ABSTRACT

Title of Dissertation: Analyses of Sandwich Beams and Plates
with Viscoelastic Cores

Gang Wang, Doctor of Philosophy, 2001

Dissertation directed by: Associate Professor Norman M. Wereley
Department of Aerospace Engineering

A hybrid damping scheme using passive constrained damping layers (PCLD),

and surface bonded piezoceramic actuators was proposed for interior cabin noise

and vibration control in helicopters. In order to evaluate the performance of these

treatments, we need to understand the dynamic behavior of sandwich structures.

The analyses of sandwich structures are complicated by the frequency dependent

stiffness and damping properties of viscoelastic materials. The methods devel-

oped in this thesis specifically deal with finite element methods and assumed

modes methods to this problem.

A spectral finite element method (SFEM) was developed in the frequency

domain for sandwich beam analysis. The results of natural frequencies and fre-

quency responses for two cantilevered beams with different span of PCLD treat-

ments were presented and validated by experimental results and other analyses;

including the assumed modes method (AM), and conventional finite element

method (CFEM). The SFEM method implicitly accounts for frequency depen-

dent stiffness and damping of viscoelastic materials. However, CFEM and AM

method have to use additional internal dissipation coordinates to account for

these properties. The Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) damping method was

used in both analyses. Also SFEM improves accuracy of frequency predictions

compared to the results of CFEM and AM method because of its higher order

interpolation functions.

We expected to extend SFEM method to two-dimensional sandwich plate

structures. But it is extremely difficult to solve the governing equations for a

sandwich plate. An alternative method was developed to update the traditional

AM method by using plate mode shapes. The plate mode shape functions were

solved directly based on the Kantorovich variational method for both transverse

bending and in-plane vibration of isotropic rectangular plates. These plate mode

shapes were employed to calculate sandwich plates in AM method. The results of

natural frequencies, loss factors and frequency response functions were calculated

and validated by experimental data and the results by using beam and rod mode

shapes. The comparable results were achieved for both analyses with less modes

in the case of using plate mode shapes.

Analyses of Sandwich Beams and Plates
with Viscoelastic Cores

by

Gang Wang

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School
of The University of Maryland, College Park in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
2001

Thesis Committee:

Associate Professor Norman M. Wereley, Chairman/Advisor
Professor Amr Baz
Professor Inderjit Chopra
Professor Sung W. Lee
Associate Professor Darryll J. Pines


c Copyright by

Gang Wang

2001

DEDICATION To my parents and my teachers. ii .

His kindness. Ying. for their suggestions. helped my walk through this path. I would also like to thank my dissertation committee members. Dr. Chang. Chopra. for her patience. Many thanks to Dr. and support. I am grateful for this. Dr. Dr. and Dr. encouragement. help. I wish to thank my wife. Lee. iii . and their enthusiasm in my research. Dr. Over the course of my graduate studies. His personal concerns for my family are especially appreciated. and love during those years. Nor- man Wereley. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My sincere gratitude and appreciation goes to my advisor. for his helpful discussions on mathematics in my research as well as his personal concerns for my family. I have shared happy moments and tough times with my colleagues at the Alfred Gessow Rotorcraft Center. Baz. Pines.

S Army Research Office under the FY96 MURI in Active Control of Rotorcraft Vibration and Acoustics. with Dr. this research was supported by U. Gary Anderson and Dr. Finally. DAAH-0496-10301. I give thanks to God. iv .Above all. and Dr. Gary Anderson serving as technical monitor. Lab equipment support was provided under the FY96 Defense University Research Instrumentation Pro- gram (DURIP) Contract No. Tom Doligalski serving as technical monitors.

. . . . . . . . . .2 Sandwich Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. 12 1. . . . . . . . . . 4 1. . . . . . 12 1. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES xiv 1 Introduction 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Motivation and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . 15 1. . .2 Sandwich Plate . . . . . .3 Scope of the Present Research . . . . . . . . 17 2 Viscoelastic Materials 19 2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 7 1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sandwich Plates .4 Organization . . .1 Viscoelastic Materials . . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sandwich Beam . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 10 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 State-of-the-art . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1 Characteristics of Viscoelastic Materials . . .

. . . 34 3 Comparison of Analyses of Sandwich Beams 40 3. . . . . . . .2. 64 3. . . . . 66 vi . .2 Classical Damping Models . . . . 50 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Experimental Setup . .2 Spectral Finite Element Method . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Modal Frequency Predictions .3 Modern Damping Models . . . . . . . . . . .3 Golla-Hughes-McTavish Model . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fractional Derivatives Model . . . . . . . . . . 64 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Isotropic Rod and Beam . . . 28 2. . .1 Assumptions . . . . . .7. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 43 3. . . . . . 22 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3. . . . . . . . . . 59 3. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Frequency Response Functions .1 Assumptions and Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. . 26 2. . . . . . . . . . 65 3. . .7 Results . .3. . . . . . 2.1. . . . . . . 47 3.5 Solution Type/Methods . . . . . . . .2 Number of Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Conventional Finite Element Method . . 41 3. . . . . 41 3. . . .2 Governing Equations . . . . . . 45 3. . .4 Assumed Modes Method . .2 Sandwich Beam . . . .3. .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 AFT and ADF Models . . . . . . . . . .4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .2 Sandwich Plate Energies and Governing Equations . . . 153 vii . .2 Plate Bending Vibration . . . . 147 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4 Analyses of Sandwich Plates: Part I 80 4. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Results for Plate Bending and In-plane Mode Shape Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.8 Summary . . . . . . . . 112 5. . . . . . .1. .2. . . . . . . . . .2. .1 Plate In-plane Mode Shape . . . . . .1 Solution .2 Validation and Results . 113 5. . . . . . . . . 81 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4. . 88 4. . . . . . .1 Assumptions and Governing Equations . . . . .2 Results . 139 6 Analyses of Sandwich Plate: Part II 146 6. . . . . . . 124 5. . .1 Experimental Set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Analytical Validation: Simply Supported .3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Assumed Modes Method Using Beam and Rod modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 98 5 Plate Mode Shapes 110 5. . . . 83 4. 95 4. .3 Results .3 Summary . . . . . .2 Experimental Validation: All Four Sides Clamped . . . . . . .1. 133 5. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Asssumptions .

. . . . . .3 Recommendations for Future Research . 183 Bibliography 187 viii . . . . . . . . . .1 Sandwich Beam . . . . . . . . . .1 Aluminum Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Plate with PCLD Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sandwich Plate . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mass Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 A Mass and Stiffness Matrices 180 A.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 7 Summary and Conclusions 175 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 181 A. . . . . .2 Stiffness Matrices . . . . . . . . 176 7. . . . . . . . . .2. . .3 Summary . 155 6. . . . . 177 7.

. . . 71 3. 72 4. . . . . . . . . .1 Material constants for a simply-supported sandwich plate . . . . . 71 3. . . . . N is the number of fi- nite elements. . . . . . . . .2 Comparison of predicted and measured modal frequencies of the beam specimen 1 with a 75% PCLD treatment. . .3 Validation of sandwich model against theoretical solution . . . .4 Curve fitting of mini-oscillator parameters used in GHM method for the viscoelastic materials 3M ISD112 at different temperatures 102 ix .2 Mode number mapping table . . . . . 101 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4. 92 4. . .1 Beam and actuator constants . . LIST OF TABLES 3. . . N is the number of finite elements. . Nb is the number of bending modes and Ne is the number of extension modes used in AM method. Nb is the number of bending modes and Ne is the number of extension modes used in AM method. . . .3 Comparison of predicted and measured modal frequencies for beam specimen 2 with a 50% PCLD treatment. . . . . . .

. . . . . . Modal number 0 denotes the ”rigid” mode.8 Experimental validation for 67.31 cm x 52. . . 125 5.5” x 20.VEM . at 20◦ . . . . . .5” x t) . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum plate dimensions: 67. . . . .1/32” Al)) asym- metric clamped sandwich plate. . .3 Natural frequencies of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCF boundary conditions . . . . . ne = 25. .0. . . .9 Effect of the number of assumed modes on the modal predictions for the symmetric sandwich plate. .5 Calibration of experimental set-up: the influence of plate thick- ness on accuracy of the experiments. . . . 128 x . . . . at 20◦ . .5” x (1/64” Al . 105 4. . . nb = 25. .08cm) (26. .5” x 20. . .VEM .0.VEM . . . . . 104 4.6 Experimental validation using symmetric clamped sandwich II . ne = 25. 127 5. . . . 107 5. . . . .7 Experimental validation for 67. . .2 Natural frequencies of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCC boundary conditions . . . . . 103 4. . . . . .1 Admissible rod mode shape functions . .07 cm x t (26.04cm . . . 106 4. . at 20◦ .5” x 20. . . . .07 cm x (0. . . . . .31 cm x 52. . . . nb = 25. . .5” x (1/64” Al . . . . . . . . . .04cm . .1/32” Al)) asym- metric clamped sandwich plate. .08cm) (26. .31 cm x 52. . . . .4. . . . . . 126 5.VEM . .4 Natural frequencies of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CFCF boundary conditions.07 cm x (0. . .

. . . . . . .8 The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in- plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition II: where Umn (x. . . . 144 5. . . . . . . . . . . y) = Xvm Yvn . . . . . . . . . .1 Coordinates of the 15 measured locations for an aluminum plate under CFCF boundary conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 5. . . . . . .7 The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in- plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition I: where Umn (x. . 145 6. . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . y) = Xwm Ywn . . . . . . . . . . .5 The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate bending vibration under CFCF boundary condition I: where Wmn (x. . . . . 152 xi . . . y) = Xwm Ywn . . . . . . . .6 The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate bending vibration under CFCF boundary condition II: where Wmn (x. . . 140 5. . . . y) = Xum Yun . . . . . . . 141 5. . x and y are in inches . . . . . . . . . 142 5. . y) = Xum Yun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in-plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition III: where Vmn (x. . . . . . . . . . . y) = Xvm Yvn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in-plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition IV: where Vmn (x. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 162 6.8 Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for a plate with PCLD treatment. in analysis I. . . . 25 modes for each displacement were assumed and it leads to 500 degrees of freedom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 tested locations from mode 5 to 7 . . 167 xii . . . . . 165 6. . . . . . . . . . . 25 modes for each displacement were assumed and it leads to 500 degrees of freedom. . . . . . . . . . in analysis II. .2 Coordinates of the 15 measured locations for a plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions. . .3 Bending frequency results for an aluminum plate with CFCF boundary conditions . . in analysis II. . . . . . . .3. . . .4 Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for an alu- minum plate with CFCF boundary conditions. . x and y are in inches 152 6. . . . . . . .5 Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for an alu- minum plate with CFCF boundary conditions. . . 15 tested locations from mode 1 to 3 . .6. 163 6. . . . . . . . .7 Loss factor results for a plate with PCLD treatment. . .6 Bending frequency results for a plate with PCLD treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 tested locations from mode 1 to 4 . . . . . . . . 166 6. . in analysis I. . . . . . . 16 modes for each displacement were used for a total of 320 degrees of freedom.3. as shown in Figure 6. . . . as shown in Figure 6. 164 6. . . . 16 modes for each displacement were used for a total of 320 degrees of freedom. .

9 Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for the plate with PCLD treatment.6. 15 tested locations from mode 4 to 5 168 xiii .

. . . . . . . . . . 74 xiv . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.1 Specimen 1: the PCLD treatment covers 75% of the total length of the beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2. . . . . . . 74 3. . . . . 36 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Classical models of viscoelastic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3. . . . . . . 3M ISD 112. . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES 2. . 37 2.2 Storage Modulus and Loss Factor Vs. . . . . . . . . . . 36 2. . . . . . . 38 2. . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.5 Relaxation functions for three models . . . . . . . . . . .4 Creep functions for three models . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The mini-oscillators mechanical analogy in GHM method . . .1 Nomogram of the viscoelastic material. .2 Specimen 2: the PCLD treatment covers 50% of the total length of the beam . . . 39 3. . . . . .7 The GHM prediction of complex shear modulus using three mini- oscillators . . .4 Deflection of beam with PCLD treatment . . . frequency at temperature 20o C for the viscoelastic material 3M ISD 112. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cross section of beam with PCLD treatment . . .

.9 The effects of number of elements on modal frequencies for spec- imen 1 having 75% PCLD treatment . . . .1 Sandwich plate and layer displacements .11 Frequency Response function from the piezoelectric voltage input to the tip displacement output: the PCLD treatment covers 75% of the length of the base beam. . . . . 79 4. ne = 25. . 108 4. . . . . 78 3. . 75 3. . . . . . .5 Nodal degrees of freedom in SFEM . .7 Experimental set up for beam with PCLD treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Frequency Response function from the piezoelectric voltage input to the tip displacement output: the PCLD treatment covers 50% of the length of the base beam. . 74 3. . ne = 25. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Experimental setup for plate test . . . 108 xv . . 94 4. . . . . . . nb = 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3. . . . . . . .3 The temperature effects on the frequencies and system loss factors for a symmetric clamped sandwich plate. . . . 76 3. . . . . . . . . . 77 3. . . 82 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The temperature effects on the frequencies and system loss factors for the first asymmetric clamped sandwich plate. . . . . . . . . . .6 Nodal degrees of freedom in CFEM .8 Number of elements used in SFEM and CFEM for 50% PCLD beam 76 3. . nb = 25. . .3.10 The effects of number of elements on modal frequencies for spec- imen 2 having 50% PCLD treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 169 6. .7 A uniform rectangular plate with CFCF boundary conditions . . . . . 113 5. .1 Schematic of plate testing set-up . . . . . . . .6 Contour plot of analytical bending mode shape functions for an aluminum plate with CFCF boundary conditions . . . .3 Mode shapes of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCC boundary conditions . . . . . . .3 A plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions 151 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The temperature effects on the frequencies and system loss factors for the second asymmetric clamped sandwich plate. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Diagram of clamping fixture . . . . 130 5. .5 Contour plot of experimental bending mode shape functions for an aluminum plate with CFCF boundary conditions . . 133 5. . . . . 170 xvi . . . 150 6. . .4 Schematic of sensor array for plate testing . . . . . . . . 151 6. . . . . . . .4 Mode shapes of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCF boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . ne = 25. . . . . . . . . nb = 25. . . . 139 6. . . . .6 Schematic of rectangular plate bending vibration . . . . . . . 150 6. . . . . 132 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 131 5. . . . . . . . . .2 Three configurations of rectangular plate under in-plane vibration 129 5. . . .1 Schematic of rectangular plate under in-plane vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Mode shapes of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CFCF boundary conditions . . . . . .

6.7 Frequency response functions of an aluminum plate with CFCF

boundary conditions, at location 15, as shown as Table 6.1; in

which only 7 plate modes were included and 25 beam bending

modes were used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

6.8 Contour plot of experimental bending mode shape functions for a

plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions . . 172

6.9 Contour plot of analytical bending mode shape functions for a

plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions . . 173

6.10 Frequency response functions of a plate with PCLD, at location

11; in analysis I, 25 modes for each displacement were assumed

and it leads to 500 degrees of freedom; in analysis II, 16 modes for

each displacement were used for a total of 320 degrees of freedom. 174

xvii

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Motivation and Objectives

Damping augmentation of structures is of key interest to aerospace, mechanical,

and civil engineers. Noise and vibration reduction is a major challenge pertain-

ing to these fields; especially in aerospace applications, such a reduction must

be achieved with a minimal increase in weight. Viscoelastic damping layers inte-

grated within the structures of vibrating members have been used towards this

end.

The current research work is motivated by the helicopter industry’s goal of

achieving a “jet smooth quiet ride,” in which smart materials and structures tech-

nologies may be exploited and applied. Our research task is the hybrid/active

trim panel damping control in reduction of the interior cabin noise of the heli-

copter. Two primary contributions to the interior noise are airborne noise and

structure-borne noise. Airborne noise, which occurs mainly in a low frequency

1

range below 500 Hz, is due to main and tail rotors. Structure-borne noise is

primarily responsible for frequency components in the range from 500 Hz to

6000 Hz. The transmission adds these higher frequency disturbances, and these

disturbances are borne through the air and via structural vibration into the

cabin.

Three different approaches to control noise have been taken in the past:

1) passive scheme, 2) active scheme, and 3) hybrid scheme. Passive schemes

include increasing damping material and stiffening of the structures [47]. In

this approach, damping and stiffness characteristics of a structure are enhanced.

Aircraft skin with damping tape is effective for reducing the response of the

skin, and consequently, noise transmission in the high frequency range. The

damping tape is not effective at a low frequency range (below 500 Hz). Therefore,

passive control approaches are ineffective, particularly for low frequency. Also an

undesirable consequence of passive damping method in aerospace applications

is an increase of weight, which penalizes performance. The second approach

involves actively controlling interior noise using secondary sources. The active

schemes use secondary acoustic sources as in Nelson and Elliott [48] or secondary

force actuators as in Fuller and Jones [22] and Balachandran et al [2]. The state-

of-the-art for the active control scheme has been recently reviewed by Hansen

[26]. Hansen described the currently available control system hardware, software,

and control sources. Active control schemes overcome the weight penalties, but

these method are effectively limited to low frequency bands, less than 500 Hz.

2

The third scheme for noise control is a hybrid scheme. This scheme utilizes

features of both passive and active control schemes, in which active control can

handle low frequency and passive control can handle high frequency disturbances.

One such hybrid approaches is the concept of active constrained layer damping

(ACLD) scheme by Baz [4] and its application to noise control by Poh et al [51].

In our previous research, we proposed a hybrid scheme [59, 60] with the use

of viscoelastic material for passive damping augmentation, and a surface piezo

patch actuators for active control. The passive dissipative layers can damp out

higher frequency components of the disturbances, while control of the actuators

through control algorithms can suppress noise in the lower frequencies. A pre-

liminary study of this hybrid scheme was investigated by Veeramani [60]. The

structures considered were a three-layered sandwich plate, which were used to

emulate a trim panel. A viscoelastic core was sandwiched between the two face

layers of the trim panel and the viscoelastic core has a frequency dependent com-

plex shear modulus. The assumed mode method was used to solve the system

using beam and rod mode shape functions. Experiments were conducted for the

case where all edges of the sandwich plate were clamped. Natural frequencies

and loss factors predictions were validated experimentally. We continue this task

to further study the sandwich beams and plates in order to obtain more accurate

solutions. Therefore, the objectives of this research are:

1. To develop a spectral finite element method using higher order interpolation

3

sandwich beam and plate and solution types. Nashif et al represented viscoelastic 4 . mode shapes and response experi- mentally in all of the above cases.1 Viscoelastic Materials Fundamental damping concepts and methods to characterize damping are pre- sented in the book by Nashif et al [47]. 4. 2. To directly solve for the bending and in-plane mode shape functions of isotropic rectangular plate vibration based on the Kantorovich method and utilize these mode shape functions in the assumed modes method for the sandwich plate analysis to reduce the computational cost compared to the previous work which used 1D beam and rod modes. The following section describes the state-of-the-art in the models of viscoelastic material. A corollary of this is that we do not want to add internal dissipation coordinates which increase degrees of freedom. 1. 3. To implicitly account for frequency dependent stiffness and damping of vis- coelastic materials by using the spectral finite element method in sandwich beam analysis. To validate natural frequencies. functions to reduce computational cost for sandwich beam analysis. damping.2. and hence the computational cost.2 State-of-the-art 1.

the Kelvin. hysteresis loops and dynamic stiffness. The Zener model can pre- dict both creep and relaxation functions well but it failed to capture the curve of frequency dependent complex modulus in the frequency domain realization. The temperature nomogram was developed by Jones [29] to represent such data in a master curve that is convenient for practical applica- tions. This time domain model can 5 . and the Zener model [71]. When excited by a harmonic force of constant amplitude. All the damping models for the viscoelastic materials must capture the fre- quency dependent complex modulus in the frequency domain and demonstrate the creep and relaxation properties in the time domain as well.materials using a complex modulus in the frequency domain. Nyquist plots. as well as in manufacturer data sheets. the steady state response of a simple single-degree-of-freedom system can be used to determine the damping through the response amplitude at resonance. Creep functions predicted by the Maxwell model and relaxation functions predicted by the Kelvin model are unrealistic for the viscoelastic materials. However. in which a time domain model using a relaxation function was developed. Christensen [12] discussed the viscoelasticity theory. that experimentally captures the steady state behavior of viscoelastic materials to si- nusoidal excitation. these models have drawbacks and cannot capture the real behaviors of the viscoelastic materials [47. Traditional damping models were reviewed by Sun and Yu [58]: the Maxwell. for example 3M [56]. 58]. Several of these data sheets are shown in appendices of Nashif et al [47]. Thus a frequency dependent complex modulus can be determined.

but it turned out to be a very complicated frequency model because there are five parameters have to be determined by curve fitting the experimental data. 43] was developed using mini-oscillators. the GHM method was adopted and incorporated in the conventional finite element method or the 6 . 39] and Yiu’s model [69. It is also difficult to transform the model into the time domain because it involves complicated assembles of the system matrices. 42. 38. He did not present a relaxation function as an example either. These modern damping models can be used to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of viscoelastic materials. thereby gaining a complex modulus. the complex modulus as a function of frequency.be transformed into the frequency domain. This model can be easily in- corporated into conventional finite element or other analyses to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus. that is. Recent damping models were developed in order to curve fit this master curve of the viscoelastic material. Instead of deriving the damping force. In our research. 70]. Bagley and Torvik [3] tried to improve the traditional damping models as discussed above. The properties of the relaxation function were discussed based on the physical principles. But it is very difficult to find such relaxation functions to capture a complex modulus in the frequency domain through transformations. these models introduce additional internal dissipation coordinates to curve fit the complex modulus in the frequency domain and transform back to time domain. The GHM method [23. There are other models such as the ATF and ADF method [37.

These ad- ditional dissipation coordinates increase the size of problem and lead to a large degree of freedom model. or sandwiched viscoelastic layer. In order to mitigate the computational cost. this constraining layer causes a significant shear deformation in the constrained. The constrained layer damping treatment is more effective because the viscoelastic materials dissipate energy mainly by shear deformation and the constraining layer enhance the magnitude of shear deformation. have been developed in practical 7 . a layer of viscoelastic tape is applied to the surface of a host structure. and con- strained. When the sandwich structure undergoes bending motion. layer treatments. The energy is dis- sipated by the cyclic tensile and compression strain when the host structure is in bending motion. For the constrained layer treatment. we need to develop a method in the frequency domain to implicitly account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of viscoelastic materials for the analyses of sandwich structures.2.2 Sandwich Beams For the surface damping treatments. a stiff layer is added to the top surface of the viscoelastic layer. Sun and Yu [58] summarized prior research. 1. Sandwich beam. For the unconstrained layer treatment. There are two types of surface damping treatment: unconstrained.assumed modes method for the sandwich beam and plate analyses. and shell structures. plate. so that the energy can be dissipated. as reviewed in [58].

applications for damping augmentation.

Kerwin [31] presented the first analysis of the simply supported sandwich

beam using a complex modulus to represent the viscoelastic core. His model

predicted attenuation of a traveling wave on either a simply supported or in-

finitely long beam. DiTaranto [16] extended Kerwin’s work by developing a sixth

order differential equation of motion in terms of the longitudinal displacement.

Mead and Marcus [44] derived the same order differential equation of motion in

terms of transverse motion of sandwich beam and presented wave propagation

solutions. Both works used the Kerwin’s basic assumptions, in which the vis-

coelastic core has a complex modulus and the energy is dissipated by the shear

deformations in the viscoelastic core, and both extended Kerwin’s work by al-

lowing for more general boundary conditions. Since the 1950s, there have been

many papers published on the theory and application of constrained layer damp-

ing. Many researchers used Kerwin’s assumptions, and investigated the validity

of assumptions, and damping or loss factor predictions. Closed-form solution

methods were typically used because finite element techniques were not readily

available for this class of problems. Nakra [46] and Mead [45] reviewed all this

area and they discussed the differences and similarities between the theories.

The above theories laid the foundation for the analysis of sandwich beams with

constrained layer damping treatments.

Douglas and Yang [18, 19] studied the partial and fully passive constrained

layer damping (PCLD) treatment for beam structures. Experiments were con-

8

ducted to obtain the responses, which were compared to predictions based on

a progressive wave solution method. They considered two kinds of damping

mechanism in a sandwich beam structure. One was the shear damping in the

viscoelastic core which was due to the shear deformation as discussed before.

The other was the compression damping in the viscoelastic core. When there

was relative transverse motion in the constraining layer and base beam structure,

the viscoelastic core undergoes compression to dissipate energy. They concluded

that shear damping is a broad band mechanism for most engineering purposes.

The compression damping in the viscoelastic core must be considered only within

a certain spectral band. The damping of transverse dynamics of the thin sand-

wich beam is outside the spectral influences of compression damping. Therefore,

the shear damping mechanism was mainly considered in thin sandwich struc-

tures. In 1982, Johnson et al [28] published a work on using modal strain energy

(MSE) methods for damping design by finite element methods. The available

FEM packages enable us to obtain the numerical solutions of sandwich struc-

tures much easier. But for the sandwich beam, two-dimensional finite elements

were used to model essential one-dimensional beam like structures.

Baz [4] first replaced the constraining layer by piezo-ceramic material to

develop the active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The ACLD

treatment were rapidly adapted in structural vibration control [5, 34, 39, 40, 57].

There are two classes of methods to evaluate the beam with PCLD or ACLD

treatment, that is the assumed modes method (AM) in [34, 40] or conventional fi-

9

nite element method (CFEM) [39, 49], Additional damping models using internal

dissipation coordinates are incorporated to account for the frequency dependent

complex modulus. However, introduction of internal dissipation coordinates will

greatly increase the size of the numerical problem. For example, if the total de-

grees of freedom of a sandwich beam were N and three mini-oscillators were used

in the GHM method, this will lead to a system with total degrees of freedom

4N.

An effective and accurate method is needed to analyze sandwich beams with

the PCLD or ACLD treatments, that implicitly account for the frequency depen-

dent complex modulus of the constrained viscoelastic layer, without the addition

of internal dissipation degrees of freedom.

1.2.3 Sandwich Plates

Ross et. al. [54] studied simply-supported plates, and assumed a perfect interface

and compatibility of transverse displacement in each layer. Rao and Nakra [52]

[53] developed the basic equations of vibratory bending of asymmetric sandwich

plates with isotropic face-plates and viscoelastic core. Lu et. al. [41] developed a

finite element model and presented experimental data for sandwich plates under

free boundary conditions. Cupial and Niziol [15] used the variational method

to model sandwich plates with anisotropic face-plates, who presented simplified

forms of the equations for a symmetric plate or for specially orthotropic face

10

layers. The modal frequencies and modal loss factors predicted by the analysis

were compared well with the results in Johnson and Keinholz [28]. However,

they did not present experimental validation for the modal frequencies and loss

factors. Baz and Ro [6] studied plates with active constrained layers for vibration

control and a two-dimensional finite element model was developed to model the

sandwich plate structures. Experiments were conducted to show the response of

the sandwich plate with or without controller. Veeramani [60] followed Cupial

and Niziol’s work and developed the models for the sandwich plates with sur-

face bonded piezo-ceramic actuators. The face layers in the sandwich plate are

assumed to be anisotropic material and the viscoelastic core is assumed to have

frequency dependent complex shear modulus. Experiments were conducted to

test three sandwich plates with the isotropic face plates. The assumed modes

method was used to analyze the sandwich plate system using beam and rod

modes. More modes, especially in-plane modes, must be included in order to

achieve good frequency predictions compared to experimental data because these

modes need to capture the shear deformation in the viscoelastic core. Wang et

al [63] [64] improved the analyses to include the GHM method to account for the

frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core. The num-

ber of in-plane mode is still large to obtain the comparable frequency solutions.

Instead of resorting to FEM package, an improved assumed modes method is

needed to better predict the natural frequency, loss factors, mode shapes, and

responses of sandwich plates. Experimental data for these are needed as well.

11

We seek to develop higher order analyses of the sandwich beams and plates using wave solutions and plate mode shapes. Experiments will be conducted to validate our analyt- ical results for both sandwich beams and plates.1. However.3. For sandwich plate structures. improving the effectiveness and accuracy of solutions for those structures is still an important goal. This large number of degrees of freedom is represented by the sum of the number of elements or assumed modes needed for accuracy at higher frequency. a very large number of degrees of freedom are required. For sandwich beam structures. we try to update the beam and rod modes used in the assumed mode method using plate mode shape functions which were solved from bending and in-plane vibration of an isotropic rectangular plate based on the Kantorovich method.3 Scope of the Present Research Based on the literature reviews.1 Sandwich Beam To have sufficiently accurate higher mode number natural frequency estimates for sandwich beam structures incorporating viscoelastic damping layers. sandwich beams and plates have been well stud- ied. 1. plus the additional internal dissipation coordinates that must be added to each element or assumed mode to account for 12 . we try to implicitly account for the frequency depen- dent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core and develop a spectral finite element method based on a progressive wave solutions in the frequency domain.

The primary goal is to develop a finite el- ement method in the frequency domain. respectively. A spectral finite element (SFEM) methodology was formulated for isotropic structures by Doyle [17]. Douglas was the first to explore wave solutions in order to implicitly account for the frequency dependent complex modulus of viscoelastic core in the solution method. The primary advantages of the progressive wave solution are: (a) the method implicitly accounts for frequency dependent complex modulus of the viscoelastic core without adding internal dissipation coordinates.) change for a structure. that mitigates the disadvantages of Douglas’ progressive wave solution. change in cross-section. (b) the method solves for the frequency response directly from the governing equation without resorting to the modal expansion or displacement interpolation functions of AM and CFEM methods. One possible approach was developed by Douglas [18] based on the govern- ing equation given by Mead and Marcus [44].the frequency dependent properties of the viscoelastic core. etc. We are especially interested in developing a method that alleviates the large number of degrees of freedom needed to analyze sandwich beams using CFEM or AM coupled with internal dissipation coordinate methods such as GHM [23. This methodology can be extended to analyse sandwich 13 . the impedance matrix must be rederived. based on wave propagation solutions. However. 42] or ADF [38]. the disadvantages of the progressive wave method described by Douglas [18] are that if the boundary conditions or structural junctions (joints. The progressive wave solution was used to calculate frequency response functions using an impedance matrix.

Both spectral finite element methods for sandwich beam analyses were developed simultaneously and presented at same session of AIAA Structures. We will present details of a SFEM analysis of the flexural vibration of sandwich beams with a viscoelastic core.beams with isotropic face layers and a viscoelastic core. only as many elements are needed as there are junctions between substructures of different impedance. The frequency response 14 . without adding any internal dissipation coordinates. The shape functions used in SFEM are based on the exact displacement of wave solutions. Kim and Lee [32] also applied the spectral finite element for the beam with ACLD treatment. the complex shear modulus can be adjusted at each frequency of interest as well. We [62] developed a spectral finite element model for a beam with PCLD treatment. as compared to CFEM methods. Baz [7] used a spectral finite element model to describe the longitudinal waves in rods treated with active constrained layer damping. as opposed to the polynomial interpolation functions typically used by conventional FEM. the SFEM method requires that a much smaller number of degrees of freedom be incorporated in the solution. was needed to calculate the frequency response function. To obtain accurate results using the SFEM method. SFEM can directly handle the frequency dependent complex modulus of the viscoelastic core. Thus. Because the SFEM calculates an impedance matrix at each frequency of interest. and Materials Conference. In contrast to the assumed modes and conventional finite element methods. A small number of elements. Structural Dynamics.

we need to include more mode shapes. The first 25 in-plane and bending plate mode shapes. The large number of mode shapes plus the in- ternal coordinates in GHM method increase the size of the problem and add the computational cost. were included. 1. We will update the in-plane and bending mode shapes by directly 15 .2 Sandwich Plate In our previous work [64]. especially in-plane plate mode shapes to achieve comparable accuracy compared to experimental data.functions (FRFs) are calculated using SFEM and compared to those computed using CFEM analyses and validated by the experimental results. Our objective is to alleviate the computational cost by using fewer assumed mode shapes. In our previous analysis. As discussed in our work. The modal frequencies were calculated and validated by experiment by considering a plate with all four sides having clamped boundary conditions. rod and beam mode shapes were only approximations of in-plane and bending mode shapes in x and y direction. which were approximated by rod modes and beam bending modes. the assumed modes method was successfully applied to the analysis of sandwich plates with isotropic face plates and a viscoelastic core using beam and rod mode shapes. The numerical predictions agreed well with ex- perimental solutions. respectively.3. These mode shapes are only admissible functions and do not sat- isfy the plate vibration governing equations.

21] presented frequency results of in-plane plate vibration. In the Kantorovich method. This equivalence enable us to obtain the ana- lytical solutions of mode shapes for in-plane and out-of-plane plate vibrations.solving for the mode shapes of isotropic plate in-plane and bending vibrations using the Kantorovich variational method [30]. In our analysis. These mode shapes are used to analysis sandwich plate by the assumed modes 16 . We will outline this method and show how to obtain the mode shapes for plate in-plane and bending vibrations. We follow the same method to solve out-of-plane (bending) plate mode shapes with free or clamped boundary conditions. They solved the governing equations by using rod mode shapes and an iteration scheme is used to obtain the modal frequencies. few papers discuss mode shapes of in-plane plate vibra- tion. Recent. An iteration scheme was developed to calculate the natural frequency and cor- responding mode shapes. Bhat et al [8] solved plate bending mode shapes for boundary conditions of combinations of simply-supported and clamped cases. The analytical expressions for bending mode shapes are described. we will solve a series of coupled ordinary differential equations by assuming separable expression of solu- tions. Farag and Pan [20. the Kantorovich method is applied to in-plane plate vibration problems [65]. On the other hand. Our results are validated by Farag and Pan [21]. The Kantorovich variational method shows the equivalence of solving boundary values problem of partial differential equations (PDEs) and finding functions to minimize the integral of associated total system energy.

The results of natural frequency and loss factors are presented to compare with the previous experimental data. All the analytical results are validated by experimental data. Chapter 4 sets up the assumed mode analysis for the sandwich plate. Chapter 5 presents the Kantorovich method for the plate bending and in-plane vibrations. Chapter 3 discusses the analyses of sandwich beam. 17 . We demonstrate that the natural frequency and loss factors vary with the change of the temperature. The spectral finite element method is presented in details. Chapter 6 presents the updated assumed modes method using plate modes for the analyses of sandwich plate. A parametric study of temperature effects on the complex shear modulus is pre- sented. The new two-dimensional plate mode shapes will show improved com- putational efficiency because fewer number of mode shapes is needed to achieve same accuracy as compared to those results using one-dimensional beam and rod mode shapes. The mode shape functions are cal- culated and given in the closed-form solutions.method.4 Organization This dissertation is organized as follows. This leads us a higher order method for sandwich plate analysis. Chapter 2 reviews the existing damp- ing models for the viscoelastic materials and demonstrates the advantages and drawbacks for each model. The temperature issue is a big concern in the design of the sandwich structures. 1. The assumed modes method and conventional finite element method are outlined as well.

loss factor. mode shape function and response for an aluminum plate. the conclusions are presented in the Chapter 7. The mass and stiffness matrices in the assumed modes method for the sandwich plate analyses are present in the Appendix. Finally. 18 . mode shape function and response for a sandwich plate with partial PCLD treatment.Experiments are conducted to validate the results of bending frequency. and to validate the results of natural frequency.

19 . the Augmenting Thermodynamic Fields (ATF) method [37]. Our ef- forts then focus on some of the modern models including: the Fractional Deriva- tives (FD) method [3]. and the Zener model (Standard Solid Model). The merits and limitations of the newer methods are also presented. the complex modulus [47]. the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method [23]. The GHM method was used primarily in this research because it can be easily adapted to the traditional techniques of structural analyses. Classical represen- tations of viscoelastic materials include the Maxwell model.Chapter 2 Viscoelastic Materials This chapter presents dynamic characteristics of viscoelastic damping materials and outlines the different existing mathematical models. We will show that these models cannot capture the behavior of viscoelastic damping materials. and the Anelastic Displacement Field (ADF) method [38]. the Kelvin-Voigt model.

they also undergo creep over a period of time. when subjected to a constant force. (t) is the strain and the kernel function g(t − s) is known as a relaxation function. Christensen [12] discussed the expected charac- teristics of the relaxation function based on both reasonable hypotheses and thermodynamic considerations. the force required to maintain a given deforma- tion decreases over a period of time. The Laplace transformation of the above equation yields σ̃(s) = sẼ(s)˜ (s) (2. Because viscoelastic materials exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics.2) 20 . in addition to undergoing an instantaneous dis- placement. they hold unique properties. The stress and stain constitutive relationship for a linear viscoelastic material is: t d(s) σ(t) = E(t) + g(t − s) ds (2.1 Characteristics of Viscoelastic Materials Viscoelastic damping is exhibited in many polymeric and glassy materials and this internal damping mechanism is very important for damping augmentation to reduce vibration and noise in structures. This phenomenon is called relaxation. Alternatively. For example.2.1) ds 0 where σ(t) is the stress and. The relaxation function is the stress response to a unit-step strain input. The damping arises from relax- ation and recovery of the polymer network after it has been deformed. This linear hereditary stress and strain law can be expressed in the Laplace domain.

The storage shear modulus and loss factors can be read from the nomogram. test procedures and other rele- vant issues are discussed by Nashif el at [47].4) E  (ω) The loss factor measures the average ratio of energy dissipated from the vis- coelastic material per radian to the maximum stored energy under a sinusoidal force.3) where E  (ω) is the storage modulus and E  (ω) is the loss modulus.Substituting s = jω into above equation yields a complex modulus E = E  (ω) + jE  (ω) = jω Ẽ(jω) (2. specimen selection criteria. The temperature nomogram was developed by Jones [29] and is considered a standard graphical presentation of complex modulus data. In the nomogram. a vertical 21 . The data for the nomogram of viscoelas- tic materials are usually provided by manufacturers. The important characteristics of damping materials are presented in a temperature nomogram. There are various techniques for determining the complex modulus of viscoelastic materials experimentally. A complex modulus that describes the steady state response of the viscoelas- tic material to a sinusoidal load is used to capture the characteristics of viscoelas- tic materials. The complex modulus is dependent on the steady state frequency of harmonic excitation as well as temperature. The loss factor is defined as the non-dimensional quantity obtained by dividing the imag- inary part of the complex modulus by the real part: E  (ω) η(ω) = (2. The details of test setup.

and the diagonal lines represent the temperature. Therefore. Visco-type behavior of viscoelastic materials infers “dashpot motion”.scale for frequency (Hz) is on the right. η. and loss factors. Kelvin-Voigt. We first present the mathematical representations of all three models and then demon- 22 . in which the storage modulus.2 Classical Damping Models Usually in engineering applications. a number of simple one dimensional models of vis- coelastic materials are based on combinations of spring and dashpot elements to represent the elastic and visco-type of motions respectively. shown in Figure 2. a typical viscoelastic material. G . There are three classical mathematical models for viscoelastic damping. 2. These models include the Maxwell. a complex shear modulus can be determined for a certain fre- quency as well as temperature. the shear modulus (GPa) as well as loss factor are on the left. As mentioned in Section 2. In Figure 2.2. and Zener (Standard Solid) models. are plotted versus the frequency at temperature of 20o C.1. The complex shear modulus data can be read from the nomogram. elastic-type behavior of vis- coelastic damping materials refers to an instantaneous incremental proportion- ality of stress and strain. where a component of stress is proportional to the rate of change of strain. a phenomenological approach is taken to model viscoelastic behavior. Using the nomogram.1 is presented the nomogram for 3M Scotchdamp ISD112.

β. as shown in Figure 2. and E are defined as: cd α = (2. • The Maxwell model is presented in terms of serial combination of a viscous damper and an elastic spring as shown in Figure 2.3(c). The relationship of the stress and strain is d(t) σ(t) = Es  + cd (2.3(b). The relationship of the stress and strain is cd dσ(t) d(t) σ(t) + = cd (2.6) dt • The Zener model is presented in terms of a serial and parallel combination of a viscous damper and two elastic springs.9) Ep Es Ep E = (2.5) Es dt dt • The Kelvin-Voigt model is presented in terms of a parallel combination of a viscous damper and an elastic spring as shown in Figure 2. and cd is a damping coefficient.3(a).strate drawbacks of each model. The relationship of the stress and strain is dσ(t) d(t) σ(t) + α = E + Eβ (2. The parameters α.10) Es + Ep 23 . act as Young’s modulus.8) Es + Ep cd β = (2.7) dt dt The spring constants Es and Ep .

The creep function predicted by the Maxwell model keeps increasing with time and the relaxation function predicted by the Kelvin- Vogit model keeps constant with time. As we know. We assume harmonic responses of stress and strain as follows: σ = σ0 ejωt (2.5 shows the time history of the relaxation functions of the three models.12) Then substituting Eqs. As discussed in Section 2. the characteristic of the creep function should increase with time and converge to a final value in steady state and the characteristics of the relaxation functions should decrease with time and reach a final value in steady state. Therefore.12 in to Eq.11)  = 0 ejωt (2. Figure 2.4 shows the time history of the creep functions of the three models and Figure 2.13) 24 . viscoelastic materials have two unique properties in the time domain: creep and relaxation.1.7 yields σ0 = E  (1 + jη)0 (2. We note that the creep function predicted by the Maxwell model and relaxation function predicted by the Kelvin- Voigt model are unrealistic. On the other hand. 2.11 and 2. 2. both the Maxwell and Kelvin- Voigt models fail to capture time domain characteristics of viscoelastic materials. We need to access the realization of the Zener model in the frequency domain as well. the Zener model can predict both creep and relaxation functions well in the time domain.

the variation of E  and η with frequency is much more rapid than that observed in experimental data. However. the Zener model is only an approximation and needs to be improved to match the experimental data.14) 1 + α2 ω 2 (β − α)ω η = (2. when we com- pare the Bode plot of E  and loss factor η to experimental data.3 Modern Damping Models The complex modulus of viscoelastic materials was developed in the frequency domain and can be experimentally measured in a straightforward fashion.where E(1 + αβω 2) E = (2. 2. This generalized standard solid model improves the Zener model but a drawback of this improved model is that a substantial number of terms are needed to capture the viscoelastic properties over a wide frequency range.16) dtk dtk k k where k is an integer. The limitation of the Zener model can be reduced by including additional derivatives of σ and .15) 1 + αβω 2 The above equations show that the complex modulus is a function of frequency which reflects some aspects of real viscoelastic behavior. Therefore. as follows:  dk σ(t)  dk (t) σ(t) + αk = E + E βk (2. If we 25 .

E0 . which are used to in order to curve fit the experimental data. damping models have been developed that are based on the phenomenological method. The major drawbacks include the awkward assembly of the global equations of motion and 26 . This model was motivated by reducing the number of terms in the generalized standard solid model as discussed in Section 2. α and β. We outline some of these modern damping models for viscoelastic materials and address the merits and limitations of each model separately.1 Fractional Derivatives Model Bagley and Tovik [3] developed a fractional derivative model for describing vis- coelastic behavior. E1 . so a time domain representation of complex modulus is a must. The advantage of this model is that it closely fits the experimental data over a significant range of frequency. b.2.17) 1 + bsβ There are five parameters. Otherwise. Structural analysis techniques are mainly developed in the time domain.3.can develop our structural analysis techniques in the frequency domain. there is no need to develop explicit damping models. The rep- resentation of the complex modulus of viscoelastic materials in Laplace domain is: E0 + E1 sα E = (2. 2. Since the 1980s. we must incorporate a time domain damping model that can account for the frequency dependent complex modulus. we can take advantage of experimental data directly and implicitly.

Instead of deriving damping force. These methods can be easily incorporated into finite element models that are capable of predicting dynamic response of a structure with viscoelastic material. because taking the inverse Laplace transform of a frequency domain representation of complex modulus based on a fractional derivative is difficult. The Augmenting Thermodynamic Fields (ATF) method was developed by Lesieutre and Mingori [37]. Irreversible thermodynamics were used to develop coupled material constitutive relations and partial differential equations of evo- 27 . A number of approaches have been developed to account for the frequency dependent properties of viscoelastic materials while also providing time domain analysis. these methods use additional internal dissi- pation coordinates to account for the frequency dependent complex modulus.2 AFT and ADF Models Some of the shortcomings of frequency models can be overcome by using time domain representation of viscoelastic materials. It is a time domain continuum model of material damping that preserves the characteristic frequency dependent damping and modulus of real materials. the Augmenting Thermodynamic Fields (ATF) method [37].3. These include the Golla- Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method [23]. and can be done in an approximate way. This model is good only in the frequency domain. and the Anelastic Displacement Field (ADF) method [38].the large cumbersome system matrices produced. 2.

These equations are implemented in a numerical solution of the finite element method.lution. An unfortunate consequence of using this method is that the global mass matrix is singular. Auxiliary dissipation coordinates. The details of the model were presented by Lesieutre and Mingori [37]. while the Anelastic Dis- placement Field (ADF) method by Lesieutre et al [38. 39] focuses on the effects of such processes on the displacement rather than the process themselves. The ATF method provides a good physical explanation of viscoelastic damping mechanism in the structure. The ATF method describes the interaction of the displacement field with irreversible processes occurring at the materials level.3 Golla-Hughes-McTavish Model The Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method is a technique for deriving viscoel- stic finite elements from commonly used elastic finite elements and measurements of frequency dependent complex modulus. 28 .3. The total displacement field is considered to consist of two parts: an elastic part and an anelastic part. Because both ATF and ADF methods lead to a first order damping model. 2. only state space forms can be used when combined with structural analytical models. while the ADF method leads to straightforward finite element solutions because the anelastic displacement fields are similar to the elastic displacement fields.

These mini-oscillators are used to curve fit the experimental data in the frequency domain. This is why the GHM method is very accurate compared to general standard solid Zener model.2.which are internal to each viscoelastic element. The mass term of the mini-oscillator does not represent a real mass in the struc- tural system and does not contribute to the kinetic energy. spring and damper system is used to represent the behavior of the viscoelastic material compared to spring and damper combinations in the Zener model as discussed in Section 2. In the GHM method. The mini-oscillator mechanical analogy.6. permit general description of frequency dependent viscoelastic material properties via the mini-oscillator as shown in Figure 2. The effect of the mini-oscillator includes a second order rational function involving three parameters. the complex shear modulus is written in the Laplace 29 . The dissipation coordinate z ap- pears as an augmenting state variable which has no direct physical significance. The mass.6. and a time domain representation of viscoelastic model can be achieved through Laplace transfor- mation. is an equiva- lent system with respect to the dynamic stress and strain behavior of viscoelastic material associated with the displacement q. as shown in Figure 2. The inertial effects due to the introduction of mass in GHM method help us capture the slower change of complex modulus with frequency.

The results of storage modulus and loss factors which were predicted by the GHM method were plotted versus frequency and compared to experimental data in Figure 2. 1997). The number of terms.0e4 0. in order to capture the complex shear modulus in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 500 Hz of the viscoelastic materials shown in Figure 2.0 (2.2.e.21)     ζ̂1 ζ̂2 ζ̂3 = 348.4 1. The parameters are obtained from the curve fitting to the complex modulus data for a particular viscoelastic material (Lam.20)     ω̂1 ω̂2 ω̂3 = 1. Inman and Saunders. The parameters used in three mini-oscillators are: G0 = 1.5e4 (2. The residual of the optimization is of the order 10−2 over the desired frequency range.19)     α̂1 α̂2 α̂3 = 1.0 (2.domain as:    N 2 s + 2ζ̂k ω̂k s G = G0 1 + α̂k (2. retained in the expression is determined from the high or low frequency dependence of the complex modulus.0e5 (2.22) The time domain relaxation function found using the GHM method can be 30 . For example.8 56.6 32.7. three mini-oscillators were used in the curve fit. and s is the Laplace domain operator.18) k s2 + 2ζ̂k ω̂k s + ω̂k2 where G is the complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic material. i.0e4 2.59 6. N. the final value of the relaxation function. and the factor G0 is the equilibrium value of the modulus.

M is a mass matrix. the GHM method is incorporated into conventional dynamic structural analytical techniques for structures with viscoelastic components.expressed as:    N b2k e −b1k t − b1k e −b2k t G(t) = G0 1 + αk (2. Ke is a stiffness matrix contributed from elastic components in the structures.25) where. We assume there is only one viscoelastic material on the structure. b2k = ω̂k ζ̂k ∓ ζ̂k − 1 (2. The parameters in the mini-oscillator term are used to curve fit the experimental data of the storage modulus and loss factor versus frequency and temperature. the structural dynamics equation can be expressed in the Laplace do- main as: Ms2 q(s) + Ke q(s) + G K̄q(s) = f (s) (2. and G is a complex shear modulus of a viscoelastic material. We have shown that the mini-oscillator is used in the GHM method to equiv- alently represent the behavior of viscoelastic material. In general. An auxiliary coordinate z is introduced ω̂k2 zk (s) = x(s) (2. After the parame- ters are determined.26) s2 + 2ζ̂k ω̂k s + ω̂k2 31 .23) k b2k − b1k where   2 b1k .24) The time domain function of G(t) exponentially decays with time t if b1k and b2k are distinct real constants and captures the relaxation properties of the vis- coelastic material.

as suggested by McTavish and Hughes [42] K0 = G0 K̄ = G0 R̄Λ̄R̄T (2. the above mass matrix may not be positive definite.27)     0 α̂ ω̂12 K0 0 α̂ 2ω̂ζ̂ K0        Ke + K0 + α̂K0 −α̂K0   q(s)   f     =  (2.28)       −α̂K0 α̂K0 z(s) 0 The Laplace domain expression of the governing equation has a second order time domain realization:        M 0   q̈   0 0   q̇     +    (2.29)       0 α̂ ω̂12 K0 z̈ 0 α̂ 2ω̂ζ̂ K0 ż       Ke + K0 + α̂K0 −α̂K0   q   F  +    =       −α̂K0 α̂K0 z 0 where K0 = G0 K̄ (2. To remedy this situation. Because K0 is usually positive semi-definite.Using this new dissipation coordinate. Equation 2. spectral decomposition of K0 is used. N = 1.31) where Λ̄ is a diagonal matrix of the nonzero eigenvalues of K̄ and the columns of R̄ correspond to orthonormalized eigenvectors.25 can be rewritten as:      M 0  2  0 0   s +   s+ (2.30) We demonstrate the case for only one mini-oscillator. The above case of a single 32 .

.. 0 . . The general form of the GHM method [42] is formed using the stiffness matrix. ..32)   .34)  .  M̄ =   1   (2. . 0 .. and damping matrix. 0 ..      −α̂n RT 0 0 α̂n Λ    M 0 ··· 0       α̂1 ω̂12 Λ . 0      0 ··· 0 α̂n ω̂12 Λ n    0 0 ··· 0       0 α̂1 2ω̂ζ̂11 Λ . damping.mini-oscillator term can be easily extended to a multi-oscillator model. and mass matrix.   0 0 . 0   .  D=    (2. we obtain the constant mass... The size of our original problem increases 33 . D.33)  . and stiffness matrix for the structure with viscoelastic materials. 0      0 ··· 0 α̂n 2ω̂ζ̂nn Λ where Λ = G0 Λ̄ R = R̄Λ Finally.   .   . K.   0 .. M̄ are given by:     Ke + K0 (1 + α̂) −α̂1 R · · · −α̂n R       −α̂1 RT 0   α̂1 Λ 0  K=   (2.

which is most applicable to structural analysis. 2. which is a master curve and the complex shear modulus of viscoelastic materials are functions of frequency and temperature.because of the introduction of dissipation coordinates that are internal degrees of freedom. We reviewed three classical damping models. They are the fractional derivative (FD) method. Experimental data are presented in the nomogram. We adopted the GHM method in this research. the Anelastic Displacement Field (ADF). In the AFT. The FD model is a good model only in the frequency domain. But we need to develop methods that implicitly account for the frequency dependent complex modulus 34 . that are the Maxwell model. the additional internal dissipation coordinates were used to account for the frequency dependent com- plex modulus of viscoelastic materials. and the Zener model. Some modern damping models were discussed as well. They cannot be applied to viscoelastic damping materials. because they fail to capture the behavior of the viscoelas- tic materials. the Kelvin model. The GHM method has been successfully applied to the conventional dynamic analyses for structures with viscoelastic materials. the Augmenting Thermodynamic Fields (ATF) method. we showed that the frequency dependent complex modulus method can be used to represent viscoelastic materials. and the GHM method.4 Summary In this chapter. the ADF. and the Golla-Hughes- McTavish (GHM) method.

without adding internal dissipation coordinates which increase degrees of free- dom of the system. 35 .

2: Storage Modulus and Loss Factor Vs. 3M ISD 112. 36 .1: Nomogram of the viscoelastic material. 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 Storage Modulus 3 10 2 10 Loss Factors 1 10 0 10 −1 10 0 1 2 3 10 10 10 10 Frequency: Hz Figure 2. Figure 2. frequency at temperature 20o C for the viscoelastic material 3M ISD 112.

Es Cd (a) Maxwell Model Es Cd (b) Kelvin-Voigt Model Es Ep Cd (c) Zener Model Figure 2.3: Classical models of viscoelastic materials ε(t) ll xwe Ma Zener igt in -Vo t Kelv Figure 2.4: Creep functions for three models 37 .

5: Relaxation functions for three models Figure 2.6: The mini-oscillators mechanical analogy in GHM method 38 . σ(t) Ze ne Kelvin-Voigt r Maxw ell t Figure 2.

7 10 Expt.7: The GHM prediction of complex shear modulus using three mini- oscillators 39 . 6 GHM Fit 10 5 10 4 10 Storage Modulus 3 10 2 Loss Factors 10 1 10 0 10 −1 10 0 1 2 3 10 10 10 10 Frequency: Hz Figure 2.

Chapter 3 Comparison of Analyses of Sandwich Beams The structural system under consideration in this study is a three-layer sandwich beam which is comprised of two isotropic face layers sandwiching a viscoelastic core. First. Be- cause this method was developed in the frequency domain. Although this class of sandwich structures has been investigated exten- sively. Our contribution to sandwich beam analyses is to develop a spectral finite element method (SFEM) in the frequency domain. This SFEM provides an exact solution for sandwich beam because the shape functions are duplicated from progressive wave solutions. we present the governing equations for sandwich beam and discuss the basic assumptions for this type of structures. it is examined here because of its simplicity and importance in understand- ing the fundamental physics of sandwich structures incorporating a viscoelastic core. there is no additional damping model needed and the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of 40 .

1 Assumptions and Governing Equations 3. We compare this method to general techniques of structural analyses.1 Assumptions Figure 3.1.viscoelastic core can be accounted implicitly. Two examples of beams with passive constrained layer damp- ing(PCLD) treatment were considered.1 and the other has 50% length of PCLD treatment as shown in Figure 3.3 shows the cross section of beam with PCLD treatment. Mead [45] summarized the assumptions used in the modeling of beam with PCLD treatment. The GHM method was applied to both analyses in order to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core.2. such as assumed modes (AM) and conventional finite element method (CFEM). u1 and u3 in the face layers 1 and 3. One has 75% length of PCLD treatment as shown in Figure 3. Experiments were conducted to validate the analyses for those two beams. The assumptions are: 41 . 3. The three displacements considered are the longitudinal displacements. and the transverse displacement w for the whole sandwich beam. This chapter has been accepted for the publication by the ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics and in Reference [66]. We modified it and included the longitudinal effects in the face layers.

so compression damping is negligible. 4. the base beam and constraining layer will not have the same transverse displacement. Austin [1] discussed thickness effects in viscoelastic core. the rotatory inertia of face layers are neglected and the viscoelastic core only contributes to the transverse inertia. no slip occurs at the interfaces of the core and face layers. the viscoelastic core carries shear only and has a frequency dependent complex shear modulus. 5. In our studies. all points on the plate move with the same transverse displacement. the inertia of transverse and longitudinal effects in face layers are considered. The shear damping is dominant in the viscoelastic core and covers a wide range of frequency for a thin sandwich beam. A compression damping mechanism can occur in the viscoelastic core because of the relative transverse motion between base beam and constraining layer. In this case. with a maximum thickness of 10 mil. the face layers are elastic and isotropic and suffer no transverse shear defor- mation. the viscoelastic core is very thin relative to isotropic face layers. The above assumptions will be violated if the thickness of the viscoelastic core is of the same order as the base beam or constraining layer. 3. constraining layer and base beam and evaluated the assumptions for the different sandwich 42 .1. This mechanism was discussed by Douglas [18]. as shown in [18]. 2.

3) ∂x2 where m = m1 + m2 + m3 (3. G . is composed of two components. as shown in Figure 3. the shear deformations in the viscoelastic core can be expressed in terms of displacements in face layers. G .1) h2 ∂x h2 where h1 + h3 d = h2 + (3. The shear strain is: d ∂w (u1 − u3 ) γ= + (3.2 Governing Equations We can write the kinetic energy T and potential energy U of a sandwich beam:  l   2  2  2  1 ∂w ∂u1 ∂u3 T = m + m1 + m3 dx 2 ∂t ∂t ∂t 0 l   2  2 1 ∂u1 ∂u3 U = E1 A1 + E3 A3 2 ∂x ∂x 0  2 2  ∂ w +Dt + GA2 γ 2 dx (3.beam configurations. G . and quadrature part (imaginary) part.2) 2 3. Based on above assumptions.5) The complex shear modulus.1.4. Our assumptions are validated for our thin layer sandwich beam configurations.4) Dt = E1 I1 + E3 I3 (3. the in-phase (real) part. They are defined in 43 .

an additional damping model has to be introduced to capture the behavior of viscoelastic ma- terials. the GHM method. we use the real compo- nent of shear modulus. However.  ∂2w ∂4w G bd ∂u1 ∂u3 ∂2w m 2 + Dt 4 = − +d 2 ∂t ∂x h2 ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 2  ∂ u1 ∂ u1 Gb ∂w −m1 2 + E1 A1 2 = u1 − u3 + d ∂t ∂x h2 ∂x 2 2  ∂ u3 ∂ u3 G b ∂w −m3 2 + E3 A3 2 = − u1 − u3 + d (3.6) t1 The resulting equations of motion are as follows and the complex shear modulus. G . Therefore. we still use it in the time domain as a simple representation. If we want to represent the complex shear modulus in the time domain.the frequency domain. in our derivation and replace it by the complex shear modulus after the governing equation of motion has been derived. But the total energy of a sandwich beam will be a com- plex number if we introduce the complex shear modulus G into the expression directly. for example. This does not make sense physically. The equation of motion can be obtained by applying the Hamiltonian principle: t2 δ(T − U)dt = 0 (3. was introduced to replace the in-phase component.7) ∂t ∂x h2 ∂x The associated boundary conditions on x = 0 and x = l are: 44 . G = G. the complex shear modulus can only be used in the frequency domain for the forced response because it was developed under a sinusoidal force input. More strictly.

The progressive wave solution method can provide an exact solution for the dynamic problems in the frequency domain. For a whole structural analyses. a sim- ple assembling procedure is conducted to account for the boundary conditions. For a uniform rod and beam. The elemental mass and stiffness matrices can be easily calculated for different types of elements. δu1 = 0 or E1 A1 ∂u ∂x 1 =0 δu3 = 0 or E3 A3 ∂u ∂x 3 =0 G bdγ 3 δw = 0 or h2 − Dt ∂∂xw3 = 0  ∂w  2 δ ∂x =0 or Dt ∂∂xw2 = 0 If we neglect the longitudinal inertia effects in face layer 1 and 3. An idea was developed to combine the advantages of both CFEM method and pro- gressive wave solution method. polynomial shape functions are used. A disadvantage of the progressive wave solution is that the matrix has to be reconstructed every time in order to adapt to the changes of boundary conditions. we can directly 45 . many elements are needed because of lower order approximation for displacement functions. the equations reduce to the same forms as shown in Mead and Marcus [44]. junctions. and load location. CFEM can provide a standard matrix representation for structural problems. and loading. junctions. In order to capture the ex- act dynamics. 3.2 Spectral Finite Element Method In the CFEM.

only a few elements. We will demonstrate the application of SFEM for sandwich beam analyses. SFEM is based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation (IFFT). Doyle [17] presented the dynamic stiffness matrix. as compared to CFEM methods. For one-dimensional isotropic rod and beam structures. The steady state solutions are found by solving the coefficients in the wave solution repre- sentations at each frequency. This methodology has been applied to solve a sandwich rod with active constrained layer damping treatment by considering longitudinal waves only [7]. are needed to calculate the frequency response functions. 46 . The shape functions used here were duplicated from progressive wave solutions. One further step is to develop the nodal degrees of freedom to solve for these wave coefficients in order to formulate a dynamic stiffness matrix. Doyle presented a detailed discussion for the FFT/IFFT based method in structural dynamic analyses. We will extend it to analyze sandwich beams with two isotropic face layers and a viscoelastic core [62]. Only as many elements are needed as there are junctions between substructures of dif- ferent impedance.solve the governing equations of motion under harmonic excitation. Because exact shape functions are du- plicated from progressive wave solutions.

it yields u(x.3. t) EA = m (3. The governing equation is ∂ 2 u(x.1 Isotropic Rod and Beam The SFEM formulae for the isotropic rod and beam were given by Doyle [17]. the kinetic and potential energy for longitudinal vibration are: l  2 1 ∂u T = m dx 2 ∂t 0 l  2 1 ∂u U = EA dx (3.9. ω)ejωt (3. m is the mass per unit length.9) ∂x2 ∂t2 Considering a steady state solution for the displacement u.2.11) where the wave number is given by  m k=ω (3. t) ∂ 2 u(x. t) = û(x. the final progressive wave solution of û is û(x.12) EA 47 . Here we summarize the spectral finite element method for the isotropic rod and beam.10) Substituting the above solution into Eq. For a rod. ω) = Ae−ikx + Beikx (3. 3. u is the displacement along the axial x direction and l is the length of a rod element.8) 2 ∂x 0 where EA a longitudinal stiffness found by the product of Young’s modulus and area of cross section.

We can follow the same procedure to establish a dynamic stiffness matrix for an isotropic Bernoulli-Euler beam under transverse bending vibration. Then we can reconstruct the total energy expression in terms of nodal displacements of û1 and û2 in the frequency domain. t) ∂ 2 w(x. The governing equation is: ∂ 4 w(x. t) EI +m =0 (3. It is 1 V̂ = T̂ + Û = {q̂}T k̂e {q̂}T (3.15) 1 − e−i2kl   −2e−ikl 1 + e−i2kl We have a spectral finite element for rod longitudinal vibration.A and B are the unknown wave coefficients.14) k̂e is a 2 × 2 dynamic stiffness matrix which was given by Doyle [17]:   EAik  1 + e−i2kl −2e−ikl  k̂e (ω) =   (3.13) 2 where the nodal displacement vector q̂ is defined as: {q̂} = { û1 û2 }T (3.16) ∂x4 ∂t2 48 . A time domain force function is transformed to a frequency domain spectrum through the FFT transform and a time domain realization of a solution can be achieved by the IFFT transform. Now a two node element is consid- ered and the nodal displacement û1 and û2 are chosen to solve for the unknown A and B in the progressive wave solution expression. The same procedure as in CFEM is followed to assemble the elements for rod structures.

The shape functions duplicated from progressive wave solutions provide an exact 49 . m is the mass per unit length.17) where the wave number is:   14 mω 2 k= (3. The corresponding nodal degrees of freedom are two ∂ ŵ1 ∂ ŵ2 transverse displacements. a two node element is chosen which is same as conven- tional beam finite element.   3  −ik ik 3 k3 −k 3       k2 k2 −k 2 −k 2     K̂ = EI     ik 3 e−ikl −ik 3 eikl −k 3 e−kl k 3 ekl        −k 2 e−ikl −k 2 eikl k 2 e−kl k 2 ekl  −1  1 1 1 1       −ik −k   ik k  ×    (3.where EI is the flexural stiffness. The transverse displacement under harmonic excitation can be expressed as a wave expansion: ŵ(x. ∂x and ∂x . After mathematical manipulations. we can obtain a symmetric 4 × 4 dynamic stiffness matrix K̂. ŵ1 and ŵ2 and the slopes at two nodes. ω) = Ae−ikx + Beikx + Ce−kx + Dekx (3. and w is the displacement of transverse motion of a beam.18) EI Similar to the rod case.19)  −ikl −kl   e e ikl e kl e      −ike−ikl ikeikl −ke−kl k1 ekl This dynamic stiffness can be assembled to analyse the beam structure.

3.20) By substituting the above expression into Eq. we obtain governing equations in the frequency domain:  2 ∂ 4 ŵ G bd ∂ û1 ∂ û3 ∂ 2 ŵ −mω ŵ + Dt 4 = − +d 2 ∂x h2 ∂x ∂x ∂x 2  2 ∂ û1 Gb ∂ ŵ m1 ω û1 + E1 A1 2 = û1 − û3 + d ∂x h2 ∂x 2  2 ∂ û3 G b ∂ ŵ m3 ω û3 + E3 A3 2 = − û1 − û3 + d (3. t) = û3 (x. t) = û1 (x.2. t) = ŵ(x.solution for the displacement at each frequency. ω)ejωt u3 (x. 3. u3 and w can be expressed as: w(x. ω)ejωt u1 (x. Now we will extend this methodology to sandwich beams with a viscoelas- tic core. we assume a harmonic motion at frequency ω.7.21) ∂x h2 ∂x 50 . For a spectral finite element method. The general steady state solutions for displacement u1 .2 Sandwich Beam We have obtained the dynamic stiffness matrix for isotropic rod and beam struc- tures. ω)ejωt (3.

The solutions for û1 . 3. The characteristic equation is: θ 4 + λ3 θ 3 + λ2 θ 2 + λ1 θ + λ0 = 0 (3. U1 and U3 . the wave numbers k can be determined by assuming non-zero solutions for W . û3 and ŵ can be expressed in terms of an expansion of waves: ŵ = W ekx û1 = U1 ekx û3 = U3 ekx (3.23) where m1 ω 2 m3 ω 2 G b G b G bd2 λ3 = + − − − E1 A1 E3 A3 E1 A1 h2 E3 A3 h2 Dt h2 2 2  2 2 mω G bd m1 ω m3 ω m1 m3 ω 4 λ2 = − − + + Dt Dt h2 E1 A1 E3 A3 E1 A1 E3 A3 G b − (m1 ω 2 + m3 ω 2 ) E1 A1 E3 A3 h2 mm1 ω 4 mm3 ω 4 G bd2 m1 m3 ω 4 λ1 = − − − Dt E1 A1 Dt E3 A3 Dt E1 A1 E3 A3 h2 mω 2 G b 1 1 + ( + ) Dt h2 E1 A1 E3 A3 mm1 m3 ω 6 mω 4 G b λ0 = − + (m1 + m3 ) Dt E1 A1 E3 A3 Dt E1 A1 E3 A3 and θ = k2 51 .22) When substituting the above expressions into Eq.21.

4 (3.26) (1 + µi )ki G bd m1 ω 2 + E1 A1 ki2 µi = − i = 1. etc. the general expression for ŵ.25) where   1 h2  2 4  2 Yi = −mω + Dt ki − dki (3. we will only have eight unknown wave coefficients ai . So bi .4 and k = ± θ1 . √ This equation provides four roots of θ1. a−i (i = 1. 4 (3. 4). The solution results in eight values of k.3.27) m3 ω 2 + E3 A3 ki2 Again we have eight unknown wave coefficients ai .5. 3. For the two node spectral finite element shown in Figure 3. the eight nodal displacements 52 .2. 4). b−i and ci . Therefore. c−i can be written as: bi = Yi ai b−i = −bi ci = µi bi c−i = −ci i = 1. a−i (i = 1.24) i=1 When substituting the above equations into Eq.21 and solving for û1 and û3 in terms of ŵ. û1 and û3 can be rewritten as:  4   ŵ = ai eki x + a−i e−ki x i=1 4   û1 = bi eki x + b−i e−ki x i=1  4   û3 = ci eki x + c−i e−ki x (3.

a−i (i = 1. 4). They are:  T {q̂} = û11 û31 ŵ1 ∂ ŵ1 û12 û32 ŵ2 ∂ ŵ2 (3.are needed to solve the unknown wave coefficients.30) H is a 8 × 8 transformation matrix which can be partitioned to   H= H1 H2 (3. Thus {q̂} = H{A} (3.28) ∂x ∂x Now we can use nodal displacements to solve for wave coefficients of ai .29) where A is a vector of independent wave coefficients and is defined as:  T A= a1 a2 a3 a4 a−1 a−2 a−3 a−4 (3.31) where the sub matrices H1 and H2 are:    Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4       µ Y   1 1 µ2 Y2 µ3 Y3 µ4 Y4         1 1 1 1         k1 k2 k3 k4  H1 =     (3.32)  Y ek1 l   1 Y2 ek2 l Y3 ek3 l Y4 ek4 l         µ1 Y1 ek1 l µ2 Y2 ek2 l µ3 Y3 ek3 l µ4 Y4 ek4 l         ek1 l ek2 l ek3 l ek4 l      k1 ek1 l k2 ek2 l k3 ek3 l k4 ek4 l 53 .

û3 and ŵ can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ŵ = {z}H −1 {q} = Nw {q} û1 = {z}Yb H −1 {q} = Nu1 {q} û3 = {z}Yc H −1 {q} = Nu3 {q} (3.35) Nu1 = {z}Yb H −1 (3.34) The shape functions are defined as Nw = {z}H −1 (3.    −Y1 −Y2 −Y3 −Y4       −µ Y −µ2 Y2 −µ3 Y3 −µ4 Y4   1 1         1 1 1 1       −k1 −k2 −k3 −k4    H2 =    (3.37) 54 .33)   −Y e−k1 l −Y2 e−k2 l −Y3 e−k3 l −Y4 e−k4 l   1         −µ1 Y1 e−k1 l −µ2 Y2 e−k2 l −µ3 Y3 e−k3 l −µ4 Y4 e−k4 l         e−k1 l e−k2 l e−k3 l e−k4 l      −k1 e−k1 l −k2 e−k2 l −k3 e−k3 l −k4 e−k4 l û1 .36) Nu3 = {z}Yc H −1 (3.

39)    0 0 0 0 −µ1 Y1 0 0 0         0 0 0 0 0 −µ2 Y2 0 0         0 −µ3 Y3   0 0 0 0 0 0      0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −µ4 Y4   {z} = ek1 x ek2 x ek3 x ek4 x e−k1 x e−k2 x e−k3 x e−k4 x (3.38)    0 0 0 0 −Y1 0 0 0         0 0 0 0 0 −Y2 0 0         −Y3   0 0 0 0 0 0 0      0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −Y4    µ1 Y1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0         0 µ2 Y2 0 0 0 0 0 0         0 0 µ3 Y3 0 0 0 0 0         0 0 0 µ4 Y4 0 0 0 0    Yc =   (3.40) The spectral finite model of the sandwich beam can now be developed using the total spectral energy Ês of an element at length of l. l  2  2  2 1 dû1 dû3 d2 ŵ Ês = (E1 A1 + E3 A3 + Dt 2 dx dx dx2 0 +G A2 γ̂ 2 − mω 2 ŵ2 − m1 ω 2 û21 − m3 ω 2 û23 )dx (3.where    Y1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0         0 Y2 0 0 0 0 0 0         0 0 Y3 0 0 0 0 0         0 0 0 Y4 0 0 0 0    Yb =   (3.41) 55 .

44) h2 and (. we cannot obtain an explicit expression for the elements of the dynamic stiffness matrix in the sandwich beam case. we assume a perturbation of material density.43) where Nu1 − Nu3 + dNw N= (3.27. One special case is when the base beam and constraining layer are of the same material. the parameter µi will be reduced to: h1 µi = h3 This constant ratio can cause a singularity in the matrix H. 3. To remedy this case.) denotes a derivative with respect to x.34. Compared to the previous dynamic stiffness matrix results for an isotropic rod and beam. yields 1 Ês = {q̂ T }K̂e {q̂} (3. In our calculation we assume that: m1 = ρbh1 m3 = (1 + )ρbh3 56 .42) 2 where K̂e is a dynamic stiffness of sandwich beam element.Substituting the expression of displacement û1 . However we can use numerical integration to obtain all the entries in the dynamics stiffness matrix. û3 and ŵ as shown in Eq 3. The expansion of the dynamic stiffness is: l  E1 A1 Nu 1 Nu 1 + E3 A3 Nu 3 Nu 3 + Dt Nw Nw T T T K̂e = 0 +G A2 N T N − mω 2 NwT Nw  −m1 ω 2 NuT1 Nu1 − m3 ω 2 NuT3 Nu3 dx (3. Then in Eq.

as shown in Figure 3.3 Conventional Finite Element Method Nostrand et al [49] provided a finite element model for the beam with active constrained layer damping (ACLD). we do not need to use additional internal coordinates to model the viscoelastic core as shown in the GHM method. the longitudinal displacements u1 and u3 are:     u  11  u1 = 1 − xl xl     u12     u  31  u3 = 1− l l  x x    (3. the SFEM leads to a higher order method for the sandwich beam analysis.Usually  = 0. In the SFEM method. The nodal degrees of freedom are.46) u32 57 . in face layer 1 and 3. Also the interpolation functions were duplicated from a progressive wave solution. We followed a similar approach to study the dynamics of beam with PCLD [61]. A two-node element was used to approximate the displacement field for longitudinal displacements in face 1 and 3. 3. and transverse displacement w.0001 will give us a stable calculation of the numerical inverse of the matrix H.45) ∂x ∂x Therefore. Then. The frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core were implicitly accounted in the fre- quency domain because the SFEM method was developed in the frequency domain. The combinations of one-dimensional rod and beam finite elements were used to discretize the system. u1 and u3 .6:  T {q} = u11 u12 u31 u32 w1 ∂w1 w2 ∂w2 (3.

3. and stiffness matrix. Here we present the final results for both matrices.3. Ke .And the transverse displacement w for the whole sandwich beam is:    w1         w   1  w= 2 3 1 − 3 xl2 + 2 xl3 2 x − 2 xl + x3 2 3 xl2 − 2 xl3 3 − xl + 2 x3   (3.47 into Eq.49) k12 k22 where   G A 2 l G A 2 l    +EA1 l 3h22 − EA l 1 + 6h22 − G3hA22 l − G6hA22 l   2 2     − EA1 + G A2 l EA1 G A 2 l − G6hA22 l   − G3hA22 l   6h22 + 3h22  =   l l 2 2 k11     G A G A G A 2 l   − G3hA22 l − 6h22 2l EA3 + 3h22 2l − EA 3 l + 6h22   2 l      G A 2 l G A 2 l − G6hA22 l − G3hA22 l − EA 3 l + 6h22 EA3 l + 3h22 2 2    G A 2 d G A 2 d A d  − G2hA22 d 12h22 2h22 − G12h2 2   2 2     − G A 2 d − G12h A2 d G A 2 d G A 2 d   2h22 2 2h22 12h22  k12 =   2    G A 2 d G A  G A 2 d   2h22 − 12h22 2d − G2hA22 d 12h22   2    G A 2 d G A 2 d   2h22 12h22 − G2hA22 d − G12h A2 d 2 2 2 58 .48) 2 and we can calculate the elemental mass matrix. Eq. 3. yields 1 T T = {q }Me {q} 2 1 T U = {q }Ke {q} (3. The stiffness matrix is:    k11 k12  ke =     (3. Substituting the above equations. 3.47) l2 l2      w2      w2  where l is the length of sandwich beam element. Me .) denote the derivatives respect to x.46 and Eq. and (.

The GHM method has to be used to account for the frequency dependent properties of shear modulus as discussed in section 2.50) 04×4 M22 where    2m1 m1 0 0       m  l  1 2m1 0 0   M11 = 6     0 0 2m3 m3      0 0 m3 2m3    156 22l 54 −13l       22l 2 −3l  ml  4l 13l   M22 =   420    54 13l 156 −22l      −13l −3l −22l 4l2 where G is a complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core.4 Assumed Modes Method The simplest analytical technique is the assumed modes method.3. The displacements u1 . u3 .   12Dt 6G A2 d2 6Dt G A2 d2 6G A2 d2 G A2 d2  + l3 5lh22 l2 + 10h22 − 12D l3 t − 5lh22 6Dt l2 + 10h22       6Dt + G A2 d2 4Dt 2G A2 d2 l − 6D t − G A2 d2 2Dt − G A2 d2 l   l2 10h22 + 15h22 l2 10h22 30h22  =   l l k22    12Dt 6G A2 d2 G A2 d2 6G A2 d2 G A2 d2   − l3 − 5lh2 − 6D l2 − t 10h22 12Dt l3 + 5lh22 − 6D l2 − t 10h22   2    6Dt G A2 d2 2Dt G A2 d2 l G A2 d2 2G A2 d2 l l2 + 10h2 l − 30h22 − 6D l2 − t 10h22 4Dt l + 15h22 2 The mass matrix is:    M11 04×4  Me =     (3.3. 3. and w are assumed as an expansion of the mode shapes functions which are 59 .

obtained from uniform rod longitudinal vibration and beam transverse bending vibra- tion.52) where Kv = G K̄ where M is a mass matrix and Ke and Kv are stiffness matrices due to elasticity and damping respectively. and q is the known modal amplitudes as shown in Eq. Similarly. Those beam bending mode shapes and rod extension mode shapes are available in Chapter 6 of [27]. Substituting the above expressions for the displacement functions into the sandwich beam energy equation as shown in Eq. we can obtain a second order differential equation M q̈ + (Ke + Kv )q = F (3.51) i=1 where n is total number of bending modes and m is total number of longitudinal vibration modes included. 3. 60 . 3. F is a discretized forcing vector.3 and using Lagrange’s equation.51.  n w = Wi φiw i=1  m u1 = U1i ψui 1 i=1  m u3 = U3i ψui 3 (3. Details were presented in [61]. the GHM method was used to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core.

The bending modal frequencies and tip frequency response functions were calculated. In the specimen 61 . CFEM and AM analyses are performed for the sandwich beam configurations shown in Figures 3. the length of the PCLD treatment is 75% of the base beam length and for the second specimen.4 mm (1 inch) wide and 1. 25. only one element is used to capture the dynamics. in specimen 2.5875 mm (1/16 inch) thick. the length of the PCLD treatment is 50% of the base beam length.4 mm (1 inch) wide and 0. x3 < x < x4 . 1 inch long for each element. In the specimen 1 as illustrated in Figure 3. The constraining layer (layer 3) is 25. Cantilevered boundary conditions were simulated and both beams were actuated by a surface bonded PZT pair. The number of elements in our analysis coincides with the number of discontinuities of the beam with PCLD because the shape functions were duplicated from exact wave solutions. For the beam with PCLD treatment. Three elements are used for the section 0 < x < x3 . there are a total five elements used. and for the section with PCLD treatment. we use only four elements in the method to describe the dynamic response for the specimen 1. For each. two isotropic beam elements are used for the sections of 0 < x < x1 and x2 < x < x3 and one element is used to model the section with piezo-actuators by modified stiffness and mass. For the first specimen. In the SFEM analysis.2. Similarly. SFEM.1. For CFEM method.3969 mm (1/64 inch) thick. fifteen elements are used.3.5 Solution Type/Methods In this section. 18 elements are used in the analysis for both specimens.1 and 3. the base beam (layer 1) is 508 mm (20 inches) long.

They are: length. For specimen 2.55) ∂x x=x2 ∂x x=x3 The stiffness and mass of effects of PZT were considered by modified mass per unit ¯ for the element with PZT pair. 14]. model so that both analyses can be used to validate our SFEM results. we have to model actuation force introduced in the sandwich beam system. 13. V is the applied voltage. the element mesh for SFEM and CFEM is shown in Figure 3. For the assumed modes method. Because PZTs were used to excite the sandwich beams. EI m̄ = mb + mc  ¯ 2 2 h2 Eb bh3 EI = Ec hc b hc + hhc + + (3.54) where Ec is th Young’s modulus of the PZT. d31 is the piezo constant. Finally. and bending stiffness. and h is the thickness of the base beam. as shown [10. The acutation moment was given as Mc = Ec bd31 V (h + hc ) (3.56) 3 2 12 62 . m̄. the virtual work done by PZT is   ∂w ∂w δW = −Mc δ + Mc δ (3. A line moment is realized at the two edges of th PZT. The GHM method was used to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of viscoelastic core in the CFEM and AM. 11. Ten elements are used for the sandwich part and another five elements are used for the isotropic beam from x4 < x < x5 .8. the exact same number of elements are used for section 0 < x < x3 . the first twenty beam bending modes and first ten extension modes were used for both sandwich beams. hc is the thickness of the piezo. and b is the width of the piezo which is same as the base beam.2.

where both methods were augmented by the GHM method to ac- count for frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core. In the CFEM and AM method. The material constants for the beams are listed in Table 3.127 mm (5 mil) thick for our setup. the frequency response functions were calculated at each excitation fre- quency in which frequency dependent complex shear modulus is implicitly considered.1.where mb is the mass per unit length of base beam and Eb is the Young’s modulus of the base beam. Both the storage modulus and loss factors are dependent on frequency and temperature.7.6 Experimental Setup The analyses have been validated experimentally using frequency response data mea- sured from cantilevered aluminum beams with passive constrained layer damping (PCLD). as shown in Figure 3. and Bode plots were calculated for frequency responses. The viscoelastic damping material is 3M Scotchdamp ISD 112. A Schaevitz DistanceStar laser sensor was used to measure the tip response under the sine sweep signal. The natural frequencies can be extracted from the response functions. and is 0. The sinusoidal signal which was amplified by a power amplifier was applied to the PZT to excite the beam. a state space model was used to represent the system to solve the eigenvalue problems for natural frequency. In the SFEM. Therefore. based on data provided by 3M [56]. The Siglab data acquisition system was used to generate input and collect output through a computer. The GHM model 63 . a force vector can be calculated using the results of actuation moments. 3.

1 and 3. and 5 elements for specimen 2. The spectral finite element method provides more accurate predictions of 64 .7. for a total of 14 degrees of freedom. In the SFEM method. Table 3. On the other hand. the CFEM analyses used 18 elements. the prediction errors for the first through fifth modal frequencies are smaller than those in the CFEM and AM prediction. All analyses are performed for the sandwich beam configurations shown in Figures 3.1 Modal Frequency Predictions The modal frequencies predicted from all analyses of sandwich beams using the SFEM. We can see in these tables that SFEM provides more accurate modal frequency predictions than those in the CFEM and AM.7 Results 3. for a total of 280 degrees of freedom in specimen 1.2. was augmented further with internal dissipation coordinates to account for the frequency dependent complex modulus.3. CFEM and AM method are presented. for a total 17 degrees of freedom.included three mini-oscillators in the expansion of the materials properties and the constants were shown in Section 2. and for a total of 260 degrees of freedom for specimen 2. AM analysis used the GHM method to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core.3. In the AM method. SFEM uses only 4 elements for specimen 1. 3. the first twenty beam bending mode shapes and first ten extension mode shapes were used to obtain comparable results.2 and 3. As with the CFEM.3 show a comparison between the predicted and measured modal frequencies for specimen 1 (75% PCLD) and specimen 2 (50% PCLD) respectively.

Again. while using only a small fraction of the number of elements used by CFEM. An additional impedance change or discontinuity in the structure is more easily handled by the SFEM method by simply introducing an additional spectral finite element to handle the new discontinuity whereas the CFEM and AM predictions degrade sub- stantially. Compared to the results of specimen 1.2 Number of Elements In Figure 3. Table 3.75L.3 shows the modal frequency comparisons for specimen 2 (50% PCLD). The CFEM and AM analyses can provide modal frequency predictions for a beam with PCLD treatment. The SFEM is a higher order method. where an additional structural junction is added at x4 = 0. so it can provide a better prediction with less computational cost because only fewer elements were employed.7. 65 . we investigate the typical impact of the number of elements on accuracy of modal frequency predictions by the CFEM and SFEM analyses for specimen 1 (75% PCLD). more elements and more modes must be included to achieve comparable results with respect to experimental data. the prediction error is much higher for the CFEM and AM anal- yses. 3. We plot the number of elements versus the non-dimensional modal frequencies with respect to experimental results for the first five modes. however. whereas the SFEM predictions remain comparable to those of specimen 1.higher modal frequency. The shape functions in CFEM are the polynomial functions intended to interpolate the displacement across each element.9. the CFEM analysis uses GHM to account for the viscoelastic core.

The typical analysis perspective is to match the first modal frequency by adjusting material parameters. For example. for the case of 6 or 8 element number. 3. A key aspect of the SFEM analysis for this structure is that increasing the number of elements does not improve the prediction errors. The refined shape functions.9. increases the order of the approximate interpolation of displacement in our analysis so that the number of elements has no effect on the results. the error for higher modal frequencies (from 2 to 5 mode) is large.7. or exponential wave functions. In fact. the same number of elements were used for SFEM analysis. the modal frequency prediction error for N = 4 elements is identical to that for N = 33 elements. we can match experimental results.3 Frequency Response Functions Figures 3. As shown in Figure 3. We can obtain similar results for specimen 2 (50% PCLD) as shown in Figure 3. higher modal parameters can be predicted with more confidence. In addition. In these 66 . As shown in Figure 3.Typically. Increasing the number of elements has a smaller impact on reducing prediction errors in the lower modes. We need only include the number of elements that correspond with the discontinuities or junctions of the beam with PCLD. increasing the number of elements in the CFEM analysis improves accuracy. as the number of elements increases. When we increase the number of elements to 33 elements.12 show the frequency response functions (FRFs) from 1 Hz to 400 Hz for the beam specimen with 75% and 50% PCLD treatments. respectively.9. the number of elements must be substantially increased in order to increase the accuracy of modal frequency predictions.10.11 and 3.

The actuators are mounted on the top and bottom of the beam and are excited with equal. the SFEM analysis for specimen 1 (75% PCLD) used N = 4 elements and specimen 2 (50% PCLD) used N = 5 elements. the conventional finite element (CFEM) and assumed modes method (AM) were compared to the SFEM. the first having 75% PCLD treatment and the second having 50% PCLD treatment. voltages to excite bending motion of the sandwich beam. The SFEM is formulated in the frequency domain using dynamic shape functions based on the exact displacement solutions from wave propagation methods where we implicitly account for the frequency dependent complex modulus of the viscoelastic core. Existing analysis methods.8 Summary We present a spectral finite element model (SFEM) for sandwich beams excited with a pair of piezoelectric actuators. The viscoelastic core has a complex modulus that varies with frequency. but out-of-phase. A small number of spectral elements is required to calculate the frequency response functions of the sandwich beam. The sandwich beam consists of top and bottom aluminum face layers sandwiching a viscoelastic core. 3.calculations. 67 . Each of the analyses was compared to experimental measurements of modal frequency and frequency response functions for two specimen. The analytical methods capture the trend of the FRFs in both magnitude and phase. The SFEM analysis proved to be more accurate for high frequency even though only 4 or 5 elements were used in the analysis. The first twenty beam bending modes and first ten rod modes are included in AM method. The CFEM used 18 elements for both specimens.

The primary advantages of the SFEM method. The number of degrees of freedom for CFEM (280/260 for specimen 1 and 2. re- spectively) analysis was substantially larger. SFEM implicitly accounts for the frequency dependent complex modulus of the viscoelastic core without adding internal dissipation coordinates. were demonstrated for these sandwich beams. the SFEM substantially out-performed the CFEM in terms of modal frequency prediction accuracy when compared to experimental measurements of 68 . 1. Applying these internal dis- sipation coordinate methods substantially increases the required number of de- grees of freedom in the CFEM and AM analyses. described below. 2. This is because the dynamic stiffness or impedance matrix is computed at each frequency. internal dissipation coordinates are typically added to CFEM and AM analyses using either the GHM or ADF methods. so that the appropriate value of complex modulus is used at each frequency. Even though the CFEM used more elements. The wave propagation functions used in SFEM are much higher order than the low order polynomial functions typically used in conventional FEM interpolate displacements from node to node in an element. To account for the frequency dependent complex modulus of the viscoelastic core. The SFEM method uses wave propagation functions that are exponential in nature to construct the displacement of the nodes for an element. Substantially fewer elements were required by the SFEM analysis (N = 4 for the specimen with 75 % PCLD or N = 5 for the specimen with 50% PCLD). The resulting dynamic stiffness matrix or impedance matrix is a function of frequency.

a tapered beam with PCLD. No constitutive relationship for the viscoelastic material is required beyond measurements of the complex modulus. in contrast to SFEM. one element suffices to capture the structural response. we can directly account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus in the frequency domain. for example. and no benefit is derived from adding additional elements as long as the impedance does not change in the structure. As a result. more conventional finite elements must be added as the beam length increases. 3. SFEM provided better results that the CFEM analyses in predictions of the fre- quency response function (FRF) of the sandwich beams. In the FRF calculation. Increasing the number of spectral finite elements did not improve the modal frequency prediction accuracy for these simple (section-wise uniform) sandwich beams. the modal frequencies. CFEM requires many elements to interpolate the bending displacement correctly. SFEM improved its prediction of the FRF as frequency increased. Physically. the advantage in number of elements would be lost because the impedance changes continuously. In contrast. The advantages and disadvantages of SFEM with respect to CFEM for non-uniform structures deserves further study. a parallel 69 . 4. which still would require only a single spec- tral finite element. Because the dynamic stiffness matrix is calculated at each frequency. The interpolation functions used are waves. For non-uniform structures. this implies that as long as a section of the beam has uniform properties (as in our sandwich beams) regardless of its geometry.

This will lead SFEM to a faster execution. 70 . Although this study examined only passive constrained layer damping treatments.algorithm can easily be applied to obtain the results simultaneously. the SFEM analysis can be easily extended to active con- strained layer damping treatments.

5 3.7 98.9 4.5 193.8 5.8 3.0 5.6 325.2 5.3 3 95.4 195.2: Comparison of predicted and measured modal frequencies of the beam specimen 1 with a 75% PCLD treatment.4 192. N is the number of finite elements.4 5 306.8 4 187.0 5.5 98. SFEM CFEM AM N =4 N = 18 Nb = 20.2 3.8 320. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] 1 5.9 37.0 100.4 71 .1: Beam and actuator constants Piezoelectric density (kg/m3 ) 7500 Piezoelectric Young’s modulus (GPa) 71 Piezoelectric constant (m/v) -274e-12 Aluminum Young’s modulus (GPa) 69 Aluminum density (kg/m3 ) 2700 Viscoelastic density (kg/m3 ) 1000 Table 3. Nb is the number of bending modes and Ne is the number of extension modes used in AM method.2 4.1 2.0 2 35.0 4.3 4.3 6.0 3.1 2.0 314.16 3.1 37. Ne = 10 Modes Expt Anal Error Anal Error Anal Error No.6 37. Table 3.6 6.5 2.

6 37. SFEM CFEM AM N =4 N = 18 Nb = 20.5 3.7 5.5 5 292.5 4.1 72 .5 301.5 4.6 3.0 310.2 6.0 91.1 1.6 5.7 5.7 7.1 180.8 5. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] 1 5.0 90.7 4. Nb is the number of bending modes and Ne is the number of extension modes used in AM method.5 6.7 3.8 3 87.5 178.5 177. N is the number of finite elements.7 90.3: Comparison of predicted and measured modal frequencies for beam specimen 2 with a 50% PCLD treatment.Table 3.2 3.3 5.2 2. Ne = 10 Modes Expt Anal Error Anal Error Anal Error No.0 36.4 4 174.5 2 35.1 36.1 304.0 4.

1: Specimen 1: the PCLD treatment covers 75% of the total length of the beam x5 x4 x3 x2 x1 Piezoelectric Actuator (PZT-5H) Base Beam (Aluminum) Viscoelastic Damping Layer Constrained Layer (Aluminum) Figure 3.2: Specimen 2: the PCLD treatment covers 50% of the total length of the beam 73 . x4 x3 x2 x1 Piezoelectric Actuator (PZT-5H) Base Beam (Aluminum) Viscoelastic Damping Layer Constrained Layer (Aluminum) Figure 3.

5: Nodal degrees of freedom in SFEM 74 .3: Cross section of beam with PCLD treatment z. u1 h1 w h2 h3 u3 Figure 3.4: Deflection of beam with PCLD treatment ∂ŵ1 ŵ1 ŵ 2 ∂ŵ2 ∂x ∂x û11 û12 û31 û32 Figure 3. w u1 w x γ u3 w x.u Figure 3.

6: Nodal degrees of freedom in CFEM Power Amplifiers SigLab Box Laser sensor + _ Computer Figure 3. w1 w2 w1' w2 ' u11 u12 u 31 u 32 Figure 3.7: Experimental set up for beam with PCLD treatments 75 .

15 CFEM 1.05 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Number of Elements: N Figure 3.05 Mode 3 1.05 Mode 1 1.15 1.02 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.06 Mode 2 Non−dimensional Modal Frequency 1.8: Number of elements used in SFEM and CFEM for 50% PCLD beam 1.1 Mode 5 SFEM 1.025 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1. SFEM 1 2 3 4 5 PCLD Treatment CFEM 1 2 3 4-13 13-18 PCLD Treatment Figure 3.04 1.05 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.03 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.04 1.1 Mode 4 1.9: The effects of number of elements on modal frequencies for specimen 1 having 75% PCLD treatment 76 .

1 Mode 4 1.06 Mode 3 1.1 Mode 1 1.08 Mode 2 Non−dimensional Modal Frequency 1.04 1. 1.05 SFEM 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Number of Elements: N Figure 3.10: The effects of number of elements on modal frequencies for specimen 2 having 50% PCLD treatment 77 .04 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.05 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.02 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.1 Mode 5 CFEM 1.05 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.

11: Frequency Response function from the piezoelectric voltage input to the tip displacement output: the PCLD treatment covers 75% of the length of the base beam. 78 . −20 −60 Mag. dB Expt. SFEM −100 CFEM A.M −140 0 1 2 10 10 10 Frequency [Hz] 200 150 Phase [deg] 100 50 0 0 1 2 10 10 10 Frequency [Hz] Figure 3.

dB Expt. SFEM −100 CFEM A. −20 −60 Mag. 79 .12: Frequency Response function from the piezoelectric voltage input to the tip displacement output: the PCLD treatment covers 50% of the length of the base beam.M −140 0 1 2 10 10 10 Frequency [Hz] 200 150 Phase [deg] 100 50 0 0 1 2 10 10 10 Frequency [Hz] Figure 3.

It is very difficult to directly solve the problem of vibration of a sandwich plate that is rectangular. The set-up of the problem is similar as the sandwich beam case discussed in chapter 3. The face plates are assumed to be isotropic materials and the viscoelastic core is a material with a frequency dependent complex shear modulus. there are no closed-form solutions for bending vibration except for the Levy type of plates. The assumed mode shapes used in the Ritz method 80 . This method provides the exact solutions for the vibration of sandwich beams and we expect to extend this method to sandwich plate analysis. Usually the Ritz method is used to calculate the natural frequency and response for two-dimensional plate structures. This 3-layer plate structure is comprised of two face plates and a viscoelastic core.Chapter 4 Analyses of Sandwich Plates: Part I This chapter discusses the bending vibration of a plate with passive constrained layer damping treatment (PCLD). For a rectangular isotropic plate. We have demonstrated that a SFEM method which was developed in the frequency domain was used to calculate the response of a sandwich beam. in which at least two parallel edges are simply-supported.

in which the GHM method was incorporated to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus. Layers 1 and 3 are the isotropic face-plates. the core carries transverse shear. This chapter is an expanded version of Reference [64].1. 4. it is linearly viscoelastic 81 .were approximated by the beam bending mode shapes for both x and y direction. The viscoelas- tic core is assumed to have transverse shear stiffness alone. The face-plates are assumed to have bending.1 Assumptions and Governing Equations 4. The current available experimental test data of three fully treatment of PCLD plates were used to validate the predictions of natural frequencies and loss factor. made from aluminum. The assumptions involved in the derivation of the governing equations of a sandwich plate are: a. especially the in-plane mode shapes approximated by rod vibration mode shape functions in order to match experimental data. the Kirchhoff hypothesis. We use this classical assumed modes method for the analysis of sandwich plate using beam and rod mode shapes. b.1 Asssumptions The configuration of 3-layered sandwich plate is illustrated in Figure 4. and the core is the viscoelastic material.1. we need to include many mode shapes in our calculations. the face plates are elastic and isotropic and suffer no transverse shear deformation. that is. In this analysis. in-plane shear and extensional stiffness and their rotatory inertia has also been neglected in the model. but no in-plane stresses.

and the displacements associated with each layer. c. and (b) Layers forming the sandwich.1: (a) Sandwich plate showing its co-ordinate axes and dimensions. The above assumptions are similar to sandwich beam analyses in chapter 3.2 = + = + (4. The shear strain in the viscoelastic core (layer 2) can be expressed by: u32 − u12 ∂w u3 − u1 d ∂w γx. we extend one-dimensional beam structures to two-dimensional plate structures. and has a complex modulus. no slip occurs in the interfaces between the face-plates and the core and all points normal to the plate move with the same transverse displacement.2 = + = + h2 ∂x h2 h2 ∂x v32 − v12 ∂w v3 − v1 d ∂w γy. ∂w ∂w γ xz ∂x γ yz ∂y ∂w ∂w ∂x ∂y Figure 4.1) h2 ∂y h2 h2 ∂y 82 . In this case.

i = xy.3) ∂y ∂x ∂x and the stresses in face layers 1 and 3 are: Ei σx. 4.i = (x.i + νx.i = −z 2 ∂x ∂x ∂vi ∂2w y.i = + − 2z 2 (4. we can derive the strains in face layers in terms of face layer in-plane displacement ui (x. y). the complex shear modulus was not used in the derivation because the complex energy has no physical meaning.i + νy.i = (y. 3 and transverse displacement w(x.i = −z 2 ∂y ∂y ∂ui ∂vi ∂2w xy. We replace the in-phase component by 83 .4) 2(1 + ν) where Ei is the Young’s modulus for face layers. y).i ) 1 − ν2 Ei σxy.i ) 1 − ν2 Ei σy. i = 1. y) and vi (x. As discussed in Section 3.1.i (4. 3 and we assume the Poisson ratio ν are same for both face layers.2) 2 Applying the assumptions.2 Sandwich Plate Energies and Governing Equations Similarly. They are ∂ui ∂2w x. i = 1. we write down the total system energy for the sandwich plate and derive the governing equations of motion by applying the Hamiltonian principle.where d is the distance between the mid-plane of layer 1 and mid-plane of layer 3 and is defined as: h1 + h3 d = h2 + (4.1.

and the transverse shear energy alone in the core.3 where ρi is the density of each layers including viscoelastic core and hi is the thickness of the each layers The mass per unit area for a total sandwich plate is defined as: ρh = ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 + ρ3 h3 (4.i = σy.3 i=1.3  +Q̄x.8) 2(1 + ν) ∂y ∂x −hi /2 84 .3 i=1.2 dA (4.i dz = +ν 1 − ν2 ∂y ∂x −hi /2 i /2 h  Ei hi ∂ui ∂vi Nxy.i = σx.3 i=1. The kinetic energy of sandwich plate is:      2  2  2  1 ρh ∂w ∂ui ∂ui  dA T = + ρi hi + (4.7) In layer 1 and 3.i + 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x A i=1. in- plane energy in the face layers 1 and 3.i = σxy.i − 2 Mxy.i + Nxy.i − My.3 i=1.i ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x∂y i=1. including the transverse bending.i dz = +ν 1 − ν2 ∂x ∂y −hi /2 i /2 h  Ei hi ∂vi ∂ui Ny.i dz = + i = 1.i + Ny.the complex modulus later in the final governing equations.3  ∂2w  ∂2w  ∂2w − Mx.2 γx.6) The total potential energy of sandwich plate. is:       1  ∂ui ∂vi ∂ui ∂vi U = Nx.2 γy.5) 2 ∂t ∂t ∂t A i=1. 3 (4.2 + Q̄y. the resultant in-plane stresses are i /2 h  Ei hi ∂ui ∂vi Nx.

13) t1 85 .11) ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t A i=1.i + Ny.i = σx.2 = G σyz.i zdz = − + ν 12(1 − ν 2 ) ∂y 2 ∂x2 −hi /2 i /2 h  Ei h3i ∂2w Mxy.3 The variation of total potential energy is:        ∂δui ∂δvi ∂δui ∂δvi δU = Nx.3 i=1.2dz = Gh2 + h2 h2 ∂x −h2 /2 2 /2 h  v3 − v1 d ∂w Q̄y.2 δu3 − δu1 + d h2 ∂x   1 ∂δw + Qy.i = σxy.3 i=1.2 dz = Gh2 + (4.i 2 −2 Mxy. The variation of the kinetic energy is expressed by:      δT = ρh ∂w ∂δw + ρi hi ∂ui ∂δui ∂vi ∂δvi  + dA (4.i zdz = − + ν 12(1 − ν 2 ) ∂x2 ∂y 2 −hi /2 i /2 h  Ei h3i ∂2w ∂2w My.3  ∂ 2 δw  ∂ 2 δw  ∂ 2 δw − Mx.i ∂x ∂y ∂xy i=1.i + ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x A i=1.2 δv3 − δv1 + d dA (4.12) h2 ∂y The equation of motion can be obtained by applying the Hamiltonian principle: t2 δ(T − U )dt = 0 (4.3  1 ∂δw +Qx.10) h2 h2 ∂y −h2 /2 The symbol G will be replaced by the complex shear modulus G in the governing equations later.and bending moments are defined as: i /2 h  Ei h3i ∂2w ∂2w Mx.i = σy.9) 12(1 + ν) ∂x∂y −hi /2 and shear stresses in viscoelastic core are 2 /2 h  u3 − u1 d ∂w Q̄x.i zdz = − i = 1.i + Nxy.2 = G σxz.3 i=1. 3 (4.i 2 − My.3 i=1.

y). 4. and transverse displacement w(x. u3 (x. u1 (x.17) ∂t2 1 − µ2 ∂x2 2 ∂y 2 2 ∂x∂y h2   ∂ 2 v3 Eh3 ∂ 2 v3 1 ∂ 2 v3 1 ∂ 2 u3 Qy.15) ∂t 1−µ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x∂y h2   ∂ 2 v1 Eh1 ∂ 2 v1 1 ∂ 2 v1 1 ∂ 2 u1 Qy. Now we introduce the complex shear modulus of viscoelastic core G to replace the nominal real value G.14 to 4. y) and v1 (x.2 = G v3 − v1 + (4.There are five partial differential equations corresponding to five independent displace- ments.2 ρ1 h1 2 − 2 2 + (1 − µ) 2 + (1 + µ) = (4. in- plane displacement in face layer 1. y). We present the equations in terms of five displacements.2 ρ3 h3 2 − 2 2 + (1 − µ) 2 + (1 + µ) =− (4. y) and v3 (x.14) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂ y h2 ∂x h2 ∂y   ∂ 2 u1 Eh1 ∂ 2 u1 1 ∂ 2 u1 1 ∂ 2 v1 Qx.2 ρ3 h3 − + (1 − µ) + (1 + µ) =− (4. which were also obtained from the Hamiltonian principle: (a) at x = 0.2 d ∂Qy. 86 .2 ρh 2 + Dt 4 +2 2 2 + 4 = + (4.18) ∂t 1−µ ∂y 2 ∂x 2 ∂x∂y h2 Here the total bending flexural stiffness and shear force in the viscoelastic core are: E1 h1 E3 h3 Dt = + 12(1 − ν ) 12(1 − ν 2 ) 2   d ∂w Qx.2 ρ1 h1 2 − 2 2 + (1 − µ) 2 + (1 + µ) = (4.2 = G u3 − u1 + h2 ∂x   d ∂w Qy.16) ∂t 1−µ ∂y 2 ∂x 2 ∂x∂y h2   ∂ 2 u3 Eh3 ∂ 2 u3 1 ∂ 2 u3 1 ∂ 2 v3 Qx. y) for whole sandwich plate.18 are associated with following possible boundary conditions along the four edges of a rectangular sandwich plate.  4  ∂2w ∂ w ∂4w ∂4w d ∂Qx.19) h2 ∂y The governing equations Eqs. L. in-plane displacement in face layer 3.

i = 0 δui or Nxy.2 (4.2 ∂x ∂y h2 ∂My ∂Mxy d Qy = +2 + Qy.i = 0 δw = 0 or Qx = 0 δ∂w ∂x =0 or Mx = 0 and (b) at y = 0.20) ∂y ∂x h2 It is very difficult to directly solve the boundary values problem of PDEs. C δvi = 0 or Ny.3 Mxy = Mxy.1 + Mx.i = 0 δvi = 0 or Nxy.3 My = My. The assumed modes method was employed to discretize the system and generates the stiffness and mass matrices.1 + My. A numerical method is applied to obtain the results of natural frequency and loss factor in order to evaluate sandwich plate structures. δui = 0 or Nx. where Mx = Mx. 3.3 ∂Mx ∂Mxy d Qx = +2 + Qx.1 + Mxy. The predictions of natural frequency and loss factor were validated by the closed-form solutions for a simply-supported rectangular 87 . The GHM method is then applied to account for the frequency dependent properties of the complex shear modulus for the viscoelastic core.i = 0 δw = 0 or Qy = 0 δ∂w ∂y =0 or My = 0 for i = 1.

2 Assumed Modes Method Using Beam and Rod modes In order to calculate the natural frequencies and loss factor. y) i  u1 (x. y. The five displacements for sandwich plate were assumed as:  w(x.21) i 88 . The displacements were assumed as an expansion of mode shape functions with unknown weighted amplitudes. t) = V1i (t)Ψiv1 (x. y.sandwich plate and also the experimental data of three sandwich plates clamped on all edges. y) (4. 4. y. y) i  v3 (x. y. t) = V3i (t)Ψiv3 (x. y. y) i  u3 (x. t) = U3i (t)Ψiu3 (x. y) i  v1 (x. the classical assumed modes method was used to analyze the sandwich plate with a viscoelastic core. t) = Ui1 (t)Ψiu1 (x. t) = Wi (t)Φiw (x.

The following sections 89 . y) = φm n w (x)φw (y) Ψiu1 (x. 4. are shown in Appendix. y) = ψvm1 (x)φnv1 (y) Ψiu3 (x. Ke and Kv .32 to 2. y) = ψvm3 (x)φnv3 (y) (4.2 shows the mapping relationship between the assumed modes number and corresponding modes in both x and y directions. there is a corresponding mapping of mode numbers m and n in x and y direction.3. M . and stiffness as shown in Eqs. We introduce the GHM method to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus. the state space model can be achieved based on the modified mass. respectively. 2. and stiffness matrices.5 and 4. Ψiu3 . Substituting the assumed mode shape functions for all the displacements as illus- trated in Eq. y) = ψum1 (x)φnu1 (y) Ψiv1 (x.22) For the ith assumed mode shape function. Table 4.3. y) = ψum3 (x)φnu3 (y) Ψiv3 (x. Ψiu1 . They are expressed as follows: Φiw (x. 4.22 into the total energy expression in Eqs. we can obtain the discretized second order ordinary differential equations as shown below: M ẍ + Ke x + G Kv x = F (4.34 based on the GHM method. where details of the method were discussed in Section 2.where the ith mode shape function Φiw . Ψiv1 . and Ψiu3 were approximated by the beam and rod modes in both x and y direction. Finally.7 and applying Lagarange Equation.23) The mass matrix. damping. G .

The complex shear modulus of the core is assumed constant over the frequency range. t) = U3i (t)Ψiu3 (x. y) = V3i (t) sin cos (4. The available analytical solutions for a simply supported sandwich plate and the experimental data of three four-side clamped sandwich plates were used to validate our results. The assumed in-plane modes for ui and vi in the face plates 1 and 3 are the appropriate and mode shapes are of the form:   mπx nπy u1 (x. y) = V1i (t) sin cos L C i i   mπx nπy u3 (x. the plate bending modes in w are of the form:   mπx nπy w(x. it is unnecessary to use the GHM method to account for the frequency dependent complex modulus of the viscoelastic core. y. 4. y) = U1i (t) cos sin L C i i   mπx nπy v1 (x. For a simply-supported sandwich plate. the assumed plate bending mode used is the product of the appropriate Euler-Bernoulli beam bending mode in each x and y direction. y.1 Analytical Validation: Simply Supported This section compares the modal frequencies of free vibration predicted by an exist- ing analytical solution [28] to those predicted by our analysis for a simply-supported sandwich plate with aluminum face-plates and a viscoelastic core. t) = U1i (t)Ψiu1 (x. t) = V3i (t)Ψiv3 (x.1. y) = U3i (t) cos sin L C i i   mπx nπy v3 (x. y. y. t) = V1i (t)Ψiv1 (x.24) L C i i where L and C are the dimension of plate in x and y direction as illustrated in Figure 4.will demonstrate the assumed modes method for the sandwich analyses. y) = Wi (t) sin sin (4. t) = Wi Φi (x. Thus. y.2.25) L C i i 90 .

26) and (b) at y = 0. y) and Ψ(x. 4. Ny. The predicted modal frequencies and the corresponding modal loss factors are tabulated against the exact solution in 91 .1.3 .8.27) where Nx.i . Φ(x. The boundary conditions for a simply-supported sandwich plate are: (a) at x = 0. Mx = 0 (4.348m and the length in the y direction is C = 0. L. u1 . Nx. all the boundary conditions were satisfied. 4.762mm and h2 = 0.25. V1i and V3i are the coefficients of the corresponding natural mode shapes. u3 .254mm. m and n are obtained for the ith mode via the mapping in Table 4. Nx. C Ny.1 . This is the reason that there are only closed form solutions available for a simply-supported sandwich plate with constant complex shear modulus. The mass and stiffness matrices are obtained using the first 16 transverse bending and in-plane mode shapes. for the simply- supported case we can find the exact mode shape functions. and bending moments Mx and My were defined in Eq. w. U3i . Ny. 4.3048m.2. i = 1. The sandwich plate was symmetric with isotropic face layers. v1 .3 . This will give us a better predictions of natural frequency and loss factor. The thickness of the each layer is that h1 = h3 = 0.1 . The terms W i .24 and 4. the assumed modes need only satisfy all the geometric boundary conditions. where the length in the x direction is L = 0. v3 . When we substitute the assumed mode shape functions as shown in Eqs.Here. The material constant are shown in Table 4. U1i .i . y) are the plate bending and in-plane mode shape functions which were ap- proximated by beam and rod modes.9. For the assumed mode method. 3 were defined in Eq. w. My = 0 (4.

5”) wide and 0. Each bolt was inserted through the top clamping bar.5 Table 4.2% for both the modal frequency. 4.81 cm (1. We outline some key features.31 cm x 52. the plate.2 Experimental Validation: All Four Sides Clamped 4. ρ3 2740kg/m3 ρ2 999kg/m3 G2 0.1 Set-up This section presents an experimental validation of sandwich plates with aluminum isotropic face plates and viscoelastic cores. The details of this experimental set-up was presented by Veeramani [60] in her M.953 cm (3/8”) thick.1: Material constants for a simply-supported sandwich plate E1 . and used to excite bending 92 . 3. The error is less than 1.3. Table 4. E3 68. The predicted values match the closed form analytical solution very well. and then fastened with a nut.S thesis.2. The plates were clamped atop an aluminum stand using bars of cross section. and the test stand. Each bolt was subsequently tightened to a constant torque as measured by a torque wrench. as shown in Figure 4. around the perimeter. and loss factors.5”). Piezo-actuators were fastened to the plate.2.07 cm (26.5” x 20.869MP a η2 0. Our results also agree well with the numerical solutions of Cupial and Niziol [15]. The test area of the plates is 67.9GP a ρ1 .2.2.

16 cm (1/16”) the error in the first modal natural frequency is 3.08 cm (1/32”) sandwiching a 0. It is established that for plate thickness at or below 0. Analytical mode 93 .5 shows the results of calibration. The modulus and loss factors were obtained from the product information provided by 3M over the ranges of temperature and frequency of interest.08 cm (1/32”) and 0. One of these plates has a core thickness of 0. The viscoelastic material used is 3M Scotchdamp ISD-112. the three mini-oscillators terms were used to fit the curve of storage modulus and loss factors.2 Analysis For the “all sides clamped” boundary conditions. with face-plates of thickness 0.75%.6%.00508 cm (2 mil) thick viscoelastic layer.00508 cm (2 mil). In our analysis. The remaining two specimens are asymmetric.0127 cm (5 mil). Table 4. the GHM method is used to account for the complex modulus variation with frequency and temperature.04 cm (1/64”). Three different sandwich plates were tested.2. The stand was calibrated by testing uniform aluminum plates of varying thickness. The first of these is a specimen. the plate transverse bending mode shapes in the w direction are obtained from beam bending modes. In this case.2.4 shows the parameters used in the GHM method for a wide temperature range. 4. Increasing the thickness to 0.16 cm (1/16”). Table 4.24 cm (3/32”) leads to increased error in the first modal frequency of 16. and the other has a core thickness of 0. the stand provides adequate clamping. For a thickness of 0.motion of the plate and the response of the plate was measured using accelerometers. with aluminum face-plates of thickness 0.

29) sinh(β m l) − sin(β m l) Here β m is determined using the characteristic equation for the fixed-fixed end bound- ary condition of a beam: cos(β m l) cosh(β m l) = 1 (4.2: Experimental setup for plate test shape of the Euler-Bernoulli beam in fixed-fixed end boundary conditions were given by Inman [27].30) 94 .953cm) Sandwich plate Stand Figure 4. Bolts Clamping Bar (3. t) = W i (t)φm (x)φn (y) (4.81cm x 0. The plate bending mode shapes are the combinations of beam bending modes in x and y directions. so that  w(x. y.28) i where φm (x) = cosh(β m x) − cos(β m x) − λm (sinh(β m x) − sin(β m x)) cosh(β m l) − cos(β m l) λm = (4.

t) = V1i (t)Ψi (x. 4. the errors are likely 95 .6. y. y) i  v1 (x. t) = Ui1 (t)Ψi (x.32) L C The in-plane mode shapes as represented by the rod mode shapes are different from those in simply-supported case because of the change in boundary conditions. 25 assumed modes were used in the model and 25 assumed modes were used in each of the in-plane directions.2. Overall error in the 0 to 200 Hz frequency range is below 7%. t) = V3i (t)Ψi (x. y) i  u3 (x.where l is the length of the beam. we can obtain φn (y) by changing of length of beam and substituting x with y in Eq. y. But. as follows:  u1 (x. 4. The effects of piezo-actuator were considered by providing the mass contributions of the piezo in our analysis. the stiffness contributions were neglected. The approximate in-plane mode shapes assumed in face plates 1 and 3 for the case of a plate clamped on all sides are assumed to be mode shapes. if the bandwidth is increased. y) (4. But. y. For the transverse direction. y. y) = sin sin (4.29. y) i  v3 (x. t) = U3i (t)Ψi (x. Similarly.31) i The in-plane mode shapes for all the in-plane displacements were assumed as same: mπx nπy Ψi (x.3 Results The results of experiments conducted on the symmetric sandwich are tabulated against the frequencies predicted by the analysis in Table 4.

9.8. the number of in-plane modes. A downward shift in the modal frequencies occurs when the thickness of the viscoelastic core increases. 96 . This error is also due to clamping conditions which causes additional surface friction over the clamped length. When ne = 1. The experimental validation of the asymmetric sandwich plates are presented in Table 4. The viscous damping of some modes is also measured and compared with the predicted values for the symmetric plate in Table 4. nb . For the asymmetric sandwich plates.8. In-plane extension adds to the shearing of the viscoelastic core and therefore affects the overall stiffness of the sandwich. the error in the (4.8%. constant.to be higher. the error is extremely large where the first modal frequency prediction has 112% error.5% for the 0.1) modal frequency was 10. The error increases for the higher modes. By increasing ne . The trend is presented in both the experimental measurement of frequencies and the analytical predictions.7 and 4. is varied while keeping the number of transverse vibration modes.7 and 4.7% for the 0.00508 cm (2 mil) case and 7.1) mode of the symmetric sandwich plate.6 and for the asymmetric plates in Table 4. To examine the influence of the number of in-plane modes on the accuracy of modal frequency estimates in bending. The inclusion of the in-plane modes has a large impact on the analysis of sandwich plates. More bending and in-plane modes would need to be included to predict higher frequencies with more precision.0127 cm (5 mil) case. For the (4. These results are summarized in Table 4. Larger error is seen for the first modal loss factor implying the need for a more accurate damping model at lower frequencies. Good correlation between measured and predicted modal frequen- cies is seen. the error was 6. the error in prediction is reduced so that when ne = 6. ne .

5 where we plot frequency and loss factor vs. the shear strain in the viscoelastic core.3. The three plate specimens described above are subject to this study. The curves have been plotted for the first five plate modes. The variation of tem- perature will cause the change of storage modulus and this has significant influence 97 . The results of this study are presented in Figure 4. Since the assumed bending and in-plane modes are orthonormal with themselves but not each other. 4. Once ne = 12. The behavior of the curves is seen to be similar for different thicknesses of the viscoelastic layer (0.1 Influence of Operation Temperature Based on the correlation between the experimental and analytical prediction in this section. we present a parametric study on the influence of operating temperature on the natural frequencies and the modal loss factors of the sandwich plate. When we decrease the number of bending modes from nb = 25 to nb = 18. The errors are still high for the higher modes.0127 cm) (2 mil or 5 mil). Thus.00508 cm or 0.3 through Figure 4. accounting for the coupling between the in-plane and bending plate modes is crucial in sandwich structure analyses via the assumed modes method.2. the frequencies of the first 6 modes agree well with the experimental results. temperature for each plate. The storage modulus and loss factor of viscoelastic materials are frequency and temperature dependent.21%. the error for the first mode increases only from 3.95% to 4. is dominated by the in-plane modes and only mildly by the bending modes.3%.error in the first mode is down to 5.

We established the validity of our assumed modes analysis by comparison with an exact solution of a sandwich plate where the complex modulus of the viscoelastic core was assumed to be constant over the frequency range of interest. The core shear modulus is assumed to have a complex value which is dependent on the frequency. Experiments were conducted on such symmetric and asymmetric sandwich plates using 98 . A traditional Galerkin assumed mode analysis of plate transverse bend- ing was augmented with internal dissipation coordinates. to account for the frequency dependent complex modulus of the viscoelastic core. We also examined the practical situation where a sandwich plate. The operating temperature of the plate needs to be considered when it is designed. which affects both the modal frequencies and loss factors. clamped on all four sides. using the GHM method. Transverse shear deformation of the face layers as well as the rotatory inertia are neglected. 4.3 Summary Analysis of sandwich plates with a dissipative core and isotropic face-plates was de- veloped and validated.4% in the prediction of natural frequencies which analytically validated our assumed modes analysis model. Validation of our analysis under simply-supported boundary conditions against this exact solution [28] shows an error of <0. while the core is assumed to have shear stiffness alone. has a viscoelastic core with a frequency dependent complex modulus. A first or- der shear deformation theory is used to describe the deformation in the layers.on system stiffness. Flexural and membrane energies in the face-plates are accounted for.

In addition. The frequencies and modal loss factors were measured to experimentally validate our analysis. The temperature is also seen to have a large effect on the frequency and loss factor.a piezo pair as a modal exciter. we demonstrated that the accurate prediction of the bending modal frequencies and damping required a large number of in-plane modes and that these predictions were more sensitive to the number of in-plane modes than the number of bending modes. When we tailor the damping layer by selecting the optimal thickness and type of material to maximize damping in the structure. The optimal design corresponds to a temperature range of operation which can be predicted via our analysis. temperature effects must be considered. For every mode. The incorporated GHM method successfully captures the effects of a frequency dependent complex shear modulus in the viscoelastic core. 99 . a region of temperature exists where the modal loss factor attains a maximum.

2: Mode number mapping table No. n 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 4 2 2 5 3 1 6 3 2 7 1 3 8 2 3 9 3 3 10 4 1 11 4 2 12 4 3 13 1 4 14 2 4 15 3 4 16 4 4 17 5 1 18 5 2 19 5 3 20 5 4 21 1 5 22 2 5 23 3 5 24 4 5 25 5 5 100 . i Modes in x. m Modes in y. Table 4. of modes.

2) 130.1 0.6 130.1 0.4 115. Bending Plate Frequencies Loss Factor Mode Exact Model Error Exact Model Error No.34 0.35 0.192 1.3) 195.1) 115.174 0.2 0.2) 178.Table 4.3 60.181 0.7 195.50 (2. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [%] (1.7 178.172 1.190 0.3: Comparison of natural frequencies and loss factors of a symmetric sandwich with isotropic face-plates.0 (1.203 0.33 0.1 0.1) 60.179 1.31 0.10 (1.15 101 .198 0. the exact values are from the analytical solution of Abdulhadi from Johnson and Keinholz [28] and Cupial and Niziol [15].05 (2.203 0.31 0.199 0.0 0.

44 3.0 10010 9999.46 1.0 336.0e5 9.8 111.Table 4.4: Curve fitting of mini-oscillator parameters used in GHM method for the viscoelastic materials 3M ISD112 at different temperatures Temperature 0◦ 10◦ 20◦ 30◦ 40◦ 50◦ 60◦ G0 5e4 2.65 4.4 ω3 5e3 5e3 5e3 5e3 5e3 5e3 5e3 102 .03 6.0 3.09 1.19 ζ3 2.61 3.4 9980.33 4.29 ζ1 1024.4 α2 53.8 9.1 27.39 37.26 1.1 137.2 9998.8 674.3 22.54 1.557 1.0 204.5e4 8.4e4 6.45 4.27e4 3.06 ω2 20000 20000 20000 20000 1.04 6.4 ζ2 145.96 13.61 1.0 1.0e5 1.4e4 α1 18.6 9993.48 2.1 ω1 9961.7 357.95 1.5 59.3 9999.15e5 20000 20000 α3 164.6 169.9 32.8 5.9 29.8 55.0 1.56 3.

75 53.4 14.2) 120.0 171.1) 109.73 156.0 21.4 16.2 (1.24 cm (3/32”) Mode Expt Model Error Expt Model Error No.0 257.3 (3.50 167.77 93.2 107.0 120.6 (2.5” x t) .1) 40.07 cm x t (26.0 5.44 125.6 (3.9 145.6 12.5 3.1) 69.2) 163.7 10.9 (2.8 15.5” x 20.4 4.5: Calibration of experimental set-up: the influence of plate thickness on accuracy of the experiments.4 5.0 125.2) 92.5 62.2 103 . Aluminum plate dimensions: 67.16 cm (1/16”) t=0.15 212. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [Hz] [%] (1.0 71.0 97. Bending t= 0.0 187.5 15.0 180.0 41.6 3.31 cm x 52.Table 4.

122 32.6 (2.0 174.166 5.2) 120.67 (3. ne = 25.6 3.9 - (1.80 104 .6: Experimental validation using a symmetric clamped sandwich plate.2) 90. Bending Plate Frequencies Loss Factor Mode Expt.61 (2.3 90.0 39.1 3.Table 4. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [%] (1.5 67.1 112.00 0.0 115. at 20◦ .06 (3.95 0.158 0. 159.6 3.5 3.2) . nb = 25.1) 38.3) 162.3 0. Model Error Expt.0 167.1) 187.1) 109. Model Error No.31 (1.1) 68.21 0.092 0.6 1.3 6.186 0.183 1.09 (4.

7: Experimental validation for 67.VEM .1) 152.0911 47 (2. nb = 25.2 124.0 151.86 (3.131 5.062 0.00508cm (2 mil) VEM Mode Expt.0 136.31 cm x 52.7 1.8 90. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [%] (1.76 105 . Model Error No.2) 71.5” x (1/64” Al .1) 51.6 2. at 20◦ .0 10.7 0. ne = 25.3 2.3) 169.40 (1.8 30.7 70. Bending 0.2) 125.74 (1.00 (3.68 0.VEM .139 0.0 0.1/32” Al)) asymmetric clamped sandwich plate.3) 131.0 10.2) 89.2) 178.5” x 20.8 52.07 cm x (0.6 (4.04cm .75 (2.67 0. Model Error Expt.0 171.0 87.1) 85.0 130.116 0.117 0.3 3.0.76 (4.1) 29.94 0.Table 4.5 2.5 1.08cm) (26.5 (2.

0 117.8: Experimental validation for 67.2) 117.2) 88. Bending 0.1/32” Al)) asymmetric clamped sandwich plate.2 11.98 (1.1) 51.114 0.0 30.1 - (4.7 4. nb = 25.VEM .68 (1.0 128.0 86.9 5.0 83.232 34.0.211 1.173 0.70 (2.3 (2.207 0.8 0.Table 4.0 121.5 1.3) 126.3) .5” x 20.1) 27.1 (2.04cm . [Hz] [Hz] [%] [%] (1.3 7.93 (3.0 51.2) 72. ne = 25. at 20◦ .0127cm (5 mil) VEM Mode Expt Model Error Expt.70 0.1) 82.07 cm x (0.177 55.2) 168.0 160.31 cm x 52.35 106 .1) 139. 141.VEM .8 0.0 67.8 3.33 (4.95 0.5” x (1/64” Al .70 (3.6 1.5 0.08cm) (26. Model Error No.

3 (2. at 20◦ .9 .7 1. ne = 25 nb = 12. 306.9: Effect of the number of assumed modes on the modal predictions for the symmetric sandwich plate.67 117.3 152.30 68.2) 120.1) 68.30 112.4 - (1.5 67.1) 38 80.9 110 112. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] (1.8 4. ne = 25 Mode Expt Anal Error Anal Error Anal Error No.31 68.7 0.1) 109. ne = 25 nb = 25.00 91.60 107 .1 228.7 40.2 0.Table 4.5 122.4 122 Bending nb = 25.0 172.3 0.48 157.7 3.2 2. 160.5 112 39.95 39.0 .6 4.67 116.6 3.2) 120.99 140. 355.09 285.1) 68.1 112.1 44 (3.0 167. 159.6 2.0 . ne = 6 Mode Expt Anal Error Anal Error Anal Error No.58 (1.0 115.6 4.3 0.1 - (1. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] (1.31 (1.33 (3.0 355.5 3. 160.6 1.3 90.2) 90. Bending nb = 25. ne = 1 nb = 18.00 90.6 3.3) 162.76 (2.0 306.2 3.21 39.0 239.8 100 115.2) 90.9 3.3 2.6 0.9 76.6 79 67.1) 38 39.6 3.17 (3.17 67.2) .21 112.1 55 (3.2 2.2) .6 1. ne = 12 nb = 25.0 5.21 (2.1 3. 161.5 .1) 109.60 166.3) 162.9 0.6 120 166.3 69 90.9 45 (2.

2) (3.05 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature: [Centidegree] Figure 4.1 0.4: The temperature effects on the frequencies and system loss factors for the first asymmetric clamped sandwich plate.25 (1.2) (3. nb = 25.3: The temperature effects on the frequencies and system loss factors for a symmetric clamped sandwich plate.05 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature: [Centidegree] Figure 4.1) (2.15 0. 108 .1) 0.2) 0.2 (2. 140 120 Freqency:[Hz] 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0. ne = 25.15 (2.35 0.2) 0.1) 0.1) 0.2 (2.3 (1. ne = 25.1 0. 100 80 Freqency:[Hz] 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0.1) System Loss Factor 0.25 (1. nb = 25.1) System Loss Factor (1.

2) 0.1 0.5: The temperature effects on the frequencies and system loss factors for the second asymmetric clamped sandwich plate.25 (1. ne = 25.2 (2. nb = 25. 109 .1) System Loss Factor 0. 120 100 Freqency:[Hz] 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0.1) (2.15 0.1) 0.3 (1.35 0.05 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature: [Centidegree] Figure 4.2) (3.

which are commonly encountered in real applications. In order to alleviate the computational cost and develop a higher order method for sandwich structures. especially in-plane mode shapes. The combination of free and clamped boundary conditions were assumed in all analyses. we modify the assumed mode method by using the plate mode shape functions which were directly solved from the bending and in-plane vibration problem of an isotropic rectangular plate. The assumed modes method using beam and rod mode shape functions. were employed to analyze a sandwich plate with a viscoelastic core. We found that in order to achieve the greater accuracy of frequency prediction. which were used to approximate the two-dimensional plate mode shape functions in both x and y direction. The Kantorovich [30] method was employed to obtain these closed-form solutions of plate mode shapes. we derived the governing equations of motion for sandwich plates.Chapter 5 Plate Mode Shapes In the previous chapter. Comparison of analytical and experimental results were used to validate this assumed modes method. more assumed modes have to be included. 110 .

Similarly. The Levy type plate has exact solution and the displacement can be determined using separation of variables which reduces the plate problem to a beam- like one-dimensional problem. An iteration scheme is developed to calculate the modal frequencies and coefficients of the corresponding mode shape functions. We will not generalize the Kantorovich method but instead. so that we can solve these ODEs to determine the mode shape functions analytically. for rectangular plate in-plane vibration. The most familiar method using this principle is the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This equivalence enables us to solve PDEs by minimizing the total energy. the Kantorovich variational method provides a method of determining higher order solutions for PDEs. 111 . For other types of boundary conditions. Fortunately. there is no separable solution form as is usually assumed. exact solutions exist only for the case of four sides with simply-supported boundary condi- tions [25]. This method provides only approximate solutions of PDEs because the as- sumed mode shapes are only admissible functions. but it is very difficult to find functions that satisfy both geometric and force boundary conditions for all cases. The Kantorovich method was based on the variational principle where the equilibrium position of a mechanical system is the position corresponding to the minimum potential energy. will focus on obtaining higher order plate mode shape functions and applying them to sandwich plate analyses. The problem of solving boundary value problem for PDEs is equivalent to the problem of finding the function minimizing the integral of total potential energy. This method can reduce PDEs to ODEs. Closed form solutions of rectangular plate bending vibration exist only for Levy type of plate that is at least two parallel edges with simply-supported boundary con- ditions [35]. The Galerkin method can provide exact solutions for PDEs.

In the following section we will demonstrate the bending and in-plane vibration problems and present them in detail.1. 67]. This yields the governing equations and associated boundary conditions for in-plane plate vibration.1) 2 ∂y ∂x We took the variation of the above total energy and performed integration by parts. 5. isotropic. assuming that the variation of the total energy is equal to zero. The Kantorovich method was extended to the plate in-plane vibration. Here.2) 0 0 112 . δU = 0.1 Plate In-plane Mode Shape This section is an expanded version of Reference [65. and rectangular.The plate was assumed uniform. non-dimensional results are shown: −δU = 0 1 1  2  ∂ u 1 2 ∂2u 1 ∂v 2 2 = + α (1 − ν) 2 + α(1 + ν) + Ω u δudζdη ∂ζ 2 2 ∂η 2 ∂ζ∂η 0 0 1 1   1 ∂2v 2 2∂ v 1 ∂u2 2 + (1 − ν) 2 + α + α(1 + ν) + Ω v δvdζdη 2 ∂ζ ∂η 2 2 ∂ζ∂η 0 0 1 1 − [Nζ δu]1ζ=0 dη − [Nζη δv]1ζ=0 dη 0 0 1 1 − [Nη δv]1η=0 dζ − α [Nζη δu]1η=0 dζ (5. The potential energy for in-plane vibration is L C    2 1 Eh ∂u 2 ∂v ∂u ∂v U = + + 2ν 2 1 − ν2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y 0 0    1 ∂u ∂v 2 2 2 2 + (1 − ν) + − ρhω (u + v ) dxdy (5. as illustrated in Figure 5.

together with all possible boundary conditions existing along four edges for in-plane plate vibration.2 is equivalent to solving the boundary value problem for in-plane plate vibration so we wish to find functions that exactly satisfy Eq. 5. 5.1 Solution Determining plate mode shapes u and v satisfying Eq.1. z C y L v u Nyy Nxy Nxx Nxy x Figure 5.1: Schematic of rectangular plate under in-plane vibration where non-dimensional parameters are x y ζ = η= L C L ρL2 (1 − ν 2 ) α = Ω2 = ω 2 C E and non-dimensional normal forces are ∂u ∂v Nζ = + αν ∂ζ ∂η ∂v ∂u Nη = α2 + αν ∂η ∂ζ   1 ∂u ∂v Nζη = (1 − ν) α + 2 ∂η ∂ζ We note that Eq.2. 5. This gives us the closed-form solutions of in-plane plate 113 . 5.2 is the weak or variational form of the PDEs [68].

5.5) 0 0 114 . yields −δU = 0 1   d2 Xu dXv = a1 + a2 + a3 Xu δXu dζ dζ 2 dζ 0 1   d2 Xv dXu + b1 + b2 + b3 Xv δXv dζ dζ 2 dζ 0 1 1 − [Nζ Yu δXu ]1ζ=0 dη − [Nζη Yv δXv ]1ζ=0 dη (5. η) = Xu (ζ)Yu (η) v(ζ. A numerical scheme is used to solve a set of ODEs with associated boundary conditions to achieve a value of zero for the variation of total energy. Yu and Yv . we assume a separable solution for displacements u and v for a mode (mode number is neglected in all derivations) u(ζ.4) Substituting Eqs.3 and 5. 5. To do this. This method is called the Kantorovich method. δu = Yu δXu δv = Yv δXv (5.2 and performing integration along η direction.vibration.4 into Eq. are prescribed a priori.3) If we assume that the pair. η) = Xv (ζ)Yv (η) (5.

10) For a free edge: dXu a1 + a22 Xv = 0 dζ dXv b11 + b22 Xu = 0 (5.5 corresponds to two coupled ODEs and associated boundary conditions in terms of Xu and Xv .11) dζ 115 .7) dη 2 v dη η=0 0 Eq.8) dζ dζ d2 Xv dXu b1 2 + b2 + b3 Xv = 0 (5. The two equations are: d2 Xu dXv a1 2 + a2 + a3 Xu = 0 (5. For a clamped edge: Xu = Xv = 0 (5.9) dζ dζ The boundary conditions at ζ = 0 and ζ = 1 are needed.6) 2 dη 2 dη η=0 0 1 1 b1 = (1 − ν)Yv2 dη 2 0 1 1 dYu b2 = (1 + ν)α Yv dη − να [Yu Yv ]1η=0 2 dη 0 1    1 d2 Yv 2 dYv b3 = α2 Y v + Ω 2 2 Y dη − α Y v (5. 5.The coefficients ak and bk are 1 a1 = Yu2 dη 0 1 1 dYv 1 a2 = (1 + ν)α Yu dη − (1 − ν)α [Yv Yu ]1η=0 2 dη 2 0 1    1 21 d2 Yu 2 2 1 2 dYu a3 = α (1 − ν) 2 Yu + Ω Yu dη − (1 − ν)α Yu (5.

in this case the boundary conditions expressions are uncoupled in terms of Xu and Xv . Uncoupled and coupled mode shapes were also discussed by Farag and Pan [21]. 1. 3. This is due to the physical symmetric property of coupling terms in the PDEs. 5. which is a function of both displacements u and v. we note that a2 = −b2 . Uncoupled mode shapes exist only for clamped boundary conditions on all four edges. We can 116 .11) are coupled in terms of Xu and Xv . However. when a free edge is introduced. Two ODEs in Eq. 2. Before we solve these. 5. We will concentrate on solutions of coupled mode shapes. because. we list some observation. uncoupled mode shapes no longer exist because the boundary conditions (Eq.8 are coupled only if non-zero values of a2 and b2 exist. In-plane plate vibration should be coupled for both mode shapes of u and v because of non-zero Poisson ratio effects and shear deformation. From the previous expressions of coefficients.where 1 dYv a22 = να Yu dη dη 0 1 b11 = Yv2 dη 0 1 dYu b22 = α Yv dη dη 0 We now have two ODEs along with associated boundary conditions in terms of Xu and Xv .

c3 and c4 are four independent wave coefficients. and are given by  k12 = −p + p2 − q  k22 = −p − p2 − q (5. d2 . the roots k1 and k2 are not be complex numbers. 5. c2 . 5.12) dζ 4 dζ 2 d4 Xv d2 Xv + 2p + qXv = 0 dζ 4 dζ 2 where   1 a2 b2 b3 a3 p = − + + 2 a1 b1 b1 a1 a3 b3 q = a1 b1 The solutions for Xu and Xv can be written as a wave expansion: Xu = c1 e−k1 ζ + c2 ek1 ζ + c3 e−k2 ζ + c4 ek2 ζ (5.15. 5. as d4 Xu d2 Xu + 2p + qXu = 0 or (5. The analytical expressions of mode shapes Xu and Xv are given below based on the possible signs of characteristic roots k12 and k22 . and d1 .12. 5. 117 .8 in terms of either Xu or Xv . c2 . there are two kinds of waves traveling across the plate.13) Xv = d1 e−k1 ζ + d2 ek1 ζ + d3 e−k2 ζ + d4 ek2 ζ (5. Since there is no damping introduced in the system.rewrite Eq. c3 and c4 from Eq. d3 and d4 can be expressed in terms of c1 .14) Here.8. One is a dilatational wave along the x and y directions and the other is a shear wave which corresponds to two different wave numbers as in Eq.15) For plate in-plane vibration. c1 . The constants k1 and k2 are characteristic roots of Eq.

if k12 > 0 and k22 < 0. if k12 < 0 and k22 < 0. The expressions of mode shape functions Xu and Xv are assumed the same as the second case for k12 > 0 and k22 < 0. if k12 > 0 and k22 > 0. 1. then Xu = c1 sin(|k1 |ζ) + c2 cos(|k1 |ζ) + c3 sin(|k2 |ζ) + c4 cos(|k2 |ζ) Xv = d1 sin(|k1 |ζ) + d2 cos(|k1 |ζ) + d3 sin(|k2 |ζ) + d4 cos(|k2 |ζ) 4. then Xu = c1 sin(|k1 |ζ) + c2 cos(|k1 |ζ) + c3 ζ sin(|k2 |ζ) + c4 ζ cos(|k2 |ζ) Xv = d1 sin(|k1 |ζ) + d2 cos(|k1 |ζ) + d3 ζ sin(|k2 |ζ) + d4 ζ cos(|k2 |ζ) The sinh and cosh components correspond to near field (decay) waves and the sine and cosine components correspond to far field (propagation) waves as discussed by Doyle [17]. if k12 = k22 < 0. For example. we consider a plate with a clamped edge at ζ = 0 and a free edge at ζ = 1. 118 . then Xu = c1 sinh(k1 ζ) + c2 cosh(k1 ζ) + c3 sinh(k2 ζ) + c4 cosh(k2 ζ) Xv = d1 sinh(k1 ζ) + d2 cosh(k1 ζ) + d3 sinh(k2 ζ) + d4 cosh(k2 ζ) 2. then Xu = c1 sinh(k1 ζ) + c2 cosh(k1 ζ) + c3 sin(|k2 |ζ) + c4 cos(|k2 |ζ) Xv = d1 sinh(k1 ζ) + d2 cosh(k1 ζ) + d3 sin(|k2 |ζ) + d4 cos(|k2 |ζ) 3. Substituting these functions into corresponding boundary conditions as shown in Eqs. This mathematical representation of mode shapes matches the properties of wave propagation of in-plane plate vibration.

First. we can construct the mode shape functions Xu and Xv . c2 . The next step is to assume that Xu and Xv pair is prescribed a priori. 5. Finally. we numerically determine an Ωx resulting in a zero determinant to obtain the modal frequency in ζ direction.17 into Eq.2 and performing integration along ζ di- rection and following the same procedure as we did in the η directions. Ωx .17) Substituting Eqs. 5.16. Then the wave coefficients c1 .16)        p1 cosh(k1 ) p1 sinh(k1 ) p2 cos(k2 ) −p2 sin(k2 )   c3        q1 sinh(k1 ) q1 cosh(k1 ) q2 sin(k2 ) q2 cos(k2 ) c4 where k12 + a3 e1 = − a2 k1 −k2 + a3 e2 = − 2 a2 k2 p1 = a1 k1 + a22 e1 p2 = a1 k2 − a22 e2 q1 = b11 e1 k1 + b22 q2 = b11 e2 k2 + b22 Assuming non-trivial solutions of Eq. the resulting four by four determinant is a function in terms of Ω only.3 and 5. c3 and c4 can be solved for this particular frequency.10 and 5.11 yields     0 1 0 1   c1         −e2  c   e1 0 0  2    =0 (5. 5. We show the 119 .5. Similarly we obtain: δu = Xu δYu δv = Xv δYv (5.

d2 Yu dYv f1 2 + f2 + f 3 Yu = 0 (5. 1 are needed.final two ODEs and associated boundary conditions.23) dζ 2 dζ ζ=0 0 120 .19) dη dζ And the boundary conditions at η = 0.21) dη dYu f11 + f22 Yv = 0 (5.20) For a free edge: dYv g1 + g22 Yu = 0 (5.22) dη where 1 1 f1 = α2 (1 − ν)Xu2 dζ 2 0 1 f11 = α2 Xu2 dζ 0 1 1 dXv f2 = α(1 + ν) Xu dζ − να [Xv Xu ]1ζ=0 2 dζ 0 1 dXv f22 = α Xu dζ dζ 0 1    1 d2 Xu 2 2 dXu f3 = Xu + Ω Xu dζ − Xu (5.18) dη dζ d2 Yv dYu g1 2 + g2 + g3 Yv = 0 (5. For a clamped edge: Yu = Yv = 0 (5.

24) 2 dζ 2 2 dζ ζ=0 0 We follow the same procedure to determine the modal frequency Ωy and the mode shapes Yu and Yv . 1 g1 = α2 Xv2 dζ 0 1 1 dXu 1 g2 = (1 + ν)α Xv dζ − (1 − ν)α [Xu Xv ]1ζ=0 2 dζ 2 0 1 dXu g22 = α Xv dζ dζ 0 1    1 1 d2 Xv 2 2 1 dXv g3 = (1 − ν) Xv + Ω Xv dζ − (1 − ν) Xv (5. We cannot find the exact solutions by applying the procedure only once for both ζ and η s because we wish to converge such that .

Ωix − Ωiy .

Step 2c. an iteration scheme is applied to achieve a convergent solution for both frequency and mode shapes. Numerically solve for Ωkx that results in a zero determinant. 5. The wave coefficients in Xuk and Xvk are determined under Ωkx . Step 1. k = 0. Increment k. Obtain the ODEs in terms of Xuk and Xvk as shown in Eqs 5.18 Numerically solve for Ωky that 121 . There- fore. obtain the ODEs in terms of Yuk and Yvk as shown in Eqs. In the η direction. prescribe the mode shape pair Yu0 and Yv0 a priori.8. Yuk = Yuk−1 .≤ . Using mode shape function Xuk and Xvk as calculated in Step 2b. We summarize our iteration scheme as follows. Step 2a. and Yvk = Yvk−1 Step 2b.

The wave coefficients in Yuk and Yvk can be determined.results in a zero determinant. Step 3. If . Check convergence between Ωkx and Ωky .

Ωix − Ωiy .

This ensures that we solve the coupled mode shapes as discussed in the previous section.≤ . These rod mode shape functions are admissible functions in the x and y directions. General speaking.3.2 m in width and 2.0 m in length and 1. the resulting coupling coefficients in Eq. we will calcu- late natural frequencies and mode shapes for the in-plane plate vibration problems investigated by them. Because of the orthogonality of trigonometric functions as shown in the table. the summation of modal number for the 122 . In order to validate this method.2 Validation and Results Farag and Pan [21] considered three rectangular plates.5 mm thick. we need to discuss how to chose the initial assumed mode shape pair in either ζ or η direction. 5. go to step 2a. Plate dimensions are 1. In our calculation. First. and the Poisson’s ratio is ν = 0. we set  = 10−5 . The Young’s modulus is E = 70 × 109 N/M 2 . a2 or f2 .1. density is 2700kg/m3 . that is. CCCF and CFCF cases. as shown in Figure 5.2. they should be admissible functions.33. 5. k = k + 1. CCCC. 5. which satisfy the geometric boundary conditions. The one-dimensional rod vibration mode shapes are used to initialize the iteration calculation and are tabulated for different boundary conditions in Table 5.1. those mode shapes must satisfy two conditions. Otherwise. Secondly. In order to start our approach.23.6 or in Eq. we stop the iteration. cannot be zero.

4 shows the frequency results of the CFCF case where our results are an improvement over Farag and Pan’s.6% for Farag and Pan’s. Compared to NASTRAN results. Table 5. Our results are compared to the solutions of NASTRAN and to those of Farag and Pan [21]. Table 5.3 to 5.6% in our analysis and 4. The maximum error in Farag’s results reaches 12 % compared to 4. we can observe some node lines in which displacement is dominant only in one direction.2 shows the natural frequencies of a clamped rectangular plate (CCCC) case. These are plotted in vector form where the origin of arrow denotes the location and the length of the arrow denotes the magnitude of the resultant displacements giving us a visualization of the mode shapes for in-plane plate motion.4% for Farag and Pan’s. fifth and sixth mode. Table 5. The third mode corresponds to rotation with respect 123 . The displacements are symmetric with respect to those lines for the first. Thus.assumed pair of Yum and Yvn has to be an odd number in order to satisfy the second criterion for the initial mode pair.5 for all three cases.3 shows the frequency results of the CCCF case. the shear (rotation) mode shape is easily identified. second. As shown in Figure 5. the maximum error is 1. For the third and fourth modes. We demonstrate mode shape functions of the first six modes shapes in Figure 5. We tabulated the first six natural frequencies of in-plane rectangular plate vibration where all three boundary condition cases were considered. The condition mod(m+n)=1 must hold to achieve non-zero value of a2 or f2 and our numerical calculation results validate this remark. The error increases for both analyses compared to NATRAN because a free edge is introduced.9% in our analysis and 8.5% in our analysis. The maximum error is 3.3 for the CCCC case. improved accuracy has been achieved in our analysis because the plate mode shapes are more accurate.

1. Mode shapes were expressed as a linear combination of wave propagation where the wave coefficients were computed using a numerical iteration scheme. the mode shape displacements show the different results compared to the CCCC case.5 similar results are obtained compared to the CCCC case. the displacements behave similarly to the case in which the extension and compression occurs along two diagonals of a plate. For the CCCF case. We can identify the node lines easily and the axes of symmetry. Improved accuracy for the natural frequency calculations for three cases was achieved when compared to available results from lit- erature relative to the NASTRAN analysis. as shown in Figure 5. The analytical results were validated using both NAS- TRAN and results from literature [21].to the center of a plate.3 Summary Based on the Kantorovich method.4. as shown in Figure 5.6% for Farag and Pan’s analysis. For the CFCF case. 1. The mode shapes only show symmetries along the y direction.6% and 4. 5. As shown in Table 5. the maximum error of our analysis was 124 . the maximum error of our analysis was 1. The mode shapes were given in analytical form in which the wave coefficients were determined through a numerical iteration scheme. Both analyses predict natural frequency well. 2. As shown in Table 5. Due to an introduction of a free edge. For the fourth mode.2 for CCCC case. we computed the natural frequencies and natural modes of rectangular plates.3 for CCCF case. the displacements are small close to clamped edges and become larger when reaching the free edge.

4 for CFCF case. Overall more accurate approximation of frequency calculations were achieved in our analysis relative to the NASTRAN analysis. the coupling effects between mode shapes increase. The errors in the CCCF case increase for both analyses. 3. The introduction of a free edge increases the dis- placement coupling because a force boundary condition exists. 4.4% for Farag and Pan’s analysis. As shown in Table 5.5% in our analysis and 12% in Farag and Pan’s. As more free edges are added.1: Admissible rod mode shape functions Boundary Conditions Mode Shape Function clamped-clamped Wm = sin( mπx l ) clamped-free Wm = sin( (2m−1)πx 2l ) free-free Wm = cos( mπx l ) 3. Table 5. The plots of mode shapes provide us a visualization of displacement field for in-plane plate vibration. 125 .9% and 8. the maximum error continues to increase.

6 3 1×2 2×1 3260 3280 0.2: Natural frequencies of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCC boundary conditions Mode Mode NASTRAN Present Farag and Pan Mode No.7 4607 4.7 4 1×2 2×1 4024 4089 1. for u for v Freq.6 4198 4.2 6 2×3 1×2 4404 4437 0.6 3349 2.4 2914 0.4 4404 3. Freq.6 126 .3 5 1×3 2×2 4268 4327 1. Error m×n m×n [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] 1 2×2 1×1 2658 2667 0.Table 5. Error Freq.3 2671 0.5 2 1×1 2×2 2898 2909 0.

for u for v Freq.2 6 1×3 2×2 3704 3757 1. Error Freq.7 3624 4.4 3868 4.4 127 .7 3 1×2 2×1 2794 2845 1.4 4 1×2 2×1 3392 3524 3.4 1892 4.7 2727 2.9 3596 6. Error m×n m×n [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] 1 2×2 1×1 1803 1811 0. Freq.8 3026 8.3: Natural frequencies of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCF boundary conditions Mode Mode NASTRAN Present Farag and Pan Mode No.0 5 2×3 1×2 3479 3504 0.9 2 1×1 2×2 2656 2674 0.Table 5.

0 3 1×0 2×1 2567 2639 2.5 3122 3.4: Natural frequencies of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CFCF boundary conditions.95 2994 12.8 2697 5. Error Freq. Error m×n m×n [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] 1 2×3 1×0 1449 1455 0. for u for v Freq.0 4 1×1 2×0 2637 2662 0.0 128 .Table 5.0 5 1×1 2×0 3037 3187 4.4 1531 7. Modal number 0 denotes the ”rigid” mode.4 2682 6.0 6 1×2 2×1 3061 3146 2.8 3390 10.0 2 2×2 1×1 2511 2520 0. Freq. Mode Mode NASTRAN Present Farag and Pan Mode No.

2: Three configurations of rectangular plate under in-plane vibration 129 . y clamped clamped clamped CCCC x clamped y free clamped clamped CCCF x clamped y free clamped clamped CFCF x free Figure 5.

1.8 y.6 0. v(2 × 2) u(2 × 3).6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.u x.4 0.8 1 x.2 1 1 0.8 y.2 0.2 0 0 0 0.v y.3: Mode shapes of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCC boundary conditions 130 .8 1 0 0.v y.4 0.6 0.2 0 0 0 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.v 0.4 0.v y.4 0.2 1. v(2 × 1) 1.6 0.2 0.2 0. v(2 × 1) u(1 × 2).8 0.6 0.2 0.2 1.6 0.2 1 1 0.u e) ω = 4327Hz f) ω = 4437Hz u(1 × 3).4 0.4 0. v(1 × 1) u(1 × 1).8 1 x.2 1.4 0.v 0.2 1 1 0.6 0.8 0. v(1 × 2) Figure 5.8 0.4 0.u x.6 0.2 0 0 0 0.v 0.8 1 0 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.2 0.u x.4 0.8 1 x.u c) ω = 3280Hz d) ω = 4089Hz u(1 × 2).8 y.6 0.6 0.u a) ω = 2667Hz b) ω = 2909Hz u(2 × 2).2 0. v(2 × 2) 1.

2 0 0 0 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.8 1 x.u a) ω = 1811Hz b) ω = 2674Hz u(2 × 2). v(2 × 1) u(1 × 2).6 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.2 1 1 0.6 0.v y.4 0. v(1 × 1) u(1 × 1).6 0.2 0. v(1 × 2) u(1 × 3).4: Mode shapes of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CCCF boundary conditions 131 .2 1.u c) ω = 2845Hz d) ω = 3524Hz u(1 × 2).2 1 1 0. 1.6 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0 0.u e) ω = 3504Hz f) ω = 3757Hz u(2 × 3).4 0.v y.6 0.8 y. v(2 × 2) Figure 5.4 0.2 0.v y.6 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.u x.8 1 x.6 0. v(2 × 1) 1. v(2 × 2) 1.v 0.2 0 0 0 0.8 1 0 0.2 1.v 0.2 0.8 y.4 0.4 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 1.8 y.4 0.2 1 1 0.8 1 0 0.8 1 x.u x.2 0.u x.8 0.v 0.2 0.6 0.

2 1.8 1 0 0.4 0.8 y.2 0.8 0. v(2 × 0) u(1 × 2).4 0.u e) ω = 3187Hz f) ω = 3146Hz u(1 × 1).4 0.6 0. v(1 × 0) u(2 × 2).2 0 0 0 0.4 0.8 y.8 1 x.4 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.2 1 1 0.5: Mode shapes of in-plane vibration of a rectangular plate with CFCF boundary conditions 132 . 1.6 0.6 0.8 1 x.2 0 0 0 0.6 0.4 0.u x.6 0.4 0.2 0.v y.u c) ω = 2639Hz d) ω = 2662Hz u(1 × 0).6 0.2 0.2 1 1 0.u x.v 0.u a) ω = 1455Hz b) ω = 2520Hz u(2 × 3).v y.8 0. v(2 × 1) Figure 5.u x.2 0.2 0.2 1.2 0.2 1 1 0.v 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0. v(2 × 0) 1.2 1.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.4 0. v(1 × 1) 1.v y.v 0.4 0.8 1 0 0. v(2 × 1) u(1 × 1).8 1 x.4 0.2 0 0 0 0.2 0.8 y.

[8] solved bend- ing mode shapes of rectangular plate having simply-supported and clamped boundary conditions. al.2 Plate Bending Vibration In this section. A thin plate with Kirchhoff hypothesis is considered and the corresponding non-dimensional variational expression of total energy of the 133 . We will use the same method to solve the mode shapes of rectangular plate with clamped and free boundary conditions. Typically beam bending mode shapes are used in both x and y directions to ap- proximate the mode shapes of plate bending through the Rayleigh-Ritz method [35] [9]. These approximation provided upper bounds of natural frequency calculations in which many numbers of mode shapes were included. Details of this method were given in the paper of Bhat et. Bhat et.6: Schematic of rectangular plate bending vibration 5. al. z C y L w Mxy Qyz Myy Mxx Qxz Mxy x Figure 5. [8]. we will discuss the mode shapes of isotropic plate bending vibration.

η) = Xm (ζ)Yn (η) (5.25) ∂ζ∂η 0 0 0 Here we define some non-dimensional parameters.28) If we assume Yn a priori δWmn (ζ. as shown in Figure 5. The non-dimensional resultant shear forces and moments are: ∂3w 2 ∂3w Vζ = + α (2 − ν) ∂ζ 3 ∂ζ∂η 2 3 ∂ w ∂3w Vη = α4 3 + α2 (2 − ν) 2 ∂η ∂ζ ∂η 2 ∂ w 2 ∂ w Mζ = 2 + να2 2 ∂ζ ∂η ∂ 2w ∂2w Mη = α4 2 + να2 2 ∂η ∂ζ The separable solution of bending mode shape function. Wmn .29) 134 .plate. is assumed as: Wmn (ζ. is: 1 1   ∂4W 4 2 ∂ W 4 4∂ W 2 δU = + 2α +α + Ω W δW dζdη ∂ζ 4 ∂ζ 2 ∂η 2 ∂η 4 0 0 1   1   1 ∂W 1 ∂W 1 + Mζ δ( ) dη + Mη δ( ) dζ − [Vζ δW ]10 dη ∂ζ 0 ∂η 0 0 0 0 1  1 1 ∂2W − [Vη δW ]10 dζ − 2(1 − µ)α2 δW =0 (5. η) = Yn (η)δXm (ζ) (5.6. The non-dimensional length in x and y directions are: x y ζ= η= L C The aspect ratio of plate and non-dimensional frequency are:  L mVL4 α= Ω2 = ω 2 C EI where m is mass per unit area of a plate and EI is the plate bending flexural stiffness.

The possible boundary condition on these two edges are. The expression of these two parameters are: 1 0 α2 Yn Yn dη + α2 (ν − 1) [Yn Yn ]10 βx = 1 2 0 Yn dη 1 ! 0 α4 Yn Yn dη + α4 [Yn Y )n ]10 − [Yn Yn ]10 γx = 1 − Ω2 Y 2 dη 0 n where d () = () dη The solution of the above Eq.25 and integrate along η direction. and ζ = 1. which are functions of Ω. (a) clamped edge dXm Xm = 0. 5.Substitute above two equations into Eq. 5. c4 were determined using boundary condition at two edges ζ = 0.32) where " " "  " px = "" −βx − βx − 4γx "" 2 " " "  " qx " = " −βx + βx − 4γx "" 2 px and qx are wave numbers. =0 dζ 2 135 . this yields: d4 Xm d2 Xm + 2βx + γx Xm = 0 (5. c2 . The coefficients of c1 . =0 dζ (b) simply-supported edge d2 Xm Xm = 0.30 is: Xm = c1 sin(px ζ) + c2 cos(px ζ) + c3 sinh(qx ζ) + c4 cosh(qx ζ) (5.30) dζ 4 dζ 2 where βx is a constant and γx is a function of unknown parameter Ω. c3 .

c2 . For example. then     0 1 0 1   c1          c   px 0 qx 0  2    =0 (5. the case in which a plate is clamped at ζ = 0 and free at ζ = 1. 5.35 is solved to obtain an Ωxm and the coefficients in mode shape 136 .(c) free edge d2 Xm + e1 Xm = 0 dζ 2 d3 Xm dXm 3 + e2 = 0 dζ dζ where  1  2 0 Yn Yn dη e1 = να  1 2 0 Yn dη  1  Y Yn dη [Y  Yn ]1 e2 = α2 (2 − ν) 0 1 n − 2α2 (1 − ν)  1n 0 2 2 0 Yn dη 0 Yn dη The next step is to determine wave coefficients. Eq. c4 .35)        f1 sin(px ) f1 cos(px ) f2 sinh(qx ) f2 cosh(qx )   c3        f3 cos(px ) f4 cos(px ) f5 cosh(qx ) f5 sinh(qx ) c4 where f1 = −p2x + e1 f2 = qx2 + e1 f3 = −p3x + e2 px f4 = p3x − e2 px f5 = qx3 + e2 qx The non-trivial solutions of those coefficients will lead to a frequency equation in terms of Ω only. c3 . c1 .

=0 dη 137 .function Xm are determined. 5.36) We substitute the above equation into Eq. The expression of these two parameters are: 1  X dζ + α2 (ν − 1) [X  X ]1 0 α2 Xm m m m 0 βy = 1 4 2 α 0 Xm dζ 1 !  X dζ + [X  X  ]1 − [X  X ]1 Xm 0 m m m 0 m m 0 Ω2 γy = 1 − 4 α4 0 Xm 2 dζ α where d () = () dζ The solution of the above equations is: Yn = d1 sin(py η) + d2 cos(py η) + d3 sinh(qy η) + d4 cosh(qy η) (5. 1 are. d4 Yn d2 Yn + 2βy + γy Yn = 0 (5. we can obtained functions Xm as a priori. (a).25 and integrate along ζ direction which yields an ODEs in terms of Yn . then δWmn (ζ. η) = Xm (ζ)δYn (η) (5. Alternatively.39) Similarly. the wave numbers were given by: " " "  " " " py = " −βy − βy2 − 4γy " " " " " "  " " " qy = " −βy + βy2 − 4γy " " " The possible boundary conditions along two edges η = 1. clamped edge dYn Yn = 0.37) dη 4 dη 2 where βy is constant and γy is a function of unknown parameter Ω.

we can solve a frequency equation to obtain an Ωyn and determine the coefficients in mode shape function Yn .(b). 1. simply-supported edge d2 Yn Yn = 0. ie.. free edge d2 Yn + g1 Yn = 0 dη 2 d3 Yn dYn + g2 = 0 dη 3 dη where 1  0 Xm Xm dζ g1 = ν 1 α2 0 Xm 2 dζ  1   X ]1 X Xm dζ [Xm (2 − ν) 0  1 m m 0 g2 = − 2(1 − ν)  1 2 2 2 dζ 0 Yn dη α 0 Xm By applying boundary conditions at two edges η = 0. . =0 dη 2 (c). We will repeat the whole procedure until convergence is achieved for frequency in both x and y directions.

Ωxm − Ωyn .

Then the mode frequency Ωmn and mode shapes Wmn are determined.≤  ( = 1. 138 .0e−5 in our calculation). Validation of this method for plate bending vibration is presented in Chapter 6.

10 in. which is denoted by CFCF is shown in Figure 5.3 Results for Plate Bending and In-plane Mode Shape Functions In this section. Table 5. we will calculate the plate mode shape functions for bending and in-plane vibration for a uniform rectangular plate.7: A uniform rectangular plate with CFCF boundary conditions 5. These mode shapes will be used in next chapter for the analyses of sandwich plates. Plate in-plane mode shape functions were presented in Table 5.5 and 5.6 showed the plate bending mode shape functions.2.3. The boundary conditions were clamped on two parallel edges along x direction and free on the two edges along y direction.7. 139 . y Plate specimen With CFCF BC.10 for both displacements u and v. x 12 in. The aspect ratio of length in x and y direction is 1.7 to 5. And the Poisson ratio was assumed ν = 0. Figure 5.

99922 -1 0.996 10.916 11.0178 -1 1.8779 22.996 32 -0.5: The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate bend- ing vibration under CFCF boundary condition I: where Wmn (x.816 24 -0.137 42 -0.8009 11.751 15 -0.85305 7.443 140 .95631 0.55348 10.0178 4.Table 5.40644 -0.21739 3.21739 -0.58028 -0. y) = Xwm Ywn         Xwm = sin p1 xl + c1 cos p1 xl + c2 sinh p2 xl + c3 cosh p2 xl mn c1 c2 c3 p1 p2 11 -1.85325 0.8532 22 -0.0192 23 -0.0553 17.15898 -0.66715 -0.95631 -0.5697 16.40644 0.30647 -0.73 4.55348 -0.21739 0.137 14.73 12 -0.95631 14.58028 7.359 33 -0.15898 0.11 21 -0.92388 10.4924 13 -0.92387 0.421 31 -1 -1 1 10.72389 0.744 41 -1 -1 1 14.8532 7.736 34 -0.58028 0.855 25 -0.6957 9.34212 3.85305 -0.30647 6.66513 0.436 18.64 14 -0.15898 3.66715 4.3348 12.72389 10.40644 7.92388 -0.093 14.30647 0.34211 0.678 14.34212 -0.55348 0.4569 21.3183 6.99922 7.72389 -0.

99852 -0.6812 8.507 1.7684 13 1 -1.099 5.5194e-5 15.9421 31 0 5.0427 8.446 25 1 -1.83143 -0.83143 2.8336 1.0773 11.7165 12.5241 9.098 11.9995 1 5.0231 11.2092 1.72 32 1 -4.2296 5.0957 -1.2674 1.5252 1.2201 -1.6667 -1 1 2.9006e-7 7. y) = Xwm Ywn         Ywm = d1 sin q1 yc + d2 cos q1 yc + d3 sinh q2 yc + d4 cosh q2 yc mn d1 d2 d3 d4 q1 q2 11 0 5.4036 1.1336 12 1 -2.Table 5.2004 5.6667 -0.2002 -1.0231 -1.6985 12.1244 -1.1996 2.6: The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate bend- ing vibration under CFCF boundary condition II: where Wmn (x.4878 21 0 5.1225 6.043 -1.751 41 0 5.99851 2.0773 -1.6597 15.3741 11.9605e-8 4.99999 1 5.427 33 1 -3.3739 1.4014 23 1 -2.9974 22 1 -4.1244 8.2296 -1.328 13.66 34 1 -2.6274 14.4631 4.4398 0.0428 8.0701 0.4344 1.1668 2.1673 -1.97247 1 5.6667 -0.1907 8.437 42 1 -4.6667 -0.016 24 1 -1.701 141 .4355e-6 11.985 15 1 -1.1083 1.1907 -1.6129 14 1 -1.7252 1.

5222 1 1.11391 1 8.11476 -0.6363 1 II 1 -0.3535 6.0712 12.1964 9.93906 -1 -14.77111 6.73171 -1 -0.2726 6.6023 1.8648 5.5969 1 II 1 2.4638 0.0518 4 I 1.99939 -1 0.6023 0.Table 5. y) = Xum Yun Xum         I Xum = c1 sinh p xl + c2 cosh p xl + c3 sin q xl + c4 cos q xl         II Xum = c1 sin p xl + c2 cos p xl + c3 sin q xl + c4 cos q xl m Index c1 c2 c3 c4 p q 2 I 1.8173 2 I 1.59293 0.6214 6.10615 1 5.001 -1 -34.3207 5 I 0.7646 -1 4.2785 1 II 1 0.44581 0.11295 0.9834 2 I 2.0111 -1 0.81836 0.0656 0.655 1 5.588 1 3.0169 -1 0.8844 1 II 1 -0.0095 -1 -3.072948 3.13964 -0.033994 -0.0656 3.5496 1 I 0.75771 5.0949 12.20008 0.010374 0.5275 2 I 1.3409 2 II 1 0.2061 1 I 0.20688 1 4.2808 2 II 1 -0.7806 3.4638 0.81836 4.8421 5.15154 0.59293 2.8882 8.2872 8.793 1 II 1 0.625 1 7.7955 1 II 1 -0.28628 -2.75982 0.20008 5.75982 1.9485 1 0.072948 0.7: The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in- plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition I: where Umn (x.452 142 .4601 3.5133 7.0842 9.

645 1.0151 0.8914 1.0035 0.072566 6.4081 0.15398 0.2048 4 III 1 -0.209 2.0594 143 .0571 3.Table 5.6229 3.54466 0.5212 5.2732 8.4241 3.84322 -0.9613 1.64692 0.60493 2.70195 -0.8536 -2.99955 -0.3 -0.87644 1.99599 -0.366 1 II 1 1.0024262 1.372 -1.8414 -0.4078 -2.1732 2 II 1 -0.1386 4 I 1 -0.18094 0.1381 4.5325 2.17256 1.6341 -1.0853 0.5916 4 I 1 -0.0508 -1.054059 8.21141 -1.58362 0.99977 -0.9893 2 II 1 -0.65239 -1.5589 6.8511 -0.0133 1 I 1 -8.8358 4.0132 4 II 1 1.79962 1.22693 6.8984 1 I 1 -1.48291 9.95143 0.5583 6.1379 3 I 1 -1.73334 1 IV 1 0.791 3 I 1 -1.1732 1.4811 0.40004 4.266 -3.8: The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in- plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition II: where Umn (x.9556 2 I 1 -0.8746 3 II 1 -0.3638 2.5614 1.1484 1.2709 -0.63965 -1.4012 9.14415 -3.52265 6.53701 1.3641 3 II 1 1. y) = Xum Yun Yun         I Yun = c1 sinh p yc + c2 cosh p yc + c3 sin q yc + c4 cos q yc         II Yun = c1 sin p yc + c2 cos p yc + c3 sin q yc + c4 cos q yc         III Yun = c1 sinh p yc + c2 cosh p yc + c3 sinh q yc + c4 cosh q yc         IV Yun = c1 sin p yc + c2 cos p yc + c3 yc sin q yc + c4 yc cos q yc n Index c1 c2 c3 c4 p q 4 III 1 -0.99499 5.51028 0.4018 8.

8256 23.5969 2 II -1.7955 2 II 0.4548 -2.6694 0.59498 1.27537 -1.2808 3 II 0.2061 2 I 0.7587 -0.3409 3 II 0.8844 2 II 0.0518 3 I -0.88 -4.6214 6.67758 0.6706 1.056 7.19865 0.9373 -0.014847 0.96847 1.92197 0.452 144 .3207 4 I -0.1964 9.2872 8.5496 2 I -8.3876 0.6363 2 II -1.8232 -0.4963 -1.88 0.45173 0.056 -0.8173 3 I -17.1684 -2.2726 6.20923 0.5959 8.67758 -5.77111 6.814 -0.13034 -0.9: The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in- plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition III: where Vmn (x.7806 3.058702 0.082069 0.49258 -17.59498 1.014847 8.5133 7.0053838 0.0842 9.072 -0.55334 -8.1906 -1.032953 0.072 3.099851 0.4601 3.0949 12.039 17.082069 3.6376 -23.51895 -0.27537 1.32982 1.1394 0.814 5.014857 0.3535 6.Table 5.8648 5.19377 -0.793 4 II -0.8421 5.0712 12.9834 1 I 8.4548 4.75771 5.32982 1.058702 5.8882 8.21745 -0.93757 4.5275 3 I -1.7969 1.1684 2.93757 4.2785 2 II -0. y) = Xvm Yvn Xvm         I Xvm = c1 sinh p xl + c2 cosh p xl + c3 sin q xl + c4 cos q xl         II Xvm = c1 sin p xl + c2 cos p xl + c3 sin q xl + c4 cos q xl m Index c1 c2 c3 c4 p q 1 I -0.96847 5.55301 -0.45173 3.8316 -0.058056 0.81315 -0.532 -0.

48083 -0.62202 0.35179 -2.8746 2 II -1. y) = Xvm Yvn Yvn         I Yvn = c1 sinh p yc + c2 cosh p yc + c3 sin q yc + c4 cos q yc         II Yvn = c1 sin p yc + c2 cos p yc + c3 sin q yc + c4 cos q yc         III Yvn = c1 sinh p yc + c2 cosh p yc + c3 sinh q yc + c4 cosh q yc         IV Yvn = c1 sin p yc + c2 cos p yc + c3 yc sin q yc + c4 yc cos q yc n Index c1 c2 c3 c4 p q 1 III -0.14308 -0.42767 1.40755 8.4995 6.7042 3.65466 4.1386 1 I -5.99499 5.0052686 -0.5589 6.022032 0.41623 1.96586 -0.73334 2 IV -2.57518 4.831 9.53619 1.2316 10.366 2 II 0.3063 1.4012 9.10: The parameters in mode shape functions of a rectangular plate in- plane vibration under CFCF boundary condition IV: where Vmn (x.4081 0.7986 -4.10912 6.2048 1 III -1.31875 1.3734 1.5212 5.0299 -4.22693 6.9556 3 I 0.5197 -0.89616 0.0581 1.0040526 -2.26189 0.1107 -0.5916 1 I 1.27746 0.1732 1.3638 2.25799 0.0132 3 II -5.2664 -2.5098 -1.3648 -0.2303 5.02889 0.1381 4.3752 1.209 2.1465 2.0133 4 I 0.0571 3.Table 5.52598 -0.0935 -0.25 -10.1714 1.3116 2.027487 -0.1732 1 II -0.7003 -0.591 1.1484 1.44711 -0.3069 0.791 2 I 0.022041 0.6751 -0.3641 2 II -1.0032241 0.4241 3.9917 0.5583 6.37878 6.28429 3.9893 1 II -2.2384 -2.68534 0.56391 -0.1379 2 I -0.81352 -0.4018 8.8719 0.36662 -0.027392 -0.84427 -0.0822 3.8984 2 I 0.946 -0.0594 145 .8914 1.

The configuration of our two plates was clamped on the two edges in x direction. Our results were comparable to the NASTRAN results for the frequency predictions. we used the Kantorovich method to solve the plate bending and in-plane vibration problem for rectangular plates. we can validate the results of plate bending mode shape functions solved using the Kantorovich method. A thorough validation will be done for the predictions of natural frequency. For the aluminum plate. and frequency response functions using testing data. loss factor. For the plate with partial PCLD treatment. mode shapes.Chapter 6 Analyses of Sandwich Plate: Part II In the previous chapter. We have conducted experiments to test an aluminum plate with and without partial PCLD treatment. Our goal here is to apply those higher order plate mode shapes functions in the analysis of sandwich plates with a viscoelastic core. the NASTRAN results and results from literature was used to validate our analysis. where the mode shape functions were solved in the closed form. For the plate in-plane vibration. and free 146 . we try to improve our sandwich plate analysis using plate modes in order to include fewer number of modes.

The reason for this is to minimize the influence of the shaker. denoted by CFCF.on two edges in y direction. We normally let the rod just touch the surface of the plate by adjusting the length of elastic strings and the glue will fill the gap between the tip of the rod and plate providing a point transverse force input to the plate. The rigid rod was bonded to the surface of plate using M-bond and provided a good adhesion between the rod and plate.1 Experimental Set-up Figure 6. our base is an optical table with a vibration isolation 147 .1 shows the experimental set-up. Measured natural frequencies of lower modes using an impact hammer were similar to the results under the shaker excitation for an aluminum plate. If we fix the shaker. The force output from shaker was transmitted through a load cell and a rigid rod to the plate. Therefore. A shaker was used as the excitation source.1. which hung about 15 inches away above the plate. there is additional stiffness contribution from the shaker. as shown in Figure 6. and this effect is difficult to include in our analysis. which will change the properties of the whole system. we do not need to include the effects of shaker in our analysis. 6. The load cell provided the magnitude of force input to the plate. When we assemble the whole system.5 inch long and 5/16 inch diameter. we have to make sure the rigid rod is perpendicular to the surface of the plate in order to introduce a vertical point force only. As shown in Figure 6. The size of the rod is about 1.1.

thick. wide.05975 in. The two bottom pieces were bolted to the optical table with a distance 12 in. and 1 inch thick.05975 in. The optical table is RS-3000 with honey cone and integrated tuned damping. The top surface is 400 series ferromagnetic stainless steel with 1 inch by 1 inch screw pattern. as shown in Figure 6. The isolation system floats the table and very low frequency disturbances from floor were totally isolated. long.015 in. The constraining plate layer was 4 in. thick.system. was placed on atop of the two bottom pieces. long. and 0. 10 in wide. A plate was clamped by fixtures on two parallel edges and free on the other two edges. An air compressor is served as the air source to the isolation legs of the workstation system. The plate with PCLD was 12 in. Two specimens with CFCF boundary conditions were tested. A 13 by 10 in. One was an alu- minum plate and the other was an aluminum plate with partial PCLD treatment. Then the top pieces of the fixture were bolted to the bottom pieces. The details of this was given by Ryaboy al el [55]. A torque of 200 in-lbs was applied to each of the bolts to provide uniform clamping.2 displays the details of the clamping fixture. long.1. and the base plate thickness was 0. wide. Figure 6. The size of aluminum plate was 12 in. 10 in. The size of top and bottom parts were the same. and 0. The fixtures were designed to provide clamped boundary conditions and were made of top and bottom parts. wide.05975 in. apart. The clamping width was a half inch at each clamped edge. the diameter is 5/16 inch. The 148 . 10 in. 15 in. long. This isolation workstation is made by Newport Corporation. Two strips with same thickness as the plate were placed on the each of the back edges of bottom pieces. aluminum plate specimen with a thickness of 0. 3 in.

A similar setup. As shown in Figure 6. as shown in Figure 3.7.3.viscoelastic core is 3M ISD112 with 2 mil thickness.3.4). was used for plate test except the load cell feedback control scheme. for the aluminum plate and (x. 2 in.1. y) = 10 58 . for the aluminum plate with PCLD. This simple scheme was validated by our experiment. We obtained a fre- quency response function at fifteen positions on the plate.. 2 78 in. we can find the location which can excite up to fourth mode in each direction. The aluminum material was 6061T6 with the Young’s Modulus E = 68GP a and Poisson ratio ν = 0. The coordinates of these measurements were listed in Table 6. as shown in Figure 6. We set up the control voltage in input of the load cell and the output voltage to shaker were adjusted based on the feedback control algorithm integrated in the Siglab signal acquisition system. y) = 10 58 . Then. The PCLD treatment was located on the center of base plate. a non-contact Schaevitz DistanceStar laser sensor was used to measure the displacement of the plate. the excitation location was located at (x. which was from x1 = 4 in. In order to reach up to mode (1. We chose the excitation location carefully to avoid exciation at the nodal position in the plates. to x2 = 8 in.1 and 6. 149 . respectively. We draw the lines which equally divided the length in both x and y directions. A sine sweep signal was applied to the shaker with the load cell feedback to main- tain the constant force magnitude for the whole frequency spectra.1 for the aluminum plate and the plate with PCLD.

Laser Sensor Shaker Load cell Specimen Optical Table Figure 6. Bottom Piece 0.5 in.1: Schematic of plate testing set-up Plate Top Piece Specimen Shim 1 in.2: Diagram of clamping fixture 150 . Figure 6. 0. 3 in.5 in.

10 in. x X1=4 in.3: A plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions 1 6 11 2 7 12 3 8 13 4 9 14 5 10 15 Figure 6. Plate with PCLD Treatment Figure 6.4: Schematic of sensor array for plate testing 151 . X2=8 in. y 12 in.

5 5 2.5 y 9 78 7 17 32 5 2.5 1 32 152 .5 7.5 1 8 Table 6.5 7. x and y are in inches 1 2 3 4 5 x 3 3 2 31 32 2 15 16 2 15 16 y 9 78 7.1: Coordinates of the 15 measured locations for an aluminum plate under CFCF boundary conditions.5 3 32 11 12 13 14 15 9 x 7 16 7 17 32 7 17 32 7.5 5 2. x and y are in inches 1 2 3 4 5 x 3 3 3 2 31 32 2 15 16 y 9 15 16 7.5 5 2 17 32 1 8 6 7 8 9 10 x 6 6 6 6 6 y 9 78 7 15 32 5 7 2 16 1 8 11 12 13 14 15 x 7.2: Coordinates of the 15 measured locations for a plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions.5 1 16 6 7 8 9 10 x 6 6 6 5 15 16 5 78 y 9 78 7 15 32 5 2.5 7.5 7 17 32 7.Table 6.5 y 9 29 32 7.

In our analysis.1 Aluminum Plate Based on the experimental frequency response functions at 15 locations on the plate specimen. As shown in the Section 5.3. The di- mensions of the two specimen were discussed in Section 6. the first 16 plate bending and in-plane mode shapes were solved under the CFCF boundary conditions and were presented in Table 5. These plate modes will be used in our analysis. modal damping.  w(x.10. φm n w and φw were the beam bending mode shape functions which were adapted based on the boundary conditions of the aluminum plate. mode shape functions and fre- quency response function for both the aluminum plate and the aluminum plate with PCLD treatment. y) was assumed as an expansion of beam mode shape function in both x and y direction.3. The 153 .2. we can extract the first seven modal frequencies.6.1) i The mode shape functions.5 and 5. the assumed modes method was employed to solve the aluminum plate vibration problem using either beam bending mode shapes or the plate mode shapes as shown in Table 5. The transverse displacement w(x. and mode shape functions using the Star software[72].1. The viscoelastic core was working under room temperature. 6.5 to Table 5. These results were used to validate our analysis of an aluminum plate.6. y) = Wi (t)φm n w (x)φw (y) (6.2 Results In this section we will show the results of frequency. The material constant for Young’s Modulus was 68GP a and the Poisson ratio was assumed as ν = 0. at 20o C.

There were only first seven modes needed in our calculation and these total mode shape numbers coincide with the mode numbers in experimental results. For the first mode. the frequency prediction errors decrease in both analyses and the error in the analysis using plate mode shapes were less than those in the analysis using beam modes except the seventh mode. shown in Eq. Based on the Kantorovich method. the mode shapes were the beam bending modes with clamped-clamped boundary conditions. The experimental mode shape functions which were extracted using the Star soft- ware were presented for the first seven modes for 15 tested locations and Table 6. The frequency predictions using beam and plate modes were listed in Table 6. In x direction.CFCF boundary conditions were considered. about 5%. Both analyses over-predicted the frequency.29. Along the y direction.5 show the results.5 and 5. The mode shape functions are presented by the magnitude 154 .6.3) The first 25 modes were included and m and n were mapped in Table 4. which is: cos(β n c) cosh(β n c) = 1 (6. 4.4 and 6. except the seventh mode which is expected. the beam modes with free-free boundary conditions were used: φn (y) = cosh(β n y) + cos(β n y) − λn (sinh(β n y) + sin(β n y)) cosh(β n c) − cos(β n c) λn = (6. the errors were largest in both analyses.3 and were compared to experimental results. From the second to seven modes.2.2) sinh(β n c) − sin(β n c) Here β n is determined using the characteristic equation for the free-free end boundary condition of a beam. and this is due to the boundary condition effects. we have already solved the plate mode shape functions as shown in Table 5.

(x. From the figures. The frequency response functions were plotted in Figure 6. Region 1.and phase at each location because of damping exists in any real structures. is an isotropic plate again. As with uniform 155 . The analytical mode shape functions predicted by the assumed modes method using plate modes are presented as well in Figures 6. The first six mode shape functions are plotted in contour form. 0 : 10] is an isotropic aluminum plate. y) = [8 : 12. as shown in Figures 6. For the base plate. 0 : 10]. region 3.5 a-f. 6. The real components of the mode shapes were used in our analyses. Finally we compared the frequency response functions predicted by both analyses by picking up one location on the plate. to x2 = 8in. We can reconstruct the mode shapes functions for the entire plate using two-dimensional interpolation based on information from these 15 points. in which FFFF denote a plate free along all edges.6 a-f. Both analyses captured the trend of frequency response functions. the PCLD region PCLD is three-layer sandwich plate.2 Plate with PCLD Treatment As shown in Figure 6.7. And the coordinates were listed in Table 6. the number 15.4. we can identify the nodal line and mode number clearly.1. as shown in Figure 6.2. We noted that the nodal lines in the experimental results were curved while the nodal lines predicted by the analyses are straight lines. We need more separable terms for each mode in our analyses to achieve the better prediction of plate bending vibration. in x direction. (x. the PCLD treatment was placed on the center of the plate.3. y) = [0 : 4. we assumed CFCF boundary conditions and the constraining plate had FFFF boundary conditions. which fully covered the y direction and covered from x1 = 4in. breaking the whole plate into three regions.

y) = U3i (t) cos cos l c i  mπx nπy v3 (x. y) = U1i (t) sin cos l c i  mπx nπy v1 (x.5) l c i 156 . In-plane displacements. which were the same as the uniform aluminum plate case. y) = V3i (t) cos cos (6. Base plate had CFCF boundary conditions for in-plane motion. We assumed the transverse displacements were the same for each layer in the region of the PCLD treatment. we have to also include the in-plane mode shape functions as well. y). 1. Two analyses were developed. and its in-plane displacements were  mπx nπy u3 (x. y) = V1i (t) sin cos (6. First we will demonstrate the assumed modes method using the beam and rod mode shapes. y). The assumed modes method was used to calculate the sandwich plate with PCLD treatment. The constraining plate was a plate with FFFF configuration. y) and v1 (x. Beam bending modes with clamped-clamped boundary conditions in x direction and beam bending modes with free-free boundary conditions were used to approximate the transverse displacement w(x. were assumed to be:  mπx nπy u1 (x.4) l c i which satisfied the geometric boundary conditions along the x and y directions. the assumed modes method was used to calculate the response of a plate with PCLD treatment. that is assumed modes using beam and rod modes. in which the GHM method was adopted to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core. and assumed modes using plate modes for base plate and rod modes for constraining layer. denoted as Analysis I.aluminum plate. In this case. u1 (x.

were assumed as shown in the Table 5. We have tried to use the in-plane plate mode shape functions which were solved based on the Kantorovich method for the constraining plate. the combination of plate modes for 157 . A total of 25 modes were included to achieve the frequency convergence compared to experimental results.6. The transverse displacement w. The only difference is that we had to integrate by pieces to assemble the whole system matrices. For the constraining plate. we try to improve the assumed modes by the plate bending and in-plane modes which were solved based on the Kantorovich method.7 to 5. We can substitute these assumed modes and construct the mass. The mode number i . The GHM method was used to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of viscoelastic core.10. Our goal is to alleviate the computational cost.2. and damping matrices as shown in the Appendix. 6. In order to save the computation cost. which are approximated by the rod modes in both x and y directions. u1 and v1 in the base plate. This led to a model with 500 degrees of freedom because of additional internal coordinates used in the GHM method. m and n are defined in Table 4. we used same modes as given by Eq.5 and 5. were assumed as the same in Table 5. stiffness. These mode shapes minimize the total system energy and were higher order solutions. These mode shape functions were solved based on the Kantorovich method for isotropic rectangular plates under bending and in-plane vibrations. 2. We also include the rigid body modes in our calculations.5. Therefore. We found that more in-plane modes were needed compared to the case of using rod modes for approximation. which is denoted as Analysis II. In-plane displacements.

3. as shown in Figure 6.7 for loss factor. there were only total seven modes needed to achieve the same accuracy as predicted by 25 beam bending mode shapes. for each displacements. because the plate mode shape functions 158 .6 for frequency and Table 6. The analytical mode shape functions were plotted in Figure 6.9. As shown in Ta- ble 6. The analytical predictions captured the general trend of the frequency response functions for the plate with PCLD treatment and both magnitude and phase were correlated to the experimental results. For the aluminum plate. We calculated the natural frequencies and loss factors and compared to the experimental data which was processed by the Star software [72].3 Summary The analytical results of frequency. are illustrated in Figure 6.8. the first 16 modes were included and led to a model with 320 degrees of freedom. The mode shape functions calculated by the Star software were given in Table 6. Finally.8 and 6. These results were presented in Table 6. The mode shapes plotted a contour form.10. the plate mode shape functions found based on the Kantorovich method improve our predictions. The frequency response functions predicted by Analysis I and Analysis II were plot- ted and compared against the experimental data at location 11. base plate and rod modes for the constraining plate was used in the assumed modes method for the sandwich plate analysis. mode shapes and response have been validated by the experimental results.9 to compare with the experimental results. 6.

We can minimize the error by improving the clamping design. From the second to the sixth modes. and we would need more points to obtain better results. Our predictions captured the trend and were shifted to right because of over-estimation of frequency.can minimize the total plate bending energy. For both analyses. In order to improve these mode shape. We include first 25 modes for each displacement and it leads to a system with about 500 degrees of freedom. as shown in Figure 6. For the plate with PCLD treatment. The largest error appeared for the first mode in both methods and this is due to the boundary condition effects. The experimental results for mode shapes were plotted in a contour form.6. For the given analytical results in Figure 6. The second was to use the plate modes for base plate structure and the rod modes were applied to in-plane modes for the constraining plate. the error predicted by plate modes were less than those using the beam modes except the seventh mode. We tried to use plate in-plane 159 . The frequency response function were plotted and compared to the experimental results for a given points. These mode shapes were generated from curve fitting results of 15 measured points. we developed two analyses. the GHM method was incorporated to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus. we can see that the mode shapes demonstrated some symmetric properties. The laser vibrometer will help us to scan the whole plate to obtain the response at many locations. as shown in chapter 4.5. The first was to use beam and rod modes for all the displacements in the assumed modes method. We select this point in order to demonstrate all the modes. we have to include more separable terms for each mode instead of a single term in our calculation of these mode shape functions. We can identify the nodal line clearly and mode number can be determined for each mode.

only first 16 modes for each displacement are included and it leads to a system with about 320 degrees of freedom. The errors were large because we were dealing with very small number and those loss factors were associated with frequencies.modes with FFFF boundary for the constraining plate. Table 6. However. The largest error was in the first mode for both analyses. but the results were not very promising. the frequency predictions for the first five modes in both analyses were compared to the experimental results. the damping predictions were higher than those in the 160 . As shown in Table 6. we obtained higher damping for each modes.6. we developed the analysis II. in which we updated assumed modes for base plate using plate bending and in-plane modes which were solved based on Kantorovich method and used the rod modes to approximate the in-plane displacements in the constraining plate.7 shows the loss factors predicted by both analyses and are compared to the experimental data. In the Analyses II. More in-plane modes for the constraining plate were needed in order to achieve comparable accuracy of frequency predictions compared to analysis I. In analysis II. Therefore. which can lower the vibrations in the structures. The natural frequency of PCLD plate decreased slightly compared to the frequency predictions in aluminum plate. The total numbers of modes included in Analyses II were 80 while the number of modes were 125 for Analyses I. Our goal is to reduce the number of modes included in the assumed mode method and maintain the accuracy of our predictions. The analytical damping predictions were lower than the experimental data because we can not include all the damping mechanism in our anlayses. and both analyses achieved the same accuracy of frequency predictions.

The response functions predicted by both analyses captured the trend of experimental results for a point as shown in Figure 6.10. This validates our assumption to use isotropic bending plate mode shapes and the assumption that the whole sandwich plate exhibit same transverse displacement for each layers. 161 . The presented analyses can predict the behaviors of the plate with PCLD treatment.8.Analyses I.5 for the uniform aluminum plate. The mode shapes functions were similar to those in Figure 6. This indicated that the bending mode shape would not change very much for these two cases. The experimental mode shape functions for sandwich plate were plotted in Figure 6.

88 4.9 88.75 3.81 391.85 0.3 381.46 111.1 83.06 4. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] 1.Table 6.6 1.02 2.32 1.52 1.56 -0.7 87.1 233.03 274.04 162 .15 210.21 2.68 419.3 1.31 3.3 207.27 420.74 1.41 388.4 420.3: Bending frequency results for an aluminum plate with CFCF bound- ary conditions Bending Plate Modes i = 7 Beam Modes i = 25 Mode Expt Model Error Model Error No.28 276.2 266.2 107.56 3.13 209.08 2.01 3.3 111.38 1.37 243.68 241.54 2.8 4.2 5.

6 0.4 0.] [deg.83 14 2.61 0.48 176.277 2.997 1.12 177.6696 -175.251 2.4104 -2.6196 -0.04 0.41 -3.82 12 1.58 -0.2943 -141.48 -0.675 176.8706 1.13 1.44 -2.32 0.2334 51.18 -3.08 177.6643 -4.31 0.41 0.13 177.0769 -22.97 1.65 -0.71 0.61 0.09 0.87 -2.11 0.74 4 1.72 177.9 -0.11 -1.63 1.3122 0.068 12.6 -1.55 -0.446 0.] [deg.76 1.85 -179.13 0.18 0.0231 -137.76 178.4659 -179.85 -0.1307 145.32 -2.53 -176.3 2.0681 1.9 2.162 -1.28 1.13 -2. Phase [deg.35 -6.13 9 2.24 -2.0557 -2.75 1.89 8 2.05 1. 15 tested locations from mode 1 to 4 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Pts Mag. Phase Mag.9 6 2.16 0.4 163 .8408 0.0261 -105.38 1.213 0.4065 15 2.15 0.5379 13 2.93 3 1.35 11 2.43 1.0956 7 2.22 1.5 2.] [deg.27 1 1.69 0.7736 1.1 179.68 0.54 10 2.82 -1.97 2.04 171.53 -0.89 0.63 5 1.16 -1. Phase Mag.44 177.54 178.0103 166.65 1. Phase Mag.0871 -3.34 0.4: Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for an alu- minum plate with CFCF boundary conditions.57 1.29 -0.41 176.57 -2.25 176.0387 -13.22 2.Table 6.35 2 1.4 1.0479 -1.4232 0.21 -1.] 1 1.

55 0.64 0.23 5 2.0395 38. Phase Mag.1053 -58.12 176.1 -179.72 4.97 -159.17 178.33 0.3 0.1761 -68.13 164 .] 1 2.12 0.7 -178.8784 -172.58 1.9878 1.85 0.83 0.0415 160.07 8 0.33 1.2673 -1.1162 179.96 12 0. 15 tested locations from mode 5 to 7 Mode 5 Mode 6 Mode 7 Pts Mag. Phase Mag.0572 99.9946 177.77 0.Table 6.6979 -173.56 1.13 4 1.32 176.15 14 0.69 6 0.0883 158.9 11 1.76 0.3014 -175.77 2.85 2.2253 -170.0093 -7.1918 0.9 0.] [deg.] [deg.97 -176.69 13 0.6 1.71 2.96 0.49 -175.93 1.46 178.6531 168.05 1.82 -0.0558 -177.9903 -2.74 1.7 2.33 3.5: Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for an alu- minum plate with CFCF boundary conditions.274 -3.2 15 2 -0.51 10 0.0974 -173.69 1.2075 -173.99 2. Phase [deg.79 0.62 1.24 3.17 1.65 0.96 178.4478 0.9 3 0.2373 -118.06 9 0.27 1.63 1 -1.73 1.63 -1.8424 0.48 7 0.1036 9.76 2 1.8992 1.

06 285.74 0. [Hz] [Hz] [%] [Hz] [%] 1.29 241.92 2.66 1.7 5.81 165 . as shown in Figure 6.2 277.98 2.9 3.02 2.1 234. Bending Analysis I Analysis II Mode Expt Model Error Model Error No.2 104.1 83. 16 modes for each displacement were used for a total of 320 degrees of freedom.96 1. 25 modes for each displacement were assumed and it leads to 500 degrees of freedom.6: Bending frequency results for a plate with PCLD treatment.54 87.84 2.28 3.1 87.8 286.87 108.59 2.17 2.3.Table 6.2 241.9 220.82 0.88 220. in analysis II.3 218.8 5.91 107. in analysis I.

039 16.1 2.2 0.81 2.3 0.0486 -19 1.0328 5.0334 0.1 0.1 0.0448 -25. Mode Analysis I Analysis II No.Table 6. Model Error [%] Model Error [%] 1.0275 -35.0297 -11.58 0.2 0.7: Loss factor results for a plate with PCLD treatment.031 0.96 1. Expt.0412 0.8 166 . 16 modes for each displacement were used for a total of 320 degrees of freedom.1 0.3 0. 25 modes for each displacement were assumed and it leads to 500 degrees of freedom. in analysis II.0302 -2.06 0. in analysis I.0334 -18. as shown in Figure 6.3.0424 0.1 0.9 0.0304 -28.0371 -9.

77 2.99 0.4547 174.] [deg.3855 -125.847 -2.0503 -52.39 0.08 128.] 1 1.9012 2 0.64 1.66 0.34 4 0.5522 0.0904 -118. 15 tested locations from mode 1 to 3 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Pts Mag.8747 3.59 -2.84 6 1.119 -171.32 -1.1 8.31 178.56 0.0883 -17.1907 -10.85 0.9492 0.23 -2.] [deg.33 -0.2 1.02 -2.6653 26.6885 -0.32 0.8355 0.74 15 1.72 2.5755 18.4081 1.24 0.3351 11 1.89 2.54 2 0.41 0.39 -1.03 7 1. Phase Mag.0929 0. Phase [deg.87 14 0.41 0.11 12 1.0357 0.06 1.832 0.0777 -137.96 2.26 1.5705 3.61 3 0.72 -1.Table 6.28 -0.17 0.56 -173.7609 -16.19 10 1.52 0.43 179.83 9 1.8: Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for a plate with PCLD treatment.51 2.35 0.71 0.376 18.01 0.38 13 1.358 -176.77 177.98 167 .51 0.97 0.95 2.01 5 0.25 -0. Phase Mag.6049 2.47 8 1.49 1.3 178.8187 2.23 -5.1127 1.7458 -168.0494 126.

26 -1.13 2 1.4 10 0.05 8.38 5 1.9 6 0.08 9 0.13 0.27 -168.1462 170.74 -172.82 0.21 7 0.63 13 1.1337 -105.72 2.6 3 1.] 1 2.0783 -42.49 2.84 1.58 -2.82 3.67 0.] [deg.5 11 1.67 2.9: Experimental results of bending mode shape functions for the plate with PCLD treatment.44 15 1.59 168 .1221 164.96 0.2074 -38. Phase Mag.12 0.2046 -28. Phase [deg.04 1.365 165.58 179.5 -179.29 3.59 -2.65 11. 15 tested locations from mode 4 to 5 Mode 4 Mode 5 Pts Mag.18 2.56 1.26 0.0073 -83.93 -175.03 177.23 8 0.51 179.18 14 1.29 12 1.06 -178.2324 167.1087 37.38 -3.29 3.3651 178.86 4 1.0397 -56.16 2.57 0.Table 6.54 -172.

5 0 −0.7Hz.25 2 2 0. 1) b) ω = 107.25 0.30Hz.25 6 6 0. mode (2.5 0. 3) Figure 6.40Hz. 2) 10 10 −0.75 0.5 −0.5 −0.25 0 1 1 0.7 75 0.5 5 5 0 4 4 3 3 0.5 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 e) ω = 266.03Hz. 0 5 7 25 7 0. 0.5 0.5 4 4 −0.5 0 5 0 5 −0 .5 0.25 −0. mode (1. mode (1.25 3 3 0 0 2 2 5 −0.5 0 8 0.18Hz.25 0.25 −0. 10 10 −0 .25 5 5 −0.5: Contour plot of experimental bending mode shape functions for an aluminum plate with CFCF boundary conditions 169 .25 5 3 0.5 0.5 9 .2 0 0 0.5 −0. 2) f) ω = 381.5 7 7 −0.5 4 4 0.5 −0.25 0 0.75 0.68Hz.5 0.2 6 6 5 0 0.25 9 5 9 −0.75 9 9 8 8 −0 .25 6 0 6 −0.5 8 −0.75 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 c) ω = 207.7 0.2 3 0 0 2 2 0 −0. mode (1.75 −0.25 0.5 1 1 0.75 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 a) ω = 83.25 0. 3) d) ω = 233.25 8 8 0 0 7 7 0.25 0. mode (2.75 0.2 1 −0.75 5 −0 9 −0.5 1 −0. mode (2. 1) 10 10 −0.

3Hz.5 6 6 −0.25 −0. 2) f) ω = 388.5 7 7 −0. mode (2.2 −0. −0 3 3 −0. . 0.75 9 0.5 0 7 7 25 6 0.25 −0.5 5 4 4 0.5 0.6: Contour plot of analytical bending mode shape functions for an aluminum plate with CFCF boundary conditions 170 .25 0. 6 0 0 0 .56Hz.5 4 4 −0. 3) Figure 6. mode (1.25 8 8 0 0 0. 3) d) ω = 241.5 1 0.75 1 1 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 a) ω = 87.25 0.7 5 9 0.75 −0.5 −0.75Hz.75 −0. mode (2.5 0 0.25 1 0.5 2 2 0 0 0.2 5 25 . 1) 10 10 0.01Hz.75 −0.52Hz. 25 5 −0 −0.75 −0. 1) b) ω = 111. mode (1.5 9 0.75 5 5 75 −0 0.75 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 c) ω = 209.25 −0.25 −0. mode (2.25 −0.75 0. 10 10 9 9 0. mode (1.75 4 4 −0.25 0.8Hz.75 8 8 0.5 5 1 1 −0. 2) 10 10 0.5 2 2 −0.75 9 0.5 3 −0.5 −0.5 −0.75 0.25 8 0 8 −0.7 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 e) ω = 274.25 5 5 0 0 −0.5 5 .75 −0.5 0.25 −0.75 5 5 0.5 7 7 6 6 0.25 3 3 −0.5 0.75 −0.25 3 2 0 2 0.2 0 0.75 −0.

in which only 7 plate modes were included and 25 beam bending modes were used 171 . Legend: − Expt. Beam Modes −3 Mag(M/N) [log10] −4 −5 −6 −7 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 200 150 Phase [deg] 100 50 0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Frequency [Hz] Figure 6. at location 15. as shown as Table 6. −− Plate Modes −.1.7: Frequency response functions of an aluminum plate with CFCF boundary conditions.

5 0.25 8 0 7 −0.7 1 1 −0 0.7 5 7 7 −0.7 1 −0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 e) ω = 277. 5 0. mode (2.7 0.1Hz.25 −0.75 .25 −0 5 .5 8 8 0. 1) 10 0.5 0. 3) d) ω = 234.25 −0. 1) b) ω = 104.25 4 4 5 0.25 5 .91Hz.75 9 0.25 3 3 2 2 0.5 5 −0. 2) Figure 6.5 1 1 0.25 0 3 . 0. mode (1.5 0.25 6 5 0 0 4 −0 .25 8 8 5 0 0 7 7 5 6 −0.75 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 a) ω = 83.75 9 9 −0. 2) 10 10 0.25 6 6 0 0.5 9 −0 0.5 3 3 0 2 0.5 −0 2 0.8Hz.25 0 4 0 4 −0.5 0.5 5 .75 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 c) ω = 218.8: Contour plot of experimental bending mode shape functions for a plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions 172 .25 2 0.2Hz. 10 10 −0.9Hz.5 9 −0. mode (2.25 5 5 0 0.2 6 0. mode (1. mode (1.5 0.

mode (2. mode (1.5 0 0.5 5 5 −0.25 0.25 6 6 0.75 −0 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 e) ω = 285.75 8 8 −0. 1) b) ω = 108.5 −0.75 0. 10 10 9 9 −0.74Hz.75 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 a) ω = 87.7 −0.25 −0. 3) d) ω = 241.9: Contour plot of analytical bending mode shape functions for a plate with PCLD treatment under CFCF boundary conditions 173 .25 0.5 3 2 0.5 −0.25 0. 2) 10 10 9 −0.75 0. mode (1.25 5 0 0 0.5 1 1 −0.02Hz. mode (2.8Hz.5 7 −0. 4 25 0 0.5 −0.5 −0.75 −0.5 0 −0 6 .5 7 7 −0.2 2 5 −0.75 9 −0 −0.25 6 6 −0.5 2 2 1 1 0.25 −0.25 −0.25 −0.75 −0.25 3 3 0. 75 4 0.59Hz.75 5 8 0. 1) 10 9 0.5 4 0.17Hz.5 5 5 0 4 4 0. 2) Figure 6.5 .75 .75 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 c) ω = 220.2 5 3 3 0 2 −0. mode (1.25 8 8 0 7 7 −0.

5 Mag(M/N) [log10] −4 −4. 16 modes for each displacement were used for a total of 320 degrees of freedom.5 −5 −5. in analysis I. 174 . Analysis I −3. Legend: − Expt. in analysis II.10: Frequency response functions of a plate with PCLD. at location 11. −− Analysis II −. 25 modes for each displacement were assumed and it leads to 500 degrees of freedom.5 −6 100 150 200 250 300 200 150 Phase [deg] 100 50 0 100 150 200 250 300 Frequency [Hz] Figure 6.

• achievement of plate bending and in-plane vibration mode shape functions for isotropic rectangular plate based on the Kantorovich method. and to validate all the analytical results with experimental data. To this end. the original contributions of this study are: • development of a spectral finite element method for the sandwich beam analyses.Chapter 7 Summary and Conclusions The objectives of this research focused on the solution of vibration problems in sand- wich beams and plates. • experimental validation for all the analyses of sandwich beams by comparing the results of natural frequency and response. • analytical validation of the spectral finite element model using results from the assumed modes method and conventional finite element method for sandwich beam. • introduction of the GHM method in the assumed modes method for sandwich plate analyses using beam and rod modes. 175 .

• application of plate mode shape functions to update the assumed modes in the

sandwich plate analyses;

• experimental validation of sandwich plate analyses using the results of natural

frequency, loss factor, mode shape function, and response.

Thus the goals of our research have been achieved.

7.1 Sandwich Beam

A spectral finite element method (SFEM) was developed for the sandwich beam anal-

yses. The frequency dependent complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core was

implicitly accounted because the SFEM was developed in frequency domain. There is

no need for additional damping model. The shape functions in the SFEM were dupli-

cated from the progressive wave solutions. Therefore, the number of elements needed

in SFEM coincides with the number of different impedance in the structures. The

conventional finite element method (CFEM) and the assumed mode method (AM)

were used to calculated the sandwich beams as well where the GHM method has to be

included to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus of viscoelastic

core. This leads to a large size of model because the additional internal coordinates in

the GHM method increase the degrees of freedom in the analyses of sandwich beam

The analytical results of natural frequency and frequency response were validated

by the experimental data by testing two beam specimens with 50% and 75% PCLD

treatment. The SFEM can provide an accurate solution at the less computation cost

compared to CFEM and AM.

176

7.2 Sandwich Plate

We expect to extend the SFEM for sandwich plate analyses. But it is extremely to ob-

tain the exact solutions of equations for sandwich plate. The assumed modes method

was developed to model the sandwich plate and the GHM method was incorporated

where one-dimensional beam and rod modes were approximated the two-dimensional

plate modes in both x and y directions. This approach consumes a large computational

cost. In order to improve this simple approach, we updated the assumed modes using

plate modes which were solved from isotropic rectangular plate based on the Kan-

torovich method. These updated plate bending and in-plane mode shape functions

were a higher order approximation of the biharmonic equation in plate bending and

Navier equations in plate in-plane vibration. The final solutions of these plate modes

were presented and the approach was demonstrated for plate bending and in-plane

vibrations. We introduced these plate modes in the assumed modes method for the

sandwich plate analyses. The number of modes included decreases compared to the

case of using beam and rod modes. Experiments were conducted to study the sand-

wich plate dynamics. The experimental data of natural frequency, loss factor, mode

shape functions and response were presented. These results were used to validated

our analytical predictions. Good correlations were achieved between the analyses and

experiment. Therefore, the updated assumed modes method using plate modes can

be used to analyze the sandwich plate structures.

177

7.3 Recommendations for Future Research

This study has demonstrated that our approaches for the sandwich beam and plate

analyses were successful. All the results were experimental validated. The SFEM in

the sandwich beam analyses can provide exact solutions for the corresponding gov-

erning equations and we can implicitly account for the frequency dependent complex

shear modulus of the viscoelastic core. We expect to extend the spectral finite element

approach to sandwich plate analyses as well. Our next step will focus on directly solv-

ing to the PDEs of sandwich plates in order to apply the SFEM method to sandwich

plate analysis. The Kantorovich method has been applied to the problems of isotropic

rectangular plates under bending and in-plane vibrations. We expect to extend this ap-

proach to sandwich plate analysis as well. This will provide us the coupled mode shape

functions for all the transverse and in-plane displacements. However, the advanced

computational schemes are needed in order to solve these fully coupled PDEs with the

complex coefficients introduced by the complex shear modulus of the viscoelastic core.

On the other hand, we want to improve plate mode shape functions of isotropic

plate structures under bending and in-plane vibrations. Now we assume a single

separable variable solution form. We could include more terms to improve current

results, especially, for plate in-plane vibration with free edges. The essentials of wave

propagation in the plate structures are needed to be well studied for both isotropic

plate and sandwich plate structures. Based on these wave solution forms, a new type

of finite element approach will be produced for dynamic analyses of two-dimensional

plate structures.

In all our studies, we assume that a structure has a uniform cross section area.

178

For non-uniform beams, the wave solutions will be special mathematical functions,

such as Bessel functions. However, for non-uniform plates, it is very difficult to solve

it analytically. And it is still a challenge to solve it using the Kantorovich method.

Therefore, the next step is to study the non-uniform structures using spectral finite

element method or the Kantorovich method.

The motivation of this research is developed a hybrid noise control scheme. There-

fore, based on our approaches, we can develop a comprehensive acoustic and structural

coupled system to study the vibration and noise control. The control algorithm can

be design to achieve the “jet smooth quiet ride” goal in the helicopter industry.

179

t) = Ui1 (t)Ψiu1 (x. y.Appendix A Mass and Stiffness Matrices The elements of the mass and stiffness matrices for a sandwich plate with isotropic faces and a viscoelastic core are listed here. y) i  u1 (x. y) i  u3 (x. y) i  v3 (x. t) = Wi (t)Φiw (x. The displacements are:  w(x. We assumed that the five displacements for sandwich plate motion were expansion of associated mode shapes. y. t) = V1i (t)Ψiv1 (x. and assumed mode shape functions. The mass and stiffness matrices for the sandwich plate may be constructed in blocks or sub-matrices using the total energy. y. y) i 180 . y. These mode shapes are either adapted from beam and rod mode shapes or plate mode shapes which were solved from uniform isotropic plate bending and in-plane motions based on the Kantorovich method. y) i  v1 (x. y. t) = V3i (t)Ψiv3 (x. t) = U3i (t)Ψiu3 (x.

. G .1 Mass Matrix The mass matrix is shown as:    Mww Mwu1 ··· Mwv3     .1) where M is the mass matrix.1.  M =  . ... When we construct the Eq. F is a force vector which is discretized by the assumed mode shape functions. Ke and Kv are the stiffness matrices which are contributed from elastic and viscoelastic part. . x is modal coefficients vector. .2)     Mv3 w Mv3 u1 ··· Mv3 v3 181 .We substitute the above displacements into the total energy expression of sandwich plate..3.5 and 4. The details of mass and stiffness matrices are demonstrated in the following sections. the GHM method has to be introduced to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus..3. A. . . A. in which the components correspond to the amplitudes of assumed mode shapes. respectively. Eqs: 4.   (A.7. This has already been illustrated in Section 2. The final discretized equations of motions can be expressed as: M ẍ + Ke x + G Kv x = F (A.

The off diagonal sub-matrices are all zero.

Mwu1 , Mwv1 , Mwu3 , Mwv3 = 0

Mu1 w , Mu3 w , Mv1 w , Mv3 w = 0

Mu1 v1 , Mu1 u3 , Mu1 v3 , Mv1 u1 = 0

Mu3 u1 , Mv3 u1 , Mv1 u3 , Mv1 v3 = 0

Mu3 v1 , Mv3 v1 , Mu3 v3 , Mv3 u3 = 0 (A.3)

and the diagonal blocks are


Mww (i, j) = ρhΦiw Φjw dA (A.4)
A

Mu1 u1 (i, j) = ρ1 h1 Ψiu1 Ψju1 dA (A.5)
A

Mv1 v1 (i, j) = ρ1 h1 Ψiv1 Ψjv1 dA (A.6)
A

Mu3 u3 (i, j) = ρ3 h3 Ψiu3 Ψju3 dA (A.7)
A

Mv3 v3 (i, j) = ρ3 h3 Ψiv3 Ψjv3 dA (A.8)
A

182

A.2 Stiffness Matrices

Before we show the formulas for the element of stiffness matrices, we first define some

parameters. They are:

E1 h31 E3 h33
Dt = +
12(1 − ν 2 ) 12(1 − ν 2 )
E1
g1 = (A.9)
2(1 + ν)
E3
g3 =
2(1 + ν)
E1
A1 =
(1 − ν 2 )
E3
A3 =
(1 − ν 2 )
h1 + h3 + 2h2
d =
2h2

 =
∂x

∗ =
∂y

The stiffness matrices, Ke and Kv are assembled as some block matrices:
 
 Kww,e Kwu1 ,e · · · Kwv3 ,e 
 
 
Ke = 

..
.
..
.
..
.
..
. 
 (A.10)
 
 
Kv3 w,e Kv3 u1 ,e · · · Kv3 v3 ,e

 
 Kww,v Kwu1 ,v · · · Kwv3 ,v 
 
 
Kv = 

..
.
..
.
..
.
..
. 
 (A.11)
 
 
Kv3 w,v Kv3 u1 ,v · · · Kv3 v3 ,v

183

and the first row of stiffness sub-matrices in Ke are:
  !
   ∗∗ ∗∗ ∗∗
Kww,e(i, j) = Dt Φiw Φjw + 2νΦiw Φjw + Φiw Φjw
A

g1 h31 + g3 h33 i ∗ i ∗
+ Φw Φw dA (A.12)
3

Kwu1 ,e , Kwv1 ,e , Kwu3 ,e , Kwv3 ,e = 0 (A.13)

The second row of stiffness sub-matrices in Ke are:
  #
  ∗ ∗
Ku1 u1 ,e (i, j) = A1 Ψiu1 Ψju1 + g1 h1 Ψiu1 Ψju1 dA (A.14)
A
  #
 ∗ ∗ 
Ku1 v1 ,e (i, j) = A1 νΨiu1 Ψjv1 + g1 h1 Ψiu1 Ψjv1 dA (A.15)
A

Ku1 w,e , Ku1 u3 ,e , Ku1 v3 = 0 (A.16)

The third row of stiffness sub-matrices in Ke are:

Kv1 u1 ,e = Ku1 v1 ,e T (A.17)
  #
∗ ∗  
Kv1 v1 ,e (i, j) = A1 Ψiv1 Ψjv1 + g1 h1 Ψiv1 Ψjv1 dA (A.18)
A

Kv1 w,e , Kv1 u3 ,e , Kv1 v3 ,e = 0 (A.19)

The fourth row of stiffness sub-matrices in Ke are:
  #
  ∗ ∗
Ku3 u3 (i, j) = A3 Ψiu3 Ψju3 + g3 h3 Ψiu3 Ψju3 dA (A.20)
A
  #
 ∗ ∗ 
Ku3 v3 ,e (i, j) = A3 νΨiu3 Ψjv3 + g3 h3 Ψiu3 Ψjv3 dA (A.21)
A

Ku3w,e , Ku3 u1 ,e , Ku3 v1 ,e = 0 (A.22)

The fifth row of stiffness sub-matrices in Ke

Kv3 u3 ,e = Ku3 v3 ,e T (A.23)
  #
∗ ∗  
Kv3 v3 ,e (i, j) = A3 Ψiv3 Ψjv3 + g3 h3 Ψiv3 Ψjv3 dA (A.24)
A

184

Kv3 w,e , Kv3 u1 ,e , Kv3 v1 ,e = 0 (A.25)

The first row of stiffness sub-matrices in Kv are:
    #
∗ ∗
Kww,v (i, j) = d2 h2 Φiw Φjw + Φiw Φjw dA (A.26)
A


Kwu1 ,v (i, j) = − dΦiw Ψju1 dA (A.27)
A


Kwv1 ,v (i, j) = − dΦiw Ψjv1 dA (A.28)
A


Kwu3 ,v (i, j) = dΦiw Ψju3 dA (A.29)
A


Kwv3 ,v (i, j) = dΦiw Ψjv3 dA (A.30)
A

The second row of stiffness sub-matrices in Kv are:

Ku1 w,v = Kwu1 ,v T (A.31)

1 i j
Ku1 u1 ,v (i, j) = Ψ Ψ dA (A.32)
h2 u1 u1
A
Ku1 v1 ,v = 0 (A.33)

1 i j
Ku1 u3 ,v (i, j) = − Ψ Ψ dA (A.34)
h2 u1 u3
A
Ku1 v3 ,v = 0 (A.35)

The third row of stiffness sub-matrices in Kv are:

Kv1 w,v = Kwv1 ,v T (A.36)

Kv1 u1 ,v = Ku1 v1 ,v T (A.37)

1 i j
Kv1 v1 ,v (i, j) = Ψ Ψ dA (A.38)
h2 v1 v1
A
Kv1 u3 ,v = 0 (A.39)

1 i j
Kv1 v3 ,v (i, j) = − Ψ Ψ dA (A.40)
h2 v1 v3
A

185

43)  1 i j Ku3 u3 .v = Kv1 v3 .v T (A.v (i.v = 0 (A.44) h2 u3 u3 A Ku3 v3 .v T (A.v (i.49)  1 i j Kv3 v3 .47) Kv3 v1 .3 186 . We have shown this in Section 2.The fourth row of stiffness sub-matrices in Kv are: Ku3 w.v = 0 (A.48) Kv3 u3 .v = 0 (A.45) The fifth row of stiffness sub-matrices in Kv are: Kv3 w. the GHM method was used to account for the frequency dependent complex shear modulus. j) = Ψ Ψ dA (A.v = Kwv3 .v T (A.50) h2 v3 v3 A All the elements in the mass and stiffness matrices has been demonstrated.46) Kv3 u1 .v = 0 (A. Finally.3.v = Kwu3 .42) Ku3 v1 . j) = Ψ Ψ dA (A.v = Ku1 u3 .v T (A.41) Ku3 u1 .

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