I THE ARUP JOURNAL

3/1997

THEARUP. Front cover:
American Air Museum, Duxford (Photo: Peter Mackinven)
Back cover:
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Wellington
(Photo: Michael Hall)

JOURNAL
Vol 32 No 3 Editor:
3/1997 David J Brown
Art Editor:
Published by Desmond Wyeth FCSD
Ove Arup Partnership Deputy Editor:
13 Fitzroy Street Beth Morgan
London W1 P 6BQ
Editorial:
Tel : +44(Ol171 636 1531 Tel: +44 (0) 171 465 3828
Fax: +44 (0 171 580 3924 Fax: +44 (0) 171 465 3675

Museum of New Zealand The national treasures of New Zealand are now housed in this
Te Papa Tongarewa 3 new building on a prime waterfront site in the nation's capital.
Pippa Connolly Ove Arup & Partners' design responsibilities embraced both a
wide range of structural applications - including all of the
building steelwork, several internal and external bridges ,
structural support for the large areas of glazing, and the
precast concrete cladding system - and the civil engineering
design. The latter included dynamic consolidation and the
requirements to accommodate the interface between a base
isolated building designed to withstand the earthquake forces
anticipated in this seismically unstable region .

The American Air Museum, The new permanent home for the Imperial War Museum's
Duxford 10 collection of American aircraft consists of a 90m span double-
David Andrews skin precast concrete shell , designed to accommodate the
Gabriele Del Mese giant 852 bomber plus 20 other aircraft. Several of them,
Kevin Franklin weighing up to 10 tonnes, are hung from the roof. The design
Chris Wise team's concept aimed to combine visual calmness of form with
effective passive environmental control and use of natural light,
all within a very tight construction and maintenance budget.

Control Techniques' R&D The client's brief was for a research & development
HQ, Newtown, Powys 16 headquarters and administrative centre separately
Dick Lee accommodated within a single building. Arup Associates' two-
Declan O'Carroll storey design met these requirements in a curved plan shape
that exploited the natural contours of the greenfield site.

New materials The question is often asked 'What new materials are available
for construction 18 to designers and constructors?' To develop a meaningful
Simon Cardwell response, this article takes a fresh look at how materials used
Bob Cather in construction may be categorised , and sometimes
Steven Groak re-categorised , as their properties and capabilities become
more thoroughly understood and in some cases developed
and enhanced by materials scientists.

The Observational Method This article , based on a report by Arups for the UK
in ground engineering 21 Construction Industry Research & Information Association
Che-Ming Tse (CIRIA), describes the continuous process of predicting,
Duncan Nicholson monitoring , reviewing , and modifying geotechnical designs
which has come to be known as the Observational Method.
The OM is shown to have a number of advantages over the
alternative method of a fully developed and predefined design,
as demonstrated through several practical applications on
Arup projects.

2 THE ARUP JOURNAL 311997

In the same year an nation's treasures. supported by a team of design phase it was always too small. Site location. In May 1992 the around the capital city. The approved the project in principle and directed Museum's fundamental concept is to integrate the then Minister of Internal Affairs to continue the essence of these two cultures. However. Government authorised construction. A series of consultations with groups throughout A distinctive characteristic of New Zealand is New Zealand led to the proposal to build on the the two mainstreams of cultural heritage: that of Wellington waterfront the Museum of New the Tangata Whenua (those who belong to the Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa ('Te Papa') . Wellington waterfront reflections viewed from the Marae in the new Museum. THE ARUP JOURNAL 311997 3 . 2. In 1986 the Government the land by right of the Waitangi Treaty). civil . and fa9ade engineers collection being housed in several locations with Holmes Consulting Group.the land by right of discovery) and the predominantly Maori part of the name loosely translates as European Tangata Tiriti (tho~e who belong to 'treasure house' (Fig 2). The concept was given the their interaction. because the original international two-stage competition was won by main building was reduced in size during its JASMAX Architects. and is the repository of the was granted in early 1990. expressing consultations.Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Pippa Connolly 1. Introduction New Zealand's National Museum and Art Gallery Further approval for design and construction opened in 1936. while at the same time revealing go-ahead for planning purposes in April 1987. Wellington. and retaining their diversity. which consultants including Ove Arup &Partners in joint forced the unsatisfactory compromise of the venture as structural.

Natural light gallery External landscaping enhances the spectacular [_____ site with an external exhibit area known as the Harbour Park (Fig 6). visitor viewing rooms. 3. a restaurant and cafe. 6. Traditionally Maraes Wellington Harbour are focal points for individual Maori tribes. Incorporated Exhibition space in the lowest level is a car park for 250 vehicles. an effect achieved by incorporating different areas of vegetation and rock displays. a touring exhibition gallery. purpose-designed storage facilities.a children's learning centre. Site plan recreated limestone cave and simulated fossil dig. a 350-seat auditorium (Fig 4). Carvers at work in the Marae. 350-seat auditorium Ove Arup & Partners were responsible for structural design of the extensive limber acoustic panelling and raised/tiered seating. demonstration areas. classrooms. the Museum shop. a resource centre. 0 20 60 10 30 90m Marina A unique feature of this philosophy is the positioning of a Marae (Maori Meeting House) within the Museum (Fig 3). a temporary exhibitions hall. and offices for Museum staff. This aims to give visitors the chance to explore New Zealand's varied environment and experience at close hand a selection of its unique flora. visible collection storage areas. including a 5.apart from the Marae and the permanent exhibition spaces . The Museum's total floor space of more than 36 ooom2 accommodates . fauna. The Harbour Park 4 THE A RUP JOURNAL 311997 . a 'theatrette' for 50 people. and geology. but this new Marae is open to every tribe and culture. The final design 1s geometrically unusual with many sculptural forms linked to interpretation of the building incorporated in the structure (Fig 5). and all New Zealanders will be able to use it for their festivals and events. 4. work- shops. a library.

in particular: • the probability of less than 50% significant damage in 150 years. The site The waterfront site for the new Museum is spectacular: surrounded by hills. stairs. and Arup Fire gave advice after a fire during construction caused some damage. a five-storey reinforced concrete hotel was moved off the site (Fig 8) and across the adjacent main road (Cable Street). most isolated adjacent structures so that there is only of its beams and slabs are precast. Wellington is one of the most highly seismic regions in New Zealand. improving its capacity foundations. The principal advantages of seismic Base isolator on pad footing base isolation are: with formwork being installed around it to cast the protruding • a significant reduction of seismic design forces bolts into the ground floor beams. typically to 40mm for a 150-year design life. corresponding to a 2000-year return period for seismic design. was made to base-isolate the whole building as this offered the best compromise between initial cost and optimum performance in the case of 10. as did much technical advice on specifications. The decision minor damage to either. The project involved staff from many Arup offices: fai. It also has several features that significantly 7. Inter-storey deflections are minimised. They dampen horizontal seismic sufficiently to found the whole structure on pad accelerations generated during an earthquake to footings. corresponding to a 250-year return period for seismic design • a less than 7% probability of collapse in 150 years. building and to its services • reduced floor-to-floor drifts.the civil design of all external works. Located mainly Looking down the harbour from the touring exhibition gallery. the inherently unstable site was dynamically 142 hysteretic damping base isolators. THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 5 . were supplied to the site (Fig 10) (Fig 9). Arup Research & Development in London provided further input. and the design of the precast cladding system. damage to both the artifacts housed 1n the Dynamic consolidation. earthquakes. Site preparation Work began on the site in mid-1993. wind gusts there have a legendary strength. The Brisbane office provided peer review for civil works. limiting potential 9. the Museum site could be susceptible to flooding . The brief Moving the The extensive brief prepared by the Museum Museum Hotel. which simplifies detailing of cladding. while the Advanced Technology group in London peer reviewed the seismic design parameters for the structure and verified the base isolation system. etc. affected the building design.:ade expertise came from Sydney. 8. during construction. as well as tsunamis from more distant earthquakes. After demolition of some basic warehouse structures. with shear walls in perimeter to take into account movements of non- one direction and frame action in the other. consisting consolidated by dropping up to 30 tonne weights of layers of steel plates and rubber with central from a height of up to 30m at regular intervals cores of lead. requiring the detailing around the building reinforced concrete frame. it faces down the harbour towards the Rimutaka hills (Fig 7). Of particular concern was the likelihood of seiching (the immediate wave in the harbour due to earthquakes on the nearby Wellington or West Wairarapa Faults).Project responsibilities Arups was responsible for the structural design of all the steelwork . incorporated the specific performance require- ments of a 150-year design life. Base isolation Movements at the level of the isolator are up to The basic building structure is a five-storey 500mm.comprising mainly sculptural roofs. and glazing restraint . on land reclaimed post-war. The process of consolidation lowered and installed with simple bolt fixings to the pad site levels by up to 1m. With the hotel out of the way. collapse. bridges. like all the Wellington waterfront. It also reduced the risk of liquefaction and such a extent that it was possible to detail the potential for the site to slide on an existing marine structure for a 1 in 2000-year earthquake without interface layer. and as well as everything else. • much-reduced ductility demand in the structure • a reduction in the anticipated level of structural and non-structural damage • reduced floor accelerations.

00 structure (Fig 12).00 0.75 histories and response spectra were generated 0.87m x 865mm..00 "' ·.95m. The principle of the movement is that the filled with a purpose-made gasket.25 specific for the Museum. not the con- supported at its corners by stainless steel kerf crete frame.00 0. .00 Period (seconds) Precast concrete cladding As base isolation techniques protect the building from earthquake damage. but have a building perimeter between the concrete frame. Vertical accelerations are unaffected by the base isolation system. The total distance prior to application of from the base blockwork wall to the panel face is waterproof membrane 200mm (Fig 12). these are bolted to stainless steel 14a. These bearings were not suitable for wall locations Coefficients for ultimate and serviceability design. These spectra were then used as design criteria for every element of the 0. 13 Panel/wall connection detail.00 seismic coefficients "' . c: Two sizes of sliding bearings. To achieve this.50 . these joints incorporate flexible one of the most challenging aspects of the uniform 15mm joints between panels are partially waterproof 'bandages' and fire-preventing material. The panels form horizontally. Horizontal north/south seismic coefficients 2. The black sliding joint on the adjacent concrete (Fig 15).00 0.. Gaps of 40mm to adjacent columns and creating the building's complex geometry the outer layer of a double skin which operates as allow for inter-storey deflections under peak while catering for those movements presented a pressure-equalised rain screen system.25 _ Horizontal east/west 2. design. 14b. so here PTFE ( Teflon) sliding bearings each direction. coefficients : 2l u 1. dimension is extended to 1.0 11 .25 0.50 for each of the return periods. across the move- brackets.25 0. were used (Fig 11 ). The face of the blockwork is coated with a stripes are the waterproof membrane with a layer of insulation flexible waterproofing 15.75 1. ment joints the secondary brackets are replaced secondary brackets which in turn are supported Blockwork jointing by stainless steel rolled hollow square sections.25 Damping= 5% awaiting installation below walls. 0.. (Below) South end of the Wall fully clad in basalt precast cladding.ll E 1. E 1.75 1. depending on the calculated period of the structural where high compression and tension forces element. U) Site-specific earthquake acceleration time 0. though on some the long at their heads by shear fixings which can slide blockwork and the concrete frame (Figs 14a & b). coefficients vary depending on the element orientation as a result of the varying building stiffness in occur. across whole Wall.50 0. The seismic loading.50 0. 0 . and appropriate damping was used to generate design spectra 0. off reinforced blockwork walls built around the at the south end of These are fixed to the blockwork.75 Vertical seismic '6 . so Wellington's extreme weather is kept at bay by the 15 OOO unreinforced precast concrete cladding panels that cover the The blockwork walls are built off the perimeter It was unavoidable that the precast cladding exterior. ~ 1. the Wall. Each panel is cladding moves with the blockwork. 2000-year 250-year ultimate service 2. 6 Tl1E ARUP JOURNAL 311997 . These are all 70mm thick and mostly floor beams at each level and are secured only would span all the movement joints between the 1.50 Ductility = 1. 12. incorporated in the gap between the wall face movement joints and the rear of the panels. installed across 40mm Bridging steel across seismic joint.

Grade 316 stainless steel was used for all brackets and bolts to give optimum durability. either a yellow dolomite or a dark grey basalt. panels are used exclusively internally and externally. Two types of finish are used. forming landscaping and a ceremonial approach to the Marae. THE ARUP JOURNAL 311997 7 . East elevation showing dolomite cladding panels in varying forms. both mixes have a strength of 35MPa. This is on 'the wall'. the strong 100m element that leads right through the building. while seismic loads governed the bracket and fixing design. The facing mix for each panel incorporates one of two types of aggregate. Each bracket takes the vertical load of the two panels above while simply restraining the two below against wind load. Wind loads (of up to 68m/s basic wind speed) governed the design of the panels themselves. to the right. The darker. 17. Development of the kerf bracket design led to a single bracket being used to support the adjacent corners of four panels. with associated Harbour Park bridge. The north end of the 'Wall' is to the right. The turned down 'tang' of the lower support also acts as a flashing to direct water away from the cladding cavity. while the dolomite panels are used every- where else. The panels are made from a 25mm structural facing mix with 45mm of standard grey concrete backing mix. View of the Museum from the Harbour Park. with the 'wetlands' in the foreground and the orientation building.16. with the difference between polished and exposed finishes providing emphasis as necessary. an exposed aggregate and a polished face. grey. The sloping panels at the base of the building in the foreground are retaining walls. Some panels are curved in order to define the geometry of the building (Fig 17).

other large openings fixed to the roof above. and carrying boards at their base. 8m wide and bridge are accommodated with sliding bearings. a 'moving bridge' capable of being negotiated for the differing locations. passes over staircases to the live-storey high entrance glazing Its support is taken substantially from lour hangers a stream flowing into wetlands and the more support and restraint system. painted yellow. lhonui bridge. mostly hung connections are either fully welded or pinned. showing curved precasl panels. 19. all up to 27m by square hollow section trusses. All external main exhibition spaces are column-free. followed closely by the complete Part of the visitor experience in the Harbour Park The steelwork design required close collaboration skeleton of a rare Pygmy Blue Whale. The roof forms incorporate many curves and were required for the Harbour Park bridge. which The environment is very corrosive. variety of structural steel (Figs 16. Corrosion of external steelwork was investigated two storeys high. spanned propped cantilever. being right on geometrically unusual shapes. 17 & 20 ). which consists of exposed and forms a fundamental part of the notably unusual one. This bridge. Where these plates connect for exhibition loads. Bearings to allow for movements up to ±SOOmm in depth with Arup Research & Development. Differential movements at each end of the significant swinging motion (Fig 20). 8 THE ARUP JOURNAL 311997 . and a three-leaf. ceremonial door. the lhonui bridge. a by wheelchairs. the brief having required with JASMAX to establish a multitude of solutions Bridges form an integral part of the museum. all formed in a spans from the main building out to the orientation the waterfront with strong winds to carry moist. 18. Much of the steelwork is Internally they criss-cross the multi-storey voids. The building in the Harbour Park. The heaviest was judged to bridge connecting a base-isolated building and a to the structure the weld interlace is painted to be a Tiger Moth aeroplane currently owned by traditionally-founded building. Uses ranged from basic across the wedge-shaped central space (Fig 19). Steel design the Museum. articulated with large pin adventurous visitors can certainly instigate a in the orientation lobby (Fig 18). joints. The requirement pins being stainless steel (grade 316) as are the which incorporate in their design hanging points to cater for large movements results from the plates they connect. variably opening. This is essentially a salt-laden air onto every element. curving a series of cables strung between abutments architectural expression. prevent corrosion. all of from the main structure (Fig 16). Orientation lobby from Harbour Park. is the swing bridge.

Base building: Fletcher Construction Harbour Park External works: McKee Fehl 'swing bridge' Base isolators: Skellerup Industries springing Steelwork: Stevensons Joint Venture from replica Precast cladding panels: Precision Precast1ng limestone Illustrations: cave. 12: Sean McDermott 6. One window on level 4 had to be Holmes Arup Joint Venture partnering meeting was held with members of designed as fully openable to allow the ingress of Ove Arup & Partners Mike Brading.ade Engmeenng) in place where issues were aired as soon as they carry a forklift for exhibit installalion. with aspects of the structural design tested to Structural and civil engineers: As soon as each contractor was appointed. and it Boffa Miskell Partners Ltd will be some time before the final verdict is reached as to its success. 14b. a their full extent. the construction and design teams and the client a full-sized war canoe as one of the maori exhibits P1ppa Connolly. with many other Zealand in 1995. the services were let individually. 10.Construction Conclusion Credits Building the museum incorporated several New Zealand's Prime Minister Jim Bolger has Client. Colin Roberts. 19. starting same year. body. Environmental wind consultants: Works Consultancy Building contractors: Dynamic consolidation: Mainzeal 20. Roger Lovell.llon consultants. Joanna Fenwick. at improving team relationships. 21 : Michael Hall (© Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa) 5. 14a: PippaConnolly 8: Jan Nauta (© Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa) 9. The whole project has been Landscape architects: undertaken very much in the public eye. 20: Rob Walsham 7. Carson Group with assistance from a partnering agreement. thus avoiding lengthy negotiations and and the like proved invaluable as exhibits have Geotechnical engineers: adversarial stances. 15. body of the building formed another. 18. and Jim Bolger was on hand again in JASMAX Architects with the hotel move. Uplift pressures of up to 7. 17. the project Ralph Appelbaum & Associates packages running alongside.5kpa were designed for on the ~antilever roof. The flexibility David Moorehead (Arup Research & Development) surfaced and solutions agreed early 1n the provided for cabling routes and fixing of partitions Mike Willford (Advanced Technology) process. 3: Norman Heke (© Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa) 2: Courtesy JASMAX Architects 4. THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 9 . Ove Arup & Partners 13. while all The Queen also visited the site in her trip to New Exhib. Paul Callum. techniques new to New Zealand. with the goal of producing a charter aimed . Carson Project was on schedule and budget for the opening in Project manager: Management managed the individual contractors February 1998. Construction started the Architect: work was let 1n construction packages. 16. Colin Roberts 21. been installed. Rob Walsham. Southern elevation from Cable Street. Dan Ryan . All the foundation stone 1n 1993. Pete Tillson. The principal The raised 33mm thick plywood floor covering the Martin Wehner (structural) Clive Humphries (civil) benefit of this approach was to put a mechanism 10 QOOm2 of exhibition space was designed to John Perry (Arup Fa<. The first was been involved in the whole process and laid the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Board the concept of construction management. taking shape as the exhibitions bring life to the Russell Drysdale and Thomas diverse spaces. 11 . 1.which was successfully achieved 1n May 1997. The main structure and 1995 for the topping-out of the main structure. At the time of writing.. exhibitions were being installed. Tonkin and Taylor All work was carried out under IS09000-9003 The true drama of the building is only now Quantity surveyors: principles.

and acoustic engineers. Forces from the concrete starting with the 852 (far left). In the Second World War. Key aims of the design were: The roof • low capital cost The roof spans up to 90m. The American Air Museum. the project had to be The structure of the building aligns completely with its 61m wingspan and tail fin 16m high. its association with American military aviation extends from 15 March that year when the 159 US Aero Squadron marched in from nearby Whittlesford railway station. with its inherent low maintenance This was later supplemented by a further $1M and minimal dehumidification. largely shaped by the need to house this giant.apart from the 80 tonnes B52 grant. Stratofortress . With great foresight. amongst others. flying from English airfields including Duxford. Plan of the aircraft within the American planes . about 8km south of Cambridge. 10 THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 . and of the Atlantic. except one which was blown up. as a beam. Founded to train British pilots for the Great War. and then passed across a 'daylight slot' via 34 steel arms spaced at approximately every 4m to a lower in situ ring beam and finally to the abutments and foundations. The membrane action of the shells allows load sharing • maximum use of controlled natural light in two directions. The design marginally more expensive. much of it from the 10 tonnes. and detailed design only took off again to give a very calm background against which to architect.an F111 . and an initiative was taken almost 12 years ago to launch a campaign to fund and build a new American Air Museum for 2. this money was mainly above the dew-point so that condensation did not U2 spy plane. England. whilst many others have been lovingly restored and still more are under- going countless hours of diligent restoration by Imperial War Museum staff and volunteers. project was well placed to receive the first ever A detailed life cycle cost study showed the con- include . with a minimum of dehumidification plant. thanks to fund-raising on both sides view the exhibits. The shelved due to recession and lack of sufficient with these aims. the American side. even though the British Forces for their efforts in the Gulf War. The historic listed hangars from that time survive to this day. roof shells are collected into an in silu curved upper concrete ring beam. Ove Arup & Partners as structural. the finest outside the USA. weighing up to were made to the project. purpose. who lost their lives during the Second World War. to be in overall and a P47 Thunderbolt. crete solution. the team compared Bramhall in Britain. structure itself with its larger foundations was fortunately mounted on the floor. At the front of the building • ease of construction the structure behaves mainly as an arch. The film actors Charlton Heston chose the essentially simple form of a great shell J Roger Preston as environmental engineers. and at • effective passive temperature control the back. It was closed in 1961. had languished in the open air. where it is very flat.5M. but was taken over by the Imperial War Museum in 1972 to be opened to the public four years later as a Museum housing a fine collection of historic British and American aircraft. The grounded planes in the exhibition occur. They lived under canvas and built their own mess to cater for their different tastes in food and drink (coffee not tea). of £6. In the end the design team geotechnical. and Field Marshall Lord and the desire to hang many smaller planes from Early in the design process. showing that a the roof. active from 1943 to 1945. 60 OOO individual donations steel and concrete roof solutions. on . Duxford was used by the USAAF 8th Air Force as a fighter base. The Funding centrepiece was to be the sinister B52 bomber. especially under the weight of 1. A 45 from Saudi Arabia in gratitude to the US and tonne section of the notorious Iraqi 'Supergun' is terms the most cost-effective. has been a working airfield since 1918. The 21 aircraft accommodated. • effective condensation control. an F4.a project conceived in part the building (the planes shown as a tribute to the nearly 30 OOO American airmen in pink are suspended). Elegance and grace of form were prerequisites. the suspended aircraft. during the making of the Battle of Britain film. After the initial effort. a B25. • low cost in use spaced 900mm apart. early in 1995. was and the late James Stewart led the campaign on partly buried in a raised landscape. The suspended planes. from a PT13 Stearman to a TBM3 used to finance detailed design work so that the Avenger. a B29. range from an F100 Supersabre to a concrete building could keep the temperature USA. and is made from two precast concrete shells only 100mm thick. For many years the Museum's collection of American aircraft. Duxford David Andrews Gabriele Del Mese Kevin Franklin Chris Wise Introduction Duxford. Some of these still grace the skies with the beauty of their lines and the roar of their engines. from the Heritage Lottery Fund. and is deliberately underplayed scheme that evolved with Norman Foster as funds.

direct stresses in the shells.. concrete shrinkage. Temperature profile • summer peak Given the sensitivity of shell structures to 32 r-. with a vertical load of Concrete roof Steel roof 40 tonnes/m. Eventually... While there are considerable data on its vertical stiffness and creep performance.. and covers 6500m2 of floor area.. Under dead load. In this way the 924 precast panels of the roof could be made from only six sets of standard shell compo- nents.'!""""... Definition of the torus geometry to means it needs depth. Key to this was the choice of a rational construction geometry for the curved roof shell so that it could be made from high quality.--. and this 4. which 1s defined by only two constant radii..winter peak slip-circle failure. External and temperature effects were built into the same parametric study to build up an overall picture of 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 the roof behaviour. this was the subject of much debate during the structural analysis. The softness of the chalk was varied well above and below expected values so that the sensitivity of the roof to movements of its foundations could be properly explored. data for chalk's horizontal stiffness do not exist and so had to be derived from first principles. out of components cut from a torus (doughnut).. Chalk fractures into blocks which makes prediction of its properties complex and rather empirical. concrete of a doubly curved structure of constantly changing radius would mean that there would be nearly 1000 one-off components. to ensure an adequate margin of safety against Temperature profile ..5 tonnes each.. the structure needs significant bending capacity to deal with the point loads from the suspended aircraft and other asymmetrical loads. T..me (24 hour clock) The chalk strata themselves were analysed 3 (Above and below).. minor radius 63m.. In any case. and weigh about 12.... The The roof discharges its thrusts through the sockets were neatly used during construction to abutments onto spread foundations constructed clamp the shell units onto the temporary staging.-.. Horizontal thrusts are of the order of 100 tonnes/m.5 tonnes in any direction. Load path from roof to foundations showing possible slip-circle failure. a funicular shape would give simple 6... against chalk.. 650 upper precast units stitched to the ribs of the lower T-shaped panels complete 7... The 27 4 lower precast curved panels have an inverted T cross-section..llfiill~ -r"--r--i~r-r-. 8.-. which weighs about 6000 tonnes reinforcement for the in situ connections.. but reaches a \I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I \I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I \I\ I\ I\ I\ I\ I competent Grade 4 within 2m-5m.. Precast concrete roof modules.--r--r--. accommodate the 852 plane: major The geometry was solved by designing the roof radius 277m. Close to the surface. Shell roof detail showing lower T precast units. Extremes of construction tolerances. the chalk is weathered to Grade 1 to 2. but manufacture in upper precast roof units... Roof study: concrete and steel as climate modifiers. Each lower pre- cast T unit is provided with two aircraft suspen- sion points by means of cast-in steel sockets with Soil/structure interaction a capacity of 13.The proiect would be affordable 1f it were possible to create a very efficient structure that was simple to manufacture and build.. a series of parametric analyses were carried out using the Arup non-linear program FABLON..."T'". factory-produced components.::l\l'f.. 2 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time (24 hour clock) THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 11 ...-. movements of their supports. Lower precast units showing cast-in the whole roof.. 5..

suspended from the roof structure. Long-term movement monitoring. which catered for the p-delta ettects directions. the aircraft had been placed inside the building or drastically reduced foundation stittness values. a result of the 'one loadcase at a time' side of non-linear work.5m high. Areas of reinforcement were of foundation movement and shell deflection generated in this manner and attributed to together with a study of the ettect of setting-out zones of the roof surface to build up a map of construction irregularities. the • The steel arms are given flexibility on plan. as well as membrane ones. The taller mullions are deeper. the plates are clamped The assembled loadcases. 14 Laboratory tension tests on 100mm roof panels. ideal for units. around their pinned feet into their vertical position. and the fact that the roof must 18m high. the suspended aircraft Post-processing of the precast each with two mullions and one set of transoms. The whole system can be lowered to the ground Structural engineering often involves thousands in the same manner to allow major changes in the of man-hours distilhng a complex idea into 11 (below). June 1996. and patch loading of to roof lower plate mullions are linked into vierendeel frames. Aerial view of the nearly completed shell. means that the series of twin vertical steel plate mullions 25mm structure has to resist significant bending stresses thick and 40mm apart. Between the vierendeel sets the transoms are manipulating large quantities of numbers - loose-fit to provide erectton tolerance. snow. depropping was also about 50mm. doubling 1n the showing that it has a factor of safety against long term. of curved profiles.ade 1n its own plane. erected by rotating the assembled pairs of mullions up to 100mm out of position. (The thickness of the • The front of the roof is fully restrained . A 'worst credible' scenario was The glass fa<. the double changes. with typically two The structure was analysed in 30 also using layers of 8mm bars at 150mm centres 1n two FABLON. 12. 13 A to L.ade was assembled in situ once all also considered with reduced load factors. This 1s planned to happen something that appears very simple. and sophisticated analysis of the Duxford roof placing upper eventually proved that the shells could be precast units. General construction sequence: A 2 February 1996. glass is beneficial in limiting the transfer of solar radiation. the largest of which are strains controlled as follows: 3m wide by 5. aircraft exhib1t1on. This. Boundary conditions It 1s stabilised out-of-plane by the roof. 10 Pouring in together 1n pairs by studs. the behaviour of the shells was only mildly non-linear. temperature s1tu stitches stability of the fa<. B. The non-linear model was also used The predicted deflections of the front arch were to explore the buckling behaviour of the roof. To ensure overall included allowances for wind. spaced at 3m centres. 9. 7 February 1996. Formwork for the in situ canopy in the foreground. twin mullions are simply plasma-cut from 25mm • The back of the roof is supported vertically but steel plate to match the bending moment is free to move laterally on sliding bearings. using single-glazed were carefully selected. and eventually and the worst structural setting-out imaginable. analysis output was spreadsheet-based. creep. about 50mm upon depropp1ng. The glazing support structure is a accommodate suspended loads. is ongoing summer and winter until 2000. but all are within a family movement. The measured deflection upon buckling failure 1n excess of 6. diagram. At the front of the building the arched opening 1s from the ideal funicular shape that would maximise closed by a glazed wall some 90m across and arch action. but 1s for the model (and 1n details of the real building) otherwise self-supporting. around 17 1n all. shrinkage. 26 February 1996 12 THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1 7 . Lengthy Erecting and every 10 years or so. Corner Junction of four lower The glazed wall The circular geometry given by the torus departs precast units prior to concreting. with thermal and shrinkage 19mm sheets of glass. Analysis reinforced extremely simply. A comparison of linear required reinforcement so simple that it could and non-linear analyses of the roof showed that be contained on one sheet of A4 paper. the • The curvature of the roof allows out-of-plane shorter ones shallower.) As the height of the opening varies. including foundation movement.To prevent buckling of the compression zone. C 20 February 1996 D.

2 April 1996. Positioning a secllon of the Iraqi super-gun. June 1996. 27 March 1996 F. G 8 May 1996. 15. 18 Suspending the first aircraft. July 1996. starling from the front foundations and increasing . 16. H. The completed shell roof prior to de-propping. the U2 spy plane weighing 5.t moves to the rear of the shell. The perimeter light slot is v1s1ble. Sequence continues II.n width as . 5 June 1996. weighing 45 tonnes. September 1996 E. . The shell at the topping out ceremony. September 1996 17.9 tonnes.

Alter analysing schemes through the lighting slot. Some five months on. fixed pin. the team chose to this. 21. the project was fortunate during the controlled humidity regime with minimum active foundation works to have very little rain. conditions are maintained by a with 20 passes needed across each of the 600 close control air-conditioning system with electric or so jacks.for winter evenings. J. South-east side: Cost shell supported by variable length steel arms in)roduced into them.5M. together units or 40 upper units. 6 November 1996. 20. 25 July 1996 K. allowing placement of the first steel arms where temperature control is unnecessary. construction totalled approximately £8.1M. Toilets are tempered The internal works. proceeded the exhibition space is achieved by a DX coil alter the falsework was removed. Front glass wall: Front glass wall: detail of head detail of foot sliding support. 19. a direct expansion (DX) cooling coil and a steam humidifier. effectively averaging complete. although planes do not affected by severe cold. The glass wall cost £1. is sufficient to buffer the end of June 1996 and took about a week to extremes of heat and cold. erecting the glass wall. heating coils. but the deeper parts of the plan American Air Force veterans. Elizabeth II met the project team and. This is supplemented by 2000W floodlights - 46 in all . On a good day Temperature th~ contractors erected either eight lower precast The thermal mass of the concrete shell. Frost blankets and mind extremes of heat or cold. 11 March 1997. and completing internal finishes and exhibits Light continued until the official opening. Of indirect bouncing of light. in a rather flooding the adjacent part of the interior with moving ceremony. 12 June 1996. The Museum is divided into two heavily reinforced abutments emerged from the distinct areas: a large display area for the aircraft. South-east side: Humidity Work began in earnest in October 1995. and The total cost of the project was about £11 M. For on temporary falsework. while the cost of all the concrete work was Daylight pouring through the slot meets a sloping tendered at £4. part determined by the need to provide a carefully was inv~lved. General construction sequence continued: I. Some 800 tonnes of steel the latter area the environmental conditions are falsework was used to limit roof deformation temperatures of 22°C±2°C in summer and during construction. Jacks were unwound in steps of out day and night time temperatures. the structure of from the inside. but it was control. with strips of rooflights. and the connected to an air-cooled condensing unit with structure was essentially complete by September integral compressor. propped until all precast units were placed. In the 5mm progressively across the whole structure. and a small The precast units were then craned into position exhibition space for displays and artefacts. Pathway of natural light through perimeter lighting slot. place until the whole structure was assembled and ready to work as predicted. 1996. introduce a glazed slot around the perimeter. exhibition space. The great glass wall faces south east. This took Lighting is critical in achieving the desired viewing place on 1 August 1997 when Her Majesty Queen cond!tions. including casting the ground- in winter with electric convectors.Environmental/structural interaction Construction 22. just inclined columns supporting The nature and material of the building were in before the onset of winter. and that support the roof at the rear of the building. Depropping began at with the partly buried form. was watched by some 4000 natural light. and the entire roof was kept 17°C±2° in winter. would be dark unless daylight was artificially 23. while humidity is 55% RH. which attacks their frames curing. they are sensitive heating were used to protect the concrete during to condensation. . This is because. Cooling for bearing slabs and the elevated ramps. L. humidity is at 50% RH maximum. Installing the aircraft.4M. individual rooflights. reflective wall which bounces it back to gently light the great curve of the roof. ground. so Conditions in both spaces are maintained that no transfer of loads to the foundations took 24 hours/day. As chalk excavation the lower in situ edge beam at abutment level.

Reed Associates Main contractor. Richard Hough. Derek Bedden. 22-24: David Andrews 14. Faith Wainwright. Maggie Ricketts. 16. 18. 20. 13A-l. 9-11 . 8. Ray Young (structure) Mike Francescon. 21 : Gabriele del Mese 15: Roger Ridsdill Smith THE AAUP JOURNAL 3/1997 15 . 17: Peter Mackinven 7. March 1997. 12. Rear shell area supported by steel sliding steel arms through the glazed lighting slot. Duxford Architect: Foster and Partners Structural. David Andrews. Mike Banfi. and acoustic engineers: Ove Arup and Partners Steve Abernethy. Malling Precast Steel arms: Lindhurst Engineering Glazing: Focchi Roof membrane: Sarnafil Aircraft hanging: Vanguard Illustrations: 1-3. Andrew Lord. 5. 6. John Sisk Principal sub-contractors: Concrete: O'Rourke Precast roof. Ove Arup & Partners 24. Sean Walsh. Gabriele Del Mese. Nick O'Riordan (geotechnics) lain Clarke (acoustics) Services engineers: Roger Preston and Partners Quantity surveyor: Davis Langdon and Everest Safety aspects: Hanna. Chris Wise. Paul Cross. 19: Martin Hall 4. Credits Client: The Imperial War Museum. geotechnica/. Kevin Franklin.

and the machine test area. The new R&D headquarters building The overall layout is divided by the two-storey main was part of this expansion. meters and were expanding their successful preventing encroachment into the flood area. 16 THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 .2ha plot within a 2. Arup Associates was originally appointed in existing ground to the west and rises above ground November 1991 to design a new research and level on its east side. entrance. Newtown. whilst a Detail design started in July 1993 and was the building's curve is centred on a natural separate pavilion building with glazed walls and an completed in January 1994. 18m deep. heating. To the east. on the east side. etc. supported by the Development Board of Rural On the ground floor. 650mm above Powys. offices. and is linked to the main entrance hall focus all the R&D and administrative functions in accessed by visitors. it is raised above for client occupation in February 1996. They were to be under one roof but machine test space. To the west the site flood level with a grassed. external terrace houses the 48-seat restaurant and commenced in September 1994 and was finished Because of this slope. and roadway for service vehicles alongside. Newtown. where the line of the and other functional units. separately accommodated to give the R&D area to reduce noise. and mechanical the appropriate level of security. Like the main building. which penetrates the building's full depth. and built first. Natural ventilation took the form of a two-storey building. Most of the plant is at the west end on to reflect the high tech nature of the company busi. the building is cut into kitchen. A goods delivery and despatch area is located at has been used for the entrance area. meeting rooms. The site is a 1. Wales who were also supporting a new factory. varying in size surrounds the perimeter up to adjacent to St Giles Technology Park. The east elevation. extraction. where the staircase provides direct access to the two floors within the external envelope. Inside the R&D area is a by an open-sided. and lavatories. to the east. glass-roofed corridor. enclosed by blockwork walls Most of the main building is air-conditioned. plus an exhibition bank rising to window cill level around the Control Techniques' primary requirement was to space which can be viewed from the hall and perimeter. which are external. business. are the stairs. a manufacture variable speed drives for electric retaining wall holds the fill below the building. where they had their existing headquarters office floor level. landscaped separately procured. the chillers. is the R&D department itself. Construction landscape feature known locally as the Gro Tump. The building was R&D area to the offices. the north-west corner of the building with a paved ranVdining pavilion. except for ness. the restau- and curved on plan with an inner radius of 100m. window cill level on the ground floor. encouraged and grant. A landscape of grassed bank development facility for Control Techniques pie. Powys 1. Control Techniques' R&D HQ. Control Techniques site flood flow comes very close to the gable.Bha pasture. one place. A bridge at first floor level links the providing comfort cooling. and Arup Associates' response to this brief outside for fire escape. showing the circular dining pavilion to the north.

ck Lee (pro1ec1 co-ord1na10. Control Techniques pie Designers: Arup Associates D.) Dav. The main entrance is central on the south elevation composition. Norwest Holst Photographs: Andrew Puller niE ARUP JOURNAL 1997 17 .r Gourlay. effectively reducing solar gain. Declan O'Carroll (architects) Peter Skead. A fixed blade sunscreen is positioned along the southern glazed perimeter elevation. 4 (above). South elevation of the main building. Alas1a.d Thomas. The main plant and service entrance 1s situated to the west.d Hymas (electncal engineer) Geoff Stevens. Credits Ghent Developmen Board for Rural Wales Occupier. Nick Taylor (quanhly surveyo. 5 (below). The office environment The north-facing clerestory windows and transparent perimeter envelope provide good levels of natural daylight and fine views across the surrounding countryside. David Laing.s) Mam contractor.neer) Dav. Hanif Humayun (struc1ural engineers) Alan Ross (mechanical eng. 3 (below). Dick Lee Declan O'Carroll 2. signalled by a projecting glazed canopy.

given the desired design The better understanding that can be which we are unfamiliar. and how this understanding designers and constructors?' is a temptingly simple has been hugely underpinned by the development of Famlllar Materials question asked by engineer. confident in using these materials in solution seeking a problem . with craft-based boats to the bigger. These and other composites materials. structures. its interaction with other other industries. some way towards use.initial or whole life . New materials for construction Simon Cardwell Bob Cather Steven Groak Materials are ever-present in our activities: without them. in steel (Figs 3-5). architect or client. and after extremes of loading them. up before us. new to construction applications.. materials based upon the developing understanding of understanding unfamiliar materials are though.at least in research and commercial laboratories. to use prototyping and of behaviour and performance. To some extent not bring the straightforward response expected.but not aerospace or defence systems.before Armageddon . scanning electron micro. 'What new materials are available for their service performance. 30 years ago. we believe we know well and treat as them and have little of the detailed understanding needed Prominent among them are the increased interest in how commonplace . Stone and perspective of questioner and respondent. are. In some physical • the ability of. it may have seen service elsewhere. For many. but the needs or methods of may become widespread or they may ensure the promise is fulfilled in our adoption may be different and thereby not: It is too early to predict. This has evolved over the past also valuable when applied to materials study in their own right. this has been possible for metallic materials for many As with many simple questions. new ways by extending materials Super alloys performance beyond that which was because of their cost structure or lack Parafil ropes of existing design solutions. The same Adhesive joining components into the building. totally new. Microphotograph . Aluminium Brickwork One way of categorising a 'new' When will failure occur and is this material is to define it as one with acceptable. design life new applications. We have become well used to able to improve the efficiency of use or sealants acting as weather seals . To some extent the anchor invisible to radio signals. a range knowledge base can also help Arups of new performance requirements and its clients to achieve better Titanium is imposed. for timber design from an essentially where the potential advantages of craft basis to one of more fundamental It may be new in the sense of being engineering design more common.or with lesser Composites asked to be an adhesive. Examining stronger need for new materials and the microstructure of timber before. for maintenance structures are becoming as readily . however. it depends .it must? still developing in detail. . and the site practice to learnt.the familiar. for several reasons. but their extension into non-metallics has been Timber 'Well. and upon economic development within To embark upon the question of what the new materials Concrete the country concerned. Glass materials use. to component testing predict what behaviour we might • more developed concepts of. are of non-conductive aramid. therefore. upon the history of place . 'Unfamiliar'. filament ropes have for reasons of light elsewhere. Elsewhere. science.can we How far can engineers move with building applications. have a previously thought possible.for cement and concretes example. to hold environmental impact. we can already make . implies insufficient real experience. to address the concepts underlying existing and the chemistry and microstructure of materials governs emergent materials. they are means to ends. as at some point structure and behaviour exists but is 3. material.': It depends upon the experience a major benefit. and encounter from the new material in its shorter periods for. upon the scopes were barely invented. to achieve the same efficiency at lower to exclude water and air .albeit in differences in other industries are: In any assessment of new or unfamiliar materials there is clear benefit in • the ability to repeat production on a understanding the underlying science large scale. basic knowledge is known and it To bring unfamiliar materials into simply has to be applied . In materials wider use in building applications. a wider perspective is seen to essentially against the backdrop of an industrialised develop. of epoxy-Khaya glueline. some simplifying assumptions can be made and then Ferrous alloys The response developed here to the question is set by following an argument. the response starts with decades. something can be ing sector. How will the material or product A framework for understanding the behave and then fail . 'developed' economy. weight or radio transparency been to this progression is the need to used to stabilise mast structures (Fig 2). For the concrete material limit transfer. 18 THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 . life and maintenance? developed of these familiar materials In some instances materials that are can be used in two broad ways. A clear example is in the can permit a more pronounced move offshore and petrochemical industries. not subjects worthy of the science of materials. The upper guys on Torre de Collserola. It shows a perspective of 'new' The approach and benefits of we would have nothing to construct with. eg parallel Hong Kong (Fig 7) and considered Barcelona. and beyond (Fig 6). Honeycomb can more readily drive the adoption of during. we are still at the confidence in their potential stage of basic understanding opening 1. but it may sophisticated examination technologies. We tend be over-familiar with 30 years or so. the adoption of composites engineered boats we call concrete so that engineers are not sure or is at present perhaps more of a gravity platforms. well established (Fig 1). performance needs to be developed. In familiar will be asked to do unfamiliar conventional applications we might be Unfamlllar Materials things. or expectations for. Glassfibre reinforced epoxy pipe. today they are common- industrial background to the question.but when cost . or are they an exercise in structures have already progressed learning to better see what might be from the more common 40MPa and possible? Other advanced composite SOMPa concrete structures to the or new fibre materials have moved 1OOMPa plus now being used in 2. sciences there may be the temptation inspection and maintenance from time to time to assume that all in service. but is more likely to be advanced composites for lightweight components and enhanced chemical perhaps. solutions or to solve problems in Some construction applications can. develop confident design rules for the Where they have been employed in They are at present a small but interest. in resistance in pipes and safety and We can progress similarly . Some of the more obvious alone. really justify advanced composite this developing knowledge? Building footbridges.

Lateral thinking and cross. grey cast iron is considered by many as 'contemptible'. but with strengths. As we have tried to illustrate. from flake to 6. The research differently about the applications best vests.afs conlinues Ill> THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 19 . high into cold-forming plastics materials 'Contemptible' mater. have both featured in Arups' materials advisory role. loudspeaker in a similar generic material. (grey) cast iron was at the forefront of materials technology and firmly in the realms of the 'familiar'. 8. it was still inherently brittle and weak in tension. what of the materials we no longer use . Traditional timber-frame These newer applications will tend to boat-building. The resulting improvements in tensile fraternity are already working on suited to their particular properties. Ravenspurn concrete spheroidal. sive. strength and auctility have given rise 400MPa concrete and are wondering These applications may not be as applications and technologies can . Some already produce surprising results. This change in microstructure results small quantities . fertilisation of ideas and experience. today tensile and compressive strength. cast iron is formed. and lightweight bullet-proof fundamentally different properties. Some of these new concretes are not yet at the in place are for abrasion-resistant. MS3 wind turbine looking at 'unfamiliar' and 'familiar' generator with materials. the development and widespread a few centimetres long. and on the engineering properties of ice. primary structures at all. 4. the understanding of materials. is only availability of steel. in conjunction with (MDF) spring: such a structure. both tensile and compres. and use our new materials timber blades. is dynamic. and we will find that these demands will create an unfamiliar material about which we must predict and learn. of 200MPa (Rg 8). Grey cast iron may be regarded as 'contemptible' but by changing the distribution of the carbon. move our familiar material away from its more normal experience. and this is reflected in the application of the material. science understanding to benefit. If we can visualise this way of 5. We have not yet perhaps applied our new science to these lime materials yet but the scope is there. inherent in cast iron. it will be necessary to think quite enclosures. Macro defect-free cement These constraints. despite the great advances the material offered architecture and structural engineering. can at Taikoo Shing City Plaza. Hong Kong. following the 1970s oil price increases. we relearn or re-use 'contemptible' materials? Enquiries about thatched roofs.components with familiar structural grey hard stuff that strength washers. the high strength concrete products local ready-mix plant. spheroidal graphite (SG) gravity oil platform. However. like most things. led to the decline achievable due to MDF's high in cast iron use. As a result. as in the how to get to 600MPa! Be warned.the overly familiar discarded or contemptible materials? 'Contemptible Materials' Thatch Mud walls Lime mortars Cast iron Waste products Ice 7. to exciting new opportunities. 100MPa high strength concrete structure By applying our understanding. evolved from research sufficiently different from the more moulds for steel sheet pressing. Progress in basic understanding is inevitable. press described here. The potential benefits of lime mortars rather than the now more common Portland cement-based materials are being remembered. In fact they are powder-handling machine parts. During the Industrial Revolution.

unknown not because Smart materials: are as yet uncertain how to use them. crossing the industry boundary . New on the position and experience of Viewed from other industries. for example or more diversely (and somewhat commercial viability. Further ahead are metallic materials advantages in ease of fabrication. analysing and understanding their with current techniques different (Fig 10). Bob Cather Construction 8. highly corrosion- Western Morning News. From aerospace. 2~2). New carbon-based we know nothing of their chemistry or microstructure. can give seen where perhaps lack of familiarity Morning News HQ in Plymouth 1 (Fig 9). to exploit their Conference on Intelligent Materials. 8/1996. with consequent behaviour of other materials is radically changed when change of shape or property placed within the tubes. Other unknown materials have been discovered but we Continuing our theme we can see these materials in our have less knowledge of their structures and properties and current knowledge as unknown. Peter Mackinven Construction Graphics: Sean McDermott sector (Less Developed Economies) ~ Continuum of Ma erials 20 THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 .as in that continuum as knowledge and significant transitions across that June 1996. ('contemptible'). P. able to move from location to location the unknowable. materials in a continuum of categories. that with our available technologies. human behaviours through the other 'windows'. Summer 1991 . materials. spectrum. 28. Lyon. Ponds Forge the natural and organic systems. The Western Morning News. Similarly. far from being discarded compensate for the normal loss in nodes at Lee House on London Wall in to construction. Smart technology in hold many new models for engineers to Symbiotic associated with • to maintain a wider vision and construction: Dream or reality. construction or not. 4/1993. Continuum of categories of materials. Discoveries in construction-oriented activities have 15. unfamiliar. Now titanium is also and the adoption of a wider range of fai. may offer advantages Now. have been identified. The Forge swimming pool in Sheffield3. 2.unknowable in the sense Unknowable Materials in different windows. panels. SG cast iron glazing brackets at • improved quality control of of gunmetal and aluminium bronze. Additionally.1). There is a challenge to develop the maximise their flexibility to achieve Architects' Journal. Peter Ross Aerospace applications 5.being cast materials have resulted from new widely used for metal roofing panels in skills in: As we may now consider iron and steel Japan. P. Wavin Repox bv 10.super . Clare Hacker 4.biomimetic (eg self-healing) it is suggested that the normal chemical and physical • undergo controllable phase change. diamond or because their characteristics and behaviour in any industrial graphite. Beyond the unknown materials are the materials would quite probably reside References unknowable . and in the visual limited designers' aspirations. explored here is . pp3-9. make them function and adapt to their Living organisms materials they find familiar environment are intriguing and perhaps (4) SHEEHAN. · fire-resisting steels 'buckyballs' (buckminsterfullerenes) and.4).detecting I responsive materials not of the established allotropes. pp 12- difficult or impossible. cast iron (SG) has the City2 and the roof of the Ponds aluminium alloys are already being Smart materials are a subject in their own right and a • behave as selective membranes separate study by Tony Sheehan of Arup R&04-6 is Unknown Materials • demonstrate self-healing and other biomimetic properties. 2. notable examples have included the other industries. The Arup understanding of the materials visible Journal (for forthcoming publication) follow.hollow tube microstructures with a diameter They encompass a wide range of materials and definitions. was said at the beginning . The cast steel nodes for Materials scientists in essentially Lee House. as used in various forms: sheets and developments in casting technology well as the Western Morning News extrusions. T. of the order of a few nm7. the trend could be manufacturing processes are also • fracture mechanics continued to other materials at present • computer modelling of casting crossing industry sectors . advances in castings as familiar. become more familiar. are still relatively unknown. etc. Niki Photography applications 7. and systems. familiar. and Encouraged by the use of less common resistant alloys from the offshore • improved foundry practice. p37 (also means of understanding these materials desired and optimum design published in Germany as 'Neue Baustoffe'. the better known being application. Ben Johnson 3. Illustrations: 1. 13 July 1995. glazing brackets at the new Western in ferrous materials. composition and microstructure is (2) McCARTHY. are the new materials?' might then be questioner and responder. familiar in everyday practice in their microstructure on heating to nuclear waste containers. The p. (6) Smart materials in construction. N Alford sector (Developed Economies) 9. p62). Again. cast product for aerospace applications) has been recent projects have adopted castings used for the manufacture of cladding 9. monitoring and reviewing the possible applications. sub-molecular structures In this class of materials are many of three broad tasks: (3) BROWN. (7) BALL. but . M. their experience (1) BAILEY. C.dependent understanding of them changes . We can see • to scan constantly the potential of taken to a new plane. from the contemptible to Proceedings of the Third International The perspective of the new. strength in steels. Spring 1988. pp8-11 . Other metals. et al. Through the nanotube.ossibilities are enormous . particularly many other metallic materials can be construction applications. the same Scientist.l. more recently. with them in construction had previously with a 'smart' capability. materials. The Biotechnical • to maintain and extend their International Sports Centre. They can: · shape-memory alloys These materials appear to have incredibly high stiffness. and • detect and/or respond to their environment . Many ironically) as shock absorbers for fire-resisting steels which change quality of the construction. the possibilities of market are beginning to find uses in The application of casting. and the question of 'what solutions Baumeister. The Arup Journal. Wind Energy Group Ltd Automotive LIIIMlk ~ ~ 6.relatively unfamiliar. pp28-31.:ade.but what? And where? · controllable phase change 'nanotubes' . so as to (5) Advanced construction materials. The Arup processes in living organisms that fundamental understanding of the Journal. materials in castings. 6 July 1996.as far as building applications are plastic forming (originally developed processes and the effects on the concerned . eg not detectable/analysable and use of them possibly being quite The Arup Journal.

THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/1997 21 . the and Ralph B Peck. monitoring because tighter health and safety • Establish the design. procedure provides the designer in the conservatism of some geotechnical economic solution. on the other hand. the monitoring From civil engineering's infancy. One design and one set of predictions based on limited Two or more design and construction methods are sutt1c1ently Technical considerations construction method considerations. as projects. process of economical use of resources and also a major role. important savings can be some recent developments in the OM fully developed before site work starts made by designing on the basis of the was used in a wide range of ground and examples of its application by on a particular phase. However. there will be no need to follow and modifying designs evolved with Industry Research & Information with the available data on the the OM. compatible with current in using the OM defects. integrated. design. quality assurance. monitoring is sometimes used but unfavourable possibilities. It highlighted results and provide a safer and more hypothesis. information should be reviewed by competent people. Design and planning are concerned Predictions unlikely to be exceeded. foreseeable conditions. interpretation afld Design cases should cover all the likely modification plan or emergency plan implementation are required scenarios. One objective of the CIRIA 'Observational Method' (OM). and design method and the OM no primary intention to vary the design the design is modified in accordance Peck's definition of the OM embodies during construction. monitoring plan. construction control. Civil Engineering Ltd. increase safety. Recent developments the OM. plan. eg most probable and most unfavourable. team organisations are also essential. The predefined design method However. has and most unfavourable conceivable construction modification strategies follows: 'The Observational Method in interest revived in the method per se . regularly reviewed. are exceeded then unforeseen conditions have developed and interpretation. it most probable rather than the most Arup Geotechnics. developed Jointly by the contractor and the designer conditions of contract. The objective is to achieve greater overall economy without compromising safety. although the final draft predictions are not exceeded. 1t r. The gaps in passively. construction The design. and designers to consider the range of Report is to clarify OM concepts and since then aspects of it have been necessarily in detail. construcuon method and construction programme with data gathering. subsurface conditions. pattern and The OM. monitoring. There is of Eurocode 74 recognises it as a observations during construction. data programme not constrained by monitoring results. as there is no pro-active the development of modern soil Association asked Arup Geotechnics. and design Monitoring limited to checking that predictions are not exceeded. assurance that the soil-supported a robust procedure for implementing structure will not develop unanticipated • Modify design to sutt actual condtions. in planned before work starts on any ground engineering is a continuous. and to motivate the project team. is used actively to provide data for the priate. The foreseeable significant deviation of to a possibly unsafe or maybe They stated: 'Design on the basis of Funders Report CP/49 3 for this has the observational findings from those unnecessarily expensive solution. This article describes OM gained world-wide recognition and construction. tions if appropriate or emergency structural performance. however. the allocation of resources to achieve objectives and decide priorities. to strengthen links calculate their anticipated values on trigger criteria and planned modifica- uncertainties in the ground and on between designers and constructors. Good corporate and project as the basis for management and design decisions. modification or emergency plans. The OM has formidable anticipated under the most probable conditions. based on can be implemented sufficiently quickly and review which enables previously regulations require project participants a working hypothesis of behaviour to avoid the development of failure defined modifications to be incorporated to assess risk. The construction control plan must be rapidly implemented to ensure that the limiting trigger cntena are not exceeded. to clarify construction control/manage. risk assessment. modifications will be implemented if the trigger criteria have been exceeded. developed to include predictions for tngger criteria. If predictions may be changed depending on the rev. deviations from these conditions. If there is little uncertainty about the for predicting. and the work may need to stop whilst problem is resolved. quantities under the most . In September 1995 the Construction unfavourable conditions compatible ground. Monitoring is essential and during or after construction as appro- potential: to provide benchmarking conditions. the Hong Kong 'Guide to retaining wall referred to this process as the least the general nature. monitoring. Emergency plans must be introduced in accordance with the which set out agreed procedures and ~-~- Construction (Health Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 frequency for monitoring instrumentation This can be ac111eved as an extension of the OM mgger cn\ena and reporting results. contractor in his method statement. to • Select the quantities to be observed review stage. it was officially defined. Similar • Explore sufficiently to establish at requirements have been adopted in In his 1969 Rankine Lecture2 Peck design method'. The process of implementation (Fig 1 overleaf) emphasises national A construction method option may be outlined sufficiently for the A flexible construction method statement is developed which can and corporate policies.rat failure does ric records and construction progress . mechanics theories by Karl Terzaghi in collaboration with Balfour Beatty • Select in advance a course of action But if there is great uncertainty. The the most unfavourable assumptions is been completed and is now available OM can take account of the monitoring predicted on the basis of the working inevitably uneconomical but no other to all CIRIA members.· Table 1: Comparison of the predefined design method and the OM The OM can be adopted from the The OM outset or later if benefits are identified. Management o construction. Comprehensive and robust monitoring. on advance of construction with the • Measure quantities to be observed design parameters and also developed and evaluate actual conditions certain types of projects. The planned The OM may be initiated at this stage in its 'best way out' format.but may do parametric study. to improve value/economy.'1 the following eight 'ingredients': referred to this as the 'predefined requirements for using it. This is subsequently developed by the incorporate design changes and modification strategies often safety regulations. Designs are to provide a clear framework. The CIRIA report design method and states the with the findings. All these aspects have to be demonstrably robust. if the project permits design codes and Health and Safety Traditionally a single robust and modifications of the design during possibly over-conservative design is After Peck's 1969 Rankine Lecture. the basis of the working hypothesis.but not design's. and monitoring specifications should be developed Emergency plans are needed to control failure. to reduce design as construction proceeds. In the late 1940s an integrated process ment. partly due to concern for more this assessment geology often plays particular element of work.ew of monitonng results. codes. monitoring and planned modification. The Observational Method in ground engineering Che-Ming Tse Duncan Nicholson Introduction data. Only recently. Therefore. to confirm that design has not been referred to in British the available information are filled by The traditional predefined design codes. and results are compared with predicted visual checks have been made on uncertainties. important to ensure that modifications design. requires properties of the deposits . Instrumentation engineering operations.ay be that the best way out OM can be rtroduced to overcome unforeseen ground conditions. • Calculate values of the same plans if required can be introduced. Here. For the used informally on UK civil engineering • Assess the most probable conditions developed for this ran'ge and first time. the Regulations. eg health and design to be progressed. and design modifications planned so that they can be introduced The monitoring system must be sensitive enough to allow early in time to stop safety reducing discovery of a rapidly deteriorating condition The mod1f1callon unacceptably. to investigate or modification of design for every predefined design method could lead these potential advantages. However. if appropriate. Planning is managed. reviewing. Instrumentation beyond the serviceab hty limit state to ensure . it should not be used where there is insufficient time to implement Normally one set of soil Rarameters: eg moderately conservative The range of foreseeable soil parameters are considered fully and safely complete the planned or characteristic values (EC?) .

made and deformations of the tunnels by excavation to the formation level of The commitment of the members measured by tape extensometer.equlremems Skllls · quality Knowledge • health and safety Expenence Competence 22 THE AAUP JOURNAL 3/1997 . NB Details of the superstructure not shown frequency agreed by all parties in • Two berm sizes were designed: the project to provide independent assessment of the validity and 1. based < t O mm lateral movement on the 'moderately conservative' 2 3 <30 mm laleral movement oor~~~. Corporate & Project Organisation Minster Court. Basement excavation and propping Berm size reduced ii movement Stanchion Capping beam • The allowable movements of the recorded 1s satisfactory adjacent tunnels were agreed between the owner of Minster Court and LUL. Implementing the OM. About 5m from one side of 'large berm' initially. After consulting Arup 1 Excavate to lop of guide wall level Geotechnics.significantly less than constructed using a 'semi top-down' the specified criteria. • The ground movements were 'predefined' design. National& Arup projects Corporate Policy Arup Geotechnics has a long history of applying the OM to major proiects. About 800m of this road was A construction control cycle was set Management considerations constructed within a diaphragm wall up (Fig 8). followed competence. These. 3m high and a slope angle of 40°. In conjunction with case Existing District and Circle Une Implement planned modification history data for similar construction tunnel (or emergency plans) methods and ground conditions. with props placed between pairs of categories of culture. the contractor proposed 2 Construct diaphragm walls OM requirements and limitations 3 Construct capping beam RtSk management a simpler and more economical 4 Excavation inside walls leaving berms Research and developmant alternative construction sequence 5 Excavate to road formalion level Co-ape.ration Training and education (Fig 5) using the OM.2m high and a slope angle of 35°. The cumulative it are the LUL District and Circle Line movement at end of this stage was tunnels (Fig 4). steel sections would be required to prop between the diaphragm wall 2. Activity Engineer's specified performance 12. willingness to 'own' and solve were measured by surveying. London At Minster Court (Fig 3). included those from demolition of existing buildings. resulting in restricted working Heafth and safety space and a complicated construction Value management lnrsgrared design and consttvctlon sequence. Management considerations Quahty panel. designing temporary works. In-tunnel surveys were facing diaphragm wall panels. be broadly divided into the surveying. • The behaviour of the diaphragm Yes wall was analysed using the FREW program. Berm size and sequence of There is more interaction between 2. end of the excavation of the 'small berm' was about 13mm and the Monitoring The construction movements contingency measure was not required. TotaJ <40 mm lateral movement Bored pile assumptions. 6 Earth berm Clear communication Contract Reliable and timely inlorma&on gathering Risk-based control excavation at Retiab/8 and timely Information processmg Team building Batheaston/ Ref/able and r. and this needs As part of the permanent works The wall deflection and the excavation management and co-ordination. Installation of diaphragm wall. a 0. The temporary (within bays if necessary) props in the engineer's original design 6 Construe! permanent prop Business parrnanng 7 Construct pavement Enthusiasm were replaced with a controlled excavation sequence utilising earth B B berms (Fig 6). in during the temporary works design.8m thick • Construction of the basement diaphragm wall formed a 9m deep proceeded with the excavation to the basement. ometers. Bath the OM shown in Fig 1. inclinometers and extens. so it should be audited at a 3. and systems (Fig 2). retaining wall. The implication of this was that heavy problems are of critical importance. the engineer sequence were monitored against the Management considerations can measured at an agreed frequency by proposed a construction sequence trigger criteria during excavation. wide top. ie the sides of tractor confidence to trim the berm the basement wall were excavated progressively to the 'small berm'. 12m wide base.tend to become slack over 2. and trigger criteria were defined. giving the con- Design & Planning construction technique. and berm excavation 6 . Alternative construction sequence. top-down while the centre of the • The contingency plan was to backfill basement was excavated bottom-up. Demolition. but concern was raised about possible movements on the side The measured wall movement at the of the basement near the tunnels. were: T Not8 1h8t nol afl maximum All control systems • including the 1. Minster Court excavation. The temporary prop layout of the project team and their The movements of the tunnel walls was to be designed by the contractor. design projects. movements act at th9 same leveJ OM . 5.mely information revlewfng Resource planning Swainswick Auditing Bypass. time. Three examples are given below. the road. and 4. Minster Court construction sequence. A small berm for the moderately reliability of all the components of conservative condition with a 4m A4/A46 Batheaston/Swainswick Bypass. Installation ol diaphragm wall I the allowable movement in each 1 <15 mm lateral movement Diaphragm wall activity was defined. the berm to its original size in case Construction An earth berm was left to support the Control of large movements. 12m wide base. installation. the following procedures were adopted Review in implementing the OM: 3. strategy. Amey Construction.OM procedures and . Arups assisted the berm excavation were assessed designers and constructors on contractor. 5. The basement was about 1Omm . A large berm for the most unfavourable condition with a 8m retained cutting. Berm excavation. . OM projects than on predefined wide top. diaphragm wall 3.:ph1 Aallwue~t~:nslon 1.

1993. Amey Construction Ltd Site interpretation Institution of Civil Engineers. Also. environmental. substantial savings ground engineering: principles and Client: monitoring readings. the foundation. Geotechnical Design. 4. A4/A46 Bypass Identity neX1 stage Hong Kong Government. In: Friends Provident and Estates and General Proceedings of the Conference on Grouting in the Ground. in the UK. • counterfort drainage Wiley. Using this alternative PENNY. sets of soil design conditions . the following procedure would The application of the OM in the A4/A46 (3) NICHOLSON. alongside • increasing the original size of a five-storey underground car park. and difficulty in selecting are often at the core of Arups' design • Uncertainties in probed and bulkfill grouted.'most and implement the following contin References Credits probable' to calculate an 'amber gency measures where necessary: (1) TERZAGHI. Kand PECK. and Balfour Beatty Civil Engineering Ltd be carried out: was successful. Grouting sub-contractor: HMSO.as a best areas such as risk management and way out when unpredictable site safety management. the OM has much in common with only limited data on their nature. and standard penetration tures) were present. where there are large uncertainties. If movements exceeded the amber reduce active earth pressure. 1. OM have incorporated some Arup skill • Construction stage . 1967. ie partnering with If a solution feature was encountered. start immediately on completion of avoidable cost. • Post-tender stage . Norwich The 11 ha Castle Mall development in • probing and grouting (bulkfilling or the centre of Norwich (Fig 7) comprises compaction grouting) a two-storey shopping centre with a • excavating to backfill with concrete basement up to 18m deep. Client: (6) TSE. Keller Colcrete Ltd Illustrations: Reviewcontingency Inform engineer. Funders Report CP/49. Client: a 'red trigger'. The foundation design on site was tests (SPT) and plate load tests were founded in the Upper Chalk were would be probed to locate their extent modified within the general design made on treated solution features. The design was carried out using two 2. C-M and NICHOLSON. Grout pres- ground up to 10m thick overlying Nor. M. are significant ground engineering from good founding strata for spread the OM can manage effectively the uncertainties. Advantages and limitations Information Association based on 'most probable' conditions in • use ground anchors of the observational method in applied soil Research contractor: keeping with Peck's approach.partnering with other • Programme time constraints management. uncertainties exist. In: Proceedings of the Contractor: Conference on Retaining Structures. Foundations sub-contractor: (4) BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. 1992. Constructing the team. To implement Treatment techniques could then be solution features. Stent Soletanche Joint Venture Identify next Eurocode 7. 8: Jon Shillibeer/Sean McDermott with engineer Implement additional 3. footing size would be increased to The same service can be offered safety. or up to the retaining wall was limited. and frequency. allow for reduced bearing pressure by disciplines like maritime and environ- three methods of treatment were constructing a mass concrete slab contractors and share savings. a case range of five compaction-grouted from a higher occupation of site areas. cement/ pfa grout from 1. Geotechnique. Case 4: 2m-4m features beneath risks associated with them. in which holes (solution fea- across clear of foundations. A large design parameter values or in approach. designs in the future where there constructed to spread the footing load The aim was to maximise benefit on to good chalk around the feature. Selecting the foundation type took slab formation level to fill any voids. for example: foundations. the ground is a major source of the Lathams principles of innovation. likely design scenarios was developed: level. the OM is primarily Arup services like civil engineering. and there was with Case 1. This required a minimum sures and volumes were particularly wich Crag up to 10m thick and Upper overburden for treatment at any one carefully monitored for compaction Case 1: Solution features up to 4m level and depth of excavation near grouting. Guide to retaining wall design. RB. The Castle Mall site. Part 1: excavation stage Consulting engineer: General rules. BSI. DP. Case 3: For medium-sized solution uncertainty because of variable working together and partnering which features. applications. etc. a relatively untried technique Chalk. were made in the temporary works. Ove Arup & Partners Duncan Nicholson. C. Pad footings 3m across at a contiguous piled wall. Like value foundations would be probed and • Tender stage . 1995. pp171-187. Cambridge. Ove Arup & Partners (7) FRANCESCON. decide on further actions. The effective project objectives such as time and excavation. Review data. Ove Arup and Partners Extra readings Replace excavated soil immediately (8) LATHAM. Construction Industry Research and The construction programme was behind the wall (2) PECK. problems develop. adopted. Che-Ming Tse trigger. 7. into account: Case 2: Features up to 2m across • Uncertainties in ground conditions below a proposed foundation would be probed and bulkfilled with grout as Incorporating the OM into other Arup services The solution features were not located until close excavation. RB. size possibly being increased in size. M and TWINE. compacted feature. TSE C-M. pp327-348. Soil CIR/A Project trigger' and 'most unfavourable' as • excavate within bays mechanics in engineering practice. 7: Peter Mackinven contingency plans 6: Amey Construction Ltd THE ARUP JOURNAL 311997 23 . the feature would be geology. D. • excavate retained soil to mechanics. 1997. 1969. The observational method in Minster Court 1. building. Increase the frequency of construction sequence. contractual modified as work proceeded. 1~2). Temporary works designer: pp323-332. compaction grouted with a reduced intended to eliminate unnecessary or Foundation construction had to bearing pressure allowed on the bridges. Institution of Civil Consulting engineer: Engineers. Castle Mall. Case 5: >3m features at the perimeter arrangements were organised to give The general stratigraphy across the Depending on size and location of the bored pile retaining wall would be high flexibility for programme and site prior to construction was made features identified. It may also be used by other externally. The Castle Mall treatment of solution features in upper Client: Green Amber Red chalk by compaction grouting. mental engineering where similar envisaged: below the footing. with ground treatment of below ground and bulkfilled with a scenarios envisaged. Ove Arup & Partners Site control cycle. (5) GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING OFFICE.5m above the different cases. 5. with the pad foundation For many civil engineering projects. 2. 1994. London. Prudential Portfolio Managers Ltd CIRIA. Highways Agency Monitor deflection Design construction and monitoring of the Consulting engineer: and report basement diaphragm wall at Minster Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners Court.as an independent The recent CIRIA developments in the value engineering reviewer. while meeting other to offer competitive tender designs. The OM will thus enable ground treatment results mass concrete slab would then be modelling the problem realistically. 8. DP. Arups to offer clients cost-effective • Cost-effectiveness The above case histories show that.