahout the middle of the 12th century A.. 126 HlSTORIOAL GEOGB.I. Set Makel. On Yuan Chwa~. .. I. 19.. Shorkot. The country used to grow good crops and enjoyed an equable climate. C. Kumiirakassapa once went to Setavya with a large number of monks and converted Payasi. Psalms oj the Brethren. He saw the place where the old ViMra of Mshiipajiipati Gotami was built. in Indian Literature (M. Trav.-Set or Sabeth is on the borders of the Gol)<)ii and the Bahraich districts. on the north by the province of Tiiki.800 years. Setavya.D. It is described by Hiuen Tsang to be 5.56). There were some deva~temples) and the non-Buddhists were numerous. 50)..7. II.. 13. 10). There were some hundreds of Buddhist monasteries. The foundation of the city i8 attri- .. and many monks who were adherents of Mahayanism. Ibid. SiddhdBrama. II. this hermitage stood before Vamana came into existence. most of which were in ruins. Law. 129ff.. Iff. Psalms oj the Sisters. In. XI. 1910/11. 58 miles north of Ayodhyii. A.. and the people were honest in their ways and given to learning and fond of good works.). B. This city was visited by the two famous Chinese pilgrims Fa-hien and Hiuen Tsang. n. 1907/08.. 33Off.t<)a.. Sriivasti declined in wealth. I. Ibid. XI. 20. population and political importance_ Anathapin(lika. the inhabitants were few.-According to the Riiwiya1)4 (Adikar. 26Off. many Buddhist monasteries. 200). 118.A . 3ff. 78ff.S. 81ff. This city contributed a fair number of monks and nuns to the Order (Dhamma- pada Commenlary. the chief of Setavya. 37). I. (Watters. the wells and walls of the house of Aniithapil)<)ika and the site where Angulima.. II.D. 7. According to Hiuen Tsang although the city was mostly in ruins. Ibid. I.A. There were several topes.. Law.A. n. there were some inhabitants.I. It Was . III.

142-1(3). Sivipura. 93). It is the Mount Mern (Ther.-It is mentioned in the KUt'lf1a Jiitaka (Jat. The Sindbu lent its name to the country through which it flowed (cf. It is identical with the Rudra Himalaya in Garhwal. For further details. XXI. Sindhu (Indus) and Harikanti to the twin lotus lakes.. 3. It is fed hy a number of glaciers.. The Sindhu group.I. 8). 323). The Miilavikagnimitra1!' (Ed. The Jain Jambudivapa~~<ui traces the source of the four rivers called the Ganga. 1886. Cammy. pp.-It is a town in the Hissar district of the Punjab near which an inscription has heen found in a mound (E. _ . I. where the Venerable Kumarakassapa dwelt (Digha.sapavana.4).. grithi Cammy. 1(8) refers to the fight of Vasumitra. 1. S. Si". Jiitaka. Singhapura (Seng-ho-pu-Io). 107. 4. 24).. Viil)U is said to have been incarnated here as Viimana. it is said to have heen situated in the Himalayas between the Kiiiicinjailghii and the Dhavalii· girl on the bank of the river Mandiikini. 13. (X. 69.-The Sindhu whicb is the River Indus and the Sintu of the Chinese travellers. I. as known to Pliny. NORTHERN INDIA 12'7 visited by Rama and ViBvamitra. Ur¢vati. 3. one on the side of tbe lesser and the other on that of the greater Himalayan range.. The TaittiriYa.-It was situated to the north of Setavya. Law. cf. cf.. the Sindhu snrpassed all the flowing stream. According to the Rgveda (X.000 leagues high. Beal. p. sarga 29. the Akesines. 3. In the Behistun Inscription of Darius it is referred to as Hindu.8a1!'hitii (VII. Sindku (or Indus). the Hypasis.A. the Parenos. Buddhist ReMrds oj the Western World. Meroa of Artian. Pal)ini mentions it in bis A~(ddhyiiyi (4. pp. Pt. (Dham. According to others.gveda.. son of Agnimitra.. Sirk.33. The Sindhu is " trans-Himalayan river.-It is an affluent of the Indus mentioned in the f!. I) uses the term Saindhava which may apply to Sindhu or the Indus. It was an excellent hermitage (Ibid. 588. p. Rohiti (Brahmaputra). p. 19) mentions it as a river.589). the Sapamos and the Saonos. with the Yavanas on the right bank of the river Sindhu. J.I.GJ.-According to the Shorkot Inscription the ancient name of Shorkot was Sivipura or Sivapura which was the capital.Adikal)da. 6-12. while its course from Aror down to the sea was called Mihran (India. Ayyar. According to the RamJiya1)Al (~kindhyakanda. There is a difference of opinion as to the site of this hermitage. is the greatest known river of northern India after which the Indus group is named. (15) as a lake in the Himalaya.-It was situated 117 miles to the south. p. S.-It is mentioned in the Buddhist texts and commentaries. The Brilud-8afphiti (XIV. Sineru. He attained perfection in austerity according to the Ramiiyal'}a (. 75. it is at Bnxar in the district of Sahabad.. lower that point to Aror it was known by the name of Paficnad. 4. which was 68. C. near the BadarikMrama. vide B. was oonstituted of the Sindhu (Indus) and nineteen other rivers.B. I. viii). Sihappapata. It was also known by the names of Sam bheda and Sangama. 32. flows almost due south. VB. 260). According to Alberuni the upper course of the Indus above the junction with the Chenab was known as Sindhu.S. parallel to the Sulaiman Hills. RiverS oj India. pp. It ia probably the same as the Mt. (3). and in the Vendidad as Hendu. Patanjali refers to it in his Mahiib~a (1. after passing Attock.202). II.3.. The Indus. Vol. the Kopben. the Hyda8pes. The main tributaries of the Indus are said to be the Hydraotes. V. p. V. II. I. east of Taxila (C. Ch. 75).of the Sibis (E. 316).A. 150).

p. Crossing this river Dadhici reached the site of his father'. seclusion (Har~rita. R.. 421.-It is the greatest known lower tributary of the Ganges..A. 2). Arit\hapura was the capital of the Sivi kingdom (Jata"". p.lidasa refers to this river in his Raghuva~a (VII.. This large town was situated on the western bank of the Ganges. It was known to Hiuen Tsang as Su-Iukin-na. Dviiriiv. Geographical Dictionary. 11. No. 131). In later times they seem to have migrated to the extreme sonth of India (of. four tributaries in the district of Mirzapur.-&e Siivatthi. 35-38) refers to this great river. The Purii~aa count it as one of the important rivers that rise from the . Early Greek writers refer to the territory of the Siboi in the Punjab. joins the Ganges near Patna.R. this be. revised by D. Indological Studi. and therefore.gveda (VII. vs. 418).000 miles in circuit. J. (InBcriptionB oJ Northern India.S.I. 22) and the Mahiivaatu (Law. V. 26. S01. probably alluded to for the first time in the IJ. IV. 187). 7) mention the Sivi country as one of the sixteen janapada& of Jambn- dVipa. Dey. C. Srugkna.etra or the place of the good deed. Aritthapura (Skt. which is identical with the capital of the Sivi country. They seem to have been a very ancient people.B. I). 416. They seem to have maintained their independence for Bome considerable time. XIV. 36--Bhiigirathi-'01la ivottaranga).-Here Riima is said to have crossed the Ganges. 1245). on the high ro&d between Bareli and Mathurii (G. p. 16. Raghut'a"Ma. 24-26. p. Arri.la (So~). It was 1. N. According to the Riimiiya1ja (Adikawa. XV. Study 01 the MahiiVfJ8tu. Rivers 01 India. Ari~apura) i.-It was situated 38 or 40 miles from Thanesw"r. 32 Barga. pp. 83). 18. the modem Son. I. Sravasti.S. Law.n's Son. Law. Ch. Vol. Pt. 2. It is fed by five tributaries in the district of Baghelkhand. Ita course past Riijagrha in Magadha was probably known as the Sumagadha or SumagadhI. VII. 62. The Bodhi8attviivadiina-Kalpalata of K. ruled by King Sivi (9Ist Palla va). vide B. 1949. VI.. p.a range.P.R.ti (Jata"".401). Ka. ~ivapura or the town of the Sivas is mentioned by the scholiast on Pal)ini as situated in the northern country (see Patafijali.2. hence it was called Magadhi.. while the Jumna flowed through the midst of it.. 22 miles to the north-west of Allahabad (A. . For further details.G. v.. included in the northern region or Uttariipatha. Soron.{tkl. On the east it extended to the Ganges and on the north to a range of lofty mountain. The Padmaj1Ura1)a (Uttarakhan~a. VI. XI. Faiisboll.lini (IV. Bhandarkar. 7). probably identical with Ptolemy's Aristobothra in the north of the Pnnj .. The Lalitavistara (p. for they are referred to not only by the Greek geographers and the histo- rians of Alexander's time but also by the scholiast on PiiI. Brhat Sa1[thita. pp. 12). (Mekala) range in the district of Jabbalpur and flowing north-east through Baghel- khand. The Sivas or Sibis were a people inhabiting the Shorkot region in Jhang in the Punjab lying between the Imvati and the Candrabhiiga. p. Ch. No. which takes ita rise in the Maikiil. According . C.b and may perhaps be the same . vide B. p. 8-9). It was in Etawah district. 109). vs.. IXMalcumaracarita1[t....utifnl (ramya) river was flowing through the five hills encircling Girivraja and also through Magadha. It is identified hy Cunningham with Singror built on a very high bluff. U.128 HISTORICAL GBOOBA.5emendra mentions the city of ~ivavati. one in the district of Palamau and one in the district of Sahabad. Law. Ch. L. For fur- ther details. 2. IV.-Its ancient name was Sukarakl. 1921. 36). Tribe8 in Ancient India. Sringaveraj1Ura (Sringiverapura). Mirzapur and Sahab&d districts.PHY 01' ANCIKNT INDIA XVI.. This river falls into the Ganges above Patna (cf.A. p.

J(itaka.A. Thuna was a Brahmin village (cf. S. StJuj1!dvara (Stluiniivara). 129 to Cunningham. ahout 30 miles to the south of Ambala and 40 miles north of Panipat. I. deer park at Bhesaka!ii. 9). 19.!. 10). It occurs in the Kalillga Rock Edict I.A. IV). I.-It is in ruins in the district of Ludhiana in the Punjab.G'!.ta. vs. VI. the ahode of ISvara or Mahii. XVII.·-The Kosa.lo. Pal)ini and Patafijali mention it in the A~lridhyayi (4. carita (Ch. A rich householder who used to live on this hill gave his daughter in marriage to the son of Anatha. 309). I. 19. SU1f'SUrrviragiri (SiBurrvira hiU).!l Inscription of the reign of Maharaja Vai"ra· vana of the year 107 refers to this locality. VI.2). 395ff. Tak"aRili (Chinese Shi·Shi·Gh'eng). According to Bal)3 's Har~a. 22). 1). N.e.ve been derived either from the 8thiina. 12) and the DivyiivacHna (p. 3. Ch. III./c which was more than 1)100 miles in circuit. II. pp.deva or from the junction of the names of Sthiinu and ISvara.. 13. NOBTHBBN INDIA.3. It is the same as the Sineru or the Mount Meru. which was always in a state of revolt. p. 376ff. Some have identified it with the present Chunar hill (Ghosh. pp. dwelt on this hill. XLIII) proposes to identify it with Thuna (Sthuna) mentioned in the Vinaya Mahavagga (V. Ch. situated three miles south·west of Ludhiana town (JourMl 01 the Numis- matic Society 01 Indio.39). which was most probably a tributary of the Acira· vati or Rapti. It was situated in .1. Majumdar (G. Suvar~aguM. Siva saw the summit of it (K<ilikiipurar)a. it was the capital of the Bharga kingdom and was nsed as a fort (Majjhima. Svetaparvata (Setapabbata). Intro.. It stood on the river of the same name which is described in the Mahlibharata as one of the rivers of Bharatava~a (Bh~maparva.-It is in the Himalayas to the east of Tibet (Sa'l'Yutta. lying between the rivers Giri and the Ganges with portions of the districts of Arubala and Saharanpur (G. III). It was a city and its capital was so called because on the very first day of its construction a crocodile made & noise in a lake near by (Papaiica8Udani. 9 . 588-589) respectively. 249).-It was one of the oldest places in ancient India. According to the Buddhist tradition.A.. 22). where he bnllt a palace called Kokanada. pp. It was not far from Sravasti (Suttanipiita. Sunet. pp. Ch. S..). 208). 91-97). Pt.Jika (R.92) refer to it.to. Sumeru..shi·la. L. 4. This town contained an old mined fort about 1. which was probably in the neighbourhood of KausambL This city is mentioned in the Getiya Jataka (No.I. 32).-It is one of the seven sacred rivers of ancient India.vana. IV. p. It was the capital of the Cedi king named Dhl'itaketu (Mahiibhiirata. The famous battlefield of KllI"1lklletra is situated on the southern side of ThiineSvara. 3(Hl8) and the Kiilikiipurar)a (Ch.-It was in the Bharga country (Sarp. II.. the son of Udayana. square at the top (G. piJ. 67). Pt.I. 13. it must have comprised the hilly areas of Sirmor and Garhwal.G. III.23. p. III.-It was the capital city of the Gandhara kingdom. it was the capital of Srikamhajanapada. XXIV.B. i..-It is on the Citrakutaparvata which lies in the Himalayan region (Jiitaka.3.Ja. 79).E. Sundariki.ni. Vol. 1.yutta.93) and in the Mahiib~ya (1..~The PadmapuriityL (Uttarakha. king of the Vatsas by his queen Vasavadattii. The name is said to ha. 332-S. 65. 701). Mitra.200 ft. It was known to Hiuen Tsang as Sa. Buktimati. The Jambu river flows from this mountain (Ibid. II. Prince Bodhi.I. Siiratthappakilsini.93.. In Moka's reign a Kuwira was posted as the viceroy at Takl. Northern Buddhist Literature.a8ila. 38. It was a river in KOSala. 62) forming the western boundary of the Madhya- deSa (Vinaya Texts. Early Hufory 01 KauSiimhi..32). 422) as Sotthivatinagara (E. 17..G.

'a Trans. . Ch. and populous..sila. Northern Bwfdhis! Literature. that the . II. On Yuan Chwa1lfl..a when KUlla/a was sent to conquer it. p. p.) th"t in ASoka's time Ta!Q. 1918. its capital being more than 10 Ii in circuit. wealthy. 121).a- ~ila doe. because here the head of king Candraprabha was severed by a begg&r-Brahmin (Divy5vadanamal<i. it is said to have been visited by Apollonius of Tyana and his companion. and from Ohind to Hasht- nagar another 38 miles. Historical Glron- i1lfls..D.. not appear to he the capital of Gandllam. 5th Pallava). p. It was 12 yojanas in length and breadth. when it was a dependency of Kasmir.. A7Wient Grography. making 74 miles in all. About the middle of the 1st century A. '" F.sil8. Cunningham . p. were educated here (B. I).sila's submission to Alexander.mi in the extensive ruins of a fortified city around which at least fifty-five stupas. Damis. Dr. This city 88 described by Arnan was great.Sila and later on it came to be known as Takl. Pupils from different parts of India visited this place to learn various arts and sciences.n. Tak~a­ aHa... p.sila (Taxila) and P~kalavati (Penkelaotis) as recorded by Pliny.. 310). belonged to king KuiljakaI1). Monks living in a few of them were Mahayanist. Law. From the Di"1liivada1Ul it appears that this city was included in the empire of Binduaara of Magadha. It had a fertile soil and bore good crops with /lowing streams and luxuriant vegetation.. The city named Bhadr. was .. which was one of the early capital cities of Gandllara. it was taken by ASoka. l Pliny caJls it a famous city and states that it was situated on a level plain at the foot of hills. The Edict refers to the early part of Moka:s reign when there was no such trouble at Taxila.. This city W88 also known as Bhadra. some of them were desolate. Accord- ing to the Bodhisattvivadi1Ul-Kalpalalii (59th Palla va). According to the Chinese pilgrim. To reconcile the discrepancy Cumlingham suggests that Pliny's 60 miles should be read as 80 miles (LXXX). Although there were many monasteries. and adorned with high vaulta and windows. prosperous. father of Moka.. 315). C. 54 f. Prasenajit the king of KoSala and Jivaka the renowned physician at the court of king Bimbisam of Magadha.ite of Taxil" is found near Shah-Dheri.130 BISTOBICAL GBOOBAJ'IIY OJ' ANCIBNT INDIA. p. (Watters. This city has becn identified with modem Taxila in the district of Rawalpindi in the Punjab.ituated to the east of the Indu..sila. while I 1 H. A very beautiful picture of the student-life of those days has been given in a Jiitalca (Vol. It W88 & great seat of learning in ancient India. just a mile to the north-east of Kala-ka-...sila was rich.. About 80 years after TaiQ. There was a royal garden in it (Divyivad!ina. who described it 88 being about the size of Nineveh. It figures prominently in Buddhist and Jain stories... I. The climate was genial.. This city was situated to the north of the Himalayas under the rule of a king named Candraprabh& (Bodhisattvilvadina-Kalpalalii.. The distance from Shah-Dheri to Ohind is 36 miles. 277). walled like a Greek city with narrow but well-arranged streets.000 Ii in circuit.y. for from his Rock Edict XIII it appears that Gandllara was not in his dominions proper. DO. Takl. Strabo praises the fertility of its soil.. was above 2. twenty-eight monasteries and nine temples were found out.. and was well-divided with four gates. equivalent to 731 English miles or within half a mile of the actual distance between the two places (Cunuingham.D.. and populous. This city was visited by Hiuen Tsang in the 7th century A. m.. 240). which is 19 in excess of the distance between Ta~. Takl.. Bhandarkar holds (Carmichael Lectures. and the people were adherents of Buddhism.

It joins the Ganges to the west of Balli. Journal of tlie Ga1l{Janath Jha Research Institute. It was origin- nlly known as Kulamha (G." in Ancient India.. . Survey of India. 206. 48. v.S. XVII. 72). Law..-The Khoh Copperplate Inscription of Maharaja Sarvanatha mentions this river. B. Vol. 13). pp.S. For an account of the ruins and excavations at Taxila. Rama made his first halt on the bank of this river which was not far from the Ganges. Tlie Miirka~4eya Puriir. A. Travels of Fa·Men. During their lifetime there was no rain for twelve years. B. AdikanQa. 1912-1913 (1916). cities. pp. Annual Report of the Arch. The lJa8akumiiracaritam records an incident in connection with the three rich householders who were brothers living in the country of Trigartta.aa. mentioned in the MaluibMrata (II. According to the Roghuva". C.I4--17. pp. 1949. 257). The bank of this river was crowded with ascetics (Raghuv. Marshall.G. C. 1924.S.. Pt. Historical Glean- i1l{Js.R. Thv:IJa (Sthiina). 3rd Ed. Rama praised this river and desired to have a hath in it as it was free from mud (Rlimiiyar.. C. 150·151). Pt. the daughoor of the sage Trnavindu appeared before him.. country which i. According to Pargioor. V (1875). Tr~aviMu-abama. pp. For further details.ta. 55ff. son of Prajapati. 3). A.S. III).:a (XLVII.. B. Law. pp. 479).-This town is situated on the left hank of the Ravi at 52- miles to the north-east of Multan (G_A. 94). Trib. p. Geography of Early Buddhism. V. 4--6). Law. trees bore no fruits. 52·53. 149-176. it flows into the Ganges. 1929-30. it is clear that Ta~aSila was directly under him as one of his sons was stationed there. vide A.!. towns and other settlements decayed (pp. Geographical and Ecorwmic Studi.R. Legge. VI. afOOr flow- ing through Azamgarh. It rises in the Mahiyar State on the south of Nagaudh and running through the northern portion of Rewa.ta mentions this river (Canto LVII. Annual Report. A. C. vide J.S. Tiimasavana.!. 112ff. While he was engaged in repeating the Vedic hymns. 22). who came here to meditate.S. It is fed by two tributaries on the left and by two on the right. Chap." in the MaMbMrata. 1936-37 (1940). Law. or the east Tons has its origin in Fyzabad. Vol. many springs and rivers went dry. pp. 66ff. This is considered as tbe historical river of the Riimiiya1)a fame (Ramiiya~a. II (1871). That Tak~aSila was not the capital of G&Ildhira at that time is confirmed by Ptolemy's staooment that the Gandarai (Gandhara) country was situated to the west of the Indus with its city Proklais. B. 1930-34. which is modern Tamas and Tons. (1936). 2 sarga. Tulamba. August. Guide to Taxila. 30) gives a variant Tamasi. 394.I. vs. Tamasa. 12.. The Kurma Puri". It is also known as Raghunathpura (J. it flows into the Ganges on the right bank below Allahabad.• 2 sarga.A. Adik .e. 8ff. XIV (1882). ~karavatl (cf..A. vide Law.. NORTHBRN INDIA 131 from Kalinga Edict I. Trigartta. 283-288). The South Tons flows north-east from the Iitk~" mountain to fall into the Ganges below Allahabad.!.-It was visiood by Pulastya. and after crossing it undertook a journey on road and afoorwards 'reached the river Srimati. about 18 miles south-east of Allahabad (C. pp. was locaood between the Ravi and the Sutlej with its centre round Jalandar_ It represented Kangra in ancient days (Moti Chandra. Ch. It was situaood by the side of the Mount Meru. pp.95..-Thi. villages.R.A.---Dunningham identifies it with Sultanpur in the Punjab. DaSaratha decoraood the bank of this river by erecting many sacrificial posts (IX.-See Sthii1ldwara.I. I. pp..B.I. rain~clouds were scarce. I. bulnWgicalStudif8.. 20)... Annual Report.I. Being at first cursed she W8B eventually married by Pulastya. IlIff.. 31·32. Tribes in Ancient IMia. i.). Some hold that the Tamasii. pp. Upayanaparva. IX. For further details. p. 4.

I. There . XV..A. p. XXVI. p.). V.G. The capital of Udyana was called Mangala (C. The people of Udyana (Wu. 84). KomauJ. I.-This river is stated to have been located in the Himavanta (Milinda Paiika. iliBtrict of the Punjab (P).na). was gradually reduced.--See UAiradhvaja.I.S. 179).. There were more than ten deva. vastu in Skt. 118) mentions it.A. situated shout 14 mil. Swat and Bunir.. Bijawar.iradhvaja.tu. 251. Pataiijali in his MahiibM~ya (\. II. II..-It was in the territory of the Mallas. 4. (C. U.. the chief town of the His.-This mountain may be said to be identical with the USiragiri. I.-The Tusam Rock Inscription mentions this village. The [Jigvella (X. f. 8. 1896. Nos.. Here the Buddha attained mahaparinibbiina (Digka.A. 354. according to Hiuen Tsang.rious sectarians lived pell. also Jiitaka. U8. The Buddha visited this country and left hi. p. VI. foot'print.B..A. The Siwalik range through which the Ganges forces her way into the plains.132 HISTORIOAL GBOOlUPBY OF ANCIlINT INDIA Tusam.. the Suastus of Arrian. 1.mell (Watters. UAinara.20). p. There were 500 saftghiirama8 or monasteries. Jat. to the north· west of Bhiwani. mentioned in Pali Literature arid Usinaragiri mentioned in the KatMsaritsiigara are doubtless identical with the Usiragiri of the Divyavadina (p. Zimmer thinks that the Usinaras earlier lived farther to the north· west.i Plate of Govindacandra. 59. Pargiter holds that they occupied the Punjab (A.I. II. 2..I. The monks inhabiting them were students of Hinayanism. 8. 1./a.D.. 465).S.-It was not far from Siivatthi.81J. In later times North Kosals came to be known as Sriivasti in order to distinguish it from South Kosala.. 199..I. The Gopalka Briihmalla (II.39). 93fT. p. which was ahout 600 li in circnit. 619. They were believers in Mahiiyiinism but they followed the Vinaya of the HinayanistB. Tribes in Ancient India. According to Fa·hien.-Piinini refers to this country in his A~Vjdhyiiyi (4. 28·29). pp. J.. E. 10) refers to them. 1905.2. A certain banker named Ugga came to Savatthi for trade from Ugganagara (Dkam.. 109). 22) and Usiradhvaja of the Vinaya tex!8 (S. p. Fausboll. pp. 103). There were many monasteries in ntins along the two sides of the Swat river and the number of monks. In the Ramiya.B. Ugga1U1{/ara. Udyina. 225fT.temples and va. Pt. 454 and 385).p'o. Vol. and Sriivasti as its later capital (ef. held Buddhism in high respect. 3. UM. p.). Udyana embraces the four modern districts of Pangkora. 68ff. IV.n.. Udyiina. Hiuen Tsang called North Ko8ala by the name of Sravasti. who visited India in the 5th century A.Ckang and kept the summer retreat (Legge. Usinara. I. Fa·hien remained in Woo. a mountain to the north of Kankhal (I.inirii. 169). 655). vide Law. 2. III).T. III. 9) considers the USinaras as northerners. U.. p..-This has been identified with Ayodhya (ef. may be identified with the Usiragiri. For further details.:o.E.46).. VI. meaning the park. 181ff. 70).4. was situated to the north of the Punjab (P) along the Subhavastu now called the Swat. Niiradakassapa Jiit.I. The law of the Buddha was flourishing here. This country was situated to the north of the Kuru country (C. On Yuan Chwang. Pt.. I.ckang.-It was situated on the river Su.B. the Subha. Udyiina or Woo·Chang was a part of North India. Ultara·Ko8ola. The authors of the Vedic Index do not accept his view (Vol. The Buddhist Jiltakas often mention king Usinara (Nimi Jat.2. UpavaJJnnasilavana.. who were Mahayanists.R. Cammy. pp. 1184. p. Ayodhya is mentioned as the earlier capital of Kosala. p. and the modern Swat river... p. 68ff. Travels 0/ Fa·hien.

Geographical Essays. is described to have in battle in the Vanga country turned back with his breast the enemies.According to the Riimfiyarw (Killkindhyii- kal. I RaghuvorytAa. v. pp. .. had his hermitage at Bithur. five miles to the south-west of modern Muttra. I1~ 15. 57.. 14 miles from Cawnpore. 3. For further details. therefore. C. 2. This city was stocked with good crops and enjoyed an equable climate. The Kurudipa mentioned in the Dipava". According to the Rarn. 48. Law. p. me name mentioned in tbe Susunia Rock Inscription. lovely corner of tbe Citrak(. Here Sit. Trib . Valmiki-aSrama. gave birth to her twin sons. Vohlika. AnctmI Indian T"b~. pp. 19) refers to Uttarakuru as a pratya1'lfR-dvipa (ef. 179). I.-It is mentioned in the Vedic and later Brabmanical literature as a country situated somewhere north of Kashmir..ia. XI. 13) as the country of northern Kurus. 71). This hermitage was situated in . 44. (southern 1 B. Bodhisattv5vadina-KalpalaUi.. The country of the Viihllkas has... In the evening tbey reached a plain tract in this forest where they spent the night. Ch. should be identified with the' Baktrioi' occupying the country near Ara- chosia in Ptolemy's time.-It is a part of the KaiJas" range at the foot of which the Manasasarovara is situated. At any rate. XXVIII.a (p. vide B. 16.. 5S-60." The Bage Bharadviija directed Rama to go to the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Yamuna. were conquered. 1884.. 1 King Candr.-The YoginifRntra (1/14) mentions it. For further details. and its eastern bound· ary was the eastern limit of the Siikya territory (Camhrid{Je History of India. VII. Geographical Euay. Ch. n. The Kosalas were the ruling clan in the kingdom whose capital was Sravasti (Buddhist India. its southern boundary was the Ganges. • I. who uniting together came against him.. They then found the hermitage of Valmiki.... p. 13). the Vahlik. It is mentioned in the Bh:igavafRpurli\ a (I.mana and Sitii crossed the Yamuna and reached its right bank. NORTHERN INDIA 133 were many Buddhist monasteries in ruins.. 25). XV. Kalidiisa places this hermitage on the way of Satrughna proceeding to kill the demon Lavana from Ayodhya to Madhupagna. . must have been in the hilla in what is now Nepal. The Viihlik. 178).aya~a (I. The LaZifRvi8fRra (p. in Ancunt India. Some call it a mythical region. Tid. Rama with Lak. C.. the Vahlikas are associated with the people of the north. 16) may be taken to be identical with Uttarakuru. and by whom having crossed in warfare the seven mouths of the Indus. Lava and Kusa. Uttarakuru. the Vahlika country should be identified with some region beyond the Punjab. 50.\a mountain. the king of the s .A. 137. p.sa- pura was the city of Uttarakuru according to the Vinaya Commentary (SamanfRpaslidikit. Tribu in Ancient India. the herDlitage of Viilmiki is said to have been situated near the confluence of the Ganga and the Tama. The people were honest in their ways and were fond of good work. p. been sought to be identified with the region now known as Balkb. 408. The northern frontier of KoSal.. 29. who has been identified by some with CandravarDlan of the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta. The Meharauli Iron Pillar Inscription of Candra proves beyond doubt that the Viilhlkas were settled beyond the Indus. as also with.l<.. VaidyutaparvafR.. p.-Viilmiki.. the celebrated author of the Ramiiyataa. vide Law. Law. At day break they continued their journey and came to the Citrakii\a moun- tain. At a distance of two miles from this place they found a forest region on the bank of the Yamuna. 3).

57.A. pp.Ja. 58. but the strong current of the river unfastened him (m = mgata+p<i8a) and saved him by throwing him on the banks. 9. p. III. p.-It is a big mountain near the Himalaya monntain (Koli- lcayura~a. 7 Vinaya. III. a place near Madhura (Matburi) which w. (Vol.. wanted to kill himself. It is mentioned in the Yoginitantra (2. IX). IV. n.74).u. 1894. Vettavati. Dey. Chap. t of Kosam. VipdM.5.i<J. The monks could not procure food for them.. XV. identified with the Vipasis or Hypasis OT the Hyphasis of the Greeks.tem Tons) according to Pargiter. from heaven (Ramayat}a. It was in ancient times most probably an independent river. Vasilrtha. 2 f. 6.-In the B~rhut Votive label (No. Vibhra!a.-Veraiija w. Vindusarovara. 388) w. It is the Boas.. m. p.. Sarga 84. on the bank of the river of the same name. . IV.S. l41ff.R. The MiirkarpJ. 8 Ariguttara Nikiiya.. 6 Dhammapada'a!#W~hd." Once Buddha accompanied by monks stayed at Veraiiia when a famine broke out. The MaM- bharata refers to the origin of this river. XIV. It W88 on the Tamasi (e. Vetravati. 3.S.' The Buddha once stopped on the way leading to Veraiiia from Madhura and delivered a discourse to a householder. 1949.. I.yap.2. The town of Vindhyacala also known as Pampapura lies five miles to the west of Mirzapnr (Bha1>W.B. Verafija. No. 153.. 22) occurs Venugrama or Vel)uvagrama (= Bamboo town) which may be identified according to Cunningham with the modern village of Ben·Purva to the north·e. " RamaYG1)a. n. 121).37). therefore.-The Yoginitantra mentions it (2.A. but they were afterwards helped by some horse· dealers.. Matsyapurat}a. Uttarak8:r. 51) points out that this lake or 8arovura is situated on the north of the Kailasa range.. • Cf.." This hermitage W88 also visited by Satmghna who eame here from Madhuri. e Aiiguttara NiJcaya.' The Tamasi should be the e.. It is situated on the Rudra Himalaya. 43.s The Master spent the rainy season at Veranja. v.eya Purat}a 1 J. It fiows into the J umna.. Letters. tied himself hand and foot and threw himself into the river. . 62 • • J. He.. Geographical Dictionary.-This hill is near Mirzapur on the top of which stands the celebrated temple of Binduvasini. 2nd ed. (N. p. 4i4. which is a tributsry of the Satadru or the Sutlei.. Ch.4 Ve/Jugrama.' A Verania Brahmin questioned tbe Master why he did not show respects to the aged Brahma!)as.-The name of this river occurs in Pil)ini's A~lOdhyiiyi (4. The Brahma1)4a- pura~a (Ch.. Vindhyacala. 172. The Buddha gave him a suitable reply with the result that the Brahmin was converted to Buddhism. visited by the Buddha at the invitation of some Veraiiia Brahmin~. L.) and in the KalilrAyurat}a (Ch.n.-This river is identified with the modem Betwa. 4. 78..).2. 214ff. 37).l The Ramayat}a (VII. 11). 38). a small tributary of the Ganges.tem Tons on the bank of which stood Valmjki's hermitage.R. Ch. 235. Ravhuvam. broken in heart due to the death of his sons at the hands of Visvimitra. 57) points out that Lakijmal)a crossed the Ganga while taking Sitii to Valmiki's hermitage for banishment. • Jdt4ka. Ch.-This city according to the Jat.134 Tons). two miles south of Gar\gotri where Bhagi- raths is said to have performed asceticism for bringing down the Ganga.' At the end of the rainy season he left it and reached Benaras (Vinaya.

Lii!yfiyana SrautaaUtra (X. is situated at a village called Manal near Badrinath in Garhwal in the Himalayas.' According to the 1!gveda (VII. 670). 1..lindi because its water appears to be dark. 79. 4.GJ. 18. 17.A. I Rag~. 37. SrautaaUtra (XIII.58. This river alao known as the Kilindi occurs in the BMqavatapurii1)a (m. 10. 19. 28) mention this river. 5.8. • J .A. 11. Nirukta. 26. 361. It is situated six miles to the north of Mathura. 4.4. vs.5. 23. 139-140) and the Kiililciipurii"a (Ch. IX. Kii8ika Vritti on Pa!).u> sported with the milk- maids.. and flows through Srmagar. 16.. . olS. 4. LXII. IV.la in his Kiidamhari (p. a peak situated on the watershed between the Yamuna 1 C. 19). The Paiicavi~ Briihmaua (IX. 25. 4). Here Kj>. p. 19.-This river which is mentioned in the 1!gveda (X. VII. 9. IX. 18). 10) and the Ailareya Briihmaf}a (VIII. It rises on the slopes of B~ndsrpunch. Pataiijali also mentions it in his MaluibJull'11a (I.tgvedic Aryans (X. This river is known in Kashmir under different local names. The Yoginitantra (2. 43. 24. 29. 35. 33). I. X. VI. 10) and A8valiiyana SraulMiltra (XII. 18.l(. 22-23) as a charming foreston the bank of the Yamuna abounding in grass.-The hermitage of the aage Vyasa. 23) and 8ata- patha BTfihma1ja (XIII. 15.52.'ltu (III. X. the Tritsus and Sudas defeated their enemies on this river. 8.ini. V. 46. 11. Vr"aparva-Mrama. 16. 38. p.-This river is mentioned in the 1!gveda (X. fruits and kadamha trees. 62) also calls it the K<i.R.-It was near the Gandhamiidana-parvata which is a part of the Rudra Himalaya. It was known t{) the J. I. It is known as Kalindskanya becanse it takes its rise from the Kalindagiri. Vrndavana. 1 The BMgavatapuro1ja mentions it (X. 4.8) refer to it.2. Yamumi. 19. cf. Vila8w. 4. 9. 22) as well as in the MaMva. 5. 5). The BMgavata- purii"a (V. XXV. Adpal and Sandran. 36. the most western is the Vitasta (Pali: Vitamsi) or the Jhelum. Siil. Virnag. From Chambi it flows in south-westerly direction to meet the Satadru. It meete the Chenab below Jhang and Jhang Maghiana. 39). The Bk'igavatapurii~a (X... but according to the epic writers it forms a part of the Kailasa mnge. The territory of the Trit- sus lay between the Yamuna and the Sarasvati on the east and the west respectively.-It is a place of Hindu pilgrimage. 28. 436. 75. SrautaaUtra (XXIV. 75. NO:&TlBBlf INDIA 135 refers to this river (Canto LVII. and then turns south to flow in a south-westerly direction. 36. VIII. near the source of the Ravi. 18). X. 6. 31) is the most westerly of the five rivers of the Punjab.. It is fed by a number of glaciers.khyiiyarw. 3~38) also mention it. 4). 11) and the Padmapura1ja (UttamkhaI. IX.22. 13. 4. This river rises in the Pir Paiijal range at the Rhotang P . Among the four main eastern tributaries of the Indus. p.6. It turns west a little to the east of the town of Jhelum and to the west of Mirpur and flows south- wards after forming a bulge between Pir Dadan in the north-east and Khosab in the south-west. 29. 30. BiiJ. 4. II).ia.Atharvaveda (IV. 1883.. 10. Vyasa-&rama. 18) mentions it as a river.. It takes its rise in the Pir Pafijal range in the State of Kash- mir and flows towards the west in a zigzag course below Punch. It is the Hydaspes of Alexander's his- torians and the Bidaspes of Ptolemy. VI. X. 14.. 75.r. the Bhamtas are famed as victorious on the Yamunii. 201). 9. Kiityfiyarw. It is described in the Hariva'1'ia (Ch. pp. 75) by the name of Vitasta. 429-30. According to the Aitareya Briihma1ja (VIII. the author of the MaMhMrata and the Purii/(uUJ.

D.a (Ill. • Tronokn.luvahini as a tributary of this river.lyaviiha or Hiral. Bhandarkar (Carmichael Lectures. 149). p. '60. Ken and Pay""I. In the district of Debra Dun it receives two tributaries on the west side. 29) observes that there is nothing strange in PaI. It cuts a valley through the Siwalik range and Garhwal before it enters the plains of northern India to flow south parallel to the Ganges. downwards it follows a south·eastern course till it meets the Ganges forming the famous confluence at Prayaga or Allahabad. It served as the boundary between ~iirasena and KOBala. 101.' The Yamuna.lyaviihu). 1921. Many holy places are situated on this river. Dr. p.ara. but all the Yavanas were regarded as sprung from ~iidra females and ~atriya males. and further down between Kosala and Va~lsa. the upper one of which is known as northern Tons.hifii of Variihamihira also mentions it (XIV. 54. Ed. PaI.ct situation of the Yavana country (Bhandarkar. p. 175).A. p. PiiI.. Vetravati (modern Betwa). 327. Ray Chaudhuri. 129. It is identical with the Greek EranmIhoaa (Hiral. The shrine of Yamunotri stands at the base of the Ban· darpunch.. and in his referring to Yavanini. 1.It is modern Jumna. . Madura. a disciple of KMyapa. Kalisindb. tiln). The Mahiiva8lu (Vol. oi3. proper.. I . from Mathurii.lini mentions it in his A~!iidhyayi (oi. IV. It is mentioned in PaI. Between Agra and Allahabad it is joined on the left side by four tributaries. The Yamunotri which is eight miles from Kursoli is considered to be the source of the r'ver Yamuna. 160. 135.rabhanga. any writing but only a feminine form of Yavana. 2.. 171) speaks of the assembly of the Yonas where anything which was decided was binding on them. 21. the writing of the Greeh. Sa. was present at a great sacrifice beld at a place between the Ganges and the Yamnnii. The Riimiiyaf)a (I. IV. The first and great western tributary of the Ganges is tbe Yamuna. In the K~kindhyiiTca~if4 (IV.. 11. 4-6l.lini does not of course mean by Yavaniin. J. p.-It may be identified with the Jhind State of the BOuthern Punjab states lying to the north·west of Delhi. The Skanda P"rii~a mentions the Va. SamyvUa. Kiityayana distinguishes between Yavanani and Yavan. 401. Yauganah.1iguttam. Yamuna is one of the five great rivers mentioned in early Buddhist texts. It is difficult to dete=ine the eXlI. restricting the use of the first to some fo= of Greek writing. The Brhntaa". SaTcanyavanamiBri.lini's A~!4dhyliyl (oi.li (modern Paisuni). R. Carmichael Lectures.-The Yonas or Yavanas were the Greeks on the north·western frontier. 1921. V. the capital of ~iirasena. Political History 01 Ancient India. I.lini flourishing in the 6th century B. called Carmanvati (modern Chambal). 253). 26. II.136 mSTOmOAL OBOGIUI'HY 01' AJlCDlNT nmu and the Ganges. The existence of a Yona or Yavana state during the days of Gautama Buddba and Assalayana is evident from the Majjhima Nikiiya (II.130) and in the MaMbhiira/. 21) refers to the struggle of the Hindus with mixed hordes of ~akas and Yavanas (cf. and Kos3mbi..12) Sugriva places the country of the Yavanas and the cities of the Saksa between the countries of the Kums and the Madras and the Himalayas. They were the most esteemed of the foreigners..9) and is called a gateway to K11I'Ilkl!etra.C. • GaU/4ma-D~. Yavana Country. which takes its rise in the Himalayan range below Mount Kamet. The M ilindapaiihaf refers to the land of the Y onas as the place fit for the attainment of Nirvii1)a. oith Ed. The existence of a pre· Alexandrian Greek (better Ionian) colony may be inferred from the 1 MahdtxUtu. IS) as inhabited by the Mlecchs people (Mlecchii hi Yavana). is known to the Chinese &8 Yen·mok·na.. the capital of Varnsa standing on ita right bank. p.

madagni-asrama. 5ff. 1921. Yugamlhara. king of Syria. tiom of A'oka by Bhandarkar and Majumdar.ra (II. 246-Kielhorn's Ed. IndoWgical Studies. and in the Nagarjunikoz. because the same edict was promulgated when Antiochus Theos. The Yava· nas are classed with other peoples of Northern India (Uttariipatha) like the Kambojas. Not only the Yonas are mentioned in the Inscriptions of Moka. the Yonas are mentioned along with the Kambojas (Inscrip. B. Chap.. XX. Law.A. Such a view i. Pt. 128) this country which was ncar Kuruki. Yavanas and Pahlavas (Parthians) and as the Satavahana king. NORTJlltRN INDIA 137 evidence of the coins similar to those of the earliest type of Athens whieh are known to have been collected from the North·Western Frontiers of India (Numismatic Chronicle.E. 72. Kiratas and Barbaras (cf. 1895. There was a conflict between the Sunga prince Vasu· mitra and the Yavana on the southern bank of the Sindhu.-It is a village near Und (Ohind) in the North·West Frontier Province (E.. Zeda. They are referred to in Moka's Rock Edict V. Tribes in Ancient India.. According to Pataiijali's MaMh~ (3. as it is evident from the Juniiga<. 27. p. who had exterminated the K\Jahariita dynasty (B.Rustum Inscription of Darius.lh Rock Inscription of Maha· ~atrapa Rudradaman (about 150 A.2. Ch. p. They are mentioned also in the Bhagavatapur6. According to some it is said to have been situated at Khairadi. but also a Yavana official or a vassal Yavanaraja named Tw. Gautamiputra SatakarI)i is extolled as the destroyer of the Sakas. pp. Ch. 20. I).i. vide O. Arunad Yavano MtUfhyamik5". Gandharas. In the north·west of India the Yavanas were finally swept away by the onrush of the Parthians. 343ff.E.iispha ruled as governor of SUl'1U). 53·54). J.E. Vanaparva.-According to the MaMbMraJa (Viriitaparva. Law.keta". 28ff.<. XXXI. B.I. Law. also supported by numismatic evidence..u:la Inscriptions of Virapuru. 43). V and XIII. C. 36 miles north· west of Bali . Bhandarkar pointa out that it is impossible to identify the Yonas of R.-Arunad Ya". XII. I. For further details.3. IX. XIX. p. The extension of Yavana power to the interior of India was at first thwarted by the Sungas.). 34. 207. 4. 23. The Yavana country is the same as Ionia of the Naqsh. IV. .adatta. appears to have been situated on the west bank of the Yamuna and south of Kuruksetra. 18). XIII with the Greeks of Bactria. 30). Y6.C.) . MahiibMraJa. 18. Ujjayini in Ancient India. In the Nasik cave inscription of VMi~rhiputra PuIumayi. I. In R.etra.S. Vol. He holds the view that in all likelihood the Yavanas of R. 8. 874).~ S6. tra (Kathiawiid) with his capital at Girinagara (Giroar) during the reign of Mob.. C. in the United Provinces... 191. XIII must have come and settled in large numbers in some outlying provinces of India long before Alexander (Carmichael Lectures. 5. Yavanas in Early Indian Inscriptions in I. was alive.). C. 7.R. Stein. Saketa or Ayodhya as well as Ma<ihyamika (near Chitor) were besieged by a certain Yavana or Greek. I. In western India the last vestiges of Yavana power were swept away by the rising ascendeney of the Andhras or Batavahanas of the Deccan.D.-This hermitage is situated in the district of Gazipur in the United Provinces.

where plates of Indravarman were discovered. pp. 127). 16 . Smith. 46). seas. by one of the kings of Kalliiga of the Ganga. necklaces.. The Imperial Gazetteerlf oj Iwiia. The Jiitaka scenes are well depicted in these caves. have a very high artistic value.D. fishes. II. The river Tamra- parl). In the cave No. carved and painted at different times. These plates record a gift of land. The caves of Ajantii are approached from Phardapur. flat roof over the heads of the figures supported by slender pillars. Cai/ya and ViMra caves are the two types of caves found at Ajantii. A plot of land was given by the inhabitants ofthis place to their god Siva. The 29 caves at Ajantii have been cut. (34).!alaIp. date back to the 1st and 2nd century B. The caves present a vivid picture of the feelings and aspirations of the Buddhists during the period to which they belong. etc. Hwiter. Aimhu1J4i. According to V. 135. The cave N'l.-It is near Mukhalliiga~ in the Ganjam district.-It is a hill in the Travancore State.. The wheel of life. 26 the most notable sculpture on the walls is the large and crowded composition representing the temptation of the Buddha by Miira..I. Rivers. the bulk of the paintings at Ajanta must be assigned to the 6th century A. Vol. There is a good motorable road from Anrangabad to Phardapur.-This has been identified with Ratiigarh in the BIlIlki Police Station of the Cuttack district (Biripidi MUlleurn Plate QI Devii- nawiadeva. rocky shores. wild tribes. I.80ra-man<. 328). a small town at the foot of the Ghat. The majestic figure of the Buddha on the wall on the left of the corridor at the back has attraeted universal appreciation. I.. etc. In the cave No. Pt. Adhirajewirava[anri. arm- lets.I. the paintings between the ribs . Decorative painting and ceiling decorations are the earliest specimens of ancient Indian fine arts. which was at KaliJigann.. monkeys.li (S. vide also E. July.i has its source on this hill (W. fillets. Palaces and buildings are represented by .I. III. Ladies of distinction wear much jewellery..-It is the name of a river which passed through the vill&ge of Mandot!am (Ibid.. 10. flying Gawiharvaa and Apsaras can be found here. SOUTHERN INDIA AcyulapurG1p. Ajama. family (E. The caves Nos. Monks are clothed in their usual dress. The huge images of the Buddha found in the inner cells of the V iMraa are almost in the preaching attitude. XXVII. VII.1.-It is the name of a district (S. but much jewellery. I. 62). and men of lower rank are more covered but they have no jewellery. 1948. Agaiyaru. Figures of birds.-The two caves of Ajantii are situated 60 miles north-west of Aurangabad and ahout 35 miles south of Bhusaval on the main railway. etc. It is in the Jayailko\l<. W.gara. Men of higher rank wear little clothing above the waist. 136). which are the earliest.I. 9 and 10.-It is the old name of the modern vill&ge of Ammu\l<. p.Ih. are all depicted in these caves.C. A. Agas/ya-malai.!a.of the aisles are of much later date. The resulting political "onditions must have been unfavourable to the execution of costly work of art dedicated to the service of Buddhism. Airava!!a.fu.I. 87.. p.. The frescoes and paintings at Ajanti are the most important features of Buddhist architecture.

L. 25).Ii w"" the ancient name of Ambiisamu· draI!'. A'I'f'dMpatiya.A!!hakatM. The Amaravati stiipa is found about 18 miles to the west of Bezwada and south of DharaJ. The portico in front of the shrine is similar to a pavilion (1YU11)I/<Lpa). 8OUTIllUI. Geographical Dictio7llJry. pp. 333-456). bows. 1905-6.l. VI. Dey. Kolakas and Cinas (Apada7Ul. 17ff. It is noted for its stupa (E. III. 88). 132).utiful temple adorned with the images of J. serve &8 aids tu.<. The Sanskrit equivalent of the place.ill one of the Viharas of great importance. Ambattiir.ila monastery of Hiuen Tsang. IX.). Annual Report. Its old name is Dhanyaghata or Dhanyaghataka. p. I. pp. town) . (Kanarese country)..9. Law. kalaka or Amaravati at the mouth of the K!'l1.. In the Pali texts the Andbakas are mentioned along with the ~111I). p. VI.l.-In the Mayidavolu Copperplate Inscription of the early Pallava king Sivaskandavarman occurs AI!ldbiipatiya (Andhra- patha. II. p. I is really very artistic. Li"t 326. Pt.l. etc.. 7).-It is a tcwn in andhra.1.I. 287).shrines recalling the ancient tora1).). I. (Ambiisamudra'l'f' I""eriplian 0/ Varagu1)apii'!4ya.. (Hultzsch.-It is the name of a village in the Saidapet tslnk of the Chingleput district (S.1. It was the capital of Alndhapatiya (N.li river and is the headquarters of the taluk of the same name in the Tinnevelly district. understand the evolu- tion of domestic and socio·religio architecture of India. 146-157.las are the following: Driivi(la proper (Tamil). 116ff. Vol. arrows. For excavations at Amaravati. p. C. A1YU1ravali (Pali: Amaravati). Goog.A.1. XXV. 20 the flight of steps with a carved halustrade leading to a verandah and the pillars with capitals of elegantly sculptured strut figures of girls. Tribe8 in Ancient India. It was a brahnuukya in Mullini<.teabha and Santinatha. vide A.. p. p. This city may be identified with the modern city of Amarauti close to the Dharal)ikot(a river. p.lii.-It is a sub·division of Arumoridevava!an3. A broad heavy neck· chain is prominent.l. the threshold of the .. The Amaravati caitya is the PiirvaO . 359). 17).1.I<. Here was RajacUf.1. 83).1... Ep. Die.lamal)icaturvedimailgalaI!' (vide Ra1ig{icM. Vol. koja on the right bank of the river ~I. 7). A high turban with a knob in front is worn by males.S. which is the e""tern Andhra territory as distinguished from the Andbra dominions in western India (Hultzsch. S. I.-This is the name of a town which contains the Ama!'eSvara temple (E.S.li. AlJldbapatiya or Andbriipatha is the Andbra country between the Godavari and KT'il. L.I..<. S. Madura District). p. The Amariivati tope was built by the Andbrabhrtya kings who were Buddhists (J. 113. Vol.R. Soldiers are armed with spears. II.iichi and of the oldest sculpture dis· oovered at Mathura.n<i4u. III. A1YU1raku~.1.). Vol. about 60 miles from its mouth in the KT'i\lii district of the Madras Presidency. In the cave No.N INDIA 139 . The five Dravi- <.1. for details vide Law.. Buddha in one of his previous births was born in this city as a Brahmin youth named Sumedha (Dhamma- pada. VI.S. 1908.a. All these remind us of the style of early scnlptures of Sii. Some Jai7llJ Canonical Siitras. 185. E.. Ambasamudram. vide B. Andhra (Telugu). 88ff. Dey. pp. p.-It is situated on the northern bank of the Tamra- par1. which is identical with Dhanyakata or Dhanyakataka (corn. Karl.. C. 35ff. I!aIigoykm. For further details. I. AIarnU!u. name may as well be AI!ldbavati. Pt.ri'..lat ..la. 164ff. VII. cf. Dhanakataka or Dhanya. Nearby there is a mountain on which stands a hea. In the Harahii Inscription of the Mankhari .I. Mahar~ra and Gurjara.R. 84. E. The group of worshippers in the cave No.Iakas. famous for its ruined stiipa..la.. A.la is its capital (N.lu.lu (S. a mile west of ancient Amaravati on the Kr>!l. Indiw.

p. In the thirteenth Rock Edict of Asoka occurs the expression Bhoja. refers to the victory over tbe Andhras on behalf of lsvaravarman (C.-laya. Hunter..).. father of lsalJ.) a certain lord of the Andhras (Andkra- dhipati) is said to have given the Maukhari king a great trouhle by his 'thousands of threefold rutting elephants' (Ep.Ia. Arulhrama~4ala or Arulhravi.-This is a hill (S..n Ma.I. tion of Isvaravannan.-They merge into the Travancore bills (The Imperial Gazettar. 230). XIV. p. VI.8tvarman Maukhari. Il) connects them with the Godavari. llOff. V).liagrahiirarp.. father of lsa'IJ.ayika Sakyabbikl. 18) and the Satapatha Brlihma1J'l. .Patinikef!u A1JUlhra...) .lin family (P. 230).u sthavira Dharma- mitr" who erected an image of the Buddha.).bM.H. According to 80me they were originally" Vindhyan tribe that extended its political power from the west gradually to the east down the Godavari and the KflilI)a valleys (Ibid. C. 1913. The Indian Museum Inscription of the 9th year of Nariiyal)apaladeva of the Pala dynasty refers to the Andhra Va. Ammalapu~(ii.E. Smith holds that they were a Dravidian people and were the progenitors of the modem Telugu. of lrulia. This is suppor!. This suggestion seems to have been in agreement with the fact that the Jaunpur Inscrip. 128). In the Hariiha Inscription of Maukhari king Kumiiragupta III (554 A. of the Godavari and the ~l)a (/.. H.(9) mentions the Andhras as . Ch.. 41.. III. the Andhrapatha or the Andhra country seems to have come under the sway of the Pallava.la or Bezwada as its capital (E. dynasty whose headquarters were at DhaIJlllaka<.I. by W.. lrulica. At the time of the Pallava king Sivaskandavarman. III.I. the capital of Travancore.I. 88).I. certain lord of the Andhras (Andhriidhipati) is said to have troubled the Maukhari king (Ep.Pal~. 509). refers to the victory over the Andhr. 276--8). Pt.a~arIDa.! family. 12 miles to tbe south·east of Ta<. XXIII. 42) points out that they were settled in the Deccan.Ia (E.. V. 140 HISTORICAL GBOGIUl"IIY 0:1' ANOIBNT INDIA king Kumiirngupta III (554 A. lrul.. The MarkaTJ(ieya Pura1J.-It is situated in Trivandrum. The Mayidavolu plates of the early Pallava mler Sivaskandavarman prove that the Andhrapatba or the region of the Andhras embraced tbe ~I)a district with Dhaftftaka<. I.Iikol)<.I. 1918.-Telegu country (8. XIV.A.. of the Polamuru plates belonging to the Vi~l)ukul)~i. The Bamaya'(la (Ki~kindhyakal)<. p. p.1. The Andhra king referred to was probably Madhavavarm. Stray references to the Andhra.1..-This village may probably be identified with Anam· arlapiin<. ~ Anamalai Hills.n I Yavasray.speaking people occupying the delt. pp. Anantapura..I.48. I9Off. 373). 1IOff. The Pulindas of the Andhra region are always associated with the Andhras who probably inhabited the whole land from the Vindhya to the ~I)ii.l. p. on behalf of ISvaravarman (C. 207. The Andhras are mentioned in the Aitareya Brlih'T1Ul1J'l (VII.rata (XII. The R. which was visited by Sricaitanya and Nityananda. country and people are found in the later epigraphic records.A. II..). Raychaudhuri suggests that the Andhra king referred to was pro- hahly Miidhavavarman I (Yanasraya) of the Polamuru plates belonging to the V~nukun<.D. 4th Ed.u- khari.<od by the fact that the Jaunpur Inscription of Isvaravarman. pp. VasW hiputra Pulumayi WaS the first king who extended Sata· vahana power over the Andhra country.la (Dhanyaka!aka). southern people.a (LVII. The MaM. Vol. A.ri·~l)ii valley..1. XIII of ABoka . which contains the celebrated temple of Padmaniitha. The epigrapbic evidence proves that they occupied the Godiiva. 71).D... pp. Anadutpalicala.. W. III.

61·62). 217. I. The temperature was hot.A. II.-It is a 8ub~division of Rajarajavalanru. Indological Studie&.sa seems to have been Dhanaka\aka which was visited by Yuan Chwang. by W. Arugiir. January. two miles south of Pondicherry.. p. or Andhrabhrtyas. p. a sub·division ofPil). I.n. The soil was rich and fertile.-This village founded for the habitation of the Brahmins is said to have been situated at Visari. The earliest Andhra capital (Andhapura) was situated on the Telavaha river. According to Pliny the Andhras possessed a large number of villages.-This is modern Ariy. of the Artha8as!ra.-It is generally supposed to be identical with ASmaka on the Godavari (Shama Sii.<. 196. pp. 16. Ara8iI. Hunter.1. I.n8. It was regularly cultivated.lal. Arikame4u. where the Rajahmundry Museum plates of the Telugu Co<. 339). (another name of the Godavari) (E. There were some Sanghiirrimaa and Deva templu (Beal.18). Vol. C. Tribe& in Ancient Imlia.. They ruled even the whole of Andhradesa and the adjoining regions (B. Some places at the site were excavated by the A. For further details.I. quered by King Khiiravela as we learn from the Hathigumphii Inscription (B.-It may be the same as modern Arcot.fUr. Law. I...·II. six miles north of Virificipurarp (S. Vol. p.lu. Annadevavaraf/l.lu at the junction of the Pinnasani and the Ganga.479). Arakatapura. 166.-It forms the last of the Beven sacred places on the Godavari (Imperial Gazetteers of Imlia. II. p.l.r (Ibid. Vol.. p. pp. W.lu (Ibid. AragiYa&orapurafJl. 225-610 A. 198. 133). Hunter). pp. III.u.stri'S Tr. 492). 47ff. II. p...448). Law.) where a Brahmin youth came after completing hi. January. 1941). XXVI. Thi.-It is on the east coast of India. Law. W. C. f. I. Annavaraf/l. I. Pt.I.S..I.. 356ff. p.. 204)... Its modem name is Aruma<. Subramanian. both flowing near the confines of the Madras State and the Madhya Pradesa (P.lal. Angarayankuppaf/l. a reference to the Andhra country in a Jritaka (Jat.I.H. BuddhiBt Records of the We&tern World. It was in KirSengilinii<. Gwgraphy 0/ Early Buddhism..Iyakulii. I. It is also known as AnSi! of AraSileiyiiru (S.D..5). 71) near Veliir. R.I. Asaka. Arai. Trib". 1877.la Annadeva were discovered (E.lu.Saniva!anii. The Siitavahanas are claimed by the Purii~a8 to have been Andhr. The capital of the Andhrad. 1941). probably identical with Tel or Telin· giri.<. vide B.-This is the modern village of AilgarafikupP"l]!. Pt. in Ancient Imlia. education at Taxila to profit by practical experience. cavalry and elephants (I. Arunuu.-It is near Tuni in the east Godavari district. There i. II. Pt. 52). It is a village in Poyirkiirram (S. I.-It is the name of a river.I.. . country as known to the Chinese as An·ta·lo was about 3.I. Angara..59. 143).4). Law. 164. It was con.000 Ii in circnit.-It is the name of a village on the banks of the Pennar (Ibid. Antaravedi..A. C. and supplied their king with a huge army consisting of infantry. BuddhiBt reo mains in Amlhra aml Amlhra History.I. 449. Imperial Gazetteers of Imlia (W.-A southern country mentioned in the Brahma"l}l/ap. 30 towns defended by walls and towers.I. The people were fierce and impulsive. by K. in 1945. XXVI.-It is a village. p. p. SOUTHBBN INDIA 141 mentions the country of the Andhras as a vassal state under ASoka. .

58). XXVII.1. VII. Pt. Atri·a. was a later colony (Buddhist 1nd.H. Ala". n.1.-This village is in the PaIIadam talnk of the Coim- hatore district..I.). 352. XXVI.1. Fifty-nine emperors sat on the throne of Ayodhya. PaI.:\a king Annadeva defeated on the borders of Attili all the southern kings. Law. p. At one time the city of Potali was included in the kingdom of KMi.. The settlement on the Godavari. 4... Dr.. 224). according to bim. According to the Assaka·Jataka (Jiit. Vol.ta (P. 98). There was a connection between the Iksviikus and the ASmakas (Brhanruiradiya Pura!"1. 2).-This is the name of a country (S. 18Off.. Mahiiraetra (Shama Sastri's trans!.000 of the enemy's forces who took refuge within the walIs of that town (E.tini mentions A'mak . The Co.4rama. Aosaka or AAmaka Country. C.pu1l4i. p.. III. 977).Iila'!l (E. 53.. p.. who were hostile to him. 5)... According to Kau!ilya'8 ArthaMstra Assaka (Asaka) is generally supposed to be identical with ASmaka on the Godavari. pp. 1918.-It is a village in the Piiiicapir sub·division of Mayurbbanj State (E.-The Assaka or Mmaka country is mentioned in the Sutlanip-..I. Pt. p.l<. 3049). Le. I). 155) there was a king named Assaka who reigned in PotaIi which is stated therein to be a city in the kingdom of KMi. Bhandarkar points out that according to the Sutlanipdta a Brahmin guru called Bavari having left the KOSala country settled near a village on th" Godavari in the Assaka territory in the Daksil)iipatha (CarmicluJR. The capital city of the A'makas or Assakas was Potana or Potali. I. in one of his sutras (IV. .-It is a village in the Cuddalore taluk of the South Arcot district (E.-It i8 Tiruviidi in the Cuddalore taluk. pp. 1ndological Studies. pp. 77. Ch. Attili. rn.-It is a village in the Seiiji division of the Til. It is situated on the north bank of the Ge<. 85. III. 9). a king of this family. 27. III. XXV. Many bermits were engaged in spiritual practices there. Vol.-This hermitage was visited by Rama with Lakemal. II.la and Sits. p. Pt.-This town is at present situated in the south-west of the Tanuku taluk of the west Godavari district.l Lu· tUTes.". Adipur.28).l.lu and may be identical with Aliir in the Ciimarajanall&r taluk in the Mysore district (8. Adhir5jamtlngalliyapura"..1. Rhys Davids points out that Mmaka was situated immediately north·west of Avanti. Ayodhyn.142 HISTOBlCAL GBOORAPHY OJ.-This village is in Padin1i<. XV). ANOIICNT INDIA.T. AlUr. n. the Paudanya of the MahibMrata (I. 3. Vijayiiditya.1. 147).S. Tribe8 in Ancient India. The people called Aspasians by the Greeks may be regarded as denot· ing some western branch of the well·known ASvaka or ASmaka-tribe. pp.. white the sage was living there with Anusilyii.iivana'!l taluk ofthe South Arcot district (E..1. Law. Pt. and offered protection to 10. I. IV. B. pp. p. 1-2. Alappakka". 421>-7). Asanga in his SiUrdla1iJetIra mentions an Mmaka country in the basin of the Indus. containing a small shrine (Joumal of the Indian Society of Oriental ArI. Ayyampalayam. went to the Deccan to conquer it.1. It is al80 called Adigaimiinagar. XXVII. Part I. 47). 143. p. 97). The Iranian name Aspa corresponds to Sanskrit Mva or Mvaka (O. about 4j miles to the north·east of the Somanur railway station. Vol.1. II. 173). 190) as situated on the bank or tbe river Godavari immediately to tbe south of PatiHMna (v. The ASmakas fought on the side of the P<1wavas in the Kuruk~etra war (MaMbMrata. It is 14 miles west by north of Cuddalore and one mile south of Panruti rail- way station.

. 28) in JayakorxJa- co!ama.. Intro. by W. 165). III. It is known as the 'elephant hill'.<. stone from Madura (Madras Dist.. gardens. Avilrkurra'1'. III. pp. in the Mysore State.I. VI. Anna<tevavara'1'..kkoyilur talnk of South Arcot district. October. Vol. 1947.-It is .-It is the modern name of the village called Aragiya. p.1. XXIII. p. tanks. Amurlool{a'!l.-This is a sacred hill in the Maduri district (Ibid. IV. 504). 22). p. p. IV. II. etc. p.. . 4). II.. 95). 165). Ba7i{!aOO4i. pp. n.1.-Three Inscriptw. 1941. Anif7i{!ur.. lSOff.r (AmbUr)..). Pt. Vol.-This is ... vide also E. a Bub-division of Nittavinodavalanii<. Andhra. temples.. Gazetteers. 239). Arama.1. Pt. II. Vol.-It was a village on t~ bank of the Ganga to the west of Palliiri-Sailavaral)l.-It is in the Ganjam district. 27 (Intro).I.I. Two Tamil inscriptions were discovered here (E.I.C. Anandilru. Madura. It is in the French territory (Vide Rafi{/a- tMri's IMt.1. VII). Pt..I. Pt.-The Kap Copperplate of Keladi SadMiva-Nayaka refers to Be!uguja which is SravaI). King Annadeva granted this village to the Briihmal)ss (E.D. Intra. II. V. XXVI. 0/ Vaidumba-MaMraja Ga1)tjatrinetra). V). 71).a Belgol. 399..!u. 254ff.-It is the headquarters of the Anandiiru Three HundITd (district) mentioned in the Akkalkot Inscription of Silahara Indarasa (E.-It is two miles south-east of Villupuram (E. Vol. Vol. It is also called Viimpi (8. p. II. It may be identified with modern Anadiiru. 513.-It is a district.1.-It was not far from Sonepur where the royal camp was often pitched. It runs from north-east to south-west nearly parallel to the Madura-Melur road from the 5th mile. 183ff.Iar invaded it in 650 B. Anaimalai. same as Biihugriima..-It is a village. p.. SOUTHBBN INDIA 143 Am. I-Rajahmundry Museum pkUe& 0/ Telugu CO<ja Annadeva). .!alam.. a suburb of Vellore in the North Arcot district (8. chief town of the taluk of that name in the Usmanabad district in the Hydersbad State. Pt.I. Badami. 76).). XXVI. 98)..-It is in the Kolar district of the Myaore State (E. 519). Pt.. Bavaj' HiU-It is situated near Velapadi. SiruttoI).I. In a village of this estate a set of copperplates of Ganga Indravarman were found (E.. town in the Veliir talnk of the North Arcot district (Ibid. 22ff.1.80ra- caturvedimangalal)l. Asuvulaparru.I.-This is present Telugu country (Ibid.. It is included in the district of Aruvii-nii<.lu (8. p. VII. XXVII. III. It must have been the principal place in Aningur-nii<... 505.lu. (Ibid.. IV.1. It is near Pondicherry.-This village stood on the KNl)A river in BezWBda talnk (E. I.I.-It is a village near Madanapalle (E.<..I. 1-18). XXVII.). district (Ibid. pp. XXIII. II. (E . Vol. It is in the Tirn.. Badakkimedi. Basinilm:u!a. April. It" is described to be a prosperous city with palatial buildings. Francis. 81ff. A rock inscription of Kann"'"'><ieva has been found below the summit of this hill (E. Pt. BaMr. Vol. 514. It is ahout 20 miles to the north of Akkalkot. p. p. 1693-94.... Bquvu?a. XXIV. The village of Biihiir is the head- quarters of a commune in the French territory and was the site of a battle between the English and the French in 1752 A.

). Pt.. it is one of the countries in the Deccan. p.. p.-It is mentioned in the Indian Museum plates of Ganga Indravarman.(iu.Aa. The Sabhiiparva of the Mahiibhtirata (Ch.. 168).1. (of. XIII refers to the Bhojas. V~.-According to the Pural)..das or paladas. Pt. Barna and Sinha. p. I. It is fed by many streams (vide B.C.-It is Hampi in the Bellary district. VI. In the Barhut Votive label No. the main tributary of the ~!).as. ll3).. The Vayu (XLV.I. III. The next important mention of the Bhojas is made in the Hiithigumpha Inscription of the Ceta King Kbaravela (1st century B. Bhigirathi. from which place it takes a south. Kuntalas. Mmakas. I). Pt. purii1Ja. 7). C. which informs us that Kharavela. IV. p. four miles south-east of Elichpur in the Amaraoti district. defeated the Riithikas and Bhojakas and compelled them to do homage to him. Hydera- bad. which may possibly be identified with Barsinga on the Brahma!).-The river Bhimarathi. Kuru. Bhefhi8r>iga.Iakyabhoja in the Briihma1)a8 may indicate that this Bhojaka(a was either included in or within the reach of Da!).E. Law. XXV. Miirka!.a.. IV. then it must be a country of the Vindhya region.(rikas and Bhojas of Moka's Rock Edicts V and XIn (vide B. It is clear from the MaMbhiirata list that Bhojakata ( = Elichpur) was distinet from Bhojakatapura or Bhojapura. the Maharaja of Kaliilga. In the Khila. C.I..1.!a (c.) speaks of the king of Bhoja along with the kings of Mataya. 30) mentions Bhojakata and Bhojakatapura as two places in the south con- quered by Sahadeva. 372).l(ieya Pura...I. the wealth-incre... V. It seems that Bhogavardhana was situated in the Godavari region but the location of the place is unknown.: Bhojaka(a or Bhojya. The Kbalimpur grant of Dharmapaladeva of Gam. LX. XIII refers to the Bhojas and Pitinik. p. 32). Bhogavardbana. subdued king Simga near this town in a battle (E. Vol.I. PiiriIp.. XXVI. p. p. p. Hariva". 28). 1941. 8. Bhara::ip. 45 occurs Bhojakaia (Barna and Sinha. 104) and Variha Purj~a~ mention this river.D. 15).E.-The Arulala-Perumal Inscrip- tion and the Ranganiitha Inscription of Ravivarman refer to a Bhoja king belonging to the Yadu family of the Kerala country in South India (E.I. 1939. Barna and Sinha.C. XXVI. Bluiskara~etra.easterly course and flows into the ~I)a nortlr of the district of Raichur. which appears to flow in the north·western portion of the district of Poona. Bhoja is mentioned in the IJfjfJeda . LVII. 190). Bhojya. 146). The R. 9).48-49). which was the capital of the Vijayanagar kings (E.. who held the present Thana and Koliiha districts of the Bombay Presidency.Iaka. Barhut Inscriptions. Bhojaka(a is expressly identified with Vidarbha (cf. On the north bank of this river a battle was fought between Pulakesin and Appayika and Govinda (E. October. may be identified with the modern Bhima. mentioned in the Daulatabad plates of the Western Calnkya king JayasiI)1ha II. Rivers of India. Bhimarathi (or Bhimaratha).. October. Pt.144 HlSTORIOAL G IiOOBAPHY OJ!' ANCIENT INDIA. 800 A.. p.a (I.-This is the same as the river Ganga (Hultzsch. 131). Tribes in Ancient India. Bhogava4hana (Skt. 49). Moka's R. the second capital of Vidarbha (modern Berar). Barhul Inscripti<m8. It figures prominently as a Sahya river in the Pur" . Law. Bhojaka!a and Bhojaka!apura (Skt.<.r. The Ra(hikas and Bhojakas are evidently the Rii<. Bhoja coincides with Berar or ancient Vidarbha and Chamrnaka. The ex- pression Dal)<. Barhul I ""cripti""". The Bhogavardhanas (Bhogava4am) are placed in the southern region along with the Maulikas.. VIII. etc. a Co<.-Klimaraja... If Bhojaka\a be the same as Bhoja and Bhojya of the Pud~a8.Ia king.&8. Vol. Yadu and Yavana as having uttered benedictions at the coronation ceremony of the king of Kiinyakubja. river (E.

The Bhojas along with the Andhakas and Kukuras helped the Kurus in the K1ll"IIkl>etra. p. Scholars differ as to the date of this temple (vide J. OriSBa and hu Remains.!. XIII. the refectory hall. 48. A courtyard inside is Bagged with stone and is crowded with 60 or 70 side temples.D.! and southern India in very early times. 53. C. Ch. Lingariija. The 8atapaJIw Brrihma1Ja (XIII. At Bhuvanesvara there stands the Parasuriimesvara.pilahrada outside the KapileSvara. full of nux vomica trees. XV. vide B.b of stone is on the western wall of the courtyard of the temple of Ananda Viisudeva at Bhuv&DeSvara in the Pori district (E. Ch.A. It is built on rocky soils composed of laterites overlying small mounds of sandstone. f.2. 18. V41Ju Purri~a.D. The Jain sacred books refer to the Bhojas as ~atriyas (Jaina Siarao. 1-6). Vriyu. The water of the Kedargaurl tank is quite good for dyspepsia. 1. II. 109ft'. 3-54.n. V riyu Purri'(la.. TriOOJ in Ancient India. 14). 40. Ch. the dancing hall. wife of Siva. which was completed by Lali'!a KeSarl. pp. Brahmagaurl near BrahmeBva. situated on the BaIianti river. 13. some of which may be men· tioned. 7-49). war (MahiibMrala. 146 (II. On account of the exposed rocks in the neighbourhood of the place. 28). The Bhojas spread over centra. The descendants of Sitvata. pp. This place i. p.-1t is a village in the Khurda sub.).. Ganguli. Ch. son of Mahabhoja. The Liilgariija temple which is the main temple.~aya (Brahma· pura1}a.ins.S. pp. JO . surrounded by a high thick wall of latsrite and oblong in shape. sister of Nara· 8irpha. (M.ka 588 (A.I. p. It is mostly inhabited by the Hindus. is otherwise called BhuvaneSvara or TribhuvaneSvar. 95. 43. Yayiiti Kesar! began the construction of the temple. Ch.2. 24. p. namely. p. Ka. 7l. The probable date of its construction i. pp. which locality was the realm of the Bhara. 94.division. 366ff.tas. 52. it becomes hot in summer. has been dated the 5th or 6th century A. 7) as well 88 in the Aitar<y<l Bra"ma~a (VIII. It i. pp. 1949. in the north· west comer is important. 19). buJowgical Studies. ll) seems to imply that the Satvatas were located nea.7). 43. Ch. which according to some. The main temple consists of four structures. Letters. Udyogaparva. 2700. 96 pp. I. 43ft'. IX. IV. 53) mentions that a mler of Ujjeru came to Bhogakaga after becoming an ascetic. Mat8ya Purii1}a Ch. Purii1}a. 19&-2(3).R.ra.). 46-8. Pt. The temple of Bhagavati. Law.B. is unique from the architectural standpoint. Ch. For further details.. 37). According to the Purri'(laB the Bhojas and the Sitvatas were allied tribes both belonging to the Yadu family (Mat.. Ch. refers to the bnilding of a V~\lU temple by Candrika.ya Purri'(la. The biggest of the tanks is Vindnsiigara. at Ekiimra or modern BhuvaneSvara in the Utkalavi. temple.r the Ganga and the Yamuna. 2).B. Ch.E. 5. There are many tanks. Ch. Kiirma Purri'(la. XIII. 10. The Jaina Uttariidhyayana·GuT'(Ii (2.D. namely. They were associated with the Sriiljay"" and the Cedis (MahiibMraIn" V. Law. Bariva1f'da. 40).. The Bhuvanesvara Stone Inscription of NarasiI)lha 1 of the 12th century A. 275. M. The Bhojas were reo lated to the Haihayas who were a branch of the Yiidavas (Agni Purri1}a. Sa. It enjoys a mild but bracing winter and is not unpleasant during the ra. temple. p. 18 miles south of Cuttack and 30 miles north of Pori town. The Bhuvanesvara Stone Inscription incised on a sla.. not only holy but very healthy. The Udyotakesarin of the Bhuvanesvara Inscription has been identified with the prince of the same name whose inscriptions have been discovered in Orissa in the Lalatendu KeSari and Navamuni caves (E. It covers an area of 4i acres and i. 165·66). 94. BhuvaneAvara. S. were known as Bhojas (Bhiigavata Purri1}a. the porch and the tower. Ch. 666. 24. BI. 4. 81. No. 44. Ch. Kediirgaurl near Kedare8vara.

190). pp. It was known to the ancients as Deya Durgii. Jayakeaarin. B.ore SlJJte. pp. p. For further details.1. 33).2Off. For further details.2.. E. by O'Malley. 160). the well-known Jaina town in the Hassan district of the Mysore State (E. to the south-west of Malegaum. Pt. Gautuera. uorth Kanam district (North Kanara Gazetteer. branch of the Mahanadi about four miles to the north of Cuttack.. oftke My. In it a survey of the site is given before the excavation haa been made. 236 f. IV.-It is in the Biipallii Wuk of the Kistna district (E. Exploralion in Ori/laa...I. Vol. Pt. II. It is on the sacred river Vaitara.n. K.ted image of Prajiiiiparamita with a smiling face has been discovered here. p. 95ff. Cebrolu .. 6-7). made Gauduar or the city with four gates his capital. where the Bodhisatta bnilt a leaf-hut at the bend of the river Kannapel)J!.. DiIll.nigrahi.-It was situated at a distance of 45 miles to the south- west of Brahmagiri. 3)... revised by Mansfield. BUfI'I'!a. For details of the excavations at the site. ' I~B . No. 1929.I. 1951.. Gograha. A seated image of two-armed AvalokiteSvara has been acqnired from this place for the Indian Museum. S. Canda1Ulpuri.-According to the Brahmapur<i.mous in early Tamil classics. H.1)i. Candaka. Satiety.. the 25th King of the Kesarin dynasty.. p. p. Bengal DiIlt.S. vide Law. O'Malley.A. Siddhesvara. Soma. a small town on the Gin)ii river. 184). New light on Ike early Hilltory of Bhubaneaoora (Journal of the Aaiali.. (Brahma. III. Pt. Mrtyuiijaya. 1908. V.-Its Tamil name is Kanni KumaIi or Kanniya Kumari (E. vide R. XVII..!"" 42.. Canduar. A .I. Babbili.-The extensive ruins of Gauduar spread on the northern bauk of the Birups. Chanda. January. Pun. ~ra. etc. IV. II. It is the Malaya-giri or the Malabar ghats.41). XXVII.-It may be identified with Bommeparti. 142ff. Buddhism flourished side by side with Saivism at Cauduar. I.I. Kapila.. about 45 miles to the north-west of Ellora (E.retra. XXV. Kanyaknmiiri). XXVII. A. 1-4).. P".. pp.2.a (42. III. 1929). Pt.-It is in the Vizagapatam district of the newly founded Andhra State (E.g. vide Half Yearly Jourmd of Ike Myaore University. vide M. it contains the deity named Biraj. p. 234ff. 29). The Yoginitantra mentions it (2. P. 277. p. There are eight holy places in this ~tra.. Candaura. I. pp. three mile. Birajak.-It is the modem Gandanpuri.. 44. VI. 1939. I. XXV. 218. 241).aiva centre. e. The temple of Birajii is situated at Jajpur.-This capital city may be identified with modern Gandiivar.1. Most of the sculptures found here seem to mark the initial stsge of the later mediaeval sculptures of Ori. south-east of Kumta. Cape Comorin (Skt.. A set of Minor Rock Edicts of ASoka has been discovered here. s. 1940... Brahmagiri. 120).ii.. 265ff. I..I. 148 RISTORICAL GKOOBAPIIY OF ANCIBNT INDIA. Pt. situated at a distance of seven miles from Anantapura (E. by L. Geographical E88aY.. XXV. fa.. Bom7M""/u.-It is a mountain near the MahiJpsaka kingdom. No.-It is in the Gumsiir Wuk of the Ganjam district (E. p. pur<i.-It is in the Punganur taluk of the Chittoor district (E. p. Lettera.). M. Sec. Pt. Puri... Candragiri. C. Clirrila. Krishna.-For details.l.. p.I. It was once a . and O.). Extat'ations al ChandravaUi (Supplement to tke Annual Repurt of the Archaeologital Dept.-It is a hill at Srava\l3-Belgola. CandravaUi. situated in the Honavar taluk and about five mile. S.. p.

Cerupilru.. Vol."" LXXI.-This is the name of a district (S. I. 46.). Origin- ally its capital was Vafiji. Vol. 41 (Bombay Edition). one of which is the sky image ("1/<>ma) at Cidambaram.tes was discovered (E.la. many of whom had their corona- tions performed in the sacred hall of the temple. It had important trading centres on the western coast at TOJ. IV. Mlirka~<!eya PuroTja. 365.-This is a modern viUage of Cellur (Ibid. pp.264). XXX.. near which three plates were found (E. etc.. Ch.luvardhana I. Sabhiiparva.1. where some copperplates of SarvalokaSraya.yaTja.1. Keralaput.. now in the Madras Museum.-This village lies in the Kaikalfir taluk of the Kistna district. II. Pt. 1942. XXVII. 12). now Tiru-Karur on the Periyar river near Cochin. Pt. The idol of Natariija (the dancing attitude of Siva) is the most important.E. 279. throws light on the connection hetween the eastern Ciilnkyas and the Co!as. 352. South India has five elementary images of Mahiideva. p..-It is the name of a village in the Coconada talnk of the Godavari district (8. XLV.. Tribea in Ancient India. 1174·75. the Bay of Bengal on the east. 64. vide B. Cera.. Cidambaram. also known as Tillai (Ibid. (MaMbMrata. Rtimii..-~ country comprised present Malabar. p. 78). 124. 147 ceUu. 92. 50. CiropaUi. p.l. and its later capital was Tiruvafijikkalal)l near the mouth of the Periyar.lur district and the Cikmagalur taluk of that district in Mysore (E. 1 Chidambaram. p. finds mention in ABoka's R.lc.1. 51). l SirraI]lbalam is the Tamil name of Cidambaram.I.li on the Agalappulai about five miles north of Quilandi.lu.-This village may be identified with the modern Chipuru. Cochin and Travan- core (8. It is. Cerli1!'.1. Ch. CXIII. MO<krn R. Some think it to be identical with Cerupiiru of the Chipurupa\le copperplate of Vi~J. situated in the Plakivisaya. It played an important • part in the Carnatic and Mysore wars. 46). lOB). Law. p.1. II. 168). pp. After the Co!as the Ceras became the leading power in the south. 52. Ch..1. For further details. were discovered (E.-This viUage in PuliruJ. It was a subsidiary capital of the Co!as.-It is in the Ongole taluk of the Nellore district. 86.-It is the ancient name of Trichinopoly (Annual Reporl for 1937·38 of 80uth Indian Epigraphy. by L.I.. III. Siva has eight images of which five are elementary.. XXVII. 3B). According to the LiitgapuroTja (Uttara. Gubil. 97.-It is situated between the Velar on the north. noted for its temples. N. where a set of copperph.). This is a town in the South Areat district (8. Muchiri..-It is near Narasannapeta in the Ganjam district. IT. CeUuru. pp. Ci~alur. Vtiyu Purli1]a. The people of Kerala are known as the Kairalaka (Brhat·8a1!'hilii. dated 673 A. 21). 3(0) of which Cingleput is the headquarters. vardhanavira·coc. XXV..4u may be identified with Ciirnla in the Pwiganur taluk of the Chittoor district (E.1. 1931f. Cendalur. Cidivala8a. I. IX. II. I. VI.) and as Cidambalam according to the Devi-Bhiigavata (VIII.. 236ff. 3). The Tamil kingdom of Chem i.n. XIV.. mentioned in the Sanskrit Epics and PurllT}a8.I. Cingleput. Cera is a corruption of Kerala. A copperplate grant of VisJ. 5Off. Pt.1. pp. SOUTHBRN INDIA. VIII. f.-It is the headquarters town of the Kac. the Coleroon on the south. p.1 .. . p. April. I. 67. C. 12). 1940. Palaiynr (near Chowghat) and Vaikkarai. Vol. palle in the Vizagapatam district. Cevuru.. 41). 98.D. Mataya Purli1]a. 258.". and the Viranam tank on the west..• VIII.

According to the MaMtJa~ (166. 4. Sora Ikgia Arooti).1. 22).lin in his Kal11JddarAa (ill. C.-It is the modern name of the village Kacci or Kaiici or Kaiicipura (Ibid.. 185.1. The Kamiik~i temple at Conjeevaram i. pp.175). 97. lutroduction.n. The origin of the name Co!a is uncertain. p. It was watered by the river Kaveri (Ibid. poly) which corresponds to Sall8krit Uragapura. D8. It iasues from Trichinopoly and falls into the Bay below Porto Novo. The Ramaya~a (IV.-It is the name of a river (S. There were some 8aiI{JMrdrlUl8 in ruins and deva temples (Real. 166-Ramacandra TarkaviigiBa's Ed. Some have divided it into three parts: Large Kaiici.n. The population was very small. Small Kaiici and Pilayar Koliyam. The Co!a kingdom stretched along the eastern coast from the river Penner to the Vellar and on the west reaching to about the borders of Coorg. the most important. Ill. 51.lukaiici. 60.. 227). 2) mentions Kiiiicipura. Law.ata.) mentioll8 Co!a country but the commentator includes it in Kar. ColerDOn (Ko!!ida~l). The climate was hot.) the Damij&8 who once invaded Lanka came from the Co!a country. 46) refer to Colas. Its capitsl was Uraiyur (Old Trichino. and 503).400 li in circuit. 100.13) mentions it as a country.. The country of Cola known to the Chinese as Chiilli. v. Co!a is Tamil Sora. Vol. and the kingdom of Malanga ruled by Bassaronagas.I)<. The city of Kaiici was influenced by Saivism. PiiQini mentions Co!a in his A~!iidAyayi (4.ye was about 2. 57. C. Vol.. and is probably identical with Sora of Ptolemy (cf. Nilkanta SiiStri. 45. 134. II. and the people were dissolute and cruel. ll8. pp. Majumdar Ed. 135. This ancient place in South India is divided into two parts: Sivakiiiici and V~l.. p. It was deserted and wild. 92. The temple at Sivakiinci is the most ancient. 186ff. 124) and Matsya (Ch. It included the modem district. of Trichinopoly and Tanjore and part of Pudukkottah State (K. etc. It was one of the notable centres of Buddhist learning in South ludia (B. Ptolemy calls the Co!as by the name of Soringae whose capital W&8 Orthoura (McCrindle. Pataiijali in his MaMbluiffla (IV. 109). Ancient India as de8cribed I>y Ptolemy. Ch.lukiifici was built later. 2.). Asoka's Rock Edicta II and XIII mention the Co!as along with others &8 forming outlying provinces (Praca1Jlla) outside his empire. Rajariija desirous of the Co!a kingdom conferred the Veilgi country on his paternal uncle Vijayiiditya. 197ff. (5). 96.!. 139. The Br"at8a1!'hita (XIV . .-It is in the Gingee taluk of the South Aroot district. and Trichinopoly districts (8. 32. or Pugiir on the north bank of the KiiverL For furtber details.. pp. II. pp.). The early history of the Cola country is obscure. 112.alam) includes the Tanjore. and their principal port was at Kiiviripaltana".. Buddhist Records of the Western World. Co. The name Co!a indicated from the earliest times the people &8 well as the country subject to the Cola dynasty of rulers. pp. Iu the temple of Kailiisa.Ia. the Miirka1J4eya (Ch.148 HISTORIOAL GBOG&APKY 01' AlfCDINT INDIA Oitlamu. A. I. Ptolemy refers to the kingdom of Sora (Co!a) ruled by Arkatos.) which p&88es the village of Settimangala". Geographical Essays. 64·65. Law. ConjeetJara1!'. The Co!a capital was Ul'&iyur (Uragapura). II. ll2. vide B. 79. 59. 60 and 282 f. and the temple at V~l. Bom.).I. v. EpiJ. II.1.186). Tribes in Ancient India.1.. I. The OofaR.-The Co!a country (SoramaJjQ. The Co!as are mentioned in the Varttikas of Kiityiiyana. 259 f. Ed.. 21. The Cola kings were aUeged to belong to the tribe of Tiraiyar or' men of the sea'. Ch. the VaY" (Ch.raphy. Buddhism and Jaiuism.. They were fierce by nature. pp. IV. II. con· taining two Jain temples (Annual Report lor 1937·38 of 8{)U/}o India. 79·80). 41. v.

IV. 367. p. at the foot of which standa a life-size monolithic image of Viel. Dantapura really means' Tooth City' which is believed to have been an important city even before the days of the Buddha (MaMvaatu. III. IJa4. The sacred woth of the Buddha i.).riBV&r8.I. situated on the southern bank of the river VaI¢adharii. more beautiful than Amariivati. There are many V~l)u temples.. p..1u in the form of Kiirma is shown worshipping Siva. It is also mentioned in the Pali Mahiigovinda 8uttanta (Digha. In front of the temple there is a banyan tree. I. 4.ry. p.-It is in the Nellur district of the Madras State where a Pa. Dami/a.1J<Ja.. • si1phadeva II refers to Da~il)a Jharakhal)(la.bitants of Dami!a were a powerful south Indian trihe. 'vara.th there is a figure of Ardh&nii. II. two miles west of police station of Dharmshala. p. p. Da1J<f.bhiipsti were discovered (E. VI. They came inw con· flict with the Ceylonese kings..s the capita. XLVII.). They were disrespectful to the Buddhist stupas (MaMva1/l8a Oommy. 367). village in the Palamner taluk of the Chitwor district where the plates of Vijaya. Intro. Some have identified it with Puri in Orissa (Dey.! of Ka.igama~<!ala.-It is mentioned in the 8a. 285) which is a beautiful city. three miles from Chicacole Road Station.Iigaipii<:li located in the Mysore diBtrict (8. II.1. cf.). Diet. This town has been identified with Riijmahendri (Rajabmundry) on the Godavari.la Inscriptions..l. Dantapura. 371. andO. Ed. 1933). Darsi. th~ northern portion of which covers the Ganjam Agency. S. 381.. by O'Malley. Gazetteers. 230-32.ltha. It is the Dantapur or Dantakura of the Great Epic (Udyogaparva.1. which is near Chicacole.).Conjeevaram various forms of V~I)U are depicted in sculptures in the temple of Baikul.). pp... The roof of the pillared hall ha.Iigaman<jala (Ibid. Geographical EBBaY8. 1940.apalle. pp. p. C.1 . 236). III. Levi identified it with Paloma of Ptolemy. Dai0i1)a JluJrak/w. 33) that it was a kingdom where Thera Kassaps lived. Geographical DictiQ1l(J.-It is an ancient district identical with Ta<. Deuli. Vol.-This village is situated at Jiijpur sub·division. 447). II. II. Vol.igava¢i. It contains a temple situated on the bend of river Brihmal)i. 235) a.I. In the western part of the town which is called V~u. vide Law. Intro. In the temple of K&ceh& pe.. 376.lu (B.-It is the modem name of the village called KqluilgoWr (8. said to have been taken to Ceylon. II.• Vol. Intro. IS83) and Palma of the Nagarjunikol)<. IMia" Anti· quary. . 53). The Dami!as or the inh".s fallen. SOUTHERN INDIA 149 nii. 361 and Jatalca. IJa4. 3.s the ancient capital of Kaliliga.-The Kendupstna copperplate grant of Nar. 7&-80.. For further details.liIiga (Jat. II.-It wa.. XIV. the city of gods. April. V~I. XXV.-It is a. The Jaina AvaSyaka Niryulcti (1275) refers to Dantavakka as the ruler of Dantapura.1.perumiil. According to Subba Rai it is in the ruins of the fort of Dantapura. It is also known as the Mahiikiintara in the Allahabad Prasasti of Samudragupta who came into conflict with ita chief Mahiikantaraka Vyaghraraja. Pt. B.-Fleet thinks that T. 3.s discovered (E. 68ff. It is known as the capital of the ancient Ceras. 397). Vol.anavlUMa (p. Law.. p. The Jirjingi plates of Ganga Indravarman refer w Dantapura (E. DaIMvar(t8a. from this place (cf. Oru1Ij/a1WTe. XXX. Cuttack.pgaipii<:li may probably be identical with Da<.llava copperplate grant wa. 109ft'.

aUras for Brahmins were founded here (ef.I. On the north face of the southern ra.I.Taina Brilwilcalpa-b~a also mentions it (Vr. Two. p. p. 5.. Majumdar Ed. 53. VIII. I.-This village is situated about 12 mile. Pt. by O'Malley. Dibbida Agrahara11'. Dhauli.I..-It is the name of a village. 123. List.nge the rock has been hewn and polished..). E. 1938. pp.I. 7.-It is the name of a country (S. Pt. IV.Iu Inscriptions. Deva. 107). XXVI.. I.solid rock.. XXIV. District Gazetteers.35. Above the inscription there is 8 terrace. The C<><.-It may be identified with the two villages of Nandigiima and Pasiq:u.I. April. I).I. 1I8.-It is a village mentioned in the Dinaka. where an inscription of Vanapati (Saka Samvat 997) w"" dis- covered (E.-It is the Yellamaficili talnk of the Vizagapatam district (A.ndhra country'. 1231).-The Jaina AvaAyako Niryulcti (3U) mentions it. . Pt. Devapura. 43. There are Borne caves.. Pt. VIII.hita (XIV.-It was a Brahmin village in the kingdom of Kafuiga (J ft. VI. Ancient Imlia.I. 274).-It is a village in the Viravilli talnk of the Vizaga- pa'am district (E. 2.R. Some lands of this village were given by Vijayiditya to Miidhava (Journal oJ the Amlhra Hi~torioa1Re8earchSociety. III..). 65).I.-It is a village four miles north ofKafuigapatam in the Ganjam district. 13. Dra~iriima. from Chicacole in the Vizagapatam district of Madras where copperplates of Maharaja Umavarman were discovered (E. This was known 88 Pityundra by Ptolemy as the capital of Maisolia.I. Vol.likuru (E. and temples. XXVI. I. II. It stands on the northern bank of the liijaram canal in the Ramacandrapuram taluk of. V. J. It is the Sanskrit name of the Tamil country. 514). 56). 150 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA. I. Pt. VI.te a lofty ethical doctrine (B. and O. 28. the Bhii{1avala-Pura'l)a (IV. It is described as 'the crest-jewel of the A. p. Close to this village two short ranges of low hills exist nmning parallel to each other. E4ern.-This village is situated four miles south· west of Bhubaneswara on the south bank of the Daya river. XXIV. 36) near Akiripalle in the Kistna district. Kistna district. where the Dharmacakra Pillar Inscription has been discovered (E.. 50). The . p.I.I. 24. 4. oj Antiquities. X.. _ Dhara7Jiko!a {Dhannake4a).. It is one of the most sacred places in the Godavari district with a big temple dedicated to Bhimesvara (S. Du"~ivi#ha. The Bahmal)i invasion was checked by the Reddis at the Dhara!)iko!a and turned back (E. V. p. V. 1I3). XXVI)..Ii in the Chicacole talnk (E. 1908.. p. It is mentioned in the Mahiibharala (Ch.4). VI.lara Nuzvid taluk.09. Dinakiitju.ma (McCrindIe. 61. p. 39) and in the Brlwi-sa".Ia in the SruilgavarapuJw!a talnk or Deva. It was situated about 20 miles above Bezwada on the Kr. which show a broad catholic view and inculca. 30. 118. pp. 19). 1929. Dravi4a. Purl..S. 15 miles north-east of Bezwada.-It may be identified with one of the two villages. Ibid.I. The inscription is deeply cut into the rock and is divided into four tablets. XXVII. IX. 25). Sewell.la king Annadeva caused the pinnacle of the temple of Bhimesvara to be overlaid with gold... Ptolemy'. XI. I. Pt.I. 132). Dhavalape!a. the east GodavarI district. 278ff. The edicts of Asoka are the most interesting remains of Dhauli.. 187). I. 314ff. DirgluIsi. Devar~!m. It is also known as Ic..79. natural and artificial.-It is the name of a village (E. Dommara-Narulyala. 1934. 256). p. on the right side of which is the forepart of an elephant hewn out of the .. Here Borne rock edicts of Moka are inscribed. 13. It is in the Guntur district... p.

T.!. It is Ellora. It contains some temples. 10 is a beautiful Caitya. In these caves the Buddha is seen in the attitude of preaching or in the Dharmacakra·mudrii.iol in east Khandesh and hy Duhreuil with Eral). There is also a colossal Buddha seated on a Sihisana.-It is the name of a village (S.4 is in ruins. 529. 147). The name Ekadhira- mangala. I.lliir in the South Moot district.-It is the name of a villo. It is a district of JayailkoIJ<!.. Some have identified it with Yef. Eyil. in the Til). for another version). Eluru. III. p. The copperplates of the earliest Ra'ltrakii~a Emperor Dantidurg& were discovered at Ellora (ancient Eliipura) (E. The ca.cave. p.. known as Dumalenaa are the first excavations made at the site.ves Nos.. 108).A. 1695. The inner side of the gallery within the chapel is divided into three compartments.I.<.1. p. Eyirko~m. 123. VI.-A village in the west Godavari district in the Vengivi. Journal of Indian History. XXV. 5th ed. 123).-It is the same as Egmore.. II is two· storied. It is on the bank of the Kolleru lake in the Godavari district (S. Vol. 25lf.Saniitha temple.-It is the name of a village.). Pt.ge Bomewhere near Tirunama·na.3 is a Vihara cave contaiuing twelve cells for monks. Elumhur. P. and this cave is similar to the cave No.-It is also known as Elliira or Ilvalapura.. Ellore.ialam.Caturvedimangala.I.I. ahout 16 miles from Aurangabad. Bhi~has.-It has been identified by Fleet with Erall<.I.. The cave No. I. The cave No. 540. The walls have also many carvings of Buddhist sages. A gigantic figure of the Buddha is carved in front of the dagoba. where there is ..6 contains an ante·chamber in front of a shrine full of sculp. SOUTHBBN INDIA 151 Ekadhira·Ooturvedimailgala".I.<).. a part of Madras (S. The cave No.1. pp. Era1J4apalla. I.soJam81l<. List. cella in the walla. 1939). 133).. vide Ra'ligacMri'.. are some of the most important Buddhist caves of India. The Buddhist caves contain distinct signs of later Mahayana sect. tures.lleries full of images of the Buddha. p.-The Ellora plates of Dantidurga mention it. III. Pt. p.1<. VoL II. Elapura.ivanalJl. a village in the Til).iapali. 13 in outer appearance. full of figures. At the north end of this cave there isa prominent figure of Padmapal!i attended by two females. January. The caves at Ellore or Ellora in the north·west of the Nizam's territory.!. This village seems to have given its name to Eyirkoitam. VoL II. I. EniidapG4. The cave No. p. (S. .I.H.403). pp. 402.iivanam talnk of the South Mcot district (S. 308). XXV.!.. F. In the north·east corner there is a figure of the Buddha very rough and almost unfinished. It is famous for its Kailii.iipalli in Vizagapatam (Raichaudhuri.I. 21. There are Brahmin aod J aina caves in addition to the Buddhist caves. 29.eaya. Pt. p. Conieevaram is said to he situa.ted in it.I. large open court in front.-It is the name of a villo.I. Vol. pp.ge (S.. p. where Dantidurga built the Da8iivatara cave temple and where his success· or ~na built the Kailasa temple (E'/'.i. The carvings are very beautiful and the fa9ade is highly ornamental.2 con· tains ga. It is probably the modern name of Kamaliikarapura or Kolanu in Telugu.I. II and 13 contain an open court. talnk of the South Mcot district (Ibid. seated on a lotus in a preaching attitude. The walls are covered profusely with images of Buddha and Buddhist sages. The cave No. corresponds to Ekadhjra. I. I. In the cave No. The cave No.<. Elilr.-This district was probahly called after Eyil (fort).9 there is an image of the Buddha with various attendants.. and show signs of Mahayauism. 83).!.. a town near Chicacole in the Ganiam district.

SO).I. BMgava14 PUMfJ. Pt..-This is modern Ganganiir (Ibid. I. January. etc.gag&. G. kara'f. 57.-It is identical with KbiiijaJiya. Ga1igd. V. This was included in the Candraguttirui<. which rises in the Kallakurci taluk of the South Aroot district and flows into the Bay of Bengal under the ruined baations of Fort St. 102). DaBiiSvamedhikatirtha (MaMbh. 145) .152 HISTORICAL GEOOBA.. a division of Paguvurkottam.15. 502). refers to it in his Raghuva1Jl. Markan<. Brahma'f. 58. 514).!. Ch. Gangiip(i4i. 121). On the bauk of this river the two villagea of Tiru- va<. 77). pp.!a. 2. It is at Sholinghur in the North Arcot district (Ibid./44p. XXVII. 1947-48. v. matted locka (8. where three copperplate. Pt. pp. II.!.-It is the name of a river (Mahiibh.1. 33. which is in the Badakhimedi Estate of the Ga. XXV.kinI which descends from the sky with all the fury of its rushing waters and which is borne by the God Siva on one of hi. (BTahmap. 18Off. pp..S.-This is the name of a river (8.r in Karaivari-Andirui<. XXVI. Iff. 1937.-It is a small village in the Kistna district.1. According to the BrahmapurafJ. Pt.e. year 4). p. a village in Karaivari-AndiniiQu. 33). IV....a (Aranyakiin<.5ottamapura plates of Ram- candra mention this river which i.aya. GauJami Plaks oj Ganga IndTavarman. 85. According to the RiimayafJ. I.1. III.njam district. I. 88.-It is the name of a village near VeWr (Ibid.. 18.!.a (XllI.. Pt. V.-It is included in the modern Mysore State (8.. Ge4ilam .. 1.a. This beautiful river hM trees on both sides. I. January. XXIV. V. There is a village by the name of Gautami. PadmapuTara. Gautaml. the Gautsmi before it divides itself into the seven branches collectively known by the name of the Saptagodavari (E. 1917-18. Pt..I.!a-Gautami. Pt. 22... XXIV. Govardhanatirtha (Ibid.. 24). 97).). 133). Pt. 12.1. the Godavari (E...!eya-tirtha (Ibid.-It is in the kingdom of Avanti in South India (Avatltidakkhi7}. Annual Report.fipathe: Jataka. 4O).1.-It is the name of a hill. Vol. This river is also called Mand8.I. I. 64). 13).ingeya.li and Tirumal)ikuli are situated (E. p.. Ch. 11-18. Gangapura. 91).vid near Cuddalore in the same district (E. XXIII. Ikhasirivadhamana appears to be its ancient name (E. Ch. Five Prakrit Inscriptiona have been discovered here. Many holy places are situated on the bank of this river: Kusavartatirtha. Ch. January.1r.1.lu in Vellore taluk of North Arcot district. vs. 35--38).. Sarga 15.PBY 01' ANCIBNT INDIA Ga4a. I. II. 27). Pt. Vidarbha (Ibid. It may be identified with the Akhan<. XXIV. i. It is the same as Gangeya-nall. 83.).jMeva (E. Pt.!a. in the South Arcot district containing some ancient monuments (A.-This village is identified with the modern Sangiir situated at a distance of about eight miles south-west of Haver! on the road to Sirsi in the North Kanam district. p. XXVI. 8. 1937.y& of the Anti- rig&m pl&tes of Jayabhail. I. II. XXVII. Kalida.lu belonging to Goveyarajya (E.. p. Matsya. it was full of lotuses and not far from it antelopes freely moved about. Gha'1U18ela mountain. D". 9-10. UttarakhaJ)<. p. 26) it has its source in the Trayamvaka-tirtha. 208). 77. Gha'f.. 18). The Puru. 13 miles west of Masulipatam.. The Pancavaii forest was situated on it.a (Ch. Gha!ikacala...1./44vaB and cakraviikas sported them- selves in this river.19.. p. Gingu. Godarori. 1941).-It is another name of the Godavari river (E. Ch.I.-It i. p.naU. were discovered (E.!. Lak s - ma!)a took his bath in this river and returned to the leaf-hut taking with him many lotuses and fruits.. pp. 128)./faBiila.. I..1. Pt. p. I.-The Sendamangalam Inscription of Manava!apperumal refers to this river. V.).. VB.. 77. p. 182ff.. 8aum. vs. Bavitritirtha (Ibid. eh.. 17). 69. Swans. Ganganur.46.

85. 69. I.. the source or which can be traced to the Western Ghats.I..<).I.ru. It flows in a south. S. It raUs in three distributaries into the Bay of Bengal in the district of Godiivari forming a large delta at its mouth.) .I.li. Vol.nayaka refers to Gokarna which is a viUsge of that name in North Kanam. according to it. This vill&ge is bounded on the east by Gonguva. Ch. Guddavati. 250).). Kaveri. Gomukhagiri. 157).-It is the name of a hill with a temple dedicated to the Gomnkhagirisvara by king Annadeva (E. 133) also mention it as such. Agnipurii~a.u which is a distriQt of Damarkottam. It is not rar from the river Rev. 6. XXVII. the headquarters of a taluk of the Kistna.li is in Vellanil. The Saurapurii1'" (Ch. XXIII. Ant. 1177. VII. Pt. Goka7'll".-The Kap copperplate of Keladi Sadaaiva.1. 132).45-48. 6244ff. Vol. GOf.la (Oh. It contains a small temple of Gokamesvara which is· picturesquely situated on a bend of the river Brahmani. cf.Godavari (Oh. pp. district (Hultzsch. p. 29). Govindapa. . It is doubt· ful to identify Gontura with the modem town of Guntnr in the Kistn& district. It is the largest and the longest river in South India. This river which is considered to be one of the holiest in South India had really its source in Brahmagiri situated on the side of a village called Trayamvaka which is 20 miles from Nasik. Gudriivar& or Gudra·harnvi~aya and connected with the modem Gm)ivil.I. about 12 miles to the north of T~on~a (E.I.<). p. 33) mentions southern Gokarna which.). July. II). etc. The Malu1bluirata (85. ratha (or Bhimarathi).<). on the west by Kaluceruvulu and on the north by Ma4apalli (Ibid.-It may be identified with the village of GoUspii~i on the northern bank of the ~na river near Bezwada in the Kistna district. It is one of the ancient temples of Orissa. It is near the Kavittha forest (Jiitaka. xxm. ~navenhii.aya is perhaps identical with Gudravara. . Gokaf'll'Svara.-This is the same as Goddavac. The Riimiiya1'" (Adik. XIV.' (Saurapurii1"'. Guddavtl!ivi{laya. 109) and the Padmapurii1. 1wr)4a Grant of Ammariija. 52 and f.aya or Guddavil.pata (p.I. Gottaikela.easterly direction below the Vindhya range cutting a valley tbreugb the Eastern Ghat. 190). The Gokarna copper· plates of Kadamba Kamadeva. Govindavil. Pt.. 80UTlBBN INDIA 153 and Kitkindhyitirtha (Ibid. Vol. 12) points out that the sage Bhagiratha came to this place and engaged himself in asceticism because he was childless for a long time. III. The Kiirmapurri1'" (30. 53). V-Tii'l)i!i. Ill.n. A life·size monolithic image of the fonr·handed Visnu can be found here at the foot of a Banvan tree . It is mentioned in the Suttan. 21) refer to it as a holy place. 38). The MaluIblu1rata has a reference to Sapta. pii<. 2M). In its course through Hyderabad and Madras State it is joined by many tributaries...vil. 1936. This river is known in the Jain Literature as Goyavari (Brikatkalpa·BMrya. XXVI. Vol. were discovered at Gokama (cf. 157ff.a..1. E.-This village also known as Gotarkela is about three miles from the town of Sonepur (E. I... IV. Bhima. Saka. on the south by Gonayiiru. p. GoUapu1J4i.24-27) and the Padmapurii~a (Oh.i is close to Tirumalpuram in the Arkonam talnk of the North Arcot district and is identical with Govinda.-It is the name of a village (S. GovindaOO4i and Drimal.I.visaya (Ind.. 44)..-It is a village at Deuli in the Jajpura sub·division of the Cuttack district situated two miles west of the police station of Dharamllala. p.<).Ii of the inscription at Tirumalpnram (S. I.-Two villages in the Conjeevaram talnk of the Chingleput district. 42 sarga v. It issued from the Sabya mountains along with the Twigabhadrii. 43).vil. p.!!u. 69. Ill. Pt. V. is situated on the river Sindhu (Indus).. I). Pt.i..I.

-It has been identified with Guguru near Masuli- patam as well as with Gu(livii(la. temples and other structures (E. XVII.. January.ii. IV.-Ira. Gutti. II. 36.-The Gurzala Brahmi Inscription refers to this place. (E.. Ch.. IW1llJoykklUji.. XXVI.. The term •Guc. Ancient India a8 de8cribed I>y Ptolemy. (S. etc.l(luv~&y& granted to a Brahmin inhabitant of Kalium. 51.l.-This is the country of Ec. V. Pt.saprapatana.S..-It is near Warangal in the Nizam'.-It was the ancient name of a tract of country lying on the southern bank of the ~I)ii river round Amaravati.a (Anmakol).lernva~i seems to acquire its name from the Gat:Itur taluk of the ancient township Kan(leru or the modern K&l). p.-It is the he&dquarters of a talnk in the Anantapura district. 1950. HeTWivati.l. p.-It is the name of a village_ It was the ancient capital 0 NuJambbapii(li also called Nigarili-~orapii(li which appears to have • extended into the Anantapur district (S.f. 256ff..248)..M. 65). January and April. wherein the in.. 166. Hanumko1J4. situated in the eastern division of the Parlakimedi State in the Ganjam district of the M&dras Presidency (E.. p.tur together with the south-eastern part of Sattenapalli talnk was called the Uttara-KaWeruviitivHiaya. Annual Report of tke Arcluuological Department of Nizam'.Q.I. State. Pt. 88).-It is a holy place situated to the left of the BMgirathi and north of Prati~thiina (Kurmap. It was a brakmadeya in Mu!!inii(lu (E. p.. and the district K&t).4iturain'U!u. Haduvaka.l. The latter place is situated at the apex of the Raichur Doab on the western bank of tbe Tuitgabh&drR.-It is the western Calnkyan empire. p. p.l.-It is a town near Masulipatam.I_I.i or Kar_l(. 1M HI8TOBIOAL GBOORAl'BY OlP ANCDmT INDIA Gu4w-Xa'l4eruvd#. p.ugownu. Its revenue lakhs (Ibid. I. It is Koddoura of Ptolemy (McCrindie.. Majumdar Ed.<. XXIII. Pfirvabhiiga. XXV. a village in Guntur district. IramarukUam. The central portion of GUl).Ila' means • of the temples'. According to others it seems to be identical with AlampGr in the Nizam's dominions. XXVI. 190). country anrl Sire 300 in the south (Q. To the south of this place stands a hillock on the top of which a small temple of P&dmaksi was built (E. was called Mummudisoramandalam after the well-kno~ 'suniame Mummu(lico!a of Riijaraja. the he&dquarters of a taluk in the Mais. which is evidently the same as Sudava. 68). Gu~q. I. April.. Hagari. which was noted for its beautiful temples and caityas of AmaraV&t~vara and the Buddha. 96).-It is the ancient name of Amba. XII. XXV. II.J.r district (Ibid.I. Dominions. Ira![a-p<i4i.) Gudraviirav4aya. 22). the he&dquarters of the t&luk of the same name in the Kistna district (E.-samudraxp.A. No. pp. 1939). Vol..-It is a village.-It is a village in the VeitginaJ..!.(IeruviilivHiaya was the name for the northern portion of GUl)lur and eastern portion of Sattenapalli talnk.cription of ProIa woo discovered. lUff. Harp. Halampura. ·Vol.!. 45). a little distance before its junction with the Kf')l). GUdru. IX.Iatore.. 425).I.. 1941. . 2.. Pt. which must have been a very important place in former times. 10.). Li8t). country and the Na!avii(li in the north and the Kadamba. known as Gooty (E. Iq.).I. Gu(lI&-KaI). According to some it may be identified with Alluru in the Nandigama taluk of the Kistna district.-This river formed the cemmon boundary of the Kadamba.eravii. amounts to 7. I. It was inv&ded by the Co!a king mentioned in 1365 of Tanjore insCriptions (vide Rai£gicMri'. It abounds in anti- quities. Pt. p. 108.teru. p. 63). where a number of plates was found (I.la). 1926-27).

.I. Four colossal images which are the notable objects of anti· quarian interest have been discovered here. 24). I. It may be identi· fied with the present Jeypore contiguous to the Ganjam district in Orissa (E. Jeypore. Camul). 212)..B. Siva stands in the middle with Brahm. 1937. The magnificent images of the mothers and the allied deities.. No. Jajpur was the capital of Orissa at the time of Hiuen Tsang..neaa.Q.. 44.-The Cuttack Museum plates of Madhavavarman refer to it. The colossal image of Varahi at Jajpur has lost both the right fore.H. which knows only seven mother-goddesses. No. IMI oj Antiquiliea. Chanda. pp. XX.ling.-This city W88 captured by the Co<. vide R.a. It contains a temple having the image of Sati under the name of Biraj. Chanda the makers of the images of the mothers and of the allied gods and goddesses found at Jajpur foIlowed the Devi·miihiitmya.-It is Srirailg"l!' according to some (of.-It is a hill near Siddiipura in the Mo!akalmuru tsluk of the Chitaldroog district in Mysore State (E. Ja!inga.I. is carved on the base. as rightly pointed out by WaddeIl and R.-This may be identified with JaganniithapuraI!' whICh is the portion ofthe town of Cocanada lying south ofthe river (S.I.Bamdvara.-It is in the Vizagapatsm district of the newly formed Andhra State (E. and both of her left arms are mutilated. It was a sacred spot as early as the 2nd or 3rd century A.I. Pt./...Ia King Annadeva (E. II.3). This place is called Birajikiletra in the Maliiibharaia.. HI) . . Jayan~fama~if. aIso known as Birajiik~etra on the Vaitsra¢ in the Cuttsck district. Devipura~a Ch. Sivadiiti and Ga. It may have been the ancient name of Siddapura in the Clutsldroog district of the My80re State (Mob's M.80. January. IV.I. It is two miles away to the north of Trichinopoly.rfI. SOUTHERN INDIA 155 bila.<)ala mentioned in the Dharakota plate of SUbhakaradeva. October. Pt. P. e. Chanda. I.-The Kiilibhanii copperplate inscriptions of kiug Mahibhavagupts I Janamejaya mention it.D. seat of government in the Deccan ruled over by .D. IV. M. Jambugriima. Jaggav&. For further details.I. As pointed out by R. Jayapuravi{!aya. I)..a/o. The other three are the images of VaraW. P. is a place of historical importance.. I. P.arms..4. E. The early mediaeval stone· temples of Jajpur are not of much architectural importance. JamhukeAvara. Jaganniithanagan. which is the same as Jay'akataka~aya of KoilgodamaJ). It oontsins a temple having the water. This temple cannot be of an earlier date than the 14th century A. Her vehicle. are the best specimens of the early mediaeval Buddhist sculptures. those of Camu1)<). Jdjpur.-It is an old site in the Jajpur district of Orissa. 79.. buffalo. p.. V.l. 151). XXVI. I. pp. The deity is so called because it remains in water. Exp/bralion in Orissa.S.E. p. All the old temples of Jajpur are said to have been destroyed by Mahom· medan invaders. It may be recognized as an old centre of the cult of Biraja or Durga.' and V~I)U to the right and left respectively. She is seated in easy posture on a throne. Sewell.g. Jiijpur. 51-00. in height.' and Indral)i are very badly mutilated.' or the passionless one. .. found at Jiijpur.A. mahamiilra.<)a and Indra¢. Vol.-1t is the Co!a country (S. XXV. One of them is an image of the Bodhisattva Padmapa~ of decomposed Khondalite of the later Gupta period. 102.. 1940). 123). p. Of these images.I.. Pt. which may be the same as the modern Jamgion near Kalibhana (/. 16 ft. 102). XXIV.-It W88 .I.. No..

u.-In the Narasitigapalli plates of Haativarman and the SilntBbommiili plates of Indravarman. KwJ.!. 191). p. therefore.'varman Kula- aekhara I refer to it. XXVI.. loll. 123. pp... VI...!. XXIII. XXV.-It is now the headquarters of the tsluk of Ramnad Zemindary in the Madura district (S.U. was the place best known to the people of the Tamil conntry and. p..-The Tiruppiivana. Surada the headquarters of . 174ff.. XXV. record an embassy from Ka<. XXV.iilralJl.!. p. XXVI.ava (Ganga year 192). Pt.I.a (Saka salpvat 735) were discovered (E. I. Vol. p. Pt.-It is the name of a village (S. IV.\ara.\a taluk of the Kistna. Kaeciperf.). April. 83). Pt.!. III.. represents Jur&4a (E.I.. Vol. It was divided into two parts. p. I. p. 113.PHY OJ' ANCIEN'!' INDIA Jijjihl. 1935.aikIroI!ur.-This village is the same as the modem village of Jirjitigi in the Tekkali Zamindari of the Ganjalp district where some plates of Ganga Indravarman were found out (E. Antiquary. 187). Randle is right in pointing out that the tribnte on the pratipad days in the shape of a . 310). pp.. Kalinganagara. year 308 (E. III. north and south (E.-It is in the Tumkur district of the Mysore Ststs.1. II.D. 343. 98). Ka4aliiif. The India Office plate of La~ma1)asena refers to Kaliilga (E.P.. Patafijali mentions it in his Mahdb~ya (3. 139.-This is the name of a conntry (E. Tamil inscriptions refer to the conquest of Ka<. 17.. pp. I. Fleet has identified it with KaliilgapatsI]l (Ind. 106)..ga. 140). 267-71). plates of Ja~.. According to some. KaJavalinaif. 34). II.156 HISTORICAL OEOGBA. wbich may be identified with modern Kaluvapii<.!. 332ff. XV. Pt.u. JurtU/ii.-It is the name of a village (Ibid.. Ari~ia­ nemi acarya belonged to it. etc. KaJanjiyam.ara1fl (or Ki<. 117.) and the Indian Museum plates of Ganga Devendravarman. XIV.-The Koduru grant of Ana-votB-reddi (Saka 1280) refers to it. Ka¢abhra. p. 1940... II). I.!" being the first port of call for ships from India to Further India and China..-It is in the North Arcot district (E...iilra'!'). a village in the Kodola tBlnk of the Ganjam district. 132) as a kingdom. where copperplates of PrabhiitBvar. It is also mentioned in the Trilinga Inscription of Devendravarman. It is situated five miles from the right bank of the North Pennar on a small tributary of that river (Ptolemy'. January. 105).. Ancient India.I.\i in the Gnc)i- vil<. III. Ka4aba. Pt.. II. I.-It is the name of a country (S. II. XXIII.H. January. The smaller Leyden copperplates dated 1090 A. Pt. p.. son of GnniiI1)...!. 18). KwJ. district (E.ficipuram. V. p. Pt. Vol. 76).I. near Chicacole (E.I.I..\aralp. 20 miles from Parlakimedi in the Ganjam district (E. p.!.I. p.2.S. 281 and 286).I.. Pt. April. IV.apa.. p. XXIV. 1940) which also occurs in the Tekkali plates of AnantBvarman Qfthe Gan!!a year 358 (E. Kaliilga occurs in Piil)ini's AWidhyiiyi (IV.-It may be identical with J..2. II. p. tBluk of the same name in the Ganjam district. XXV. 356). 186). court at AyiraHali (E. Kaeci. 8.-This is modem Conjeevaram (S. 114.!. 170). 35.. It was a well-known country on the eastern coast of India lying between the MaMnadi and the Godavari (J.. to the Cola. Kalinga. Kaliilganagara has been identified with modem Kaliilgapatsm at the mouth of the Vam'adhara river or Mukhaliilgarp. I. 206).!. Pt.1. Vol. 1937. KaJavapu'1'di.I. Mukha- litigalp is a place of pilgrimage.). 267). Majumdar Ed. XXII. KruJ.-Ptolemy calls it Kange.I.I.I. etc.1. XVI.i. pp. modem Conjeevaram (S.-It is Kii. III. Ka<.

5ma. wbich existed near the river Languliyii.... Ill.taka bill of Kaliilg. Pt. country lies be- tween the Godavari and Mahii. The Hii.. n.. Geography 0/ Early Buddhism. 64 f. MaMbharata. XV. 23. The KaIiilga.I . etc.m district (E.I .thigumpha Inscription King Khara.. He also compelled king Babasatimita of Magadha to acknowledge bis . ) or Samiipa (Law.ure to be brought to bear upon the citizens of Riijagrha. and ga. XXVI.. Vol. 63) also refer to KaliDganagara which has been variously located at modern Kaliilgapatam or at Mukhaliilg.I.I. 65. Kharavela M King and Buikkr publillhed in the Journal o/the Indian Society 0/ Oriemal Art. II..la. pp. It was brought into the heart of tbis capital by its further extension from the Tanaauliya road.ja temple (B. p.rmy in the Barahar billa. It appeara from the location of the new royal palace that the capital waa situated on the ha. 272-273..e .N. 187).. 29. included Pithu<. According to the Hiitbi- gumphii.. Geography 0/ Early Buddhism.. X. and had its own rulers from the earliest times. pp.• pp. A.maged gardens.ted in the Ganj . and caused a heavy pres.nk of .4). It also included the Amaraka.ci. M. p.I. 1 He stormed a stronghold of the Magadhan a.nadi rivera (Hultzsch.yati refers to Kaliilga.• F. Olel Bnihmi In6Cripti0n8. copperplate Kiimarupa is located in ancient Kaliilga. King Khiiravela has been described in bis own Inscription aa KaliilgtUhipati.~m_na while be wa.• XXVI. The capital of Kaliilga w.laga or Pithw.s and Riithikas (i.". south warde within five or six miles east from the Li. refers to Jale§vara which is a tirlha in the Amaraka. S. The Mal8yap.. B . The Bhaga- vata PUra1]B refera to it and to its people (IX.n. vide Law. Kaliilga formed a geographical unit by itself. I. 4). Pithu<. 95.. I.). CXIV. Pt.hitri also mentions it (XIV. Many other Kalinga capitals exi.. to Lak.vela is said to have defeated the Bhojaka. wbich flows on the northern part of the Purl district . B4. Barna.linga. and as Kali'liga- caklcavalti in the Inscription of bis chief queen. in Kbaravela's time.. 63-64)..tbigumphii Inscrip- tion clearly shows that Kaliilganagara waa the capital of Kaliilga during Khii. 19.. Utkala and Kosala ruled by La\r.uzerainty. Vanaparva. the earlier capital of Magadha. Inscription king Kharavela brought back to biB realm the throne of Jina from Ailga-Magadha. Khiiravela repaired the buildings. walls. raised the embankments of the lsitSla tank.n .ravel. and restored aJI the da. The river Prii.I . p. According to the Hii.1. It haa been satisfactorily identified with MukhaIiilgal!' on the VaqIBadhara and the adjacent ruins in the Ganjam district. 187. for further details.a.. •• reign.. It had its connection with a river near it by a canal opened up three hnndred yeara back by a king named Nanda.s Dantapuranagara (E. Kurma-Purd1)l1.. 734-35.!aka range which is said to be in its western part (Mahdbharata.). XXXIX.. 1 Barna..tes in the city of Kalmga. pp.s young (E. SOUTHIO&N INDI4 167 gift of woman was paid by the ruler of KaImga.. According to thi. The kingdom of Ka. wbich were badly damaged by the stormy wind. XIV). known as the Gorathagiri..• IV. of Gau<. 15-38. 5.i and the sea-coast southwarde as far as Vizaga- patam (cf.u:la on the sea-coast. stream known by the name of Prii. 10096-10107.howing many temple. The ancient Kaliilga country seems to have comprised modern Orisaa to the south of the Vaitanu. Kbibi- ra was really the capital of Kalinga. (I86.Sivaguptay. in ruins on its both banks. p. The Sonepur grant of Mahii. Two eastern Ganga copperplate grants from Sudava (E. 8). Cunningham. 63. 52).. 37) and the Brhat-Ba".ci flow.laka.3-52). 61.ilgarii. .• the Bhojas and Riilitrikas of Moka's inscriptions) in the 4th year of bis reign and to Mve compelled them to do him homage.. KOilgoda. The Kaliilga Edict I tella us tbat a Kumiira was in charge of KaliDga with biB headquartera at T088li (Tosal.

XXVI. It contained extensive forests. etc. and the Begumra plate.). p. tion of Ratnadeva III. IX. 159). it was 5.H. vide lmiian Culture.I.!.. pp.s mentioned in the diff· erent KaliDga iDBcriptions of various dates. According to a South Indian Inscription dated 1135 A.5.10). According to the MaMvastu (Vol. pp. p.). Devendravarman (E.la. 1898.I. In the Alliole InscriptioDB of the seventh century A.Ixa. The Kharod Inscrip- tion further says that Kaliilgaraja became the Lord of Tummiil...s regularly cultivated and it produced abnndant flowers and fruits.stivarman (E.A. It informs us that when Lakl. Gauga and other ccuntries (J. II.D. l. 181. in the Ganjam district. XXI. Govinda III came to the bauk of the Narmada and conquered Kalliiga and other countries including Malava. karI.ga along with thoBe of Kafici. VIII..!. The ruler of KaliiJ. According to the Kharod Inscrip. p. which formed part of a province called Devara.!.S. The people were vehement and impetuous. Malava.. According to the Amoda plates. XIV.. Iff.000 Ii in circuit. 297-Manna Plates of Slamblw). 1927. 75).!.. according to the Ellora Inscription. IS).A:. the lord of KaIiilga was the youngest son of KokalJa (E.adeva or 8OOal'l!a is described in a Nepalese in.I. Il). According to some Kalingaraja came to be regarded a. Buddhist Records o/the Western World. VI. pp. Kaliilgariija churned the king of Utkala and contributed prosperity to the treasury of Gange. In the fifth century A. 384. XXIII.. 267ff. XXVI. who is described as Kalmgadhi· pati or the lord of KaIiilga (Sewell.. who were the lords of Kalillga. of Indr" III (E.. Pt. p..I. Ran. refer to the victorious residence of8vetaka (E.R.).D.D. Another reference to KaliiJ. it existed ages before the Buddha . KoSaI.. There were some saitgMriimas and tkva Iflmple8 (Beal. 24fT. 4ff. XXIII.!. deva (E.mlkama gave full play to his heroism. XXIV.I.ga is found in the Bheraghat Inscription of Alhal. Dantapura was the capital of the KaIiilga kingdom. For a list of ancient districts of KaliDga country a. 261. 276). It wa.'"a. p.s the son and not merely a descendant of KokaHa. Indravarman (E. 67). 63). p.137. La)a.s and took the fortress of P~apura (E. Va.Q.ga (E. XII. a Ganga king of Kaliilga was defeated by Durjaya Manga II (E.!.la. and. XXVI. According to him. It was thickly popu. mostly rough and uncivilized.. KOSala. Vengi. Pu\akesin II claims to have subdued the KaliDga.la of the Kalacuri dynasty.ganagara. 195). ill.I. H isWrkal bUicriptiana 0/ Southern lmiia. who described themselves as lords of KaliDga issued their grants from the victorious camp at KaliiJ. viliaya (E. XXIII. XIX. the grandson of the famous Lakl. To this dynasty Umiivarman and Visilkhavarman. p.ilga tremhled with KaliiJ. VI. was defeated by Dantidurga.I. Most of the early Ganga.. Kaliilga was visited by Hiuen Tsang in the 7th century A. Tailka. A copperplate grant of eastern Calukya king Bhima I mentions a village in Elamafici·Kalillgadesa. p. lated.. of Kalillga like Ha. which has been identified by some with Tumana in the Bilaspur district (I. 167). :Qahala and ograka (E. scription to have been the king of KaliDga.trn. O.D. 209. like Jayavarmadeva and Indravarman.. (E.).158 HISTORICAL GBOGBArHY OF ANCIENT INOlA. the queen of Gaya·karl.mj.. II. probahly belonged. 841).ladevi. . To about the same date as that of the Komani grant may be ascribed the inscription of a certain KaliDgildhipati VaSilithiputra Saktivarman of the Ma! hara family who granted from Pilitapura (Pithapuram) the village of Riikaluva in Kalillga. 361). the well·known Komarti grant introduces U8 to a Sri Maharaja named Candravarman. The plates of the early Ganga kings of Kaliilga. which has been identified with elka!i. XXV. The climate was hot.. LUI.. pp. 23. 65). V.

.. A Brahmin came from the Andhra capital.-It is in the Cuddappah district where an inscription of Indr. 311)..-It is the name of . 79) belonging to Panga. 287).-This ancient village is situated in the Repalle taluk of the Guntur district (LA " XII. I. 39611'. Francis. Kaluceruvulu. The kingdom of Vijayanagara was also called Karrul(a (Imperial Gazett~er. 591). a division of Pa<:Juvur·Kottam in Jayankow. p.-It is situated in the Giriga<:Ja village of the Karvan- nii<:Jga district (E. a portion of the Carnatic between Riimniid and SeriDga- patam.. VI.port at the mouth of the Godavari. XXVI. the capital of Calingoe. Madras District Gazetteera. XIII. I.A.I. XLVII.-This is modern Kampli. For further details.-It is the name of a village (S. According to him Kafuiga was extended up to the Godavari:. village (8. Vol.-A village (8'!'!.. p. Kalingara~ya.-This forest which finds mention in the Milindapanha (po 130) lay between the Godavari: river on the south·west and the Gaoliya branch of the Indriivati river on the north-west (G. XV.. ill was discovered.).).. XVI. Kanakavalli.1.I. discovered (E. KaUuru. pp. I).1.. vide S. 167.. 117.!a. According to the DaAakumiiracaritatf!. 2(8). 43.I.. Kamalap5~a.I. KamaZipuram. Kalyat a. 367). pp.ta country (S..A. KanruJa (or Kanna(la). 735). p. lanii<..I..I. II. shows that the original form was Dantakura and not Dantapura (G. between the Mahiinadi and the Godavari (Ancient India.1. IV). 112) on the northern bank of the Kaveri: in the Trichinopoly district.. mentioned by Pliny. by W. Ch. 1883). I (1941). Mantragupta came to Kafuiga. SOUTHERN INDIA 159 (Jal. It is also called KuntaladeBa. A chieftain of this name occurs in the inscriptions.I. According to the Kaupliya ArthaM8tra (po 50). 54).-It is the name of a village (Ibid.!alam. .R. (3).. grant records the donation ofa village to a Buddhist monas- tery at Kiimpailya (E.. p. 'the crest·Jewel of the Andhra country' (E.I.-This is K~ii. Vol.. p. 14511'.. Vol. Udyogaparva. Aiyangar's Ancient India and Bouth Indian Hi&/ory and GuU.-This city was founded by the COI.r. I. 270). Probably it was the Dantapur& where the Kafuigas were destroyed by Krel)& (Maki1bluiraia. 194.G.lu. At a little distsnce from this city he sat on the slope of a hill in a wild forest adjoining a cemetery.Co!amall<. p. Kampili.!. p.168).. 83). a town on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra in the Hospet taluk of the Bellary district (S.-It is the modern Gulbargil in the Hyderabad State (E. I... (82). Bellary. Dandagula or Dandagu<.-It is in Piilghat.I.A. p. p. pp.B.I.G. where a stone inscription w. XIII. the elephants of Kalinga and Anga were excellent. VI. Vol. 116). It will not be safe to identify this KampaiJya with KampiJya..la. the king of Kafuiga and the father of Kanakalekhii (Ibid. KO!lt!ariidityam.. The daugbter of the king of Kafuiga named Kanakalekhii was sent for (pp.... According to Rapson. Kalpatti. for lack of proper evidence.. 157). 172). Kalidiisa styles the king of Kafuiga as the' Lord of the Mahendra' (ROfJhu- fXJrpAa. 78.1.-It w. who told a story about Kardana... IV. it w. pp. Dantivarman'. the capital of Southern Paiiciila. which became famous as Kamapuri.. p. The Mysore State was also called KarI)a\aka (J. III.!a king Kiimaraja.. Kalubariga. K. Kalingapa!{aMtf!. 0/ India.. 1912.. a flourishing . Pt. Kamakapalli. 282ff. II.

. V)..I. 274ff.. 1942. p. Here an inscription of Kulottung&co!a I has been discovered (E. KaNJ.<.lii situated about 16 miles north of Komal).<. p.i.se speaking people.. K . XXV. According to some it is situated a few miles north· east of GUI)!'ur near the main road leading to Bezwada (E... Kanya. Karaiijatju.I. IV. I. Karava1l4apuTa1]l-This is the same as the villsge now known as UkkirankoHai in KaJakku<)i-nii.iacoja- puram.. XXVI.. p.lu in the Tinnevelly taluk.I~ur Wuk. I. Kara~ipilcka'1'. ISO). 78.<.' BLiBt..-It is Kal)<.. It comprised apparently the whole of GUl)tur taluk. XXIII. VII. XVIII.l.lu (vide Ra1igichiiri.J. XXIV. p.iyas. Here the inscription of VIm Rajendradeva was discovered (EL. III. It is also called Gailgaikol)<.raivari-a"tji. Pt.ian Tirumalai in the Nandipanmamangalam on the soutbern bauk of the Kaven (S.ia (E. p. It is in RajasrayacaturvedimangalalJl in Pandikulasa1)1vaJani###BOT_TEXT###lt;. 113)..i!a country.-It may be identified with Kalakattiir near Palamaner in the Chitto~~ district (E:I. 83). Arikeaari and Rajasi1)1ha (E. which give evidence to its former greatness.ala). K .). the eastern portion of Sattenapalli and the northern parts of Tenali Wuk. Karamadai. p. I. Pt.ieruvii\-ivi$aya (E.. 129). (8JJ.M<!u. 77.lJ. 284). The kings of Kar(l3~a were nOminally dependent on the kings of Vijaya.ieruviiti~ya district (Ibid. Karku. Pt.li and Vellore (B.I..-The Kantern plates of SBlankayana Vijayaskandavarrnan refer to this village in the Ga. The temple of the Goddess Kanyiikumiiri is . 21). p. Pt.nagara.. p.-It is also spelt as KajanipiikalJl.-It is the same as Kanyiikumiiri. 82. 6. near Virificipura". Pt.<. XVIII.ltur together with the south·eastern part of Sattenapalli taluk waa called Uttara Kal)<.-It is the name of a village which is situated in the Ar(li Jiigir about half way between ArI. 38.-This town is on the railway line between Coimbatore and Mettupalayam. Kanttru.I. 173). Kark'ittur.ieruva!ivi$aya seems to have been subdivided into three or four small districts. . 136). XXIII.la (V. 42).n..-This country (S. It was of great strategic importance in the time of the early Piil)<.~ur district (E. Vol. VI. 231).. Vestiges of a fort and a moat are even now visible. 69-70.itoated on the very brink of the Indian Ocean. I..ia or with Kara<. I. I. There are two Siva temples called ArikeSarisvaralJl and Raja- singisvarnlJl. E.!. January. III.l. It is a village situated in Vellore taluk in North Arcot district. 22 f. pp.-It is the name of a district (BI.l.). in the vicinity of the village named after the Piil).-This is the ancient name of Uyyakkot)<.160 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA. pp...-It i. pp. It is also mentioned in the Bloiigavata PUffl>. XXII. Kal)<.-This village may be identical with Komal).I. pp. It was known to the Greek writers as Kornaria Akron or Cape Komana. 7). The central portion of GUI... IAot). p..1. V. the Tamil name of Cape Comorin (S.. U). Ga!J.I. KalllUlmmigala1!'. 56). 160. I. It has been described as a vast country (dharama1Yf. 130. . An order was issued to its inhabitaots by the Ciilukya Bhirna II (vide 98 of Kistna district in Ra1igMMri'. 1952).iya kings. Ka7J4erullli4i. April. the name of a river which flowed in ancient times near Cape Cornorin (Vailiir Inscription of Kopperunjiilgadeva. 1939. p. It is occupied by the Kanar. It is a very ancient place of great reputation. 164) figures prominently in Tamil classic.. ahout 17 miles from Coimbatore containing the Sri- rangaoiitha Perumal Temple..l./i. XXIII. Pt.I.

Vol.1.1. 79.-The Kalibhana Copperplate Inscriptions of king Mahii.. XXV.1. pp.-It is stated to be a division of PaI)!. XXXVII.a (X.305.!u (E. etc. Vol. XXVI. II. Karur or Karu... 2).1.. II.la Inscription of Santivarman also refers to Kancl. N.'8 Liat). Pt. had in it the ancient district of KiiI)anii.. Kti.-It is the name of a village in the Coimbatore district. Karora means the black town (McCrindie. p. lying about nine miles to the north·east of Bolangir. 106 f. III. The Skandapura1)a (Ch.- bharagnpta I Janamejaya (1. Hultzsch.1.-It is in the North Arcot district.-It is the name of a district (8. Maklibklil!1Ja. 318).1.. pp. January. Keralaputra. p.1. p. VII. Karu. 117.!alam. which is the southernmost part of the Pudnkoltai State. It is also the name of a town in the same district (8. 17) also mentions it. Accord· ing to Ptolemy. Vol. 116.H.n. Ka!idurga. Kaoopper. XXV. p. Pt. I. It is a town in the present Trichy district prominently mentioned in Tamil classics.I. I). 1939). XXVI.ur. April. The BM{Javatapura1J.n!i4u.lu.limaI)<.. Kaurala.11.. 153). This city was founded by the <Jo9a king Annadeva in the Andhra country.. II. KalahCl8ti. a place of pilgrimage on the river SuvarI)amukhari (E. 2nd ed. Ch. 260.-It stands on the bank of the Gautami (another name of the Godavari)..ur . Patanjali mentions it in hi.M. II. the II . It is known as Kruiclpe<.-It has been identified by some with Colair lake and accord- ing to others with Sonpur district of C. It was contignous to Kera!asmgava!ana<. Kiinclpnra mentioned in the Aihole Inscription was conquered by Pulskesin. p. the crest. 33.. I.-A branch of the Kaveri. 62).. It is the Coleroon surrounding SriraJigalJl (Padmapurana. 250. 149). 182). Ancient India CI8 de8cribed by Ptolemy. It is Conjeevaram. 19-23) mentions it among other plaoes as holy. For this purpose he went to the Siri country on the right bank of the river Kaveri (DaSakumaracarita'!'. SOUTHERN INDIA 161 KaN). Kanclpura (Kancl or Kanclpura) :-Vide Conjeevaram.-It is a village of the Coimbatore district (8.karaparti (Kiiqlkarapartti).D.1.. which perhaps became the capitsl of his principality (Ibid. 99.P. p. a town (S. Majumdar Ed.!a country there existed a city called Kancl where lived a rich merchant's son named Saktikumiira who was anxious to find out a virtuous wife. The Yoginitantra (1. The Tamil form of this name is Ka!!ikottai. 14) refers to it as a city.. I).n. 368). Pt.I. the chief town of the Patna State in the Sambalpnr district.-This is modem Calicut. 31). E. Vol.. i. Pt.lu (vide 236 of Rail{liiihii. 1941).. .-It is the name of a village in the PiiI)gya country (8. note 2. The TalagnIJ<. Z. Ptolemy calls it Karur the capital of the prince of Keraia (Burnell. It may be identified with the modern village of Kakaraparru on the west bank of the Godavari. Klilibhana. and Korii.G.ika.lu.e. It is famous for its temple. Pt.1. Ka1!a. South Indian Paleography. p.. I. f. XX.11. January. 288.<. 8. It is at present included in the Tannku talnk of the West Godavari district (E. I. 298.<..-It is also known as KalyiiI)a. p.jewel of the Andhra country (E.-It was an im· portant place of pilgrimage from very early times. In the Dravi<.). II.I.la in South India. Kaliyurkoffam..Q. Its subdivision was Erikalna<. S. It is also called Vanji which was the old capital of the Chera kingdom. Kamapuri. Karonra was the capital of Kerobothros. p. p.. 364- 72). I. 126.1.3) mention this village. No.. XXVI. 1941). I. The western part of Tirumeyyam taluk. Kanclpura finds mention in the Mayidavoln Copperplate Inscription of Sivaskandavarman (of. pp.

pp. As soon as it was invaded by Govinda. 21.I. 113.I. p. 29. as far as we can learn from the British Museum plates of Govinda ill (I. de8eribed by Ptolemy. was KancL Accordillg to Ptolemy. Katluttumbur. 145. Vol. Besides there are numerous small temples both Saiva and Vi.I. 77. Ancien! India and South Indian History and Culture. This means that a Pallava king rnled over the country along the banks of the Kaveri river (S. Amoien! India a. contains the temple of KailMaDathaovii. 146. a division of Pa<. 323). n..n...A.jJllu Kiiiic! form the western and eastern parts of the city.I. 133. 116. p. the then rnler of Kanc! was defeated some time before S03 A. district of the Madras State where a copperplate was discovered (Ep. 29).min built in the Pallava style of the 6th century architecture. p.. village close to the Vellore station of the Madras State (E. 43 miles south. capital of Driivi<. p.-It is the name of a village. It was one of the notable centres of Buddhist learning. ln8cripti01l8.I. XLI.jJnu (Hnltzsch.I. cC.-It is the name of a village in the Gu<:liyiittal!l talnk of the North Areot district (E.l. Amoient India tUJ de8cl'ibed by Ptolemy. KMic! was attacked by the ~trakiita king Govinda and his father. It is the French settlement in the Tanjore district (Hnltzsch. VII. Kawfalur. Ch. afterwards called TOIl<..!. S. K iiruvagrama. pp. Riijariija I is said to have destroyed the ships here. 185·86) refers to the kingdom of Malanga.t!upp14i. It is called 'the beloved of the Pallavas'. Vol. XXVII. 185).-This villa.). bhfimi. p. Siva KM. 125. 78· 79}. It is in the Saidpet taluk. I. 1935. IX). This city is said to have been founded by Knlottunga Co!a on the site of a forest.Aa. Kaveri (or Kiiviri). October.west of Madras (cf.<. 95.iala. MaMhMrata. Kap. An inscription from the Ukkala VisI:1n temple in the North Areot district mentions the king Kannaradevavallabha as the Oonqueror of Kanel and Tanjore (E. called Kurumbhar. UB . Pt. It was in Pailgalanii. Aiyangar. ity is the Cakra placed in front of the deity.I.-It is the name of a village. 520ff. pp. I. IV.l. Triehinopoly. and falls into the Bay of Benga.-It is . 129. XI. CC. Malanga was the capital of Arouarnoi (Arvarnoi) (McCrindle... called Tirupparutti·!runram. p. In this temple the only peculiar. K-. 140.". 147).&a (Ki~kindhyakiiru.162 HISTORIOAL GBOGBAl'lIY OJ' ANOIKNT INDIA.I. The Siddhaliilgamad""!l Inscription from Sonth Aroot district. It is really in the Vellore Wnk of the North Arcot district. Kaiicipura. SO).I. I. XXIII. E. 25. 141. XX.iB or Co!a on the river PBJar. IV. There is also Jaina Kaiic!.l on the right bank of the Kr~I:1a (E. Ind. 118. Of all the temples at Conjeevaram the Kamiik$! temple is the most important.. pp. XXVI.luviirkottam {E. 126). f. 139. S. Pt. I.<. It may be identified with Cidambaram (S. There is another temple by the name of RiijasirJlhavarmeSvara temple. 375). pp. 19.ge is in the South Kanar..la. K. as old as the fifth year of K.!. refers to the conquest of Kaiici and Tanjai or Tanjore (Madras Epigraphical OoUedion Jor 1909. ruled by Bassaronaga. I. 3). The geographer Ptolemy (McCrindle. p... Bhi. according to some. It was one of the capitals of the ancient Co!as and the capital of the later Pallavas (vide S. 63-65.. 140).-This is a sea·port town. KaraikMI (Karikal).ln.lmaparva.-It is the name of a river whieh starting from Coorg pa&aes through the districts of Coimbatore. 2. 1941. I. 120..-It is either Koregaon or Karva about six and four miles respectively from Karii. No. 3. Hariva. 147)..1. I.D. 123. 82). p. 1416-22.c! and Vi.iamal)<. This river is mentioned in the Ramayar. 295).<lla's reign. Kavanur (Kiivanniir).I. which. I. Chingleput district.

wa (IV.) Kerala country.l'" and Epics mention this river as very holy. It must he Kaverip- pnmpat\inam. R. XI..labhara: 'How could I standing in a temple on earth view the great power of the Co!as or the river Kaveri l' (Hultzsch. Vanaparva. IX. into the Bay of Bengal in the district of Tanjore in the Madras State.. and faU. Keralaputra (variant Ketalaputo). S. p. 35-38). VII.92. 45).!. p. 34). C. in the Western Ghats and flows south-e. 8Ol1TInBN INDIA 163 MaMbMraJa..t through Mysore. Bh~maparva. 328.!a of Dan<.. 158. flowed down into the sea through the southern portion of the ancient kingdom of Co!a. The glory of the Kaveri forms an inexhaustible theme of early Tamil poetry. She w. For further details.) and in the Yoginitantra (2/6.1. 178ff. 19.. According to the Ktililclipurtina (Oh... cf. 19. It w. 13) as well 88 in Kalidii&a'. 86. conquered by Rajendra-Coda. 466).. IV. Keralaputra was situated at the south of KUpiika (or Satya). Uttara· khang . 51. 5 etc.).-It is the headquarters of the Kendriipiirii snbdivision of the Cuttack district. noted for pearl-fishery.-It is the Kemla country in South India. p. 18. pp.lin refers to the lands on the bank of the Kaveri (III. Kerakera. The Ketala country (8. I. R. 13). 4th ahJ. The principal Co!a port was at Kiiveri-pat!anam or Pugiir on the nortbern bank of the Kaveri.94) is the same as Cera. 5. 13. rerers to it (X. Kiivirippiimhal!ana". The Bhiigavata Puriif. its origin in the Mahakiila lake. In ancient times.. XXV. vs. 1. this river. Cochin and Travancore.. 23-4) this noble stream was released by the sage Agastya from his waterpot at the request of the king Kanta and for the exaltation of the' children of the sun'. II. (E. Cera)am means mountain range.90. a famous river in South India. was situated on the southern bank of this river.. situated about 12 miles to the south-south-east of Khicing. vide B. the ancient capital of Co!a. Hara asked GUJ. 79. Padmapuriina. 51. A.. It i. Pt. Law. Patanjali in his MahiibM. The yearly freshes in the Kaveri formed the occasion of a carnival in which the whole nation took part from the king down to the meanest peasant.. 31)..a (IV.I. which is said to have its source in the Adeissthron range which may he identified with the southern portion of the Sahya.. According to the Matji- mekhalai (I. It is also mentioned in the Brhat8a".lika) mentions Kerala (or Malabar). 166). I. It is the Khaheros of Ptclemy.. 12. p. The Ciilukya King Pulakesin II crossed this river with his victorious army to enter the Co!a country when this river had her current obstructed by the causeway formed by his elephants. extending down to Kannati in Central Travancore (KarunagapalJi .. According to V. ancient sea-port capital of the Co!as. Piinini mentions it in his A~fiUhyiiyi (4.. while Uragapura.1... River.-Kersla is the Kanarese form of the Tamil Cerala. The B~avatapuriina refers to this river (V. Kerala generally means the rugged region of the Western Ghats south of the Candragiri river (EE. Smith. 13{i-135) this river h . The Tirthayiitrii sections of the PuriiJ. I. X. Pre- HisWric South India. LXXXV. 287). It is present Malabar.I. X.. Raghuva". which ris.hitii (XlV.-It is the full Tamil name of KiiveripattanaIJl at the mouth of the Kaveri river (S. In the South Indian inscrip- tions the river Kaveri is associated with the name of the Col.14. 59. 9-12.l(J. Kendriip'irii. the special banner of the race of the Co/as and she never failed them in the most protracted drought. p. 82.I. 8164. The Kiivytidar. washed away by the deluge according to Tamil c\assics (vide also V. 79. of India.-The Adipur copperplate of Narendrabhanjadeva refers to this village in Ghoshdapir in Adipur pargana.I.1.. 24. 40. pp. The country was anciently called Cera- lam or Cera!a-ni0u. Dikshitar. 175).

now Tiru·Karur on the Periyar river near Cochin.R. Its original capital was Vaiiji.lagiri and Udaya- giri were known to the authors of the Hiithigumpha Cave InscriptioIllJ as the Kumara and the Kumari hills. about 24 miles to the south-east of Bhadrak.-It is a small village. Matsyapurii'Qa (Ch.. 27). The Kha\ll. pp. 247). cf. an important town in the Cuttack district. Palaiyfir Chowghat and Vaikkari close to KottayaIJ1. Bhismaparva IX. April. Ch. which. KharJipadii.lyas and Keralas among the peoples of the D~napatha. where an image inscription of the time of Subhakara was discovered (E.lagiri hill at a distance of three miles north-west of Bhuvaneswar in the Puri district..e. Bibliotheca Indiea Series) mention the Co!as.-The Bodhi8attvrivadiina. XXVI.rer capitsl was Tiru· Vaiijikkalam near the mouth of the Periyar. In the north-west of the Khurdah subdivision stands the Khal). 1079). Law. V. Muchiri near the mouth of the Periyar. The Udayagiri has a small Vaianava hermitage at its foot. From the Co!as the hegemony of the south was wresred for a time by the Ceras.1i on the Agalappulai about five miles north of Quilandi. during the age of the PeriplU8 Cerobothra (i. while the crest of the Udayagiri is ltO ft. 1939. Subsequently during the time of Ptolemy the kingdom of Karoura was ruled hy Cerobothros (Keralaputra). According to the MaMbMraia (Sabhaparv. high.. The two hills form part of a belt of sandstone rock. 595). 1942. IV. p. II.B. 41) the Keralas were a forest tribe. I rerer to it. 1940). I. Law. 352. 193·94. put. April. C. Udayagiri. Pt. Kha~rf. 46) and Mrirlca'. skirting the base of the granite hills of Orissa. a sub-divisional town in the Balasore district and about eight miles to the north-west of Jaipur. VI. p.u. p.l'. Pt. It was wareredby the river Periyar on the bank of which stood its capitsl Vaiiji near Cochin and at its mouth there was the seaport of Muchiri (O.u. but it soon went to the Pan~yas and ultimately to the Pallavas. 413).c.Kalpalata mentions this country which was burnt by the king of Kalillga (8th Pallava. I. Vol. Bombay ed. high. which covered a very large portion of the Tirup- pattur taJuk of the Ramnad district. South of it lay the political division of Mfi~ika (J. Nilagiri and the Khan<.. XXXI.lagiri (broken hill) is the name applicable to three peaks.U!eya-pura1Ja (Ch.8. Pt.I. 595. Cochin and the Malabar district. C. but its la. In his second and thirteenth Rock Edicts ASoka mentions Ketala. putra) was included within Damirica. 365. XXV.S. being 123 ft. p. 1923. The Viiyupura'Qa (XLV. 96). 57.. The crest of the Khat)\lagiri is the highest point.-It may be identified with the modem K. Keralasinga-vaJanriq. Larer on. 58-59.!. ex- rends from Autgar and Dekkunal in a southerly direction past Khurdah and towards the Chilka lake (J. a part of the Pudukkottai Stare and it seems to have extended into the Sivaganga Zamindari (E..H. For further details. Kha~q. or Keralas as a people living on the border though outside his own realm. It has forty- . CXilI. The KongudeSa (corresponding to the Coimbatore district and the southern part of Salem district) was annexed to it. 1174-5. 124). XXX.sapuri (EJ. KeSavapuri.-The twin hills of Khal)c.A. pp.!.164 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OP ANOIBN'l' INDIA taluk). Old Series. January. Tribes in Ancient India.agiri and Udayagiri.a-rlipa. Kerala. XXV. Ch. I.. PiiJ. vide B.. IndoWgical Studies.-The Tiruppuvanam plares of Jatavarman KulaSekhar.a. 45. Pt.lagiri. It had important trading centres on the wesrem coast at TOI. The Chera or Kerala country comprised Travancore... VI. Ramdyar... Senguttavan Cera was the first notable Cera monarch. Oambridge HWmy of India.A. B. The Kerala country finds mention in the Epics and Purri1J'18.

In the KhllI)gagiri all the caves except two lie along the foot track. L.iala. The name of the village may have something to do with the Kolar or Kollem lake in the Gu<. Vol. Ki8arake/ld.Iagiri h .a.S. pp. III. I. I. XXV. Cli. In the middle of this terrace stands a Jain temple. Ki~¢eppa. p.vara. the Jaya. been discovered in the temple of Siva Ciite. The other important caves are the Ganeshgumphii. XIII.I. Among the Udayagiri caves the Ral)igumphii or the Queen's Palace is the biggest. the Biighgumphii (the Tiger cave) and the Sarpsgumphii (the Snake cave).). KOWTU. All these caves may be dated not much earlier than the middle of the first century B. Pt. the Maficapuri.-It is situated south-west of Mimj containing an ancient temple.l. p.-It is the name of a village. p. three. 177ff. K isanpura.. Cli.640). Vol. Mittra. pp. B.A ... Law.-This village was situated in the TellavoJlivisaya (E. IV.-It has been identified by Rice with the modern Kolar in the east of Mysore (E..-It may be identified with the village of Kesarakeli about six miles to the east of Bolangir in the Patna State of the Sambalpur district (EL. The crest of the Khangagiri has been levelled so as to form a terrace with stone edges. M. p_ 136).-It is the name of a lake in the Godavari district (E. B. 1950. 308. p.u. 1935.. Ki/-vemba-1I"4u.. 1898. The stone inscription discovered here traces the genealogy of the Ganga-rulers from Co!agaitga to Anaitgabhima (J. II.l. C. 204). I.l.C. XXII. 167. R.vara temple which was repaired by the Yiidava king Singhanadeva (J.S. 3 and 4. KhedTapur. .. Next again was the Anantagumpha. pp. Sir John Marshall points ant that the Hathigumphii cave which is the earliest of all these caves is a natural cavern enlarged by artificial cutting. In addition to these the Hiithigumphii or the elephant cave and the Anantagumpha are noteworthy. Cambridge Hi8tory of lMia. The main temple consists of a sanctuary and a porch.N INDIA 165 four caves. Vol.S. Rice. IllustratiaM of the Rock Cut Temples of lMia (1845).1. XXVI. HiBtory of Indian aM Eastern Architecture (1876) and Cave Temples (1880). II. XXVI. 62..I)gya country in which Tinnevelley is situated (S. (For details vide A8iatic &8earo""'.. 52. I.. Next in chronological sequence comes the RaI)ignmphii. April.. nineteen and the Nilagiri h . Vol. III. (Cambridge History of lMia. VI. 1929. 137). XIV. 450).. p. p.-It is a subdivision of the P8. This temple is about 12 miles north-east from Cuttack. The next in point of time was the Maficapuri cave which seems to have been the prototype of all the more important caves excavated on this site. I_A. My. gin Caves. In the Udayagiri the caves are divided into two groups. Two sculptures decorate the pedestal of the Koppe. Fergueson. cf. Vol. Pt.B.R. Barna. 639. An inscription on a stone slab h .la taluk (S. X).A.ore aM COOTg frOOl the lnscriptians. pp_ 10511'. 317-27). 3)_ It is a great lake in the Veitgim&I!<. Koduru. Pts. 0ris8a. the Khw. V. XXIII. I.Vijaya cave..I.-It is in the Gudiviida taluk of the Kistna district where 8 set of piates (five in number) were 'discovered (E. 59). Fergueson. LXVII. A. Old Brahmi lnsoriptions in the Udayagiri aM Khat<<J. 1941. 32)_ KoUeru. one higher and the other lower. SOUTHEII.1. Geographical E8says..l.l. Cli..livii<.. K<i-mu!lugilr. Koldulapura.iyattaI!l Wuk of the North Arcot district where three Tamil inscriptions were discovered (E. XV (1824). October..-It is a village in the Gm). Elliot reads it as Kalern.).1.-It is a village in the Padmapur pargana of the district of Cuttack. Pt.

R. where three copperplates of Candavarman of KaliDga were discovered (E. 18). A... It is famous for the Hindu temple which is one of the best specimens of Indian archi· tecture.R.Iumbiilur in the Pudukkottai State was its chief town (S. The compound of the Black Pagoda (Konarak Temple) is enclosed by a wall and the principal gateway is to the east. It con. Miidhava gained celebrity as a Saiva through the favour of his master KaSivHiisa (E.I. The sea is about a mile and a half to the south·east of the temple. Krtavirya and Kartavirya.B.. I. 28. which is situated at a distance of 21 miles north·east of Puri town. The erection of the temple has been ascribed to the king Narasinhadeva of Khurda of the 13th century A.49. 1903. Pt.-This village is situated two miles south-west of Naraaanna- peta. 17).D. 2 and 4).1.!. 1903·04. IV. Fergusson places it somewhere between Cuttack and . p. Antiquities 0/ Ori880. p.-This village is to be identified w:ith Komaraman· gala. One ean come near this site by motor. Ch.-This has been identified by Kielhorn w:ith Kung. 458).I. XLV. Hunter. VI. 48..lala trace their descent from Haihaya. Ko<.. Pt. III. The porch is a massive building on a high basement. A fine hall has been excavated w:ith elaborate carvings in front of the porch. 9.S. The stone slab representing 9 planets known as the N avagralw Blah is an important discovery. tains a deity named Konaditya (Brahma PUrrl"". B. 2. The magnificent temple has sunk down considerably and much has beeu done to protect it from mischief. 450). Pt. Mittra.I.-According to the Markaf14eya Pura"" (25) it lies on the river Ve\lvii. Vol. It lies at a distance of about 30 miles from Salem (Salem Plates 0/ GaiIfJa Slipunqa: Saka 693- E. p.I. p.. and O. Konarak (Marg. country in the Godavari delta w:ith which the Haihayas were closely connected (E. p. I. Krm<i4u.1.yU. Jarrett's Tr.A. 308ff.I. Its walls are surrounded by Sulli trees (S. IV. p. There is a Killippiga in Guntur district (vide 92 of Rail{l'iclu'iri'8 Lisl). Krnigoda.. This temple which has been dedicated to the Sun·god is commonly known as the Black Pagoda.I. It is situated near the northernmost end of the sandy strip stretching from the Chilk:a lake to the Priichi river. IV. II.I. 1929.i. Krnigu. in the Tirucengode taluk of the Salem district. Kongodama\l<. Kom-irammigala. (J. Fergusson. XXIV. The chiefs of Kona· maJ:l<.-This sandy tract also known as Konarka is situated on the beautiful and holy sea·shore.. 145).lala mentioned in the inscriptions (E. of Abu! Fazle's Ain. 148). Nos. LXXII... Konama1J4ala.sanka and its inhabitants defied IIa~avardhana of Kanauj.Aska in the Ganjam district. by O'Malley... p. 1902·03.1.1.-This is one of the ancient provinces of the Tamil country.-This is a village.. II. 84. I. Southern KoDkan was conquered by' the Vijayanagar General Madhava. Cunningham identifies it w:ith Ganjam. 320).. Konaraka. Dist..S. 142). Koma!tifa·-It is a village in the Nayagarh State of Orissa where three copperplates were unearthed (E. a part of Pudukkottah State. the headquarters of a taluk in the Ganjam district.t'o of Yuan Chwang. 136) was under S. IV. (For details vide Burnier.. XXVII. pp. 120).-It is . same as Killippaka. I.1.A.Akbari. II. who belonged to the race of the Yadus. Kollippakkai. Gazetteers.I. Konkdn.-It comprises the modern districts of Salem and Coimbatore (S. Orissa.car in cold weatber from Pipli. Komarti. 172-KomatuJa Copperplale8 0/ Netlablwfija). 99). Book VI. Hislory 0/ Indian and Eastern Architecture. L. VI and VIII.166 HISTORIOAL GKOGBAl'HY OF ANCIENT INDIA. His . Purl.

Pt. It may have been precisely the city which is associ- ated with the VaitiU. There is another Kottura in the Vizagapatam district (Vizagapatam District Gazetleer.-This is southern Kosala which.8. a village on the bank of the river Perii. 134).llL KOSala extended from Berar to Orissa and from Amarakal. XXVI. p.1. has been identified by Hultzsch with modem Chicacole (E. I. p. XXI. 34.. Koitkuduru. the name of a district mentioned in BOOne of the early and later Ganga records.137). XVIII.4). p. VII. which has been identified with Kuting.382.-It is in the Narasaraopet taluk of the Guntur district.l.1. Lakemanaraja is . V.¥!ukavartlani. Kr.l. V. 147).-This i.gariija acquired the land of DakeiI. Koppa1f! (Kuppa1f!). p... R. Pre·Hi8tm-ic South India. IV.l. E. 31). I. R.l. VII.1. II.-It i. No. II.O. Archaeological Survey of India. VIII. XXV.l. 313. XVII. supposed to be the ancient capital of the Co!as (S.-It is a village five miles north of R&macandrapuram in the Godivari district (E. Koppara1f!. K~ala-lIS4u (K~alai-n<i4u). III.l.I.O. lies six miles to the south of Parlakimedi in the Ganjam district of the Madras State (E. 257)_ Korakai.liaka to Bastar (E. 152.1. tributaries (S. Kori or Koli.>-a Kosala and fixed his capital at Tummana. According to the Bilbari Inscription.l. In the Ratanpur Inscription of Jiijalladeva we find that KaliiJ. 68).l. Thi.).). January. This ancient town belongs to the Travancore State and i. 97. 45ff. 1940.Kosala is generally taken to represent the modern division of Chattisgarh. 1941).l. II.. p..-The Kap copperplate of Keladi SadMiva-Nayaka refers to KopaJ. p.. Ko!yiiSrama. the ancient capital of the Pal.1. where the copperplate of Pulakesin II was discovered (E. north of Cape Comorin (S. 39ff.lQ. p. 12).. I. E. corresponds to the upper valley of the Mahanadi and it. Pt.la has been identified with the modem village of Tumana in the Bilaspur district (E.1. p.1. According to the Kuruspal Stone Inscription of Somesvaradeva. According to the Jaina JambwMivapa'/J1!aUi KuSiivati was the capital of Dakl)ina-Kosala. p. Vol..-It is a well-known town near Cape Comorin. p. pp..-It is identified with Kothoor. 196).I. Here Rajenma is said to have a victory over Ahavamalla.-Its Sanskritised form is Korgiira in the Tinnevelly district..llL which is Kopal. SOUTHBRN INDIA 167 zeal for his religion is attested by the Maficalapura plates.. I.la. pp.. Thi.-ThiB village also named as Korosal.-It is a hill fort in the Godavari valley situated at a dis- tance of about nine miles to the north of Rajahmundry (E. 375. 154). . I.. 254)_ Dak~il. I. Kopal'l'.l<!yas (S. 252.. 66ft'. It was a flourishing seaport (V. 23). p. For further epigraphic references regarding southern Kmikan. Pt..l. range along which there were sixty Vidyiidhar towns (salti1f! mjjdharal'l'-gardV<isd. KOI!<iru.Vi§aya. It is generally spelt in Tamil classics as Korkai. 305. Dikshi- tar.lhya. a suburb of Trichinopoly. 32 miles from Baripada (E..1. I. Ko!!ura.tha. Mahiikosala or Da~iJ.. accord- ing to Cunningham. about 10 mil.. 1. district (vi§aya) alao occurs in the . XXVI. 168).tated to have defeated the lord of Dakeina- Kosala (E. Koruko1}4a.O. XXV.. 12 miles south·east of Mahendragiri in Ganjam. January.ru (Palaru) (S. E. while Tummal. 459). vide E. a famous place of pilgrimage of the Jainas in the Nizam's Dominions. X. 53ff. Koro8a~a. 166. Pt.-It is the hermitage ofV"'if. No..-It is the same as Uraiyjjr.

17). It has ilB source in the Western Ghats. LXXXV).l boundary of Hyderabad. Rivera of India. p_ 450)_ K1lA. is a famous river in South India. XLVII.-It is the Karakorum or the Black mountain (Vayup. p. 28). Kr~ve'1W.a. 26-30).I. 48). the capilBI of the kingdom of Pii.-It is a deserted village at the western extremity of the ruins of Vijayanagara. 63.l.a. ViI)ii (MaMbMrata.-It is Kumbhakonam (S. It is also known as KaI)hapeI)I)a as in the Jatalcas and KaJ.u. 144).-This river is identified with the Vaigai which flows past the town of Madhura. the Bhimii. 232). S. 263)..27). C.)_ Krtamiil<i. 32Sff.I. Its variant readings are VeQ.. it falls into the Bay of Bengal. 14).. I.avel)va in the Pura1). notes).pura. XLI.. Kwf. Kr~iri. Rapson.a (Var<iha. 232).168 HlSTOBlOAL GBOGRAPHY 0:1' ANCIENT INDIA Chicacole plates of Devendravarman. 104). p.) Kr!fT!.5. Hultzsch.IJ.a8. 576).l. 398).l1 as in the Pural).dh&ri in the Gsnjam district (Journal of lhe Mythic Society.Ul- veI)i or Kr:lI)aveI. 4 and 7. where copperplates of Sadiisivaraya were discovered (E. where an inscription of Kr»I)araya engraved on a rough stone-tablet dated . vide B. the Muner and the Tuilgabhadra. KudraMra.bly the same as Kudiirahiira of the Kon(ia- mu(li with ilB plates of Jayavarman.a.l. Kmui.-It is probe. It is the name of a district head- .I)<. XIX. II. Vail. the Dindi. XXXIII.1. In its course through Hyderabad and Madras it is joined by many tributaries including the Dhon. S. It has ilB source in the Western Ghats. Ramiiya1). flowing east through the Deccan plateau and breaking through the Eastern Ghats in a gorge. I..-This is modern Kr:lI)a river (S. I.l. and Venna (Bhiigavata Pura»a. 328).. the Musi-Aler.1i (Vayu Pura»a. XIV. Blllijmaparva. XIV. IX.-It is the same as Coorg (S.amalairuUf. III. IX.amukkil. p. it falls into the Bay of Bengal.Pura1). cf. 34). 19. II.-This village is in the Chingleput district (E_!.26.. It is also mentioned in the Bhiigavatapuru»a (V. According to modern geographers. XLV. I. the SlBte of Hydera. Near about Athni the river is joined by the combined waters of several streams of which the Yerla. It survives in ilB modem name Kr.-It is a river which is the same as Kr:. Before it enters Hyderabad it receives the Malprabha on its right bank below Muddebihal.ha- pe'l'llii. There is a village by this name situated six miles south-east of Tiunevelly. p..ii. It issues from the Bahya mountains according to the Marka1J4eyapurii1)G (57.l_l. Bombay Gazetteer. VeI)ii or VarI)ii (Kurma Pura»a. It flows east through the Deccan plateau and breaking through the Eastern Ghats in a gorge. VI.bad and the Madras State. Kwf. ii. It has been identified by some with the country to the north of the river Vaf!lSa..liyanta»4a/. p. I. 36). Vol. p. 48. KaI)hapeI)llii in the Jiitalcas and KaI)hapemnA in the Hathigumphii Inscription of Khiiravela. it is older than the Himalayan proper.8. p. 9. This mountain is continuous with the Hindukush on the weBt. IS) and in the Brhat-8a1f'hitii (XIV. the Koind and the VarI)ii are well-known. It occurs in the Ramiiya»a (Kiskindhyakiiw. III. Rivers of India. From the north-east of AJampur to a place below Jaggayyapeta the Krishnii flows forming the southern natura. 139. The Kr:lQ. the Peddavagu. 9) as Kr:l1. According to Hultzsch it is Malabar. as in the Hathigumpha Inscription of Khiiravela. p. Law.S or Kr:lI)aveI)i a8 in the Yoginitamra (2. Its course lies through the Bombay State. 303.1.Iya. Ch. 1ndi8che Alterthumskunde. pp. 17.Bve1).aka 1451 was discovered (E. The Karakorum was known to the ancient geographers as the Kr:lI)agiri. (For detailB.35. Pargiter suggests its identification with the river Penner between the Kr:lI)ii and the Kaven (Marka»!Jeya Purii»a.l. pp.lli (of. Rivers of India. vide Law. (For further details.I)ii.140. Andhra Ooi1lll. the Paler. It is of Hercynian age (Law. p.

Kuniyur. The Rewah Stone Inscrip- tion of Karl). January. 156. An Ajanta Inscription mentions a Vakiitaka king Prthvisena I. I.rl temple. It was ruled at one time by the kings of the Nanda dynasty. p. 3. when it consisted of the southern Miiriijha country and the adjoiuing Kanarese districts (E. It is so called because it resembles the hair (kuntala) of the goddess of the earth. situated at a distance of about eight miles from Anegol.. north-west of Aimhul)gi which lay to the north of Poygai (Rajendra-Co!anallfir) and south of the river Piiliiru (S. Mysore and Coorg from Inscriptions. 284.-It is the Tamil name of a sacred river near Cape Comorin.av& deity and an incarnation of V~J). p.. I).. 1.. 12.. 176ff. XXIII.la claimed victory over Kuntala. January. the Kunt . NageSvara temple. and it corresponds to the Sanskrit Kumari (S. C. Kumbookona. p. V).. II. Kuntau. f. 160). 46).. Kuntala is situated between the Bhima and Vedavati. who con- quered a KuntaleSvara (lord of Kuntala).. XVII. which was the country of the later Calu- kyas (E. p.1. The NageBvara temple contains a separate shrine for Surya. III.. XXIV. Prthvisena extended his sovereignty over Nachne-Kitalai .D.1. SarangapiiJ.I...-This is the modern name of Kumiiravallicaturvedi- mangala. (For further details. p. The Kuntal.amhandal. July. and also perhaps a part of Mahiir~ra with Vidarbha having its capital at Prati- IIthiina on the Godavari (Vide V. KumbheSvara temple.-1t is a village which lies on the road from Conjeeveram to Wandiwash at a distance of five miles BOuth of Mamal). KU[. Kumma!a. 3..!. which is the same as the modem Kuguru in the Bandar taluk of the Kistna district (E. K umiiri.1.. The Kuntala country is frequently referred to iu the inscriptions of the 11th and 12th centuries. 87-88).nd Ganj in Bundelkhand as well as over the borders of Kuntal.l. p. (E.l.a refers to Kuntala.li is a Vai§J).aja country (S. where copperplates of the time of Venkaja II were discovered (E.lu.1.l. DyruMties of the Kanarese DiBtricts. 1876. Archaeolagical .ldi (E.I. I. p. p.. It may be identified with Kumiira-Riimana Kummaja. III.. 18). XXIV. 1937. The identity of the Gon- daloi with Kuntala proposed by Yule may be accepted. 77).1. Pt.). 23). comprising the Kanarese districts of Bomhay and Madras States and of Mysore State. Fleet.l.1.n. and one or more of these ramilies ruled over Kuntal. Law.. of the Kanarese districts before the Kadambas. The city derived its name from the deity Kumbhesvara.-It is the name of a village. 104ff. XXV.-In the Jura<.A. SOUTHBRN INDIA.. a great educational centre .-It is situated on the river Kaveri.s of the Deccan appear to have risen to a considerable importance in historical times. 318). I.). 169 quarters at Kudura.-This village is in the Ambasamudra.-It iB situated in the Doravadinii<. vide B.. A Vakataka king HariBel. Kumiiravalli. According to some. Kumiiramailgala. p.l& grant of Nettabhafijadeva Kumarapura is identified with the village of the same name in the Berhampur taluk of the Ganjam district (E. According to some Mysore Inscriptions (Rice. and Ramaswiimi temple deserve mention. XXIV.1. (S... 236). Mirashi. 2). pp. It is in Cheyyar taluk..u. The Ramasvami temple is said to have been built by a king of Tanjore in the 16th century A. The SiirangapiiI. 1939.. la region included the southern part of the Bombay Presidency and the northern portion of Myscre.1. I. Pt.. KUmiirapura. V.. Tribes in Ancient India.-This is a district of the Karl). pp. Pt. 1937..I. taluk of the Tinne- velly district. I. Literary and epigraphic references prove beyond doubt that there were several families of the SatakarI.!. Pt. Intro. North Arcot district. situated east of Kor- ramangaIam.dur (S.1.. 110).lis of the Deccan.I..nd one of the oldest cities of South India. pp. BytkrahaJ.

No..ge to Gupt. a district of Urrnkkiittnkot- tam.170 HlSTORIOAL GBOGBA.I. Maduramaf!4ala1J'. 99. Pt..I.-This is a hill (S.. Pt. It is called the Laitgulini in the Mar- ka~4eyapuriif)a (LVII. 144..I.. It is the river Uligali mentioned in the Mahiibluirata (Sabhaparva.5tra of Nir- velor. 1936.nd other kings.lu subdivision which is represented by PeriyakoHai and its vicinity in the Madura district (E.48).-It was the name of the territory which roughly corresponds to the modern district of Vizagapatam (E.. 1909. p. 147.-It is a town. p. II. III. 106.eval kings of Kunt. KuvaJalapura.. Some have identified it with Lepta. mountain which is supposed to be beyond the ocean of fresh water and beyond which again is the cell of the mundane egg. 9 f.-According to the Ramiiyaf)a (Utt&rakiil)ga..cole in Madr.. p.. p..1. Its modern name is Kolar (S. K. 414.. (Ep. 250). Madura. 14.ge of Kiirsq> belonged to the 'lUil!u (country) or in Sanskrit Manyavantararii. III. p. V. six miles south-east of Bolangir in the Patna State while others are inclined to think that either Nuptara or Nuparsinga within the Sonepur State should be identical with Lupatura. It is situated on the bank of the river Vaigai. 5) this beautiful city was full of Ra~asas (demons) for a long time.y be identified with Lokamudi in the Kaikalur taluk of the same district (E. 1939. Memoir. p. XXIII. La1iguliya.. 155).I. p_ 202 note 6).I. According to some it seems to be identical with Modocalingo. cf.I.le of land by the 800M of Kiira~l alias ~ol . III. Mookerjee.I.-This river. also known .. It is the ancient Pal)gya country. v.-It is situated two miles to the south of TSWkonda in the Guntur district (E. 132). . a division of Urrukka~ukkottam (S. VI..-Lupatura or Luputura is probably the same as Lipatuliga of the Patna plates of the 6th year (E.A. Kura1J'.I. Lekumiiri.PH. K ura.AI)<. Lokiiloka mountain.. 344).mat- taI. II.e of Megasthenes (I. (S. July. 112). Gupta Empire. I.lgu Caturvedimangalam in NirveliirnS<. I. 154). Ind. It rises in the hills at Kalahandi and flows south through the district of Ganjam to empty itself into the Bay below Chica.I. (6). p.. Vol.-This is a village near Kaficipuraq>. 338).I.I. the capital of which was Madura. Sarga 83. Pt...I. p. 1918. VII. 4il). 358. Vol..n.. Lai{Ju4i..-It ma. 29).. Lohitagiri.. p. V~u Puraf)a (Wilson). capital of the Pal)gy"'. Madhyama-Kalii/{/a.a Pillar Inscription informs us that a Kadamba king of Vaijayanti in Kuntala gave his daughters in marri. 380). 154. 97. 166). IX_ 374). This is known as Modoura by Ptolemy.-It is the name of . p.I.I.-This is Madura (S. Kuvalayasii/{/anaUur.I. XX..l. Lamu. I. p. . 372). XXV.. 227.-It is a village which possessed 108 families that studied the four Vedas (S.. Lupu!ura.I. 206). The TalaguW. Ibid. lies between the delta of the Godavari and the Mahanadi.. Madurai. XXIII. This city is situated on the right bank of the river VaigaL It stands on the .Y OF ANCIENT INDIA. p. The villa. VI.-It is in the Trichinopoly district where the three Tamil inscriptions were found (E.la traced their lineage to Candragupt& (R.-It was situated in the . 46).1. p. pp.. Vol.I.lanS<. XXV. I. p. January.. An inscription records the s.lu. Annual Report of the South Indian Epigraphy. Some medio. the Niigavati. I.-It is the name of a country (S. Pt.).

and is undoubtedly a religious city. Srik~J. who is Lak5mi. XII. 97. and conquered the Hoysala king Somesvara of Karnataka (E. III.mardini destroying the RakiJasas. This temple covers a very large area.. 8).. Pt. There were some Sailgharamas and Deva temples (Beal.000 Ii in circuit. Madura was the capital of the Pal).a. Geiger's Ed. (I. 341). and the inside of it is made up of hlack marble with a pathway for circumambulation. (4) Badami which was the real capital in Yuan Chwang's time. It was 6..n. In Bome of them we find very attractive cultural representa- tions of Pauranic scenes. Gazetturs. It is the modern river Brahmal).dya country .. country or Mo-ho-Ia-cha. April. The temple of Vil.D. II. . (2) Kalyal). J.000 Ii in circuit.). resting on the god of snakes. Mahd-Gauri.).!ra. Mahiir~tr. Dikshitar in his Studies in the Tamil Literature and History (p. Madurodaya. De. p. It was the capital of Jatavarman who ascended the throne in the 13th century A. It is said to be the Ariake of Ptolemy (p. 113. 184). They were of tall stature and vindictive in nature. Mahara. pp. pp. 1893. each called Mahara~!raka in the 7th century A.a on the eastern shore of the Bombay harbour. Mention may be made of the sculptures representing Ma~a. It is full of temples. etc.<.A.A.va/aniU!u. L.eya Purii1)4 (LVII. p. and the capital was on the west of a great river. II. vide C.U' supporting the hill to protect the cattle from the anger of the rain-god.. One of the missionaries sent by ASoka to spread the gospel of the Buddha in the Mahiiriilltra country was Dhammarakkhita (Mahdoo1J'8a. r. (E.aVa saint Siva lived here with VU.I). is the Deccan in the narrowest sense (S. 745ff.D. . is really t