Analogue Electronics

Tutorial Questions

Tutorial 4 – The Operational Amplifier

. The op-amp circuit shown in Figure  is excited by a sinusoidal voltage source
 cos t. Find the output voltage vo(t).

(Hint: Convert the circuit to its frequency-domain representation.)

Figure 


e. vo(t) ∝ ∫ vs(t) dt.) Figure 2 2 . b) Why won’t the circuit work as a practical integrator as given? How might this problem be overcome? (Hint: Consider what would happen if a small  component was present in the input voltage. a) Show that the given operational amplifier circuit is an integrator. i... The circuit in Figure  shows an op-amp configured as an ideal integrator. The capacitor C accumulates the charge flowing through R. thereby giving rise to an integral effect on the input voltage.

 µA.. IB2. I io b) Determine the component of Vo caused by only. IB = . µA. d) For V1 = V2 = . Given that Vio =  mV. find the worse-case offset voltage at the output. 2 c) Determine the component of Vo caused by Vio only. assuming that the op-amp is ideal (IB1. R2 R1 _Vio + V1 _ IB1 Iio Vo R1 2 V2 + IB2 R2 Figure 3 3 . Iio = . The circuit in Figure  is a model of an op-amp stage in which the offset voltage and current are shown. Iio and Vio are zero). R2 =  kΩ. R1 =  kΩ. a) Determine the signal component Vo in terms of the difference signal V1 – V2.

Consider the op-amp in Figure . R + R′ Figure  4 ..) a) Show that the output voltage Vo2 due to IB2 only is − R′RRi Av Vo 2 = I (Ri + R1 )(R′ + R ) + RR′ − Av RRi B2 b) Show that the output voltage Vo1 due to IB1 only is R1Ri (R′ + R )Av Vo 2 = I (Ri + R1 )(R′ + R ) + RR′ − Av RRi B1 RR ′ c) Show that if IB2 ≅ IB1. where we assume Vio =  and Ro = . then Vo1 + Vo2 is minimised by taking R1 = . (Note that the diagram on the right shows the internals of the op-amp shown in the diagram on the left.

Express Vo in terms of AD. a) Assuming that the gain of the instrumentation amplifier is AD. the resistance R1 are precision fixed resistors. An instrumentation amplifier is often used to amplify the output from a transducer bridge as shown in Figure . the resistance changes. VR and δ. What must the  be if the differential component of the output is to be  times the common-mode output component for δ = 10-4? Is this value realistic? Figure 5 5 . For example. . c) Let R1 = R2. Because of the load on the structure. The resistance R2 + ∆R is the transducer attached to the structural member under test.. AD =  and VR =  V. in a strain gauge. The resistance R2 in the remaining arm of the bridge is a dummy gauge (unloaded) and is used to balance out resistance variations caused by variations in temperature and other parameters. show that for ∆R δ= << 1 R2 ADVR δ Vo = 4 b) Consider the instrumentation amplifier to have a  and AD.

. If the amplifier must provide an impedance of at least  kΩ to the signal source driving it. Calculate the worst-case output offset voltage |Vos| for the non-inverting op- amp in Figure  whose |IB| =  nA. |Iio| =  nA and |Vio| =  mV. mV. connected between the negative input terminal and ground. If the feedback resistor is  kΩ. Vin + Vo _ 90K ohm 10K ohm Figure  6 . what is the minimum permissible R1. a) An operational amplifier has an input offset current of  nA. It is to be used in an inverting-amplifier application where the output offset voltage due to bias currents cannot exceed  mV. what is the maximum possible closed-loop gain of the amplifier? b) An operational amplifier has an input offset voltage of . It is to be used in a non-inverting amplifier application where the output offset due to Vio cannot exceed  mV. .