GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

(An Autonomous Institute Affiliated to JNTUK, Kakinada)
Seshadri Rao Knowledge Village, Gudlavalleru – 521 356. Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh

I B.TECH. R14 REGULATION

P.Haritha, Asst. Professor, Dept. of BS&H; Gudlavalleru Engg. College 1

List of Experiments

Introduction to Chemistry Lab (the teachers are expected to teach fundamentals like
Primary, Secondary Standard Solutions , Normality, Molarity, Molality etc. and
laboratory ware used, error ,accuracy, precision, Theory of indicators, use of
volumetric titrations.

1) Practice experiment-Determination of the amount of HCl using standard Na2CO3.
2) Determination of alkalinity of water sample.
3) Determination of acidity of water sample.
4) Determination of Ferrous iron by permanganometric method.
5) Determination of Ferric Iron using standard K2Cr2O7 solution.
6) Determination of Total hardness of the water sample by EDTA method.
7) pH metric titrations - Determination of concentration of HCl using glass electrode.
8) Determination of pH of the water sample by using pH meter.
9) Determination of conductivity of the water sample by using conductivity meter.
10) Conductometric titrations between strong acid and strong base
11) Determination of turbidity of the water sample by using turbidity meter.
12) Estimation of total dissolved salts in water sample.
13) Preparation of Phenol - Formaldehyde resin.

P.Haritha, Asst. Professor, Dept. of BS&H; Gudlavalleru Engg. College 2

Ex.No:1
Date:

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY LAB

Analytical chemistry is mainly divided into two.
1. Qualitative analysis 2. Quantitative analysis
1. Qualitative analysis: It deals with the detection and identification of the constituents
present in the given substance whether an element, compound or a mixture.
2. Quantitative analysis: It deals with the determination of the respective amounts of
any constituents of chemical substances.

Quantitative chemical analysis is further divided into two types.
i) Volumetric analysis ii) Gravimetrical analysis .
i) Volumetric Analysis: In volumetric analysis, the substance to be estimated is made
to react in solution, with another solution of a substance of a known strength.
ii) Gravimetrical Analysis: In Gravimetric analysis, the estimation of a substance is
carried out by the process of weighing. In this analysis the component to be estimated
is converted into an insoluble compound of known chemical composition, and this
compound is separated, purified, dried and weighed.

Terms used in Volumetric Analysis:
TITRATION: It is a process of one solution from the burette to another in the conical flask,
in order to complete the chemical reaction. Out of the two solutions, one must be standard.
END POINT (OR) EQUIVALENT POINT: The point at which the colour change of the
indicator is visible to the eye is called the End Point.
TITRANT: The reagent from the burette is called as Titrant.
TITRATE: The substance being titrated is termed as Titrate.
STANDARD SOLUTION: A standard solution is one, whose concentration or strength is
known, that is the amount of the substance dissolved in one liter (1000ml) of the solution.
If a reagent is available in pure state, its standard solution is prepared by dissolving an
accurately weighed amount of it in water and making the solution to a known volume by
dilution. It is called the Direct Method. All such substances whose standard solutions are
made by the direct method are termed Standard Substances or ‘primary standards’.
Oxalic acid crystals, succinic acid, anhydrous sodium carbonate, potassium dichromate,

P.Haritha, Asst. Professor, Dept. of BS&H; Gudlavalleru Engg. College 3

of solute Vol. Eg.. H2SO4. of solution in ml V1M 1 V2 M 2 in volumetric analysis. Their standard solutions are prepared by the so called Indirect method. College 4 . The concentration or strength of a solution can be represented in different ways. equivalents . The direct method is not possible in case of those substances which. 5. of solute Vol. of litre s of Solution Weight of Solute 1000   gram molecular wt . Dept. Alkali hydroxides. It must be stable in air. A standard substance is required to fulfill the following conditions: 1.Haritha. in general. of moles of the first solution. sssV2. of Solute Normality (N)  No. Molality. The error in determining the end point must be negligible. of moles of the solute present in one litre of solution. 3. An approximately desired weight of the substance is dissolved in water and the solution is made up to a known volume. It must be obtainable in a highly purified state 2. of BS&H. M1 and n1 represent the volume.). i. It should possess a large equivalent weight so as to minimize the weighing error. of liters of solution Weight of Solute 1000   gram equiv. Normality. titration with a suitable standard reagent. 4. These are called the Secondary Standards. of moles Molarity( M )  No. molarity and no. HNO3. potassium chloride. etc. silver nitrate. M2 and n2 represent volume. Gudlavalleru Engg. No. belong to this category. Asst. wt . It must be readily soluble in water. sodium chloride.e. of solution in ml P. of gram equivalents of the solute present in one litre of solution. molarity and no. The exact strength of the solution is then determined by Standardisation. of gm. of moles of the second solution. Molarity. Professor.ferrous ammonium sulphate (Mohr’s salt). Molarity (M): The molarity of a solution is defined as the no. Molarity expression is  n1 n2 where V1. fall short of the above conditions eg. etc. Normality (N): The Normality of a solution is defined as the no. No. inorganic acids (like HCl.

Accuracy: It is the closeness of a measured value to the true or accepted value. Gudlavalleru Engg. General Precautions: 1) Do not touch the bulb of pipette. Dept. 3) Conical Flask: It is a widely used type of laboratory flask which features a conical base and cylindrical neck. Titrimetric/Volumetric Analysis & Type of Reactions: 1) Neutralisation reactions (or) Acidimetry and Alkalimetry: P. while taking the sample with pipette. the closeness of results that have been obtained in exactly the same way. It is made of glass or plastic and consists of a flat-bottomed bulb with a long neck. or stopcock. 6) Do no wash or rinse the conical flask with any solution except with distilled water.in volumetric analysis.e. 2) Do not blow the last drop of pipette. 9) For colorless solutions lower meniscus is considered for reading. College 5 . V2 and N2 represent volume and normality of the second solution. usually fitted with a stopper.. 5) Rinse the pipette and burette with the solution that you going to take in it. of BS&H. Normality expression is V1N1 = V2N2 Where V1 and N1 represent the volume and normality of the first solution. Professor. 7) Use glazed tile. 2) Burette: It is a vertical cylindrical piece of laboratory glassware with a volumentric graudation on its full length and a precision tap. Laboratory Ware used: 1) Pipette: It is used to transport a measured volume of liquid. Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of the solute present per 1000 grams (1 kg) of the solvent and is denoted by ‘m’. 4) Volumetric Flask: It is a piece of laboratory glassware used in analytical chemistry for the preparation of solutions. 4) The tip of pipette should immerse completely into solution. 8) Take reading without any parallax errors. Error: Error of a measurement is the difference between the measured value and the true value. i. 10) For coloured solutions upper meniscus is considered for reading. on the bottom. It is used to dispense known amounts of liquid in experiments. Asst.Haritha. 3) Use pointing finger to control the flow from pipette. Precision: Precision describes the reproducibility of measurements.

4) Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: All reactions involving change of Oxidation number or transfer of electrons among the reacting substances. Ag+ with a solution of a chloride. one is benzenoid (yellow in basic medium) and another one is quinonoid (red in acidic medium). Methyl orange exists in two structures. Such titrations are called self indicator titrations. a) Titration of free bases/salts of weak acids by hydrolysis with a standard acid (Acidimetry).3 – 10. For instance methyl orange shows red colour up to pH – 3. Acid – Base titrations 2. b) Titration of free acids/hydrolysis of salts of weak bases with a standard base (Alkalimetry).1 and orange colour beyond pH – 4. There is no need of adding indicator from outside. Working of acid – base indicator: There are many acid – base indicators. Indicator: Indicator is a substance which indicate by a sharp change in colour at the end point in a titration.Haritha. No change in Oxidation state occurs.0 Methyl red Red – Yellow 4. 3) Precipitation Reactions: The combination of ions to form a simple precipitate. EDTA is the most important reagent used in titrimetric analysis of complexometry. Working(Theory) of Indicators: Indicators are of various types.4. Professor.0 Every indicator shows colour change at its respective pHrange mentioned above.1 – 4.0 – 8. Precipitation titrations 4. P. These are used in 1. But there are some titrations in which one of the reactants itself acts as indicator. Redox titrations. The standard solutions are either Oxidizing or reducing agents. Complexometric titrations 3.4 Phenolphthalein Colourless – Pink 8. Example Colour change pH range Methyl orange Red – Orange 3. of BS&H. College 6 .0 Litmus Red – Blue 5.4 – 6. Gudlavalleru Engg. Dept. Asst. 2) Complex Formation Reactions: The combination of ions to form a soluble. These two structures are in equilibrium with each other. slightly dissociated ion/compound.

it exists in benzenoid structure with orange colour or yellow colour. it is almost always necessary to use a Complexometric indicator to determine when the end point has been reached. Eriochrome Black T. 2. Eriochrome Red B or Murexide. Such indicators are also called metallochromic indicators. and that the endpoint has been reached. EBT + M2+ (Ca2+. These dyes bind to the metal cations in solution to form colored complexes. College 7 . An indicator shows colour change when the above two factors match with each other. Professor. pH range of the indicator. Thus. it exists in quinonoid structure and shows red colour and above pH – 4. To carry out metal cation titrations using EDTA. Change in pH of the solution at the end point. Selection of an acid – base indicator depends mainly on two factors. since EDTA binds to metal cations much more strongly than does the dye used as an indicator. Asst. Dept. Mg2+) (EBT) M2+ Wine red (EBT) M2+ + EDTA (EDTA) M 2+ + EBT Wine red Colourless Blue P. A colour change in the solution being titrated indicates that all of the dye has been displaced from the metal cations in solution. However.Haritha. CH3 N N=N SO3– Yellow (Basic solution) CH 3 Benzenoid CH3 N N –– HN SO3H Red (Acid solution) CH3 Quinonoid Below pH – 3. Gudlavalleru Engg.4. Common indicators are organic dyes such as Fast Sulphon Black. of BS&H.1. Working of indicator in Complexometric titration: In analytical chemistry Complexometric indicators are used in Complexometric titration to indicate the exact moment when all the metal ions in the solution are sequestered by a chelating agent (most usually EDTA). the EDTA will displace the dye from the metal cations as it is added to the solution of analyte. the free indicator (rather than the metal complex) serves as the endpoint indicator. 1.

+ m H+ Inred one color another color 2. Redox Indicators 1. Dept.Working of indicator in Precipitation titration: Indicator is precipitated in readily visible form from the solution at or near the equivalence point of a titration. College 8 . Highly colored substances that may be reversibly oxidized or reduced and change colors upon oxidation and reduction Inox + ne. Ex: During the estimation of chlorides in water. Redox Indicators A. of BS&H. Redox titrations Using Colored Titrant 6 Fe+2 + 14 H+ + Cr2O7-2 6 Fe+3 + 2 Cr+3 + 7 H2O Titrant No Color -----> Orange 5 Fe+2 + MnO4. Asst.Haritha. Potassium chromate is precipitated as brick red coloured silver chromate at the end point.+ 8H+ 5 Fe+3 + Mn+2 + 4 H2O Titrant No Color -----> Pink B. Professor. Each redox indicator changes color over a certain potential range Hence indicator must have a transition potential corresponding closely to the equivalence point potential of the titration Inox + ne.+ m H+ Inred P. Gudlavalleru Engg. potassium chromate (yellow) is used as indicator. K2CrO4 + 2AgNO3 2KNO3 + Ag2CrO4 Yellow Brick red Working of indicator in Redox Titrations: I.

5. The initial reading of the burette is adjusted to ‘Zero ml. 10ml of Sodium Carbonate is transferred into a clean Conical flask by means of a Pipette. The contents of flask are thrown away. The flask is placed under the burette on a glazed tile. Expt. The solution turns yellow in colour. A 10ml pipette is taken. any drops of the solution adhering to inner walls of the flask are washed down into the flask with a few drops of distilled water. Apparatus: 1) Burette 2) Pipette3) Conical Flask 4) Beakers 5) Burette stand 6) Glazed tile 7) Wash bottle. Chemicals required: Hydrochloric acid solution . Na2CO3 + 2 HCl 2 NaCl + H2O + CO2 Procedure: 1. Principle: Hydrochloric acid reacts with Sodium carbonate solution according to the following equation.05N standard sodium carbonate solution. then with distilled water and finally with the given sodium carbonate solution. The burette is filled with Hydrochloric acid and the nozzle portion is also completely filled with the solution with out any air bubbles in it. 1 or 2 drops of methyl orange are added to the solution. The burette is clamped vertically to a burette stand. This is known as neutralization reaction. Gudlavalleru Engg. P. College 9 . Methyl orange indicator. Professor. Just before the end point. then with distilled water finally with the given Hydrochloric acid solution. The addition is continued till the color changes from yellow to pink.Haritha. It is rinsed with tap water.Standard Sodium carbonate solution . The burette is rinsed with tap water. The HCl is added slowly while shaking the flask. 4.No:1 Date: ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID Aim: To determine the normality and amount of Hydrochloric acid present in given 1 litre solution using 0. 3. It is the ‘End Point’.’. of BS&H. The difference between the two readings gives the volumes of Hydrochloric acid rundown. Dept. Asst. 2. The final reading of the burette is noted.

Observations & Calculations: Volume of Na2CO3 Burette readings Volume of HCl \ S. ‘V2’ Initial Final rundown ‘V1’ ml. Professor. Again 10 ml sodium carbonate solution is transferred to the flask and is titrated in a similar way. solution in ml.Haritha. V1N1 = V2N2 V1 : Volume of Hydrochloric acid N1 : Normality of Hydrochloric acid V2 : Volume of Sodium Carbonate solution N2 : Normality of Sodium Carbonate solution V2 N 2 N1  V1 Amount of HCl present in 1 liter = Normality x Gram molecular weight of HCl.5 Result: 1) The normality of the given HCl (N1) = N 2) Amount of HCl present in given 1 liter solution = gms P. Dept. 6. Gudlavalleru Engg. College 10 . Asst. The readings are entered in a tabular form. The titrations are repeated till two consecutive reading coincide. = N1 x 36.No. of BS&H.

phenolphthalein indicator. Pipette. Dept.Expt.3 with phenolphthalein or the disappearance of pink colour will indicate phenolphthalein alkalinity.+ H+ → H2O ------. methyl orange indicator. P. Professor. Burette Stand. Conical Flask.Haritha.02N H2SO4. ------. of BS&H.No:2 Date: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ALKALINITY OF WATER SAMPLE Aim: To determine the total alkalinity of the given water sample by using 0. The burette is first cleaned with tap water and then with distilled water.+ H+ → HCO3. Chemicals Required: Standard H2SO4 solution. bicarbonates and carbonates. Finally. Then it is filled with H2SO4 Solution. Beakers. OH. College 11 . + CO3 + H HCO3- HCO3. and the total alkalinity is the sum of the alkalinities caused by one or more of these present in the water sample. it is rinsed with given H2SO4 solution. 2. Asst. HCO3. Glazed tile.3 Formula: The amount of alkalinity interms of CaCO3 equivalents Titre value  Conc.+ H+ → H2CO3 → H2O+CO2 -----.2 Titration to pH=4.+ H+ H2CO3 H2O+CO2 Theory: The alkalinity of water is due to the presence of hydroxides. Apparatus: Burette.+ H+ H2O 2. Wash Bottles. Gudlavalleru Engg. Chemical equations: OH. water sample. The H2SO4 is allowed to run out to fill the nozzle portion without any air bubble.1 CO32. 3. Titration to pH=8.of H 2 SO4  50 1000 = ppm volume of sample(Vs ) Procedure: Part-A: Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (or) Partial Alkalinity:: 1.5with methyl orange or the appearance of pink colour will indicate total alkalinity.

of BS&H. The color of conical flask solution is yellow. College 12 . Pipette out 20ml of water sample in to a conical flask. 11. The color of conical flask solution is pink. Finally. 8. Observations and Calculations: P. 7. 2. 11. This is the endpoint of the titration. 4. 10. Add few drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. Part-B: Total Alkalinity: 1. 8. 4. The titrations are repeated until concurrent readings are obtained. 9. The H2SO4 is allowed to run out to fill the nozzle portion without any air bubble. 5. 7. This is the endpoint of the titration. it is rinsed with given H2SO4 solution. Pipette out 20ml of water sample into a conical flask. 6. First the pipette is rinsed with distilled water. Titrate water sample against H2SO4 solution until the color of the solution changes from yellow to pink. 6. Gudlavalleru Engg.Haritha. Then it is filled with H2SO4 Solution. The titrations are repeated until concurrent readings are obtained. Dept. The burette is first cleaned with tap water and then with distilled water. 5. The initial reading of the burette is adjusted to zero mark and fixed vertically to the stand. The initial reading of the burette is adjusted to zero mark and fixed vertically to the stand. Add few drops of methyl orange indicator. Titrate water sample against H2SO4 solution until the color of the solution changes from Pink to Colourless. 3. First the pipette is rinsed with distilled water. 10. 9. Asst. Professor.

Professor.No.Determination of Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (or) Partial Alkalinity: Volume of water Burette reading (ml) Volume of H2SO4 Solution S.ppm Determination of total alkalinity: Volume of water Burette reading (ml) Volume of H2SO4Solution S.ppm Total alkalinity of the given water sample = –––––––––– ppm P. Asst..No. Gudlavalleru Engg.Haritha. College 13 .ppm Result: Phenolphthalein alkalinity of the given water sample= ------------------. sample (ml)Vs Initial Final run down V1ml V1  0. sample (ml) Vs Initial Final run down V2 ml V2  0. of BS&H.02  50  1000 Phenolphthalein Alkalinity in terms of CaCO3equivalent = ppm Vs = ………………….02  50  1000 Total Alkalinity in terms of CaCO3 equivalents = ppm Vs = ………………. Dept.

of BS&H. Pipette. These acids can be estimated by titration against standard sodium hydroxide using methyl orange and Phenolphthalein indicators. The NaOH is allowed to run out to fill the nozzle portion without any air bubble. Methyl orange indicator. Finally. This acidity is called total acidity or Phenolphthalein acidity. it gives acidity of all compounds(mineral acidity and CO2). sodium thiosulphate. Asst. College 14 . The difference of these two is equal to carbonic acid acidity. Apparatus: Burette. Burette Stand. Professor.02N). This acidity is called a partial acidity or methyl orange acidity. Add 2 drops of hypo and two drops of methyl orange indicator. Phenolphthalein indicator. Acidity is due to the presence of mineral acids like H2SO4. Then it is filled with NaOH Solution. 4. 3. Interference due to the presence of residual Chlorine is removed by adding two drops of Na2S2O3(hypo) solution to the water sample. 7. The burette is first cleaned with tap water and then with distilled water.No:3 Date: DETERMINATION OF ACIDITY OF WATER SAMPLE Aim: To determine the total acidity of the given water sample by using 0. 8. Theory: The acidity of a solution is a measure of its capacity to neutralize bases. 2.Expt. Gudlavalleru Engg. Conical Flask. The color of conical flask solution becomes pink. Beakers. Procedure: (A)Titration of water sample using Methyl orange indicator (Partial Acidity) 1. P.3) in the titration.If methyl orange indicator is used in the titration (at pH=4.5). First the pipette is rinsed with distilled water. Pipette out 20ml of water sample in to a conical flask. HNO3 and dissolved CO2 in the form of H2CO3. water sample. it gives acidity of mineral acids only. 5. The initial reading of the burette is adjusted to ‘0’ mark and fixed vertically in the stand. Wash Bottle. HCl.Haritha. Dept. If Phenolphthalein indicator is used (at pH=8.02N NaOH solution. it is rinsed with given NaOH solution. Chemicals required: Standard sodium hydroxide(0. 6.

5. Gudlavalleru Engg. (B)Titration of water sample using Phenolphthalein indicator (Total Acidity) 1. The initial reading of the burette is adjusted to ‘0’ mark and fixed vertically in the stand. Finally. sample (ml)Vs Initial Final run down V1 ml Titre value  conc. it is rinsed with given NaOH solution. 9. Observations and Calculations: Determination of Partial Acidity: Volume of water Burette reading (ml) Volume of NaOH Solution S.Haritha.of NaOH  50  1000 Partial or Methyl Orange acidity in terms of CaCO3 equivalents = volume of sample (Vs ) V1  0. Then it is filled with NaOH Solution. The NaOH is allowed to run out to fill the nozzle portion without any air bubble.02  50  1000 = ppm 20 = ppm or mg/litre. Add 2 drops of hypo and two drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. P. Asst. The color of conical flask solution is colourless. Pipette out 20ml of water sample in to a conical flask. This is the endpoint of the titration.No. The burette is first cleaned with tap water and then with distilled water. Titrate water sample against NaOH solution until the color of the solution changes from pink to Yellow. of BS&H. 6. 10. 4. 3. 2. First the pipette is rinsed with distilled water. Dept. 8. Professor. College 15 . 7.

= ppm or mg/litre Result: Partial acidity of water sample = Total acidity of water sample = Carbonic acidity of water sample = P. Dept. (C) Acidity due to carbonic acid=Total acidity-Partial acidity. of BS&H. Titrate water sample against NaOH solution until the color of the solution changes from colourless to Faint pink. 9. College 16 . Observations and Calculations: Determination of Total Acidity: Volume of water Burette reading (ml) Volume of NaOH Solution S. Gudlavalleru Engg. This is the endpoint of the titration.Haritha. Professor. ppm or mg/litre.02  50  1000 = ppm 20 = …………….No. sample (ml) Vs Initial Final run down V2 ml Total or Phenolphthalein acidity in terms of Titre value  conc. Asst. 10.of NaOH  50 1000 CaCO3 equivalents = volume of sample(Vs ) V2  0.

05N) and transfer it to 250ml volumetric flask. Dissolve the sample in little distilled water. Standard Oxalic acid solution . No external indicator is required.Preparation of standard oxalic acid solution: Accurately weigh the oxalic acid solid ( to prepare 0. shake the flask well for uniform concentration.Expt. Gudlavalleru Engg. Professor. Asst. KMnO4 acts as self indicator. Wt of oxalic acid transferred to 250ml volumetric flask= g Wt. 2 KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 + 5 (COOH)2 K2SO4 + 2 MnSO4 + 8 H2O + 10 CO2 P. KMnO4 solution. 3. 4. College 17 . Procedure: 1.of oxalic acid 1000 Normality(N1) of oxalic acid=  g.Haritha. Mohr’s salt solution.H2SO4 to CO2 and H2O. 2. Standardisation of KMnO4 solution: Principle: KMnO4 is an oxidizing agent and it oxidizes oxalic acid in the presence of dil. of BS&H. of oxalic acid V in ml wt 1000   63 250 = ……………N 2. Make up the solution with distilled water till the lower meniscus of the solution touch the mark on the stem of the standard flask. Theory: Standardisation of KMnO4 solution is done by using standard oxalic acid solution and then estimation of mohr’s salt is done by using KMnO4 solution. The chemical reaction involved in this redox titration. Apparatus: 1) Burette 2) Pipette 3) Conical flask 4) Beakers 5) Burette stand 6) Wash bottle 7) Glazed tile 8) Measuring jar Chemicals required: 1. The chemical reaction is: 2 KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 + 5 (COOH)2 K2SO4 + 2 MnSO4 + 8 H2O + 10 CO2 This is a redox titration.No:4 Date: DETERMINATION OF FERROUS IRON BY PERMANGANOMETRIC METHOD Aim: To determine the Normality and amount of Ferrous Iron present in given 250ml solution using Potassium Permangamate solution.equ. Dept. Dilute H2SO4.

No.. Rinse and fill the burette with the standard KMnO4 solution till the upper meniscus of the KMnO4 solution touches the zero mark on the burette. P. 2) Rinse the pipette with the standard Oxalic acid solution and pipette out 10ml of it in a washed conical flask. College 18 . Initial Final KMnO4 rundown Oxalic acid V1 (ml) (ml) (ml) V2 (ml) V1N1 = V2N2 Where V1 = Volume of Oxalic acid=10ml N1 = Normality of Oxalic acid= N V2 = Volume of KMnO4 solution= …… ml N2 = Normality of KMnO4 solution=? V1 N 1 N2  V2 = .... 5) Note the burette reading and repeat the titration till two consecutive readings coincide..1) Rinse and fill the burette with the given KMnO4 solution.. of BS&H. Dept... Observations & Calculations: Burette readings Volume of Volume of S.H2SO4 to Ferric Sulahate according to the following chemical reaction.Haritha. Asst. Professor. 4) Heat the flask to 60 – 70oC and titrate the solution against KMnO4 in the burette till a permanent pale pink color is obtained... 3) Add 5ml of dilute Sulphuric acid to the solution with the help of measuring jar. Principle: Potassium Permanganate oxidizes Ferrous Sulphate present in the Mohr’s salt in the presence of dil. Gudlavalleru Engg. 2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 + 10FeSO4 K2SO4 + 2 MnSO4 + 5 Fe2(SO4)3 + 8H2O 1.N Estimation of Mohr’s salt solution.

N 2) Amount of Ferrous Iron present in given 250 ml solution = ……………g P. Note the final reading of the burette.. Add 5ml of dilute Sulphuric acid to the solution in a conical flask. Repeat the titration till two consecutive readings coincide.equ. Asst.Haritha. Titrate the Mohr’s salt solution against KMnO4 solution till the solution attains permanent pale pink colour. 6. College 19 . N V2 N 2 N3  V3 Amount of Ferrous Iron present in the given 250 ml solution = = N3 x g. Professor. 3. of Iron x 250 / 1000 =…………. Initial Final KMnO4 rundown Mohr’salt V3 (ml) (ml) (ml) V2 (ml) V3N3 = V2N2 Where V3 = Volume of Mohr’s salt solution=10ml N3 = Normality of Mohr’s salt solution=? V2 = Volume of KMnO4 solution=…. Observations & Calculations: Burette readings Volume of Volume of S. X 56 X 250 / 1000 Result: 1) The normality of the given Mohr’s salt solution (N3) = ……………. ml N2 = Normality of KMnO4 solution= …. Rinse the pipette with the given Mohr’s salt solution and pipette out 10ml of it in a washed conical flask. 5. 2. Dept. of BS&H. 4.. Tabulate the readings.. Gudlavalleru Engg. wt.No.

mercuric chloride. Now add. Titrate the solution against standard potassium dichromate solution until violet color persists. concentrated hydrochloric acid. orthophosphoric acid and diphenylamine indicator Determination of ferric iron: Chemical reaction: + 6 + 14 →6 +2 +7 Theory: Ferric ion is first reduced to ferrous ion with the help of stannous chloride. volumetric flask. Gudlavalleru Engg. Avoid adding excess of SnCl2. 2FeCl3 + SnCl2 ⟶ 2FeCl2 + SnCl4 The excess unreacted Stannous Chloride is oxidized by the addition of few drops of mercuric chloride solution. funnel. No:5 Date: ESTIMATION OF FERRIC IRON USING STANDARD K2Cr2O7 SOLUTION Aim: To estimate the amount of ferric iron present in the given 100ml solution using potassium dichromate as an intermediate solution. concentrated sulphuric acid. Note down the final burette reading. College 20 . potassium dichromate. Dilute the solution to about 100ml with distilled water then add 5ml concentrated sulphuric acid and 2ml of phosphoric acid and 3 to 4 drops of diphenylamine indicator. Dept. conical flask and wash bottles. Repeat the titration for concurrent readings. stannous chloride. SnCl4 + 2HgCl2 ⟶ SnCl4 + Hg2Cl2 The precipitated mercurous chloride settles down. Asst. P. of BS&H. burette. Professor. reject the solution and start the reduction process once again. Now add stannous chloride solution drop wise until the solution becomes colorless. Now the solution is titrated with standard potassium dichromate solution and concentration of the ferric ion is estimated. drop by drop.Expt. If excess has been added a grey precipitate is formed. Chemicals required: Ferric chloride salt. Note down the initial burette reading. mercuric chloride solution until a white silky precipitate is formed. Cool the solution under tap water. Apparatus: weighing bottle. Estimation of Fe3+ present in given solution: Pipette out 10ml of ferric iron solution into a clean conical flask. pipette.Haritha. Add 5ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and heat solution to boiling.

of BS&H. 3. Volume of Ferric Burette Volume of No chloride salt readings K2Cr2O7 solution taken(ml) (ml) run initial final down(ml) 1. Gudlavalleru Engg.Haritha. X Normality X Volume(ml) 1000 = = -----------g Report: Amount of Fe3+ present in the given 100 ml solution = ……. Asst. Dept.. College 21 .N Volume of Ferric chloride salt solution = V2 = 20ml Normality of Ferric chloride = N2 =? N1V1 =N2V2 N2 =N1V1/V2 = …. Professor.g P. 2.N Amount of Fe3+ present in the given 100 ml solution = Gram euivalent wt.Observations and calculations S. Volume of K2Cr2O7 salt solution = V1 = ……ml Normality of K2Cr2O7 salt =N1 = …….

Soft water gives lather readily with soap. the total hardness of water can be calculated in terms of CaCO3 equivalents 1. Professor. CaSO4. Beakers.Mg2+ Eriochrome blck-T] + EDTA [ Ca2+. Transfer 20ml of standard hard water sample into a clean conical flask. P. EBT indicator.Buffer (PH=10). The Ca2+ or Mg2+ can be estimated by titrating with EDTA solution using Eriochrome black-T indicator at range of pH=10. Chemical equations: [Ca2+.Standardisation of EDTA solution: Procedure: 1. Burette Stand. buffered to pH value 10. Mg2+] + Eriochrome black-T [Ca2+. Chemicals required: Standard hard water solution(0. MgSO4. Pipette.Mg2+ Eriochromeblack-T] Hard water (Unstable and wine red color) This when titrated with EDTA solution. Rinse and fill the burette with the given EDTA solution.Mg2+ EDTA] + EBT wine red (Stable and colorless) (blue) Change of wine red colour to sky blue indicates the end point of titration. But hard water does not give lather readily with soap due to dissolved salts like CaCl2. Conical Flask. quickly unstable complex dissociates and forms a stable complex and complex free Eriochrome black-T indicator available in sky blue colour. When the titration is carried out in the presence of Eriochrome black-T.Expt.Haritha. Gudlavalleru Engg. Theory: Disodium salt of EDTA solution react with hard water to form complex with EDTA solution. EDTA solution Introduction: Water is classified as soft water and hard water. From the value of EDTA solution consumed. combines with Ca2+/Mg2+ to form a complex of wine red colour. of BS&H.02N). MgCl2. No:6 Date: ESTIMATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS OF WATER SAMPLE BY EDTA METHOD Aim: To determine the total hardness of the given water sample by using EDTA solution. Asst. 2. Wash Bottles. Glazed Tile. Apparatus: Burette. Dept. [Ca2+. Ca(HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3)2. College 22 .

4. Gudlavalleru Engg. 2. 3. Transfer 20ml of the given water sample into a clean conical flask. 5. Asst. Add 1ml of pH=10 buffer solution and 1 or 2 drops of EBT indicator. Repeat the titration until two consecutive readings coincide. Add 1ml of pH=10 buffer (NH4Cl+NH4OH buffer) solution and 1 or 2 drops of EBT indicator. Titrate with EDTA solution till wine red colour changes to sky blue. This is the end point. Dept. This is the end point. P. Determination of Total Hardness of the given water sample 1. Solution turns to wine red colour. Titrate with EDTA solution till wine red colour changes to sky blue.Haritha. Professor. 5. of BS&H.02N V2= Volume of given EDTA solution=……ml N2= Normality of given EDTA solution=? V1 N1 N2= V2 = 2. 3. Repeat the titration until two consecutive readings coincide. water sample Initial Final (V2ml) (v1ml) V1N1 = V2N2 V1= Volume of standard hard water =20ml N1= Normality of standard hard water =0. Observations and Calculations: Volume of Burette reading (ml) standard hard Volume of EDTA rundown S. Fill the burette with the EDTA solution.No. Solution turns to wine red colour 4. College 23 .

of BS&H.N V2 N 2 N3= V3 = Total degree of hardness of the given water sample in terms of CaCO3 equivalents = Normality(N3)× 50 × 1000 = …….mg /l(or) ppm P. Professor. Asst.No. ppm Result: Total degree of hardness of the given water sample is …. College 24 . water sample Initial Final (V2ml) (V3ml) V3 N3 = V2 N2 V3= Volume of given water sample =20ml N3= Normality of given water sample =? V2= Volume of EDTA solution run down=…ml N2= Normality of given EDTA solution=….Observations and Calculations: Volume of Burette reading (ml) standard hard Volume of EDTA rundown S. Dept.Haritha. Gudlavalleru Engg.

Chemicals required: Hydrochloric acid (HCl). pH < 7 indicate acidic solution. The end point of the titration can be detected where the pH value changes most rapidly. pH of any solution is defined as (–log [H+]) and has values between 0–14. Wash the electrode with distilled water and calibrate the pH meter as per the instruction manual. of BS&H. Procedure: Switch on the instrument and wait for 10–15 minutes so that machine gets warmed up. H2SO4. Asst. College 25 . Then it flattens out after the end point. Measurement of pH is employed to monitor the cause of acid-base titration. Theory: All acids dissociate in aqueous solution to yield H+ ions. pipette. Buffer solutions of pH = 4 and 7.1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH). are completely ionized in aqueous medium where as CH3COOH. The former is known as strong and the later as weak acid. The pH of a solution can be measured accurately with the help of a pH meter. the pH rises slowly in the initial stages as the concentration of H+ ion decreases gradually. The pH values of the solution at different stages of acid–base neutralization are determined and plotted against the volume of alkali added. Dept. HNO3 etc. P. Professor. beaker. it increases rapidly as at the equivalent point H+ ion concentration is very small. burette.Haritha. electrode.Expt. On adding a base to an acid. at the equivalence point. Some acids like HCl.No:7 Date: PH-METRIC TITRATION: DETERMINATION OF CONCENTRATION OF HCl USING GLASS ELECTRODE Aim: To determine the concentration of unknown HCl by using 0. Gudlavalleru Engg. ionize to a small extent only. HCOOH etc. Apparatus: pH meter.1N NaOH solution pH metrically. Prepare the buffer solution by adding buffer tablets of pH = 4 and pH = 7 in 100 mL of water separately. 0. But. pH > 7 indicate basic solution and pH = 7 means neutral solution.

shake the solution well and note the corresponding pH values. V1N1=V2N2 Normality of HCl (N1) = (V2N2/20) (N) Result: The concentration of the unknown HCl is ________(N) Precautions: i) Electrodes must be immersed in the solution properly and sufficient time to be allowed for the electrodes to obtain the temperature of the solution. the acid is neutralized and there will a sharp increase in pH values.01 mL of NaOH. College 26 . Clean the electrode with distilled water and wipe it with a tissue paper or filter paper. increase the pH value to about 9–10. P. Add NaOH solution drop wise from the burette (maximum 1mL at a time). Take 20 mL of HCl solution in a 100 mL beaker and immerse the electrode in it. Further addition of even 0. Near the end point. Gudlavalleru Engg. of BS&H.Haritha.1N NaOH solution is filled in the burette . The reading shown on the scale of pH meter is pH value of the HCl solution. 0. i) Magnetic stirrer may be used or the solution be stirred mechanically from time to time during pH metric titration. Dept. Plot a graph between pH and volume of NaOH added and find out the volume of NaOH required (V2 mL) for complete neutralization of HCl from the graph. i) pH meter should be calibrated before the experiment. Professor. Asst.

ii) Dip the electrode in buffer solution of pH =7. College 27 . If pH is exactly 7. It indicates the standard solution of pH =7 Procedure: Calibration of pH meter: i) Set the temperature knob to buffer solution temperature. water sample. pH =7). vi) Now the instrument is ready to measure pH . iii) Set the display value to pH =7 by turning CAL knob. combined electrode. it indicates acidic solution. pH = -log[H+] where H+ is the concentration of hydrogen ion expressed in moles/litre pH value indicates whether a solution is acidic or neutral or basic. If pH is between 0 to 7. Chemicals required: Standard buffer solution (pH =4. Preparation of Buffers: i) Dissolve a pH =4 buffer tablet in 100ml distilled water.Haritha. Professor. It indicates the standard solution of pH =4 ii) Dissolve a pH=7 buffer tablet in 100ml distilled water. Dept. of BS&H. Apparatus: Digital pH meter. it indicates neutral solution.Expt. P. beakers.No:8 Date: DETERMINATION OF pH OF THE GIVEN WATER SAMPLE Aim: To determine the pH of the given water sample using pH meter. it indicates basic solution. Measurement of pH: i) Wash the electrode with the distilled water and dry with tissue paper. Theory: pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the H+ ion concentration. v) Dip the electrode in the buffer solution of pH=4 and set the slope button to display 4. iv) Wash the electrode with distilled water and dry with the tissue paper. distilled water. Gudlavalleru Engg. If pH is in between 7to 14. pH is determined by using pH meter which contains glass electrode which is sensitive to H+ ions. Asst.

College 28 . Precautions: a) The pH electrode should be handled gently b) The electrode should be always dipped in distilled water when not in use Significance: As per Indian standards the pH of the drinking water should be between 6.ii) Dip the electrode in the sample water to be analyzed. Asst.5-8.Haritha. the pH of the drinking water should be between 7.0 . Professor. of BS&H.5 . Dept. Gudlavalleru Engg. iv) Rinse the electrode before and after measurement of each sample.0-8. Report: The pH of the given water sample is P. As per WHO standards. iii) The reading obtained is the pH value of sample.

Reagent: Standard electrical conductivity solution. Measurement of conductivity: (i) Wash the electrode with distilled water and dry with tissue paper. The conductivity of the solution is1413µs/cm. (iii) Change the “cond/cell constant” switch position to cell constant position. (iv)Wash the electrode with distilled water and dry with tissue paper. of BS&H.Expt. Dept.Haritha. (ii) Set the “Range” switch to the proper range for the standard solution. Report: The conductivity of the given water sample is P. It will have 1413 µmhos/cm as conductance. Professor. Standard solution is prepared by dissolving 0. (iv) Rinse the electrode before and after measurement of conductivity of each sample. (ii) Dip the electrode in 50ml sample for which conductivity is to be measured.7456grams of KCl in 1 litre distilled water. Apparatus: Conductivity meter. According to Indian standards. the conductivity should be inbetween 5-50mS/m. (v) Adjust the cell constant present control on the rear panel till the instrument reads “1”. Gudlavalleru Engg. Theory: Conductivity is the capacity of the water to carry an electrical current. The reading indicated on the meter is the conductivity of the sample. Immerse the electrode in standard solution.No:9 Date: DETERMINATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER SAMPLE Aim: To determine the conductivity of the given water sample by using conductivity meter. Conductivity is proportional to the concentration of dissolved solids(ions) in the solution. Procedure: Calibration of electrical conductivity meter: (i) Adjust “cal” till the display reads 1000. Asst. Significance: Conductivity increases as the dissolved ionic species in water increases. College 29 .

burette and pipette. College 30 .Haritha. of BS&H. Asst. As alkali solution is added the hydrogen ions are removed due to combination with the hydroxyl ions forming feebly ionized water (H2O) molecules and their place is taken by the much slower moving Na+ ions. the electrical conductance of a solution depends upon the number and mobility of ions. But these can be easily carried out by conductometric titration method. beaker. Professor. Wash the conductivity cell thoroughly with distilled water and calibrate the instrument to its cell constant vaue.1N NaOH solution conductometrically. Any further addition of alkali means increase of Na+ and fast moving hydroxyl ions and thus the conductance begins to increase. If we plot the conductance measured against the volume of NaOH added. 2. Take 20 ml of the given HCl solution whose strength is to be determined in a 100 ml beaker. HCl solution and distilled water Principle: According to Kohlrausch’s law. Gudlavalleru Engg. Significance: Titrations involving coloured liquids are difficult to be performed using ordinary indicators. Chemicals required: NaOH solution. conductometric titration can be performed accurately even with dilute solutions Procedure: 1.For the titration of a strong acid like HCl against a strong base like NaOH. P. Magnetic stirrer/ Glass stirrer. Apparatus required: Conductometer. Dept. + → + ( ) Consequently the conductance of the solution decreases and continues to decrease on adding sodium hydroxide solution until equivalence point is reached. Moreover.No:10 Date: CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION BETWEEN STRONG ACID AND STRONG BASE Aim: To determine the amount of the given HCl present in the given one litre solution by using 0.Expt. Conductivity cell. the point of intersection will give the neutralization point. the acid solution has a high conductance due to the highly mobile hydrogen ion. before the NaOH solution is added.

4. College 31 . Gudlavalleru Engg. 6. Graph: The values of observed conductance are plotted along Y axis against the volume of NaOH added along the X axis. of BS&H. 1mL at a time. Keep on adding NaOH from the burette. The point of intersection gives the amount of NaOH required for neutralization of the HCl. Fill the NaOH solution in the burette. 5. position. Dept. Clamp the conductivity cell in the beaker containing the acid solution. Note down the conductance from the conductometer. Asst. P. Stir the solution with magnetic stirrer or a glass rod and measure the conductance. 7. Set the function switch to Cond. 8. Professor.Haritha. 3.

1V2/20 Amount of HCl present in given one litre solution = Normality X gram equivalent wt.V2 ml Normality of NaOH(N2)=0.Observations and calculations: Volume of NaOH S. Gudlavalleru Engg. Professor.No. of BS&H. P. Dept.Haritha.1N N1= 0.5 = ………g/L Result: The amount of HCl present in the given one litre solution = ……. Asst. g. College 32 . consumed Conductance (C) v (ml) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 N1V1 = N2V2 Volume of unknown HCl solution taken (V1) = 20ml Normality of HCl(N1)=? Volume of NaOH at end point (from graph) =…. of HCl = N1X 36.

living or dead micro-organisms etc. Dept.NTU P. Gudlavalleru Engg. It is caused by suspended solids.Expt. Apparatus: Nephelometer.No:11 Date: DETERMINATION OF TURBIDITY OF WATER SAMPLE Aim: To determine the Turbidity of the given water sample using Turbidity meter. 20 and 10 NTU. The turbidity is measured from the amount of light scattered by the sample taking a reference with standard turbidity suspension. ii) Take unknown sample of water in the test tube upto the mark indicated on it and place it in the holder. Procedure: Calibration of Nephelometer: i) Select the appropriate range ii) Insert the test tube( cuvette) with distilled water into cell holder and cover with light shield. the turbidity of drinking water should be less than 5 NTU. Dilute it to 100ml. dilution is carried out to obtain lower concentrations of 100.Haritha. Allow to stand for 24hrs. 40. From this stock solution. iii) Adjust zero button to get zero an the display iv) Take the standard solution of 100 NTU in the test tube and adjust calibration as 100 Measurement of Turbidity: i) Rinse the test tube before and after measurement of each sample with distilled water and dry it with a tissue paper. of BS&H. Professor. Now the solution has a known turbidity of 400NTU. Reagents: Solution-1: Dissolve 1g of Hydrazine sulphate in 100ml distilled water. Theory: Turbidity is a measure of cloudiness. Solution-2: Dissolve 10g of Hexamethylene tetramine in 100ml of distilled water. Solution-3: Mix 5ml of solution-1 and 5ml of solution-2 in a 100ml volumetric flask. Report: The turbidity of the given water sample is …. College 33 . Asst. Turbidity is the property of water because of which it offers resistance to passage of light. The display directly gives the turbidity in NTU. Significance: As per WHO standards.

hot air oven. analytical balance. Evaporate the water to drying on a steam bath. W2  W1 Total dissolved salts =  10 6 ppm V Significance: Many dissolved salts cause displeasing taste. industrial purpose or not. iron etc.Haritha. chlorides. dessicator. Dept. Then weigh the dish along with the residue (W2). Cool the dish in a desiccator to room temperature. measuring jar. Procedure: 1. In industries the use of water with high amount of salts will lead to scaling. weigh it (W1). Take a clean and dry china dish. Principle: Water may contain dissolved salts like bicarbonates. magnesium. Estimation of total dissolved salts is useful to determine whether the water is useful for agriculture . of BS&H. Gudlavalleru Engg. potassium. The increase in weight over that of the empty dish represents the total dissolved salts. corrosion in boiler. water bath. colour. Result: The total dissolved salts present in the given water sample is P. Apparatus: China dish. 5. Observations and calculations: W1 = Weight of the empty china dish = ……… W2 = Weight of the dish along with the residual = ……… V = Volume of water taken = 50 ml.Expt. Keep the dish in hot air oven at 103°C to remove the residual water. College 34 . 3.No:12 Date: ESTIMATION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SALTS IN WATER SAMPLE Aim: To estimate the amount of total dissolved salts present in the given water sample. sulphates of calcium. 6. Professor. Take 50ml of the given water sample with the help of measuring jar into the china dish. 2. sodium. The total dissolved salts in a water sample is estimated by evaporating in a weighed dish and drying it at a constant temperature of 103°C to 105°C. Asst. 4.

Add a few ml of conc. 3. Funnel Chemicals required: Glacial acetic acid. 5. Dept.No:13 Date: PREPARATION OF PHENOL.5ml of 40% formaldehyde solution in a 500ml beaker. While adding conc. HCl. Procedure: 1. The product is dried and weighed. Apparatus: Beaker. pink in color is formed. Add 2g of phenol to it.40% Formaldehyde solution. Handle phenol carefully. The residue is washed with water and filtered. Glass rod.Formaldehyde resin.Expt. of BS&H.Formaldehyde resin and calculate the yield of the product.Phenol. Asst. grams P. Precautions: 1. Result: The amount of Phenol Formaldehyde resin prepared= ……. 2. Place 5ml of glacial acetic acid and 2. it is better to stay a little distance away from the beaker since the reaction sometimes becomes vigorous. Professor. 2. 4. 3.Haritha. The reaction mixture should be stirred continuously. HCl into the mixture carefully and heat it gently.FORMALDEHYDE RESIN Aim: To prepare Phenol. 6. Wrap a cloth loosely around the beaker. Gudlavalleru Engg.Concentrated HCl solution Theory: Phenol and formaldehyde undergo condensation polymerization to produce a three dimensional phenol. A large mass of plastic. College 35 .