Building Integrated Agriculture

:
Opportunities for Urban CEA

Innovations in Agriculture Conference AN INTRODUCTION

The Future of Farming
NYSERDA Viraj Puri
© 2007 New York Sun Works
March 4, 2008|Syracuse, NY All Rights Reserved

All rights reserved. All images in this publication are the
property of NYSW. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, and/or
otherwise without the prior permission of NYSW

New York Sun Works, Inc.
1841 Broadway, Suite 200
New York, NY 10023
USA

www.nysunworks.org

New York Sun Works

- Founded 2004, dedicated to sustainable engineering

- Design ecologically responsible, integrated systems to produce:

energy
water
food

- Engineers, biologists, ecologists, and managers

- Created (and currently operate) the Science Barge program

The challenge
• An urbanizing planet: half the world’s people now live in cities

• In the USA, buildings responsible for 39% of energy use, 68%
electricity consumption and 38% carbon dioxide emissions

• Increased urbanization, results in marginalization of natural world
and distance from food production

• Agriculture occupies 40% of the world’s land surface, uses 60% of
fresh water withdrawals worldwide, causes 15% of world
greenhouse emissions and is the largest source of water pollution

• Food travels hundreds of thousands of miles to reach urban
consumers, adding to traffic congestion, air pollution and carbon
emissions

a problem exacerbated by the trucking of food. NYC has >55 million square meters (>5.NYC is highly congested.000 hectares) of “unshaded” rooftop. with poor air quality primarily from vehicle traffic. These areas provide opportunities for solar collection via solar panels and plants. .

Vacant rooftops (New York City) ? Greenhouse agriculture (Almeria. Spain) .

) • Reduce or eliminate pesticides • Lightweight. modular technology CONS • Requires efficient heating solutions or waste heat • Need for specialized technological skills • Zoning and regulatory novelty (in cities) .Controlled Environment Agriculture PROS • Year-round local food production • Very high productivity per unit area • Very high water use efficiency • Contained waste stream (fertilizers. etc.

NYSW System Designs .

.

What started as a concept sketch… .

…began construction in summer 2006. .

.…set sail for the Manhattan waterfront in spring 2007.

…and opened to the public at Pier 84 in May 2007. .

director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and special economic advisor to the United Nations . Jeffrey Sachs. but to change.“The Science Barge is not only an invitation to ideas and learning.” -.Dr.

• solar power.The Science Barge A prototype sustainable urban food farm. Launched in Manhattan in May 2007. wind power. and biofuels. Features: • 120 m2 greenhouse. The twin missions are technical research and public education. engineers. rainwater catchment. • water desalination.. developers and city planners . demonstrating recirculating hydroponics. the Science Barge has hosted: • Over 6000 members of the public • 105 school groups • 65 journalists from 17 countries • Plus. architects.

POWER .SCIENCE BARGE CORE SYSTEMS: FOOD. WATER.

FOOD: GREENHOUSE + HYDROPONICS .

.

Hydroponic Systems Nutrient Film Verti-Gro Bato Dutch Bucket System Technique (NFT) Plant Towers All share: • High yield • High water use efficiency • Contained waste streams .

.

.

.

Evaporative cooling pad wall .

POWER: SOLAR + WIND + BIOFUELS .

.

mounted on passive trackers] WIND 2 kW wind turbine array [rated 400 W each at 45 km h-1. 1000 Ah @ 48 VDC [2 day reserve] 5.Energy Systems Cont’d SOLAR 2.45 kW solar array [12 panels over 19.5% efficiency. internally regulated horizontal axis] BIOFUELS 5 kW biodiesel generator [backup power] STORAGE Battery Bank.5 kW inverter-charger to provide 120 VAC power to the greenhouse grid .5 m2 surface. 12.

WATER: REVERSE OSMOSIS + RAINWATER CAPTURE .

sufficient rainfall on greenhouse roof for irrigation. Stormwater catchment Reverse Osmosis: Energy efficient (!) (200 L/kWh) .Water Recovery & Production Rainwater Catchment In NYC.

BIA / PV comparison (for NYC) BRIGHTFARM GREENHOUSE PV PANELS ONLY (with PV on 35% of greenhouse roof) Capital Cost $960 █████ $986 █████ Annual Revenue $44 ██ $280 █████████████ Net Annual Return $34 █▌ $84 ████ Carbon Offset (kg CO2) 12 ██████ 20 ██████████ .

.

provides heat to crops in the winter • Solar panels provide a perfect source of power to the greenhouse • Rainwater capture from greenhouse roof helps storm water overflow (problem for cities) and provides water for plants • A rooftop covered with vegetation can reduce solar heat gain through the roof . Building Integration – Key features • HVAC heat recaptured and diverted into the greenhouse.

Building Integrated Agriculture . others) • Service buildings (hospitals. etc) • Manufacturing / industrial (high potential for waste heat capture) NEW BUILD • larger installations • higher efficiency from building integration .Applications SCHOOLS • Large. flat roofs • Student nutrition / on-site vegetable demand • Fraction of the cost of a conventional science lab COMMERCIAL RETROFIT • Retail (ecological marquee project…food retailers. malls. gymnasiums.

Copyright Kiss +Cathcart. Architects and New York Sun Works .

Copyright Owen Waltz and New York Sun Works .

Copyright Owen Waltz and New York Sun Works Copyright Owen Waltz and New York Sun Works .

Copyright Patrick Hoyle and New York Sun Works .

Copyright Patrick Hoyle and New York Sun Works .

Copyright Patrick Hoyle and New York Sun Works .

Copyright Chungyi Fan and New York Sun Works .

.

• Vertical spacing of the double plant cable lift [PCL] row can be adjusted to maximize solar capture diurnally and seasonally. • Lightweight and modular system using vertical NFT trays or similar. .Vertically Integrated Greenhouse [VIG] • Combines a double-skin building façade with a hydroponic greenhouse. • Seeding and harvesting occur at the bottom.

VIG Benefits • Creates a productive [$] space within the double skin façade • Shades the building interior during summer • Reduces solar heat gain • Provides fresh air to building occupants • Utilizes waste heat from the building. .

.

.

Vertically Integrated Greenhouse concept .

.

even under glass. . Up to 1. reducing for each kg of vegetables produced in storm overflow. fuels in tractors and trucks. BIA brings health. Vegetable yields are 6.5 5. communities. BIA improves food safety. BIA reduces pollution. BIA protects rivers. surface waters. A cover of 4. BIA reduces waste. Integrated about 20 times the typical yields of field pest management does not require agriculture. 10. BIA combats global warming. a sustainable urban farm. 9. chemical pesticides. The roof can be kg of CO2 emissions can be mitigated designed to capture rainfall. BIA saves land. Recirculating irrigation 7. Urban vegetation mitigates the urban heat greenhouses eliminate the use of fossil island effect. 2. BIA saves water. Recirculating 8. BIA cools buildings. Waste heat from systems eliminate fertilizer runoff to buildings can heat the greenhouse. 3. BIA recovers rainwater. Building Integrated Agriculture: Key Features 1. Access to fresh consumes five to ten times less water vegetables is improved in urban than field agriculture.

New York Sun Works specializes in the design of ecologically responsible systems for the production of food. Inc. NY 10023 +1 212 757 7560 ww.nysunworks. Suite 200 New York. CONSULTING SERVICES: Building Integrated Agriculture Site Design Resource Demand And Supply Analysis Greenhouse Operational Planning Greenhouse Operation Educational Programming New York Sun Works.org . 1841 Broadway. energy. and water.