Solutions to Problems in Jackson

,
Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
Homer Reid
October 8, 2000

Chapter 4: Problems 8-13

Problem 4.8

A very long, right circular, cylindrical shell of dielectric constant /0 and inner and
outer radii a and b, respectively, is placed in a previously uniform electric field E0
with its axis perpendicular to the field. The medium inside and outside the cylinder
has a dielectric constant of unity.
(a) Determine the potential and electric fields in the three regions, neglecting end
effects.

(b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a.
(c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric
cylinder in a uniform field, and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric.

We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric field to
be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0 î. Since the cylinder is very long and we’re
told to neglect end effects, we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat
this as a two-dimensional problem.
(a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar co-
ordinates is
X
Φ(r, ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)]

For the region inside the shell (r < a), the B coefficients must vanish to keep
the potential from blowing up at the origin. Also, in the region outside the shell

1

r<a   X Φ(r. ϕ) = rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions:  X   rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. i.   −E0 r cos ϕ + r>b The normal boundary condition at r = a is .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b).e. a<r<b   X r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric field.

.

∂Φ .

.

∂Φ .

.

0 = ∂r .

x=a− ∂r .

the tangential boundary condition at r = a is .x=a+ or 0 X n−1 na [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] =  X nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 An = Cn − En a−2n (1)  0 Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (2)  Next.

.

∂Φ .

.

∂Φ .

.

= ∂ϕ .

x=a+ ∂ϕ .

from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain 0 0 X −(n+1) − E0 cos ϕ − nb [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] =   X nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] .x=a− or X X nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n (3) −2n Bn = Dn + F n a (4) Similarly.

b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 . and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. the system of equations (2). (5). Next. for n 6= 1. we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: X bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = X nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En (7) 2 2n −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b + Fn . (4). we have 0 1 0  B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 D1 = 1+ B1  2  ⇒ 1 2 0  B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 F1 = a 1− B1 . 2  and   −H1 = b2 E0 + D1 b 2 − F 1 0 0 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1       → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + D1 + 1 − F1 0 0 Substituting from above. However. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n 6= 0. and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En − (5)  0 0 − b2 E0 δn1 − Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (6)   Finally. (3). 1  2 −4b2 E0 = b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 B1  0 or −40b2 B1 = E0 . which can only be satisfied by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. for n = 1. (8) The four equations (1). (6).

b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 The potential is −40 b2    · E0 rcos ϕ.  (b) In Figure 4. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . r<b   E(r. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. r<a b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2     −20 b2 a2     Φ(r.  = 50 . a<r<b   b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 r  −(b2 − a2 )(20 − 2 ) b2      2 2 2 2 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. In that case the field would look like  2 0   + 0 E0 î. ϕ) = ( +  0 )r + ( −  0 ) E0 cos ϕ.1 I’ve plotted the field lines for b = 2a. b < r. ϕ) = a − ( +  0 ) + ( −  ) 0 2 E 0 sin ϕϕ̂ . (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform field. Also.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −20 ( + 0 )b2 D1 = E0 b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 −20 ( − 0 )a2 b2 F1 = 2 E0 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )(20 − 2 ) H1 = 2 E0 . a<r<b r       2 (b2 − a2 )(20 − 2 )    b − 2 · E0 [cos ϕr̂ + sin ϕϕ̂]      2 2 b ( + 0 ) − a ( − 0 ) 2 r   +E0 [cos ϕr̂ − sin ϕϕ̂] . ϕ) =  2 (2 − 2 ) b  E0 î − 0   E0 [cos ϕr̂ + sin ϕϕ̂]. b < r. we would have a → 0. b ( + 0 ) − a ( − 0 ) r As  → 0 . r<a   b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 2      20 b2 a2     ( +  ) − ( −  0 2 E0 cos ϕr̂ )   0  b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2     r 2    E(r. The electric field is 40 b2  E0 [cos ϕr̂ − sin ϕϕ̂] . which is reassuring. r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand.

8 for b = 2a. r > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. r<a ( + 0 )2   E(r.  = 50 . in which case the field becomes 40   E0 î. b → ∞.   ( + 0 )2  ( + 0 ) r . ϕ) = 20 20 ( − 0 )  a 2 E0 î − E0 [cos ϕr̂ + sin ϕϕ̂].

while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. θ) = Bl r−(l+1) + l+1 Pl (cos θ). ∇·D = 0 there. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. in the limit /0 → ∞. r<d 4π0 dl+1  Φ2 (r. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . in the region r > a.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant /0 . where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. whence X Φ(r. r<a   l   q r    X Φ(r. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: X Φ1 (r.    4π0 .  4π0 rl+1 Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as  X   Al rl Pl (cos θ). θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). so within the sphere the potential satisfies the normal Laplace equation. l Now. Since Φ1 satisfies the Laplace equation for r > a. (c) Verify that. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: q X rl    Pl (cos θ). r > d. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric field near the center of the sphere. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. θ) = Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. θ) = (9) X dl  q  Pl (cos θ). a<r<d  4π0 d  X qdl    Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. we may also write ∇·(D/) = ∇·E = 0 there. your result is the same as that for the conducting sphere. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. r > d. l On the other hand.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is .

.

∂Φ .

.

∂Φ .

.

 = 0 ∂r .

r=a− ∂r .

r=a+  lqal−1 → lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + 0 4π0 dl+1   0 −(l + 1) −(2l+1) q → Al = Bl a + (10)  l 4π0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is .

.

∂Φ .

.

∂Φ .

.

= ∂θ .

r=a− ∂θ .

as /0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. . 4π0 d d rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. since the field within a conducting sphere vanishes. we obtain   1 2l + 1 q Al =  0 + l+1 l l 4π0 dl+1 qa2l+1   1  Bl =  1− 0 + l+1 l 0 4π0 dl+1 In particular. and qa2l+1 Bl → − . the potential outside the sphere due to the polariza- tion charge at the sphere boundary is  l 1  qa  X a2 1 Φ1 (r. (12) 4π0 dl+1 With the coefficients (12). θ) = − Pl (cos θ).r=a+ q al → Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + 4π0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 → Bl = Al a2l+1 − (11) 4π0 dl+1 Combining (10) and (11).

respectively. That region is described by θ = π/2. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectric- filled space and the empty space is the xy plane. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. 0<θ< 2  Φ(r. we have Φ(r. (a) Find the electric field everywhere between the spheres. and we . θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · ·     q 30 1 50 2 2 2 = z+ (z − x − y ) + · · · 4π0 d2 ( + 20 ) 2 d3 (2 + 30 ) so the field components are q 50  x  Ex = · +··· 4π0 d2 2 + 30 d q 50  y  Ey = 2 · +··· 4π0 d 2 + 30 d   q 30 50  z  Ez = − + + · · · 4π0 d2  + 20 2 + 30 d Problem 4. carry charges ±Q. as shown in the figure. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the di- electric and free space. 0 < θ < π/2. θ) = X π l −(l+1)  [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. The empty space between the spheres is half-filled by a hemi- spherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant /0 ). all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. a < r < b.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written  X π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have .

.

∂Φ .

.

∂Φ .

.

 = 0 ∂θ .

θ=π/2+ ∂θ .

θ=π/2− .

.

∂Φ .

.

∂Φ .

.

= ∂r .

θ=π/2+ ∂r .

Similarly. since Pl0 (0) vanishes for even l.θ=π/2− which leads to X      Al − Cl Pl0 (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl0 (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) 0 0 X l−1 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)r − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. the coefficients of each power of r must vanish identically. (14) is automatically satisfied for l odd. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential difference V is established between them.13 Two long. There are actually two components of this charge. In (13). we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E field between the . cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. To begin. For other cases the vanishing of the coefficients must be brought about by taking   Al = C l Bl = Dl . show that the susceptibility of the liquid is (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) χe = 0 V 2 where ρ is the density of the liquid. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of fixed voltage V is con- nected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. this requirement is automatically satisfied for l even. l odd (15) 0 0 Al = C l Bl = Dl . (14) Since these equations must be satisfied for all r in the region a < r < b. coaxial. l even. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. g is the acceleration due to gravity. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere.

to establish a potential difference V between the conductors. So the . For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor (/0 ). in order to establish this same E field in the presence of the retarding effects of the dielectric. then the E field must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. With this greater charge on the electrodes. the battery has to flow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude 0 V σ= (17) a ln(b/a) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylin- ders). the D field will now be bigger by a factor (/0 ) than it was in our above calculation. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. It is useful to figure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric field between the cylinder plates here. and the com- ponent normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the field between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. Hence q 1 I E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = = (2π a dz)σ 0 0 aσ → Eρ (ρ) = 0 r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. However. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. This is just 1 b 2π Z Z Wv = E · D ρ dρ dφ 2 a 0 Z b = π0 E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ a a2 σ 2 =π ln(b/a) 0 π0 V 2 = (18) ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. This must integrate to give the correct potential difference between the conductors: Z b aσ b V =− Eρ (ρ)dρ = − ln a 0 a which tells us that. because this field integrated from a to b must still give the same potential difference.

Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. With no potential between the cylinder plates. ln(b/a) On the other hand. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. the combined system of battery and di- electric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. So suppose that. i. Turning now to the situation in this problem. Now suppose a battery of fixed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. to get to this point the battery has had to flow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude (/0 ) times greater than (17). .e. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor πV 2 ∆W = ( − 0 ) (19) ln(b/a) (per unit length). However. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to flow the excess charge. As we showed earlier. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. The decrease in electrostatic energy this affords over the case with just vacuum filling that space is just (19) times the height. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the field between the cylinders increases by a factor (/0 − 1) over the result (18): πV 2 ∆Wd = ( − 0 ) . we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. namely 2πV 2 ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0 ) ln(b/a) (per unit length). the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane.

But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is sufficiently larger than the area between the cylinders. we find that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when 2( − 0 )V 2 h= ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) χe = .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. the difference layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. namely. Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. h 1 Z Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) h0 dh0 = πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . Actually we should note one detail here. . the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. (21) 0 2 Comparing (20) to (21). 20 V 2 So I seem to be off by a factor of 2 somewhere.

of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS /* horiz spacing of pts */ #define DELTAY (4.phi).c" #define EZ 1.0 /* no.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.0 /* permittivity of cylinder */ #define E0 1.0 /* radius of inner cylinder */ #define B 8.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for field line plotting program used in Problem 4. double phi) { double Coeff.0 /* external field (irrelevant here) */ #define A 4. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi). /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.8.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250. else Coeff=1.8. } .(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).0 /* radius of outer cylinder */ #define NUMLINES 25.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r. */ double Er(double r.0 /* permittivity of free space */ #define EPS 5.h> #include <math.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).0 .((B*B . else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.

-2. else Coeff=1."%g %g\n". double phi) { double Coeff. fprintf(g."set size square\n"). FILE *g. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).y."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". g=GnuPlot("Field lines").0*B."plot ’-’ t ’’.0*B. .0*B). fprintf(g.phi)."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").x. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). } void main() { double i. */ double Ephi(double r. fprintf(g."set multiplot \n").eps’\n"). phi<=2*M_PI. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. for(phi=0.A*sin(phi)). fprintf(g."set output ’fig4."e\n").0 + ((B*B .-2."set xrange [%g:%g]\n".PhiComp.2.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. fprintf(g. */ fprintf(g.phi.2. /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b.dy.r.1.j.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). ’-’ t ’’ with lines. fprintf(g.dx. */ fprintf(g.0*B). fprintf(g. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n")."set noxtics\n").A*cos(phi). double RComp."set noytics\n"). fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r.

0) phi=(y>0.x. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX."%g %g\n". /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. fprintf(g. else phi=atan(y/x).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g. .0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot. i<=NUMLINES. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.phi).y).B*sin(phi)). /* * Draw field lines. if (x==0. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line.0*i)/NUMLINES).sin(phi)*PhiComp.0. */ for (j=0."e\n"). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.0*B. */ for (i=1.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y). phi<=2*M_PI. y=2.2. j<NUMPOINTS."%g %g\n". dx=cos(phi)*RComp ."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). */ x=-2. i+=1.0) ? M_PI/2. fprintf(g.0*B * ((NUMLINES ."e\n"). /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount.B*cos(phi). j+=1.phi). y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx). for(phi=0.0 : -M_PI/2. fprintf(g.0.0. PhiComp=Ephi(r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. } .\n"). fprintf(g. printf("Thank you for your support. }."e\n").