The Botanical and Chemical Distribution

of Hallucinogens*

Richard Evans Schultes, Ph.D."

Out of the vast array of species in the plant substances, the majority of which are, or may be
kingdom — variously estimated at from 200,000 to classified into the following groups: 1. j3-carbolines;
800,000 — a few have been employed in primitive 2. ergolines; 3. indoles; 4. isoquinolines; 5. isoxazoles;
societies for millennia to induce visual, auditory, tactile, 6. /3-phenylethylamines; 7. quinolizidines; 8. tropanes;
and other hallucinations. Because of their earthly effects 9. tryptamines. Non-nitrogenous compounds which are
that often defy description, they have usually been the active principles in at least two well-known
considered sacred and have played central roles as hallucinogens include: 1. dibenzopyrans; and 2. phenyl-
sacraments in aboriginal religions (Schultes 1969a). propenes; other compounds, such at catechols and
Scientific interest in hallucinogenic agents has alcohols, may occasionally play a role.
recently been intense, partly because of the hope of In the study of hallucinogenic plants, two
finding potentially valuable drugs for use in experi considerations must be borne in mind. One considera
mental or even therapeutic psychiatry and also for use as tion reminds us that tfiere are some of these
possible tools in an explanation of the biochemical psychoactive plants used in primitive societies for which
origins of mental abnormalities (Hoffer & Osmond the active chemical principles are as yet not known. The
1967). other emphasizes that man undoubtedly has utilized
While psychoactive species are widely scattered only a few of the species that actually do possess
throughout the plant world, they appear to be hallucinogenic principles: we are, as yet, far from
concentrated more or less amongst the fungi and knowing how many plants are endowed with psycho
angiosperms. The bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, tomimetic constituents, but there are certainly many
ferns, and gymnosperms seem to be notably poor or more than the few employed by man as hallucinogens f t
lacking in species with hallucinogenic properties (Schultes 1967).
(Schultes 1969-1970). These hallucinogenic properties While almost all hallucinogenic compounds are of
can be ascribed, likewise, to only a few kinds of organic vegetal origin, a few may be wholly or partly synthetic.
constituents, which may be conveniently divided into The potent hallucinogen, lysergic acid diethylamide
two broad groups: nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous (LSD), although very closely allied chemically to the
compounds (Der Marderosian 1967a; Farnsworth 1968 naturally occurring ergolines, has not been found in the
& 1969; Hofmann 1961a & 1968; Taylor 1966; Usdin & plant kingdom.
Efron 1967). See Figure 1 for basic chemical skeletons.
NON-NITROGENOUS PRINCIPLES
The nitrogenous compounds play by far the greater
role and comprise, for the most part, alkaloids or related 1. Dibenzopyrans
Cannabaceae
Cannabis. — The most important of the non-
•Reprinted, with permission, from Annual Review of Plant nitrogenous hallucinogens are the dibenzopyrans in
Physiology, Volume 21, Copyright © 1970 by Annual Reviews Cannabis sativa, source of marijuana, hashish, bhang,
Inc. All rights reserved.
** Executive Director and Curator of Economic Botany, ganja, and other narcotic products. Cannabis, a.
Botanical Museum of Harvard University. monotypic genus sometimes placed in the Moraceae but

Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 247 Vol. 9(No. 3) Jul-Sep, 1977

3)Jul-Sep.OH JO R' ^o" if JL N-CH. BASIC CHEMICAL SKELETONS OF PRINCIPAL HALLUCINOGENS Non-nitrogenous compounds C5H„(n) Phenylpropenes Nitrogenous compounds . 9(No. >-OR Isoxazoles Tro panes Quinolizidines Pbenylethylamines Isoquinolines Tryptamines &-Carbolines lb oga-in doles Ergolines FIGURE 1 Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 248 Vol. 1977 .

and safrol have been hydrocannabinol has recently been shown to be the suggested as the active constituents of the oil. . and Uzbek tribes of central Asia have used on the chemical composition of the resin. and tetrahydro. some poor. may be converted from surrounding the seed. at Cannabis. 1977 . The first biologically distortion of perception of time and space. methylisoeugenol. 1967. The compound A1-tetra propenes. a crystalline material called lagochiline. active principle to have been structurally elucidated and tachycardia. usually several teaspoonfuls. Schulz 1964). some even in prisons in the Unites States (Weil 1965. have indicated that it is a polyhydric (Weil 1969b).have led to a disturbing lack of (Bunge 1847). the plant is native employed aboriginally as a narcotic in southeastern Asia. This variability and the absence of controlled gathered usually in October. — For centuries the Tajik. Other Compounds: Alcohols that some of these conversions take place more readily Labiatae and rapidly in the drier tropics than in temperate Lagochilus. Truitt effected during the smoking of Cannabis. (Mechoulam et al. headache. flowering tops. 9(No. are toasted and made into a experiments — almost all experimentation has been done tea. dry mouth. It is sometimes used as an spontaneous in most parts of the world. While these properties may properties. cannabigerol. Many phytobiotic factors seem to have effects Turkomen. dizziness. Cannabigerol 1967). 2. Hofmann 1968). native of the Moluccas and source of two instability of some of the constituents which. Lagochilus inebrians as an intoxicant. 3) Jul-Sep. represents perhaps Myristicaceae one of the oldest and certainly the world's most Myristica. although cannabidiol. methyleugenol. Cannabaceae. Tartar. both related compounds. active to inactive compounds or vice versa. and isoelemicine. Cannabinol and the tetrahydro effects vary appreciably but are often characterized by cannabinols have been synthesized. More recent social and legal control of the use or abuse of the drug studies. a situation that has seriously handicapped first thought to be an alkaloid. ground nutmeg is taken compound has antimicrobial properties (Farnsworth orally in large doses. 1969a). when heated with an be attributable largely to elemicine. fragrans. no studies on the acidic catalyst. some of which are rich. and occasionally synthesized was A1 -2. and the white with crude plant material of unknown chemical flowers. probably to central Asia but is now found cultivated or where it is native. terpenes.The tree that yields the spices nutmeg widespread hallucinogen. and aromatics. Myristica is a genus of some 120 species of the Old The widely recognized and extreme variation in World tropics. myristicine. The psych opharmaco- cannabinolcarboxylic acid (Hofmann 1968. myristicine or safrol are responsible for a significant part Cannabinol and cannabidiol are devoid of euphoric of the hallucinogenic effects. It seems doubtful that Cannabichrome has likewise been reported as active. and the latter For hallucinating purposes. Korte & logical effects may be attributable to several phenyl Sieper 1965. upon aging products: nutmeg from its seed and mace from the aril or maturation of the plant. The only commercially important species psychoactive effects of Cannabis is due possibly to the is M.3-trans tetrahydrocannabinol visual hallucinations (Weil 1967). Elemicine. however. The collectively called tetrahydrocannabinols and sundry composition of nutmeg oil is highly variable. qualitatively and quantitatively. Phenylpropenes in a separate family. and cannabidiolic acid are sedative. a conversion that may be safrol have as yet been made (Shulgin 1967. Honey or sugar is added to lessen the bitterness constitution . It is believed 3. SCHULTES HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION 0ftcn allocated. which principal biologically active constituent of Cannabis may also contain eugenol. 1967 & lacking in the intoxicating principles. was isolated. the psychoactive principles are contained from the resin. (Hofmann 1968). may be converted into an active mixture psychopharmacological activity of pure elemicine or of tetrahydrocannabinols. acids. including cannabinol. It is represented hallucinogen in sophisticated circles in Europe and by many agricultural varieties and ecological races or North America and has occasionally become a problem strains. isoeugenol. Mechoulam & Gaoni 1965). uniformity of opinion on the physiological effects of In 1945. sometimes with stems. climates. The leaves. but it does contain fatty cannabidiolic acid. The source also of hempen and mace — Myristica fragrans — is thought to have been fibres and of an edible seed-oil. alcohol and that it occurs in concentrations of up to 3% Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 249 Vol. The biodynamic activity of Cannabis is due to a Although its toxicology has not yet been wholly number of constituents contained in a red oil distilled elucidated. mainly to a mixture of stereoisomers probably in the essential oil of the seed and aril. cannabidiol. together with the hops plant (Humulus). The 1968.

N . o-c-ch-^) CH2OH scopolamine ergine (Datura) (Rivea. Ipomoea) '(CH2)2-N(CH3)2 5-methoxy-N. Stropharia) ibogaine (Tabernanthe) CHaO-r^ 7pCH2CH2NH2 CH3O mescaline (Lophophora) OCH3 harmine (Banisteriopsis) CONH N-CH.N-dimethyltryptamine (Virola) C5Hn(n) CH2)2-N(CH3)2 dimethyl tryptamine A1 -tetrahydrocannabinol I (Anadenanthera. Banisteriopsis) (Cannabis) H FIGURE 2 Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 250 Vol. 9(No. MAIN HALLUCINATING CONSTITUENTS OF PSYCHOTOMIMETIC PLANTS muscimole 0PO3H (Amanita) H . Mimosa. 3) Jul-Sep. l?77 .C H2 0 ^"^O0 '^ (CH2)2-NH(CH3)2 ch3o psilocybine H (Psilocybe.

a genus closely allied to (Deulofeu 1967. but voucher botanical f3-carboline structure of wide botanical and geographical specimens are lacking (Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967). harmalol. and Manchuria. Harmala alkaloids have been reported from snuff The seeds of Peganum Harmala contain harmine. pinde. Willaman 1961). While it is valued in folk medicine. — The Syrian rue or Peganum Harmala is what appears to be harmaline (O'Connell & Lynn 1953). for study of these infrequently flowering jungle lianas. vague reports notwithstanding. Schultes 1957 & 1961). the aborigines use as hallucino 2. even though it Amazon indicates that it may also be used as a snuff. Colombia. the seeds inebrians. 1977 . Banisteriopsis. having been isolated from at least eight Harmine has been isolated from Cabi paraensis of plant families of both the New and the Old World the eastern Amazon. its While Banisteriopsis Caapi is normally employed as purposeful employment as an hallucinogen is open to a drink. recent indirect evidence from the northwest question. the taxonomy. partly because of the lack of fertile material of which were employed as a divinatory hallucinogen. also of Oaxaca. Cappi. The genus Lagochilus More recent examination of botanically authenticated comprises some 35 species occurring from central Asia material of this species has established the presence in to Persia and Afghanistan. — In wet tropical forest areas of Zaltzman 1954). Although A genus of some 100 species of tropical America. distribution. Bolivia. . Usually only one species properties. Caapi which they plant is due possibly to the same constituent responsible named telepathine. 1968). Deulofeu 1. collected amongst the Mazatecs of Oaxaca and even though the first botanical attention to this drug determined as Rivea corymbosa. several Mexican botanists accepted this identification Banisteriopsis is taxonomically still rather poorly during the last century. powders prepared from a vine said also to be the source harmaline. This is true especially of B. It is a collection" of B. Lagochilus inebrians botanically determined material for analyses has created was made official in the eighth edition of the Russian chaos. and Peru. 3) Jui-Sep. bases of a typical of an intoxicating drink. Schultes 1941. this species represents possibly the narcotic tlitlilzin of The chemistry of these hallucinogenic species of the ancient Aztecs (MacDougall I960. but occasionally admixtures may Know as coatl-xoxouhiqui ("snake plant"). the bark . and harman. j3-Carbolines 1967). does have psychotomimetic principles (Porter 1962). It was also used medicinally. yet failure of chemists to insist upon Because of its versatile effects. B. 9(No. Peganum have long been esteemed in folk medicine. Ergolines gens several species of Banisteriopsis containing harmala Co nvolvulaceae alkaloids: B. Earlier workers isolated alkaloidal constituents pharmacopoeia. the presence of harmine in of Asia Minor and Asia and in southwestern United concentrations matching that of freshly collected States and Mexico. banisterine. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 251 Vol. it is Malpighiaceae apparently not employed as an hallucinogen (Mors & Banisteriopsis. not until 30 years ago was a understood. Rivea. Caapi has indicated. It is known variously as ayahuasca. voucher specimen of a convolvulaceous plant. in spite of passage member of a genus of six species distributed in dry areas of some 115 years. northern South America. or dapa. Colombia. yageine.The early Spanish chroniclers of prepared from the bark of the stems in the Amazon of Mexico reported that the Indians employed in their Brazil. An intoxicating drink is Ipomoea. when it was first encountered in uncovered similar uses of another morning glory. enters the preparation. Recent investigations of B. Later field work plant dates from 1854. natema. and when applied as a poultice was said to have analgesic yaje. the religious and magic rites an hallucinogenic seed called Orinoco of Venezuela. Mongolia. all of which for the central nervous system activity basic to its folk were eventually identified as harmine (Henry 1949). inebrians. The recognized sedative activity of the from plants probably referable to B. inebrians have Zygophyllaceae isolated harmine from the stems and minute amounts of Peganum. Caapi and B. northwestern Brazil by the explorer Spruce (Schultes Ipomoea violacea amongst che Zapotecs. and the Pacific coast of ololiuqui by the Aztecs. adequately illustrated as a morning glory. s c H U LT E S HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION 0f dried plant material (Tyler 1966). it was be employed (Friedberg 1965. Banisteriopsis has been more critically investigated than Wasson 1962). caapi. an herb found in dry localities from the Mediterranean An interesting chemical study of stems of the type area east to India.and sometimes in the leaves — of harmine as well as occasional lesser amounts of harmaline and NITROGENOUS PRINCIPLES A-tetrahydroharmine (Chen & Chen 1939. Although this and other species of material (Schultes et al 1969). use as a narcotic (Tyler 1966). Ecuador.

in leaves of initiation rites of secret societies. Hylin & Watson 1965. first reported by French and experimentally (Taber & Heacock 1962). especially as \() employed as a divinatory narcotic in Mexico. supporting ethnobotanical southernmost United States. Mexico. genus of about seven species native to tropical Africa. apparently the principal mimetic action (Cook & Keeland 1962. The reasoning upon which There are folklore references to psychotomimetic this theory was based held that in four centuries no uses of /. Flying Saucers. Suspicion that fungal spores might have especially in Gabon and nearby portions of the Congo in contaminated the convolvulaceous seeds was ruled out Africa." such as present in seeds of /. Der Marderosian & Youngken 1966. stalks. 1964. 9(No. turbicoryn. 1963a. often referred to by its synonyms / occur together with minor alkaloids: chanoclavine. Tabernanthe is * alkaloids in a number of horticultural "varieties" of /. of woody vines. Sorcerers take the drug bet ore produced by the tissue of the morning glories communicating with the spirit world or seeking advice themselves.S C H U LT E S HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION! In the interval. in the western hemisphere. and Blue Stars — all of which seed is 0. Ergometrine appears to be horticulture by a number of "varieties. an identification that gained wide 1963b). I?77 . R. 0. Herran 1960). descriptions of this species (Naranjo 1969).012%. primarily an Asiatic species the Convolvulaceae. indeed. the seeds of both R. Tn Gabon. contain the hallucinogenic ergot alkaloids (Der Indians use smaller quantities of the latter than of the Marderosian 1967b). violacea. occurring in definitely -hallucinogenic. interest. One of the most interesting. Wedding corymbosa. were Twelve closely related indole alkaloids have been likewise isolated from seeds of R. Shinners 1965). Pearly Gates. Schultes significantly. convolvulaceous flowers resembled those of a Datura toxic effects. Summer Skies. has five Old World species and one. Taber e: a! species of Datura. and the Belgian explorers in the piddle of the last century. 1963b. former (Hofmann 1961a. corymbosa Bells. The use of iboga. Yet chemists were unable to America. corymbosa and /. and the isolate any inebriating constituents until 1960 and northern coast of South America.06% — and. it is employed in roots of /. corymbosa has at subsequently. they comprise up to 6% ot the compound apparently has no part in the psychoto dried material. rubro-caerulea and /. where its common names narcotic used had been observed for a morning glory. and appears to be spreading. and. tricolor. 3) Jul-Sep. Rivea. a relatively primitive fungus — in alkaloid-rich family known definitely to be utilized as an one of the phylogenetically most advanced angiosperm hallucinogen is iboga. Large amounts of a new glycoside. 1968. acts as a cholinesterase inhibitor. induced by Datura. Ibogaine. the eupnor Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 252 Vol. and as an hallucinogen Studies have shown the presence of these ergot (Hoffer & Osmond 1967. violacea but absent in R. 1961b. is of both species are ergine(dA-lysergic acid diethylamide) a genus of climbing herbs or shrubs. the borrachera and matacabra. to a minor extent. discovery of these alkaloids in fresh leaves. violacea and other species of Ipomoea. no psychoactive principle was known from 1964. Ergot alkaloids have been isolated frorr and might have led to confusion. carnea in Ecuador. acceptance (Safford 1916b). and Centra. Iboga-Indoles 1966. of which Ipomoea sidaefolia and synthetic hallucinogenic compound LSD were found in Turbina corymbosa are most frequendy emploved. Hofmann & Cerletti 1961). most delimitation of genera (Der Marderosian 1965. and isoergine (dA-isolysergic acid diethylamide) which /. refer to its inebriating 0. The total alkaloid content of R. violacea. ololiuqui-intoxication coincided closely with that The nomenclature and taxonomy of the Convol-Ui. Perezamador & psychoactive alkaloid. rarely semi-aquatic. 1967.are taken with iboga. as well as in the Sometimes other plants — occasionally as man> related genera Argyreia and Stictocardia (Der 10 . 3. Apocynaceae The discovery of ergot alkaloids — constituents of Tabernanthe. and lysergol. the yellowish root of Tabernamhc families was unexpected and is of great chemotaxonomic iboga. R Experimental psychiatry indicated that Rivea was corymbosa. not by infecting fungi (Taber et al 1963a). corymbosa. from ancestors (Pope 1969). a strong central stimulant. Pope 1969). field work (Osmond 1955). violacea. some of the Caribbean islands. of /. comprising upwards of 500 species in the The main psychotomimetic constituent of the seeds warm temperate and tropical parts of the hemisphere. Ipomoea. corymbosa indicated that these constituents are which is the Bwiti cult. Heavenly Blue. Datura had been and still is aceae are in a state of extreme confusion. but few have been chemical') Marderosian 1967. when ergot alkaloids related to the least nine synonyms. violacea and. but this reported from iboga-. This narcotic is of great social importance. ololiuqui had been identified as a Genest et al 1965. investigated. is represented in elymoclavine. — Probably the only member of this Claviceps purpurea. the most famous o\ R.

but other aspects of the complex peyote — intoxication. certain effects are characteristic: tribesmen of Siberia. macroscopia. Since the Cactaceae mushrooms often are expensive. and the Chukchi. a mushroom of the north-temperate zone of ethyl-3-hydroxy-isoxazole — an unsaturated cyclic Eurasia and North America — may represent one of the hydroxamic acid which is excreted in the urine. from the indirect of A. Rictus. a-amino- The Aryan invaders of India 3500 years ago a[2(3H)-oxazolonyl-(5)]-acetic acid. only very ibotenic acid. anhalonidine. Reti 1950 & 1954). The less active principles begun to take shape (Heim 1963b). — Lophophora Williamsii. could not be responsible. Until very recently it was twitching of the limbs. Its active principle angustifolium. occurring on all continents except South Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 253 Vol. is present in worshipped a plant. tactile.taken as extracts in water or milk. muscaria are choline. muscaria results probably from varying ratios of evidence at hand. mescalotam. choline. have been satisfactory. of the mushroom to which the strong inebriation could anhalidine. 5. hardly be attributed. pellotine. have isoquinolines. the zwitterion of a-amino-a-[3-hydroxy- recently has a clarification of the chemistry of its active isoxazoylyl-5)]-acid monohydrate. The use of soma substances structurally still not elucidated are also died out 2000 years ago. Europeans discovered the of appreciable variability between individuals and at narcotic use of Amanita muscaria among the primitive different times. or women may chew them and Isoquinolines roll them into pellets for the men to ingest. ltes HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION 5CHU blJCeous Alchornea floribunda. the god-narcotic soma. dashing madly about. moistened in the mouth. Finno-Ugrian peoples in western the supernatural and illusions of grandeur. Religious Siberia. Other com & Agurell 1967. More than 1000 psychoactive effects — mental confusion. either alone or in combination. Tradition has established its use become violent. 1969). of from 50 to 60 species. has more than 30 bases belonging to the having discovered that the inebriating principles were phenylethylamines and the simple isoquinolines (Agurell excreted unaltered by the kidneys. The reported presence of tropane Marderosian 1966. likewise an amino acid. and muscaridine (Waser 1967). Lewin 1964. Recent studies. acetyl Pallares I960. if unnamed bases recendy isolated (Agurell 1969. is employed also in the intoxication . Lundstrom interpretation of chromatographic data. McLaughlin & Paul 1965 & 1966. Trace amounts of bufotenine in the phorine. alkaloids has been shown to be due to incorrect Kapadia & Highet 1968. until exhaustion among other peoples (Brekhman 1967. lopho. and several as yet carpophores. the Siberians practiced lophophora. 1977 . however. alone ^nie way as iboga in another secret society in Gabon or with the juice of Vaccinium uliginosum or Epilobium but is apparently not hallucinogenic. The visual hallucinations are mentioned also in the Rig Veda hymns to soma (Wasson jue to the phenylethylamine mescaline (see Section 6). Wasson 1967 & 1969). than 100 species in attempts to identify soma. Waser 1967. occasionally colored visions of Ostyak and Vogul. Since the discovery in 1869 of muscarine. pounds detected in A. The most recent identification of The widely recognized variability in psychoactivity soma as Amanita muscaria appears. and taste hallucinations and intoxicating activity of Amanita muscaria has been other effects. Kapadia et al 1968. A dried mushroom may be held perils to be the indole yohimbine (Tyler 1966). musoazone. Der indeed it be present. several mushrooms sufficed to induce cosmopolitan. peyoglutam. the peyote ritualistic drinking of the urine of an intoxicated person. a period of good humor and employed as an orgiastic or shamanistic inebriate by the euphoria. Structurally related to these elaborate cult in which the inebriating juice was isoxazoles is the antibiotic oxamycine which often has ceremonially drunk (Wasson 1969). Reti 1950 & 1954). Isoxazoles Recent chemical and pharmacological studies have Agricaceae shown that the principal biologically active constituents Amanita. to be highly probable. Kapadia & Fales 1968a & 1968b. abnormal behavior — in man. Urine-drinking is 1969. the such as auditory. The genus Amanita. 9(No. and deep sleep overtake him. center of an varying but lesser amounts. and the partaker may northeastern Siberia. ibotenic acid and muscimoie in the carpophores. may be due in part at least to the attributed to this alkaloid. but none Wieland 1968). psychotic hymns to soma have survived in the Rig Veda. likewise. 3) Jul-Sep. describing depression. — While Amanita muscaria — the fly appear to be muscimoie. is In Siberia. Among indicated that muscarine represents a minor constituent the important isoquinolines present are anhalamine. Other active the plant and its significance in detail. and oldest of the hallucinogens used by man. the enolbetaine of 5-amino- agaric. Koryak and Kamchadal of overtones frequently occur. In spite In the 18th Century. Botanists have proposed more known to be present (Eugster 1967. anhalinine.

Peyote rites persist species of Datura. occurs to the phenylethylamines and the biogenetically related in tropical and warm temperate parts of both simple isoquinolines (see Section 4). Sophora secundiflora monotypic genus Lophophora. It was used in Texas called cimora (Friedberg 1964. it was placed in the Southwest and adjacent Mexico. The peyote cactus was first botanically described as and the Mediterranean area. amine mescaline is exclusively responsible for the visual Lythraceae hallucinations. Cactaceae Trichocereus. and a number of Echinocactus Williamsii in 1845. Astrophytum. Reti 1950. Schultes 1937a. with some 50 species.D have been isolated from L. in 1760. Williamsii. The pharmacology of this mildly intoxicating. has recently been reported Schultes 1937a. T. It has frequently been the species are toxic. pp. — A shrub of dry areas of the American chemical literature. 61-88. j napiform. Historical reports of the mescal Grande in southern Texas. Islands. its derivatives. About 25 structible and can be shipped long distances. still in use. it is the base of a hallucinogenic drink in several tribes of northern Mexico. Roseocactus. The large columnar 7 Williamsii. States about 1880. a subtribe of some 28 genera.000 adherents (La Barre 1960 & 1964. which contain cytisine. — Several species of the South Lophophora. but the species occupy definitive derivative of mescaline or its precursors has not yet been areas. and L. grey-green. baptitoxine. a shrub native to the Canary and counts 250. and a detailed the strange story of peyote. 3) Jul-Sep. Williamsii has more and Texan Indians formerly employed these beans in the than 25 binomial synonyms. and their elucidated (Agurell 1969. McLaughlin & Paul 1965 & 6. to be variable. Quinolizidines elaborated a typical Plains Indian vision-quest ritual Leguminosae around its ceremonial ingestion. — The hallucinogenic use bv organized as the Native American Church. T. chemical constitution. but archaeological remains More than 30 alkaloids and their amine derivatives suggest their ritualistic use earlier than 100 A. Cytisus (Genista). still poorly understood. its leaves are wilted. native to the Atlantic Islands. many of in the United States with the arrival of peyote. sinicuichi.). It was first fully medicine in northern Peru (Poisson 1960). Usually devoid of unpleasan Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 254 Vol. and t Peyonine. 1970). a novel j3-phenylethylpyrrole. 1968b. but came to public attention in the United subtropical and temperate South America. most of them referring to ceremonial Red Bean Dance as an oracular and age-forms of the variable crown (Schultes 1937b). Howard 1957). divinatory medium and for visions in initiation rites (La Lophophora is placed in the tribe Cereae. is also present in peyote. The (Fadiman 1965). In 1894. appears Kapadia & Fales 1968a. Sophora. 9(No. Mexican taxonomy are still confused. The phenylethyl. when the Kiowas and Comanches 7. A number of the species are toxic. Terscheckii. Kapadia et al 1968. Pallares I960. Together described by the early Spanish medical doctor Francisco with another cactus. 129-152. are known. Pachanoi. Its use died out Echinocactacae. has gradually Yaqui medicine men in northern Mexico of Cytisus spread to many tribes in the United States and Canada (Genista) canariensis. a much them small or monotypic and once included in safer hallucinogen. N-methylmescaline and Heimia. — One of the ancient sacred hallucino American genus Trichocereus have yielded mescaline: 7 gens of Mexico. Neoraimundia macrostibas and Hernandez* but many other colonial Spanish chroniclers Isotoma longiflora. macrogonus. It is rich in the toxic alkaloid cystisine chlorophyll-bearing crown ~ of the cactus. 4:129-152). It occurs in central Mexico and near the Rio 1949. I?7' . not Mexico. was recently juice set in the sun to ferment. sophorine) which occurs common discoidal "mescal buttons" which are virtually inde ly in the Leguminosae (Willaman 1961). is eaten. are capable of causing death by asphyxiation (Henry etc. Hordenine.S C H U LT E S HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTlQN America and Australia. The resulting drink i* isolated from the cactus. Der Marderosian 1966. is the small. subtribe Barre 1964. Its nomenclature and yields the so-called mescal beans or red beans. was known among American Indians during the There are some 40 species of Trichocereus known from Civil War. bean go back to 15 39. Echinocactus (Ariocarpus. 1937b. belonging mainly (Campbell 1958). Mescal beans. Europe. Phenylethylamines 1966. referred to this genus and to Anhalonium in the Sophora. Mexican folk medicine since earliest times. species of Cytisus. It might well be called the "prototype" of Pachanoi of the dry Andes — called San Pedro in Peru hallucinogens since it has been one of the most aguacolla in Ecuador — is employed in magic and folk spectacular psychotomimetics known. Known as another phenylethylamine. hemispheres. The peyote cult. spineless cactus peyote: Lophophora Werdermannianus (Agurell 1969). are apparently not active. — Heimia salicifolia has been valued m N-acetylmescaline. Lundstrom & Agurell 1967. Pedilanthus titimaloides. Gutierrez-Noriega 1930). crushed in water. dried into (ulexine. 1954).

and from Central Asia to the highly atrophied that they may represent incipient Himalayas. was utilized as an hallucinogen in Europe in South America today. Its principal active constituent prophecy. In Asia and the Mediterranean. used for different purposes (Bristol 1966. There southern Colombia. The species and ranges from southern United States to Chibchas of Colombia. Datura has long been carried out. in narcotic strength and are. There are six or seven species of psychoactive one appears to be cryogenine (vertine) (Blomster & Schwarting 1964. this subgenus. 1969b. of which the major cultigens. are taken. Datura was and is even more present in D. D. Leete 1959. 1969). Their classification has long been uncertain. Native to a high Andean valley of southern six species. 3) Jul-Sep. and . Other species were authentically vouchered identification of the material valued in early Europe in witchcraft and as ingredients analyzed.TES HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION SCH aftereffects. although a recent proposal treats them as Differing from the usual quinolizidines in having the comprising three species and a number of cultivars quinolizidine as part of a larger and complex system of (Schultes 1961. The Kamsa of tropane alkaloids are also present (Wagner 1969). 1977 . all tropanes. with one Mexican species. meteloides. with three described as a distinct genus: Methysticodendron IK species in the two hemispheres. 1966). cryogenine has been found only in the Lythraceae. a sense of shrinkage of the surroundings. Tyler Candida. but minor poses for which the visions are important. toloache (D. usually in decoction. Aerial portions of typical Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 255 Vol. content. foliage. 1963a. it is important to the Kamsa and Ingano (d) Brugmansia. according to Datura. They are all arborescent and are native either to auditory hallucinations. Some species were of the greatest social and The genus Heimia comprises three hardly distinguishable religious importance in ancient Andean cultures. In Andean plants of Datura Candida of jimson weed (D. suaveolens). Atropa. D. 1965. Douglas et al 1964). Safford 1920. (Hoffmann 1968.*. What may possibly represent an extreme variant of The genus. Atropa Bella The preparation and use of Datura differ widely in donna. for example.. Willaman in divination rites among many tribes. rings. the inactive meteloidine. D. according to area of of parts of northeastern North America made limited use cultivation. — The belladonna plant. comprising Amesianum. (b) Datura. it induces euphoria characterized by the subgenus Brugmansia. norhyoscyamine. especially in India. The principal alkaloids. as contrasted to 30-34% for the same plants All of the South American representatives belong to grown in England and Hawaii. unknown in the wild state. arborea. ring but biogenetically may be related to the other innoxia) is employed medicinally and as an hallucinogen Datura-alkaloids (Henry 1949. These monstrous "races" differ. sense of reality (Robichaud & Malone 1964. There are differences in total alkaloid content and roots. Safford 1920. but many tribes still employ it for medieval witches' brews. dolichocarpa. comprising some 15 to 20 species. South American trees representing Indians as an hallucinogen and as medicine (Schultes pi possibly six or seven species (Satina 1959). 1969b). UL. are of sorcerers' potions (Lewin 1964. administered Argentina. 1963b. 1921). present in most of the species. D. 1961). D. 1955). 1969). Stramonium) in adolescent rites scopolamine constitutes from 50-60% of the total base (Hoffman 1968. Colombia. In ancient and modern Mexico and the roots of several species. Alkaloids were first reported from H. The Indians and in percentage of scopolamine. — Datura has a long witch doctors. varieties. Lewin 1964. 9(No. Meteloides and D. often variation in results due primarily to failure to insist on £■. D. Recent work has isolated and circles. mosdy well known in horticultural 1958 (Hegnauer 1958). for example. Methysticodendron. genus. salicifolia in Handsome trees. along with Cannabis and tobacco. the numerous named clones. distributed in Europe. and other magico-religious pur has long been known to be scopolamine. but there is still appreciable fastuosa is smoked for pleasure in Asia and Africa. Wagner hyoscyamine. In the New World. It does not contain a tropane American Southwest. found in the widely prized. potions of Datura to wives and slaves of deceased Tropanes chieftains to induce stupor prior to their being buried Solanaceae alive with the departed master. aurea. consequent history as an hallucinogenic genus in both hemispheres ly. sanguinea. is usually an indeterminate species of tree-Datura has been divided into four sections: (a) Stramonium. Schultes 1969a. use several species and are four species of Atropa. and a general removal from a the Andean highlands — D. divination. 1969-70).scopolamine. and cusohygrine. The seeds. they all seem to be chromosomally aberrant characterized five alkaloids. Melte has been a Chemical work on many of the species of Datura major narcotic and poison. vegetatively propagated and so Mediterranean area. sometimes treated as a distinct drowsiness. vulcanicola — or to the warmer lowlands (D. (c) Ceratocaulis.

and stem with a human or animal face and crowned with an mandragorine (Wagner 1969). Safford 1915). the alkaloidal content in the cultivars European persecution drove the cult into hiding in of D. superficially resembled a dried mushroom and cultivated in Europe as a narcotic. Schultes 1939. who knew the shrub as latue or arbol de 965-68. P- Acanthaceae caerulescens. pp. south collected. 3) Jul-Sep. native to the region from the Mediterranean sophisticated mushroom cult at least 3000 years ago. now intensive work during the 1950s brought to over 24 called Latua pubiflora.C. The Aztecs knew of the total alkaloid content (Pachter & Hopkinson these "sacred" mushrooms as teonanacatl ("food of the 1960). 1963. mexicana.N- suspicions that this aromatic herb may contain dimethyltryptamine — and sometimes the unstable tryptamines (Holmstedt. 1389-95. Recent phytochemical studies indicate the presence of 1958. several investigators found an active scopolamine (Wagner 1969). Stropharia. a spiny shrub of Chile. Botanists had even botanical. gods") (Heim & Wasson 1959. 291-306. primarily hyoscyamine. Tryptamines Mexican mushroom rites are Psilocybe aztecorum. was identified as a virulent poison inducing basidiomycetes employed currently in six or more tribes delirium and visual hallucinations. It entered medieval that the earlier writers had confused the two or had been witches' brews as an hallucinogenic ingredient. . meteloidine. oscine. . and phytochemical interest. atropine and scopolamine (Bodendorf & Kummer 1962. . P.The famed mandrake of Europe.The Waikas of the Orinoco headwaters in Stropharia cubensis (Heim et al 1967. Psilocybe. The deliberately duped by their Aztec informants. zapotecorum. and Justicia. pp. these icons indicate the existence of a are known. atropine. Heim & Wasson Venezuela and in northern Amazonian Brazil occasion 1959). Candida correlate closely with the reports of their the hinterlands. 1967. 1957b. now called "mushroom stones. 1977 . norscopol. hemispheres. a toxic species of the peyote: that the discoidal crown of the cactus. Perhaps the most important species employed in 9. — A century ago.N- the preliminary indications can be verified. P. Acanthaceae. personal communication). when genus. Heim et al los brujos. Justicia in the tropical and subtropical parts of both roots had these alkaloids as well as 3a-6j3. Singer 1958. psychoactive effects of henbane are attributed mainly to during the 1930s. sphinctrinus and Stropharia cubensis. northern Africa. Panaeolus western and central Asia. is Hyoscyamus niger and was once widely dried. 9(No. There are more than 300 species ()» amine. Six species of Mandragora umbrella-like top. 1959. the only member of an endemic species in at least four genera the number of genus. ethnobotanical. hallucinogenic toxicity. psilocine: 4-hydroxy-N. — Henbane. scopolamine. local Indians. Hyoscyamus comprises mushroom cult amongst the Mazatecs in Oaxaca and about 20 species of Europe. var. If derivative.an hydroxy-indole alkylamine with a (Schultes 1966. Notwithstanding the many descriptions relative toxicity by the Indians of Sibundoy. Its active principles are tropane are dated conservatively at 1000 B. 1963). Consisting of a alkaloids. All of these have been found to contain a most ally dry and pulverize the leaves of Justicia pectoralis extraordinarily psychoactive compound. artifacts. Significandy. 1967. Then. It now appears that the mushroom cults are of great Silva & Mancinelli 1959). stenophylla as an admixture to their Virola-snuff psilocybine . it will for the dimethyltryptamine. as the hallucinogenic fungi. postulated that teonanacatl was the same plant as Hyoscyamus. Candida. age and were once much more widespread. Wasson 1957. 3 a-tigloyloxy tropane.The contained the same spectrum of alkaloids but varied in Spanish conquerors found Mexican Indians practicing total content and amount of scopolamine (Bristol et al religious rites in which mushrooms were ingested as \ 1969). no evidence that Notwithstanding the great age of their hallucinogenic the narcotic use of mushrooms had persisted was and medicinal uses. Later and more Latua. in the writings of the early chroniclers. ditigloyloxytropane-7|3-ol. Daturas are still the subject of much uncovered until about 30 years ago. Panaeolus. yielded scopolamine. and Agaricaceae tropine. owes its renown mainly to its great numbers from highland Mayan sites in Guatemala. Leaves of the same stock grown in Hawaii Conocybe. and noratropine. Archeological Mandragora. Heim 1956. Colombia. to the Himalayas. It was employed by of Mexican Indians (Guzman 1959. Psilocybine is the only natural Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 2 56 Vol. 1957a. There are phosphorylated side chain: 4-phosphoryloxy-N. to cause permanent insanity (Murillo 1889). 1968).S C H U LT E S HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION D. 1966. originally from the Colombian Andes but first time establish the presence of these indoles in th • cultivated in England. The leaves and stems of South American material sacrament permitting them to commune through of Methysticodendron contained scopolamine up to 80% hallucinations with the spirit world." excavated in Mandragora officinarum. 1940.

Recent examination indicates that astonished at its hallucinogenic potency (Safford 1916a. fimetaria. are crushed and mixed with ashes or calcined 5-methoxy-N. South America.j3methyl- shells. 1966). inebrians (which center of its present use. Since this species is closely related to sphinctrinus and this psychoactive mushroom also the more northern A. 5-methoxy-N. constituents are very similar. tryptamine and 5-methoxy-N-monomethyl tryptamine. and P. Der nostrils through bamboo tubes or snuffed individually Marderosian et al 1968. ranges a few native to Africa and Asia. Ola'h 1969. Smithii Indirect evidence suggests that another species. likewise almost cosmopolitan. B. 1977 . the active principle (Goncalves de Lima 1946. P. 1955. colubrina may well have phan (Hegnauer 1966. pp. as well as from Conocybe cyanopus. 1958b. Leguminosae Malpighiaceae Anadenanthera. almost cosmopolitan. of the ayahuasca-caapi-yaje drink prepared basically known in the Orinoco basin of Colombia and Venezuela. vinho de jurema. — The New World snuff prepared Banisteriopsis. * *u l t e s HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION njole compound with a phosphoric acid radical known through birdbone tubes. The closely related Panaeolus companulatus does Anadenanthera comprises only the two species not contain the hallucinogenic constituents (Taylor & discussed above. as yopo or nopo. An infusion of the Although no modern evidence points to the use of an roots of Mimosa hostilis forms the center of the ancient hallucinogenic fungus in that area. P. narcoticaliy utilized species. mostly American but and Stropharia. pelliculosa.N-dimethyltryptamine. C. and Asia.N-dimethyltryptamine The beans of this medium-sized tree.N-dimethyltryptamine or bufo ind related genera. Ola'h & Heim 1967). is The genus Mimosa comprises about 500 tropical or distributed in North America. subtropical herbs and small shrubs. 291-306. Von Humboldt. Psilocybe yungensis Yurema cult of the Kariri'. Pankaruni. P. Hofmann 1968. Panaeolus is cosmopolitan. Pachter 1960). semilanceata. ■ubstituted in the 4-position. Wassen 1964. The intoxication is marked by from the Plant kingdom. to the exclusion Schultes 1967. Poisson 1965). from bark of Banisteriopsis Caapi or B. 1959. peregrina. Central America. — One of the numerous admixtures from beans of Anadenanthera (Piptadenia) peregrina. and other explorers who mentioned it were all lengthen the visions. the Yurimagua Indians employed an intoxicating Mimosa. roasted. 1967. cyanescens. P. A. A. and a species of Copelandia (Benedict et al 1962. now of Mexico are small but widespread: Conocybe is known to be synonymous with N. Wassonii-. The principal genera of hallucinogenic mushrooms was reported to contain an alkaloid called nigerine. they are Malone 1960). followed by an hallucinogenic trance and eventual psilocine are novel indoles in having the hydroxy radical stupors (Granier-Doyeux 1965). the West Indies. and N. semperviva. P. N-monomethyl- juebccensis.N-dimethyltryptamine. psychotomimetic. Tryptamines Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 257 Vol. peregrina and its chemical contains 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxytrypto. distinguished from the closely allied genus Piptadenia Early missionaries in Amazonian Peru reported that both morphologically and chemically (Altschul 1964). as oco-yaje. Tyler & Grbger been valued aboriginally as an hallucinogen. and Europe. might formerly have been the source of the Heim et al 1966. drink. Rusbyana probably the cohoba encountered in Hispaniola by known in the western Amazon of Colombia and Ecuador Columbus' second voyage in 1496. narcotic snuffs known in southern Peru and Bolivia as The occurrence of 4-substituted tryptamines (psilocy vilca or huilca and in northern Argentina as cebil bine or psilocine) has been reported from Panaeolus (Altschul 1967). Brazil (Schultes 1965. represents contain j3-carboline bases) is the leaf of B. The beans contain as their These two indoles may occur widely in Psilocybe main constituent N.N-dimethyltryptamine) (Fish Hofmann & Tscherter 1960). et al. 1964). said to induce glorious visions of the spirit world. and other Indians has been suggested as a possible identification of the of Pernambuso State. — The allied genus Mimosa likewise yields a beverage made from a "tree fungus" (Schultes 1966). Tryptophan is probably Five indoles have been isolated from A. occurring amine. Anadenanthera and Piptadenia. usually and traces of other tryptamines (N3-methyltryptamine. Holmstedt 1967).N-dimethyltrypt cosmopolitan. North America. and both psilocybine and fury. The natives add the leaf to heighten and Spruce. Other indoles found in this species are \ haecystis. It is closely related to through North America. 9(No. and temperate Asia. Hofmann & Troxler 1959. colubrina. The powder is ceremonially blown into the tetrahydro-j3-carboline) (Agurell et al 1968a. N.N-dimethyltryptamine and jQ58a. Psilocybe. 1967. Native to South America. Rusbyana has in its leaves and stems. Wassen of the harmala alkaloids characteristic of the other two & Holmstedt 1963). the biogenetic precursor of psilocybine (Hofmann et al chief of which are N. bufotenine (5-hydroxy-N. primarily in Europe. The mushroom (Schultes 1966). One or both have been isolated from tenine. P. 3) Jul-Sep.

There are suggestions tion from these two gastromycetes. theiodora contains normally up to 8% Lycoperdon. a genus (Schultes 1967). These two hallucinogens do not appear preparation of snuff in Colombia. Two new j3-carbolines have forests.N-dimethyltryptamine (Agurell 1969. constituents are doubtfully employed as hallucinogens. mixtecorum. but in Brazil reported from the Rubiaceae. and Muinanes of Amazonian of one or two specimens. possibly V. causes a state of half-sleep one-half hour after ingestion The Witotos. Others are known to be used for their psychotomimetic macroscopia is frequent and enters into Waika beliefs properties. There is as yet no the witch doctors see and speak with "the little people" phytochemical basis on which to explain the intoxica (Schultes 1969c. mushrooms hold among the neighboring Mazatecs. Psychotria. 1977 . personal communication). theiodora (Agurell 1968b). There is appreciable variation in Mexico at 6000 feet altitude or higher (Heim et al alkaloid concentration in different -parts (leaves. sebifera as an Araceae intoxicant. The same Holmstedt 1968. calophylla and V. Sundry plants known to possess psychoactive numbness of the limbs. parica. The Mixtecs call Lycoperdon mixtecorum gi'-i-wa Of other species of Virola investigated. pulverized. V. epena. species employed have only recently been identified as psychotriaefolia (Schultes 1966. either comprises more than 700 species of the warmer parts of individually at any time or ritually in excess at both hemispheres. and finally a deep sleep. The genus Psychotria the intoxicant is taken by all adult males. Contemporary investigations indicate that the snuff Lycoperdaceae prepared from V. Seitz 1967). contains high amounts to occupy the place as divinatory agents that the of alkaloids apparently in the leaves alone. acts rapidly and violently. — There is some evidence that Indians of Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 258 Vol. Lycoperdon mixtecorum. many of which have important roles endocannibalistic ceremonies amongst the Waikas. There are more than 100 species of Lycoperdon. during which do accompany the intoxication. they may not of the filtrate of bark ashes of Gustavia Poeppigiana and induce visions. hallucinations. 1967). bark. Colombia utilize the resin of a Virola. and nyakwana. resin. Lycoperdon marginatum 5-methoxy-N. rufula ("fungus of first quality") and L. In centers-among the Waikas of Brazil and Venezuela. Small pellets of the them. but the chemical principles responsible for about the spirits resident in the drug. (Agurell et al 1969). The effects of the puffballs differ strongly from boiled resin are rolled in a "salt" left upon evaporation those of the hallucinogenic mushrooms. root) of V. and voices are said to respond to questions posed to theiodora. 9(No.N. likewise been found in V. 1969c). venosa are almost devoid of alkaloids The more active species. a strong odor of excrement. One species used in Ecuador and Peru. which has contains substantial amounts of tryptamines and V. Schultes & Marderosian. but the content in the bark resin native mostly to the temperate zone in moss-covered may reach as high as 11%. The P. similarly used in Acre Territory. Acorus. which is boiled.N-dimethyItryptamine (Der theiodora in Brazil (Schultes 1954b. — Among the sundry admixtures em ployed to "strengthen" and "lengthen" the effects of Myristicaceae the hallucinogenic drink prepared from Banisteriopsis Virola.N-dimethyltryptamine. orally as an hallucinogen. Voices and echoes are heard. multinervia and V. has recently V. although definite auditory hallucinations ingested to bring on a rapid intoxication. inebrians in the western Amazon. marginatum. called yakee. The most intense use of species and another not yet specifically identified are this snuff. — Puffballs. twitching of facial muscles. that Venezuelan Indians may smoke V. nausea. Tryptamines have apparently not hitherto been Colombia. of 60 to 70 trees of Central and South America. Effects include excitement. In press). been shown to contain N.S C H U LT E S HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION have apparently not hitherto been reported from the Rubiaceae Malpighiaceae. The in folk medicine or are poisons. theiodora. 3)JuJ-Sep. Brazil (Prance. and occasionally HALLUCINOGENS OF UNCERTAIN USE mixed with powdered leaves of a Justicia and bark-ashes OR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION of Theobroma subincanum or Elizabetha princeps. calophylloidea in Colombia and V. one of the species employed in the second quality"). — Hallucinogenic snuffs are prepared in Caapi and B. 229-240). have recently been reported as amounts of . hallucinogens utilized by the Mixtecs of Oaxaca in Holmstedt 1965). only witch doctors employ it. with lesser and L. viridis (reported through a misidentification as p. the effects are of uncertain or undetermined structure. gi'-i-sa-wa ("fungus of calophylla. V. one of northwestern Brazil and adjacent Colombia and the most commonly added are leaves of Psychotria Venezuela from the reddish bark resin of Virola. Boras. dried. pp.

in modern Mexican herb markets under the name Olmedioperebea sclerophylla. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 259 Vol. Two or Although some species are employed in folk medicine. have valued several species of Rhynchosia as a narcotic. a species of Homalomena. sensu lato. (Mariani Ramirez 1965. Schultes 1967. tortuosum. — Gomortega Keule. is highly prized as a condiment and medicine in in the Gormortegaceae. — More than 225 years ago. chiefly alkaloids. Sceletium. represents one of the most colorines (Safford 1916b. 1963a. The rhizome of galanga. Resembling Moraceae seeds of Sophora secundiflora. Modern Oaxacan Indians refer to the toxic seeds of R. to be psychoactive (Schultes leaves of a species of Homalomena to induce a violent 1969-70).The reddish beans of Erythrina may and western Malaysia. tropical Asia. There are about 1000 species of Mesembryanthe principle may be present in this aroid. 1970). India to southern China. are taken with the known locally as kwashi. 9(No. a bulbous perennial agara. Rubbing the bulb over incisions on the head is intoxication that progresses into a sleep in which visions said to induce visual hallucinations. Kaempferia Galanga. — Natives of Papua are reported to as possible identifications (Lewin 1964. Amaryllidaceae Himantandraceae Pancratium. Gomortegaceae Zinginberaceae Gomortega. Botswana. eat the leaves of ereiba. mainly of Asia been isolated from this plant. Nothing is known of and dreams are experienced (Barrau 1957. There are two there is no evidence that these are employed species of Acorus occurring in the north temperate zone hallucinogenically. they are frequently sold Olmedioperebea. but 0-asarone (Hoffer & Osmond 1967). 1958.'— In Papua. Several species of Mesembryanthemum known to together with the leaves and bark of Galbulimima cause a state of torpor when ingested have yielded belgraviana. are known. . Other species of Hamilton 1960). 1969b). Schultes 1937a. (Hoffer & Osmond 1967. an endemic of Kaempferia. The effects are a violent and crazed condition leading to sleep. It is not yet clear what. Some 140 species mum. 1969a. as a narcotic. and northeastern Australia.The ancient Mexicans may have Two species of Olmedioperebea. 1970. There are some 70 species of Kaempferia Leguminosae distributed in tropical Africa. known as maraba. during which the alkaloids: mesembrine and mesembrenine. may once have been employed as a narcotic employed as a hallucinogen (Benedict et al 1962. hallucinogenic ring. especially when fresh. especially to M. Its Hamilton 1960). HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION S C H U LT E S northern Canada chewed the root of Acorus Aizoaceae Calamus—flag root. The fruits reputedly Several species contain indole or isoquinoline derivatives are the source of an intoxicating snuff employed and could be hallucinogenic. — The Bushmen of Dobe. 3) Jul-Sep. native to tropical Asia and South Africa. Mechoulam & Gaoni 1965). medicinal and stimulant properties. the Hottentots of South Africa were reported using a this root is known to induce strong visual hallucinations narcotic called kanna or channa. Erythrina. . due lacking. three species of Galbulimima occur in eastern Malaysia several are potent cardiac poisons. possess toxic principles. 1966. is hualhual. rat root. in the xerophytic parts of South of Homalomena. containing essential possibly to an essential oil. 1965. have been valued as hallucinogens in Mexico. Nothing is known of the chemical constituents. a genus of some 15 species. Sharma et al 1961). 1977 . Rhynchosia. the Anacardiaceae and Cannabis — have been suggested Homalomena. There is only this one species oils. Other plants — Sclerocarya Caffra of and warmer parts of both hemispheres. Galbulimima'. possible psychotomimetic constituents. Hamilton amaryllidaceous alkaloids but differ in having an open 1960). In excessive doses. — Vague reports indicate that in New Chile. Several isoquinoline alkaloids have Pancratium. a group often recognized as a distinct genus. Tyler 1966). both Amazonian. The this name applies to sundry species of Mesembryan hallucinogenic principle is reported to be asarone and themum (Sceletium). poorly understood hallucinogens. sweet calomel — for its Mesembryanthemum. The genus occurs in the formerly by Indians of the Pariana region of central tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres and Amazonia (Schultes 1961. About two dozen species have been split off into America. but the specific and Africa. At the present time. where it has the Mapuche Indian names keule or Guinea. the leaves and bark of consider Pancratium trianthum. — An Amazon jungle tree. if any. 1958. been described. pharmacology of the constituents is not clear. Galbulimima belgraveana. comprises some 100 species. Both have a nucleus related to the crinane nucleus in certain partakers see and dream about men or animals that they are supposed to kill (Barrau 1957. but phytochemical corroboration is fruits are intoxicating. 1963b.

The black and red Rhynchosia beans. — In southern Mexico. known in Chile as huedhued or hierba loca. Chemical investigation of this Ecuador. is said to contain pilocereine (Agurell 1969). An as yet marginatus. Cactaceae (Haemadictyon) amazonica. the highlands from Coriariaceae Mexico to Chile. are valued by the 260 Vol. suggestion (Schultes & Roffauf 1960). There are five & Paradies 1957) was based upon an erroneous species known in this genus. Virgen or hierba de la Pastora. hydroquinone . a resinoid. Although Mexico employ Ariocarpus fissuratus. thus suggesting hallucinogenic use aboriginum) (Agurell 1969). the Loganiaceae and which is sometimes placed in the Potaliaceae. all Mexican (Agurell 1969. genus. Salvia. 1969a. tutine. Coriaria thymifolia has Desfontainia. where the plant is called shanshi (Naranjo anomalous plant have apparently not been carried out. pecten-aboriginum. Epithelantha micromeris as a narcotic (Schultes 1963a).N-dimethyltryptamine in P. Anhalonine has been isolated from an indeterminate species of Ariocarpus. from Tasmania. is toxic. — The maku Indians in the north- westernmost sector of the Brazilian Amazon prepare a quantity. and pseudotutine (Hegnauer 1962-64. causes hallucinations and other constituents. are eaten for inebriation in (Mariani Ramirez 1965). since it is close to Banisteriopsis. A recent report of N. known in Oaxaca as hierba de la southwestern United States and Mexico. Four toxic picrotoxine-like sesquiterpenes have only genus in the family. P. — The Tarahumare Indians of northern misinterpretation of field data and guess work. longeracemosa by the same name. crushed leaves on representatives of this genus of three species of of Salvia divinorum. especially of Africa and America. have been identified on Aztec paintings. an identification based on Ariocarpus. A cold-wafer infusion with no admixtures has a This species has apparently not been chemically yellowish hue and induces an intoxication with visual hallucinations very similar to that caused by drinks investigated. that they apply to the seeds of hallucinogenic by the Tarahumare is the gigantic Pachycereus morning glories.both rather widely distributed in the No chemical studies have been made of this species family. recent evaluation of the evidence seriously discredits this peyote cimmaron. called taglli in Ecuador. Its activity may be due to andromedotox- ine. without voucher specimens. and Prestonia. the fruits induce mental confusion and narcotic drink from the bark of Tetrapteris methystica. has some Apocynaceae 15 species distributed in Eurasia. which comprises some 300 species of the tropics Ericaceae and subtropics. asserting that it is stronger than true peyote (Lophophora) (Schultes 1967. when ingested. P. the only one in the family. 3) Jul-Sep. uncharacterized alkaloid has been isolated from this There are five species of Pachycereus. When consumed in Tetrapteris. as a narcotic. distributed from Mexico to tropical South America and Naranjo 1969). — Pernettya furiens. a glycoside or prepared from species of the related genus Banisteriopsis (Schultes 1954a). piule. (Schultes 1937a. parvifolia. which appears to be related to been isolated from the Coriariaceae: coriamyrtine. Another species. reputedly containing southern Chile as a narcotic as well as medicinally catecholic derivatives. — It is reported that the leaves of recendy been reported as hallucinogenic. Malpighiaceae Pernettya. is noted as of Tetrapteris. This genus. New Zealand. 1977 Journal of Psychedelic Drugs . madness or permanent insanity and exercise a narcotic effect similar to that of Datura (Mariani Ramirez 1965). Hookeri are employed in sensation of flight. — Long recognized in the Andes as Desfo n tainiaceae dangerously toxic to animals. amazonica (Hochstein 1969-70). The fruits. which they call cawc. — The source of the hallucinogenic yaje of the western Amazon has been reported as Prestonia highland tropical America. giving the Desfontainia spinosa var. identification. aqueous extract of the leaves of a vine which may have Epithelantha. This genus of two or three Andean species comprises the 1969. 1966). — The Tarahumare likewise use been Banisteriopsis Rusbyana. 1969-70). coriatine. all native to Mexico. but. of an Der Marderosian 1967a). — Another cactus utilized as a narcotic pyrarnidalis and R. called sunami and well established in botanical and chemical literature. Tetrapteris comprises some 80 species psychic and motor alterations (Chavez et al 1967. Labiatae Chemical studies apparently have not been carried out Coleus. the Galapagos and Falkland Islands. it is a toxic plant containing andromedotoxine and the fruit not improbable that /3-carbolines are the active of which. Some 25 species of Pernettya are known in the West Indies. or to arbutin. Coriaria. HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION S C H U LT E S Pachycereus. 1965. New Zealand. Carnegine has been reported from this species (as Cereus pecten- pictured together with mushrooms. 9(No. Naranjo & Naranjo 1961).

Keeland. Natur. but the subfamily may sometimes be treated as a Der Marderosian. Naranjo. J. 30-38 (1939) derivatives. Pharmacol. von R. Bot.. Trop. A. and Ibid. Pharm. lobelamidine and norlobelamidine Cook.K. R. Soc..B. E. Etr. Am. a toxic principle is still about 100 species. A. at least on the basis of the Agurell. Brunfelsia. 5. Chen. S. B. R. 60. S. 123-30 (1969) for their narcotic effect. Health Serv. Mem.H. Lloydia. Youngken. 4. Lloydia. 77-84. — Lobelia Tupa.. 30. 29. 156-59 (1962) Benedict. SCHULTES HALLUCINOGEN DISTRIBUTION Mazatecs in divinatory rites when other more potent Compo sitae hallucinogens are unavailable (Epling & Jativa-M 1962)..E. 140. de. few reliable both hemispheres.. Lobeliaceae. Bull... Contrib. discovered hallucinogens. 17.. 9(No.L.. 23.M. Fr. Galea.f Am. A. Pharm. in Ethnopharmacological Search for of the Andean highlands known as tupa or tabaco del Psychoactive Drugs. 23-38 (1967a) Der Marderosian.. Lindgren. 75.. Lindgren. 206-16 (1969) material growing in southern Mexico. 21. have not been Agurell.Ef. B.. Washington. Coleus pumila and C.HM Tyler. 15-24(1964) Cd mpan ulaceae Bodendorf. Chemical REFERENCES studies of these two species.H. 438 (1847) this effect is hallucinogenic (Mariani Ramirez 1965. T.1. M. Tastevini is Psychoactive Drugs. represents one of the most recently to be isolated from the plant (Wasson 1962... Bot. 1967) reputedly utilized by the Kachinauas of the Brazilian Barrau. there is as yet no certainty that Bunge. L. Jr. of the Campanula- Pharm. Org.. 138. 9. R. Schultes. J50-57 undoubtedly has psychoactive properties. R. A.E.J..F. Although the species of Salvia in the temperate and tropical parts of plant has long been used in folk medicine.. Petersb. (Schultes 1969a).. 9. Agr.f Lloydia.. Lloydia. 35-42 distinct family. Anthrop. Am. divinorum take the leaves in infusion for divination. 16 The leaves of L. Acta Solanaceae Chem. J. Harvard Univ. K. 620-22 (1962) Lobelia. 1645.F. 12. Lampard. pp. It has been suggested that S. cated the presence of a possible new alkaloid Blumei.-E.W.. A.. a tall. Preliminary investigations have indi The leaves of two other mints. 245-49(1962) what appear to be tropanes of undetermined structure Benedict. H. Jr. Pharm.C.G.... this genus Lloydia. 229-48 (1966) are said to employ the juice to relieve toothache.E. 377-78(1958) report needs confirmation (Benoist 1928).. Lloydia. J. B. Holmstedt.and dihydroxy.H. genera as a subfamily. 193. but no other species seems to have chemical studies appear to have been carried out been reported as an hallucinogen. 204-12 (1966a) Lobelia mostly tropical and subtropical.. No.N. Tyler. 7.S. Scrophulariaceae. J.. It is usually classified with several other large Der Marderosian. H. 903-16(1969) Agurell. Gray Herb. 1977 . Brunfelsia is a (1967) tropical American genus of some 25 species. Naranjo. R. Evans. A. 1. Scand. P. Sav.N. are similarly (Holmstedt. Chen. A. personal communication). but this Ibid. 22 165-227 (1969) while the Mapuches of Chile reputedly smoke the leaves Bristol.C. 1061-62 (1962) (Kaczmarek 1959). Schwarting. Brady. Pharmacol.. calling them represents the hallucinogenic pipiltzintzintli of the thle-pela-kano or "leaf of god" and believing them to ancient Aztecs (Wasson 1962). belonging to a tropical American genus of ted the psychotomimetic effects. A. both native to southeast Asia. 25. 41 5 (1967) diablo..f Lindgren. J. M. 137-47 (1968) ceae... W. Der Marderosian. W.-E. K. W.R. V. probable but not yet corroborated by field evidence. Containing Ibid. Zentralb. Leafl.... Schultes.. Dobbins.. Taxon.. Cienc. S.A.. Quart... Y. 27. Pinkley. 30.. Chilean peasants Bristol. 1-65(1964) Several vernacular names suggest that the intoxicating Altschul. Galea Although investigators have experimentally substantia Zacatechichi. employed by the Mazatecs (Wasson 1962). — A common Mexican shrub. S. There are some 700 clarify the senses (MacDougall 1968). done.-E. Publ. Tupa contain the piperidine (1967) alkaloid lobeline and the diketo.. Pharm. Jr. R. D.... Agurell.G. Holmstedt. J. M. (1966b) Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 261 Vol. Lobeliodieae. von R... 2487-88 (1968b) employed narcotically in the western Amazon is Altschul.L. H.H. 3) Jul-Sep. Chavez.. J.. Lloydia... 32. Pub.. Smith. Harvard Univ. 14. 295 (1928) somewhat intermediate between the Solanaceae and Blomster. Pharm. in Ethnopharmacologic Search for properties were valued (Schultes 1967). 156-60 (1958) * Naranjo 1969). 139.... Holmstedt. 307-14 (Efron. Am.. D„ Ed„ U. Am. and is Benoist.. — That species of Brunfelsia were once Biochem.L.. V. Appl.. 27. 32. Watling. 19-26 (1967b) Americas. J. J.. R. A.H.. Mus. L. Sam. Kummer. 234-40 (1965) There are some 350 to 400 cosmopolitan species of Der Marderosian. J. A. 101.E„ Bobbitt. The Chontal Indians of Oaxaca 161-193). 140.. S. B..V.H. S. 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