J. Dairy Sci.

91:4092–4102
doi:10.3168/jds.2007-0788
© American Dairy Science Association, 2008.

Effect of Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss Breeds on Quality
of Milk and Cheese
M. De Marchi,1 G. Bittante, R. Dal Zotto, C. Dalvit, and M. Cassandro
Department of Animal Science, University of Padova, Viale dell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy

ABSTRACT Breed is the main genetic aspect affecting milk quality
characteristics and, consequently, cheese-making tech-
In Italy, more than 75% of milk is used for cheese nology and quality of products. Differences in level of
making. For this reason, milk composition and coagu- production and chemical and technological properties
lation traits and cheese quality represent the most im- of milk have been widely demonstrated among dairy
portant tools for the economic development of the dairy cattle breeds (Macheboeuf et al., 1993; Auldist et al.,
sector. In particular, cheese quality varies in relation 2002, 2004; De Marchi et al., 2007). The Holstein-
to cheese-making technology and breed of cow. The aim Friesian (HF) breed is well known for milk production,
of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 types of low protein content, and poor coagulation properties
milk, originating from Holstein-Friesian (HF), Brown of milk (Macheboeuf et al., 1993; Auldist et al., 2002;
Swiss (BS), and mixed of both breeds, on vat milk char- Mistry et al., 2002; De Marchi et al., 2007). Holstein-
acteristics, cheese yield, and quality in 3 different typi- Friesian is characterized by a low frequency of the
cal Italian cheese-making conditions (Casolet, Vezzena, κ-casein (CSN3) B variant (Grosclaude, 1988) and low
and Grana Trentino). One hundred forty-four cows (66 casein number (Macheboeuf et al., 1993; Verdier-Metz,
HF and 78 BS) were involved, and a total of 24 vats of 2000). The Jersey and Brown Swiss (BS) breeds are
milk were evaluated. At maturity, 30, 21, and 16 wheels well known for a lower milk production level, but with
of Casolet, Vezzena, and Grana Trentino cheese were greater fat and protein content and better coagulation
analyzed. Brown Swiss cows yielded 9% less milk per properties of milk (Auldist et al., 2004; De Marchi et
day than HF cows, but milk showed greater contents al., 2007).
of protein, casein, titratable acidity, and better rennet The quality of milk used for cheese production is very
coagulation time and curd firmness than HF milk. The important for many typical products, some of them pro-
chemical composition and cholesterol content of the 3 tected by the European label protected denomination
types of cheese were similar between breeds, whereas of origin and protected geographic indication, where
the cheese made with BS milk showed greater contents the link between final product and milk origin is very
of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. strong. Milk origin is particularly important when
Cheese made with BS milk had greater b* (yellow com- there is the possibility to link a product to a breed, to
ponent) than HF. Cheese yield, recorded at different a region, and to a production system. In Italy, more
ripening times, demonstrated that BS milk yielded than 75% of milk is used for cheese making, mainly
more cheese than HF. Mixed milk showed values, on typical protected denomination of origin products, and
average, intermediate to HF and BS milk character- composition and coagulation traits of milk and quality
istics, and this trend was confirmed in cheese yield at of cheese represent the most important tools for the
different ripening times. economic development of the dairy sector (Dalvit et al.,
Key words: breed effect, cheese quality and yield, 2007).
Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss Only few studies have investigated the effect of breed
of cows on quality of cheese. Garel and Coulon (1990)
INTRODUCTION reported only small differences in color of typical Saint-
Nectaire cheese produced by HF and Montbéliarde
Cheese yield, nutritional characteristics, and senso- milk, whereas Martin et al. (2000) did not find any dif-
rial properties are affected by several genetic, environ- ference in quality of cheese among Tarentaise, HF, and
mental, and technological factors (Coulon et al., 2004). Montbèliarde cattle breeds. Verdier-Metz et al. (2000),
in a study including HF, Montbèliarde, and Tarentaise
cattle breeds, observed differences in milk coagulation
Received October 17, 2007.
Accepted May 19, 2008. properties (MCP), but not in the chemical and physical
1
Corresponding author: Massimo.demarchi@unipd.it characteristics, of cheese. Auldist et al. (2004) found

4092

and lactose content. Among acidity was recorded as Soxhlet-Henkel degree (°SH) the associated farmers. SCC. β-casein (CSN2). 12. Italy).. De Marchi et al. bacterial count. size. casein. 10. Cheese M milk obtained by blending half milk from HF and samples were analyzed for moisture by vacuum oven at half milk from BS. soft cheese Analyses of composition and MCP traits were per- (short ripening) made with pasteurized milk. In Italy. whereas formed by the Concast Laboratory (Trento. 1984) on individual and quality. and rial count. min (Annibaldi et al. which accordingly to milk production. AOAC. and lactose content) of milk was analyzed produced only with milk from alpine farms. Three types of milk were used per samples were performed by the Laboratory of De- each cheese-making technology: HF milk. 2006. 1977). SCC was obtained using a direct microscopic cooperative. Hillerød. (1994) using a Perkin Elmer Journal of Dairy Science Vol. Milk Vezzena (trial 2) and Grana Trentino (trial 3) are semi. ary 2005 in 3 different dairy cooperatives located in the protein. AOAC. Table 1 shows the red component (a*). Malacarne et Grana Trentino. 2003). and Pecorari et al. Table 2 using Midinfrared instruments (IDF. Grana Trentino is a type of cheese very close positional analyses were carried out within 24 h from to Parmigiano-Reggiano in term of restrictions on cow collection on milk samples with Azidiol preservative feeding (prohibition to use silage) and cheese-making (Concast Laboratory). fat by the Mojon- nier method (method 933. and yellow component (b*). and MCP were Three trials were carried out from May 2003 to Janu. titratable acidity value (Soxhlet- Experimental Design Henkel acidity). color components: brightness (L*). cheese yield. This technique did not permit the dis- tinction of A1 and A2 genetic variants of CSN2. allowed milk samples to coagulate for a maximum of 30 A total of 66 HF and 78 BS cows were selected accord. choosing farms with both HF and BS cows method according to standard methods proposed by (mainly of North American genetics) reared in the same the IDF (1995). Feeding was based on the use of meadow and (LBC) by base-2 logarithm and natural logarithm.. location. casein. milk samples. each one special.08. The aims of this study Fat. ing to age and day in milk to obtain the milk needed for Analyses of chemical and physical traits of cheese the trials (Table 3). re- dried alfalfa hay as main forage sources and concen. ash.42. and partment of Animal Science (Padova. determined on vat milk samples. Also. and total protein by macro-Kjeldahl (method 2001. the relationship between making day. Somatic cell and bacterial feeding strategies were comparable among and within counts were transformed to SCS and log bacterial count herds. Denmark). Dry matter. Mariani et al. al. ash using a Laboratory Analyses and Cheese Yield muffle furnace at 550°C (method 935. titratable were as follows: (1) to investigate the effect of HF and acidity value (Soxhlet-Henkel acidity). and bacterial count was determined way. Vezzena. so A MATERIALS AND METHODS (A1 and A2) and B alleles were compared. acid composition. Italy). respectively. Ripened cheese samples were investigated since the 1970s (Mariani and Russo. Casolet (trial 1) is a full-cream. and CSN3 and cheeses) and (2) to investigate the use of mixed (M) β-lactoglobulin (LGB) loci were determined by isoelec- milk (half of HF and half of BS milk) on cheese yield tric focusing analysis (Russo et al. bacte- BS breeds on vat milk characteristics. Fat. 100°C (method 926. whereas other com- raw milk.. Qualitative analyses of individual and vat milk sam. 2000).. of cheese. AOAC. without any separation or preferential treatment. 2000). cholesterol content. and lipid contents.. according to the method proposed by Anonymous tain Alpine dairy farms were selected per each dairy (1963). management practices. 2002. by Bactoscan 8000 according to standard methods Therefore. pro- technology (the use of lysozyme is not allowed) but tein. titratable shows the experimental design of the 3 trials. and technological characteristics of the 3 different types hardness values were determined for cheese samples. OUR INDUSTRY TODAY 4093 no difference in cheese composition between Friesian milk samples were taken in the morning of the cheese- and Jersey breeds. coagulation properties were analyzed without preser- skimmed. AOAC. 2002). The vat milk samples were collected be- breed of cow and quality of milk and cheese has been fore each cheese making. SCC. 91 No. 1976. 1987.05. collected at 2. Measurements of MCP were carried out by trates based on ground corn and soybean meal given Formagraph (Foss Electric.. 2008 . spectively. protein genetic variants at αs1- Vezzena. hard cheeses (long ripening) prepared with vative within 3 h from collection.14. Individual cording to Casiraghi et al. Cholesterol content was obtained ac- ples and cheese samples were carried out. and lactose content. and Grana Trentino (semiskimmed and hard casein (CSN1S1). milk samples. 3 representative of the moun. BS milk. fatty Trento province of the Italian Alps. and 12 mo for Casolet. and proposed by the IDF (1991). 2007). and MCP were determined on individual quality of Italian Casolet (full-cream and soft cheese). ized in a typical cheese production. protein. protein. Chemical composition (fat. 2003).

30.4 4 to 6 22 to 25 Temperature. 91 No. 1. milk yield.0 2..5 Curd making Type Discontinuous Discontinuous Discontinuous Time per day Morning-evening Morning Morning Vat capacity. illuminant: D65. μ = Grana Trentino cheeses. × trialj + eijkl.000 90. g/t — 70 to 80 40 Fluid. The crosshead speed was 2 mm/s. whereas the 21 and 16 wheels of Vezzena and where Yijkl = DIM. Vezzena. 2008 . d 0. °C 6 to 8 12 to 18 12 to 18 Ripening Length.4094 DE MARCHI ET AL. a*. Minolta. mm 15 to 20 8 to 12 5 Cheese making Shape Cylinder Cylinder Cylinder Wheel diameter.000 125. Cheese yield (CY) was expressed Waltham. d 1 1 2 to 3 Length. Description of cheese-making technologies and characteristics of Casolet. 180. €/kg 8 to 12 15 to 19 13 to 17 model UV LC 90 gas chromatograph (Perkin Elmer. t 1. cm 6 to 10 10 to 12 18 to 24 Salting Type Brine Brine Brine Time at rest. and 365 d.0 1. as continuous traits according to the following linear combe. kg 2 to 3 8 to 10 35 to 38 Texture Soft Hard Hard Fat content Full-cream Semiskimmed Semiskimmed Color White-pale yellow Yellow-straw Straw Round-eyed Yes Yes No Type of round-eyed Small and diffuse Small and rare — Price. milk processed. The 30 wheels of Casolet were weighed at 1. as kilograms of cheese per one hundred kilograms of Color was determined with a colorimeter (Spectro. and the maximum peak force necessary to cut Yijkl = μ + breedi + trialj + herdk(trial)j + breedi each parallelepiped transversally and completely was recorded. and 3 cm length). MA).5 3. and Grana Trentino cheeses Cheese Casolet Vezzena Grana Trentino European protected denomination of origin No Yes Yes Milk characteristics Pasteurization Yes No No Skimming (natural creaming) Evening milk No Yes Yes Morning milk No No No Average fat. % 88 to 92 85 to 90 85 to 90 Cheese characteristics Weight. 2 model: cm width. breedi = fixed effect of breed i (i = HF. The color space model was chosen to numeri- cally describe the color components (L*. and 60 d.3 1. and b*). °C 6 to 10 10 to 13 15 to 20 Relative humidity. % 3. were weighed at overall mean. 30. Germany. respectively. lactation number. °C Coagulation 36 to 38 33 to 35 33 to 35 Cooking — 55 55 Rennet Type Calf Calf Calf Powder. Table 1. cm 18 to 20 30 to 40 43 to 47 Wheel height. photometer CM-508. 10. Journal of Dairy Science Vol. observer: 10°) according to the method of CIELAB Statistical Analyses (1976).2 Starter cultures Yes Yes Yes Vat temperature. UK) on parallelepiped sample (1 cm height. Lactation traits were analyzed Bratzler shear force meter (Instron Ltd.000 Curd size after broken up. mo ≤2 12 to 24 18 to 24 Average temperature. High Wy. mL/t 500 — — Title or strength 10. Statistical models were fit with the GLM procedure Cheese hardness was assessed using a Warner. of SAS Institute (1996).

ond). were analyzed as continuous traits according to the Individual milk composition and coagulation traits following linear model: were analyzed as continuous traits according to the fol- lowing linear model: Yijk = μ + breedi + replj + eijk. 2: second). MCP traits. respectively. paritym = fixed effect of the mth parity (m = 1…3). breedi = fixed effect of breed i (i = HF. μ = overall mean. 3 >200 d and 1 = 1 parity. n 2 HF. eijkl = residual random error term ^ N 0. 3 protein. where Yijkl = fat. The level of significance was set to P < 0. Vezzena. Grana Trentino). 10. ing linear model: Grana Trentino). σe2 . Grana Trentino). casein content. BS. and 10 M 7 HF. 2008 . 2 = 2 and 3 parities. BS). and multiple comparison of means was performed.44%. Vez. Italy Lavarone. and 20 M 4 HF. 10 BS. herdk(trialj) = fixed effect of the analyzed as continuous traits according to the follow- kth herd (k = 1…3) within jth trial (j = Casolet. Yijklmn = μ + breedi + trialj + herdk(trial)j + breedi cholesterol content. σe2 . LGB). Italy Herds. For each main effect. Characteristics of Individual Milk ( ) sidual random error term ^ N 0.05. and hardness values. using M).50%.001. and lactose content. Description of the experimental design1 Trial–type of cheese Item 1–Casolet 2–Vezzena 3–Grana Trentino Cooperative dairy Cercen Lavarone Romeno-Cavareno Location Terzolas. μ = over- line of the herd within trial.67%. (k = 1: first. herdk(trial)j = fixed effect of the and P < 0. n 10 HF. a multiple comparison of means was per.05). σe2 . using the Bonferroni test (P < 0. and 4 M 2 HF. and 4 M Wheels obtained. 37 BS. protein. and 7 M 4 HF. P < 0.31 and formed. M = mixed milk. n 3 3 3 Cows used. 2: sec- titratable acidity value. LBC. titratable acidity. and CY. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION tion. and where Yijklmn = fat. LBC. ash. ≥3 parities. 2 BS. For each The protein and casein content were greater for trial 2 main effect. mo 2 12 12 Wheels sampled. and LBC. 7 BS. and MCP traits.. respectively) and trial 3 (3. a all mean. CSN3. 4 BS. and 8 M 1 HF = Holstein-Friesian milk. for DIM and parity. and lipid content. color components. re- Journal of Dairy Science Vol. The DIM and par. Lactation and milk composition traits of the 3 trials ity were categorized into 3 classes: 1: <100 d. the Bonferroni test (P < 0.18 and 2. kth herd (k = 1. μ = overall mean. Vezzena. eijklmn = re. 2. (3. and eijk = residual random error term ^ N 0. protein. zena. BS. and eijkl = residual random error CSN2. ) was used when the expected count in >25% of the cells Cheese chemical and physical traits of each trial was <5. replk = fixed effect of replicate k For each protein genetic variant (i. BS = Brown Swiss milk. breedi = fixed effect of breed i (i = HF. trialj = fixed effect of trial j (j = Casolet. cause herds (nested) are different in different trials. 2: 100 to were comparable (Table 3) with the only exception of 200 d. 2 BS. titratable the significance of trial effect was tested on the error acidity value. Fisher’s exact test ( term ^ N 0. lactl = fixed effect of the lth DIM (l = 1…3). CSN1S1.. × trialj + lactl + paritym + eijklmn. trialj = fixed effect of the jth trial (j = Casolet. Vez. σe2 . Vat milk composition and coagulation traits were zena. M).54 and 2. Italy Romeno. and lactose content. replj = fixed effect of replicate j (j = 1: first.e.01.3) within jth trial (j = Casolet. allele frequencies between breed were compared using the χ2 test. breedi = fixed effect of breed i (i = HF. and 4 M 2 HF. casein.05). 2 BS. breedi × trialj = first order interac. where Yijk = dry matter. and Grana Trentino). Grana Trentino). and 8 M Ripening. 4 BS. breedi × trialj = first order interac- tion. individual and grouped fatty acids. and 55 M 9 HF. 91 No. Be-( ) Yijkl = μ + breedi + trialj + replk + eijkl. trialj = fixed effect of the jth trial (j = Casolet. SCS. n 21 HF and 22 BS 19 HF and 22 BS 26 HF and 34 BS Milking type used Morning Morning and evening Morning and evening Vats. Vezzena. 9 BS. protein. OUR INDUSTRY TODAY 4095 Table 2. SCS. n 33 HF. respectively) than for trial 1 (3. ( ) BS).

3b 7.5a 16. lactose.32 0. n 2.67a 2.4096 DE MARCHI ET AL.6a 28. Only protein content was greater (BS vats vs.31 Casein number. and CSN3) as well as whey protein (LGB). Relationship between casein fractions (CSN1S1. than for trial 1 (3.55a 3. 2003).91 and 2. including faster data not shown). HF.17 0.4 mm) than HF (Table 3). Journal of Dairy Science Vol. % 4.30 0. which is in agree- milk yield was greater (9%) for HF than BS cows.56a 3. com.57a 1.17 Lactose. Table 3. Least squares means of breed and trial effects and root mean square error (RMSE) of lactation traits. (1997. Caroli. (2006) found in vat milk al.8a 23. Mariani et al. 4 RCT = rennet coagulation time.05) according to the Bonferroni test. Malacarne et al.4b 3. ences in allele frequencies between breeds for CSN1S1 Milk coagulation traits are strongly correlated to (P < 0. making ability (Mariani et al.73. (1997. °SH1/50 mL 3. 5 a30 = curd firmness. and these casein fractions are known to 6).37 0. and rennet coagulation time (RCT. The effect of herd within trial was signif. and respect to HF. 1990.28 0. 2002) and De Marchi Fisher exact and χ2 tests revealed significant differ.16 0. 2002) in Italian conditions.67 °SH/50 mL.66 0. 18.27 LBC. Aleandri et al.01). 1984.54a 3. 1986. (1997.4a 16. casein. Brown titratable acidity.50b 2.91b 2.26 0.001).38 0.06a 2.43a 2.b Means with different letters differ significantly (P < 0. results confirmed the superiority of BS cows for all the Larger titratable acidity values of BS in this study were casein variants considered more favorable for cheese. 1990) and lipid contents for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese that the protein per- (Aleandri et al.44a 3.67a 0. Brown Swiss milk is known for greater the level of significance is much lower due to the lower frequency of CSN3 BB and LGB BB genotypes with number of taken samples (1 per vat. the titratable acidity was greater for Brown Swiss cows involved in the 3 trials confirmed trials 2 and 3 (3. Characteristics of Vat Milk position of milk. Remeuf and Hurtaud.52b 3.55 and 3. 1990.45b 3. et al.43a 3.73b 3.21a 3. 1986. 19. % 75a 76b 75a 76a 76a 2.5b 27. associated with better coagulation properties. although Celik.22 SCS. d 168a 159a 151a 155a 184a 88 0. 2003). Celik. HF) be associated with increased protein (Ng-Kwai-Hang et in all 3 trials. were consistent with those reported by AIA (2006) and respectively).97a 2. 10.35a 1. Swiss had superior coagulation traits. as reported by Mariani et al.31 Milk composition traits Fat. to confirm the data of individual samples.18 a30..44b 0.84 0.9 vs.18b 0. individual milk composition.. 1985). 1 °SH = Soxhlet-Henkel degree.02a 0. 3 LBC = natural log of bacterial count. CSN2 (P < 0. % 2.29 Casein. and CSN3 (P < 0.11 Milk yield.01).9a 25. Tables 4.1 min) and greater curd firmness (a30 for lactation number and DIM..03 0.3b 20.78a 2.5 mm 18. 1984.68b 2. 1984. kg/d 27.45 °SH/50 mL). centage of BS was significantly greater than HF. and coagulation traits Breed Trial Trait Holstein-Friesian Brown Swiss Casolet Vezzena Grana Trenitino RMSE R2 Lactation traits Days in milk. 1981. % 3. and casein contents of HF and BS milk in trial 3 (3.31b 3..7a 7.48a 2. protein.10 Lactation number.94a 5. 91 No. Cows of the 2 breeds were balanced RCT (16. The LBC was greater Fat.22 Milk coagulation traits RCT. 1976.25 Protein.. (2007).70 0.74a 3. 23. fat. Also.19a 3.48a 3.. Values icant for milk yield.5b 18.6b 17. whereas.. as expected. of titratable acidity were greater for BS with respect to LBC. 1986.4 min 18.3 score 2. 1987. and its technological properties have been widely studied (Ng-Kwai-Hang et al. milk acidity parameters such as pH and titratable acid- whereas the genetic variants of LGB were not.27) than for trial 1 and 2 (2.02a 4.4a 19. 2002). The ity (Mariani et al.9a 23. 2008 .66a 2.67a 0.3 vs.94a 5. ment with Mariani et al.31 a. and a30 and not significant for protein.65a 3.2 score 2. Schaar. casein number. % 3.95a 4. 5.39a 2. CSN2. respectively) their significant superiority for all milk quality traits. spectively).6b 23.75b 3. The analyses performed on vat milk samples tended Pagnacco.35 Titratable acidity.80a 2. 2 SCS = log2 of SCC.27a 0. Aleandri et al.98a 2. 1991). SCS.

12 NS ** 0.63 4.46 0.50 Ash.99 C16:1 n-7 1.75 Vat milk coagulation traits RCT.97 C16:0 29.19 0.32 *** ** 0.03 0.71 Hardness. or even superior.29 70.86 C18:1 cis-9 16.56 6.44 4. a30 values were very close to that of The average chemical composition of the 3 cheeses the BS milk.74 Cheese physical traits L* 84. BS values.63 b* 9.98 Lactose.59 Cheese chemical traits Dry matter.58 23.96 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 4. Trial 1 (Casolet cheese): least squares means (LSM). 3 SCS = log of SCC.42 0.62 0.0 NS NS 1.49 *** NS 0.87 C12:0 4.86 C14:0 13.96 C17:0 0.45 3.85 C18:1 trans-7 1. These results indicate a possible nonadditive difference with respect to the average between HF and positive effect of BS milk when mixed with HF milk.42 3.16 0. like in trial 2 nologies used.02 0.42 0. OUR INDUSTRY TODAY 4097 Mixed breed vat milk did not show any consistent (Table 5).56 4.03 16.94 *** NS 0.1 81.10 0.96 4.09 0. % 4.33 26. and 6) reflects the different tech- than the intermediate expected value.28 *** NS 0.40 17.76 0.39 *** NS 0. Comparing Characteristics of Cheese the results of the 3 trials.09 13.001.13 Cheese fatty acid composition (% total fat) C4:0 3.01 0.01.47 *** *** 0.0 NS NS 4.64 ** NS 0.48 *** NS 0.89 Monounsaturated fatty acids 23.47 27.16 3.66 0. It also agrees with the data obtained Table 4.16 0.94 3.49 NS NS 0.0 25.07 0.54 0.67 *** NS 0.13 0.82 C8:0 1.42 3.0 17.03 0.38 4.96 3.60 4.44 *** NS 0.02 6.62 0. 4 LBC = log of bacterial count. 2008 .2 *** NS 1. % 3.44 *** NS 0.04 0.94 4.2 0.67 NS NS 0. 5 RCT = rennet coagulation time.01 NS ** 1.28 0.5 82. 7 CLA = conjugated linoleic acid. 91 No.96 C18:2 trans-1 0.17 4.71 C18:0 7.63 *** NS 0.56 Protein.55 0.13 0.68 *** NS 0. *P < 0.47 0.14 0.59 1.08 0.55 Cholesterol.95 NS NS 0.25 23.23 3.30 Lipid.4 score 3. °SH2/50 mL 3.43 C18:3 n-3 0. and a30 larger for BS than for HF.05. 2 °SH = Soxhlet-Henkel degree.64 8.03 0. 5.32 0. Concerning the performed to verify this hypothesis.90 1.1 58.86 8.20 27.08 0.15 3.52 a* −0.03 0.69 9.23 NS NS 0.37 10.9 16.61 C6:0 3.59 a30.86 Protein.34 1. while RCT values of M breed milk were erratic. with the exception of protein and lactose in terms of a30.6 mm 18.53 1. N 6. and root mean square error (RMSE) of vat milk and cheese traits LSM Contrast Traits HF BS M Breed Mixed1 RMSE R2 Vat milk chemical traits Fat.14 0. 10.82 C10:0 4.4 0.18 NS NS 1.35 23.05 0.6 NS NS 2. contrasts. Further studies on this topic should be percentage of trial 2 (Vezzena cheese).65 *** NS 0.3 score 4.71 *** NS 0.45 NS NS 0. % 27.68 Saturated fatty acids 72.65 SCS.05 0. and significantly greater produced (Tables 4.89 13.00 *** NS 0.73 LBC.96 CLA7 0. the RCT values were smaller results can be found in literature. but these differences did not reach the statistical significance.04 0.31 24. **P < 0.32 4.01 0. 6 a30 = curd firmness.6 24. Journal of Dairy Science Vol.90 Titratable acidity. ***P < 0.89 71.19 3. % 58.14 0.21 3.70 −0.50 *** * 0.50 1.36 NS NS 0.8 58.77 1 Contrast between mixed (M) and the average of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS).51 0.97 1.43 −0.50 0. because no similar coagulation properties. % 4.02 0.76 4.5 min 16. % 23.91 4.30 *** NS 0. % 3.64 *** NS 0.20 3. mg/100 g 166 163 166 NS NS 11 0.52 *** ** 0.56 3.58 *** * 0.05 2.88 28.08 0.

79 11.33 2. the protein content was lower Grana Trentino ranged between 131 and 155 mg/100 and fat content was greater for cheese made with BS g and are consistent with those reported for Graviera. 2003).67 8.92 NS NS 0.24 *** NS 0.08 9.82 4.16 C16:1 n-7 1.01.30 C8:0 1. mg/100 g 131 152 155 * * 13 0.14 C18:1 cis-9 19.22 1 Contrast between mixed (M) and the average of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS).81 19. different types of goat cheese.91 26.4098 DE MARCHI ET AL.19 0.5 60. Table 5.96 0.35 C12:0 3.59 26. % 3.71 0.65 3.98 8.5 73.70 0. ***P < 0.65 NS NS 0.50 NS NS 0.31 C14:0 11.98 4.9 NS * 4.49 5. % 73. % 5.63 1. These findings composition from purebred milk except for significant are not in accordance with those found by Park (1999) differences in ash and lipid contents.31 5.04 0.31 NS NS 0.11 3.69 0.55 Cheese fatty acid composition (% total fat) C4:0 3.8 73.16 0.75 4.85 Cholesterol.3 score 3. Journal of Dairy Science Vol.28 3.84 NS NS 0. Cholesterol values of Vezzena and whereas for Vezzena.8 21.0 27.6 NS * 1.65 3.6 NS NS 1. 10. % 28.83 0. 5 RCT = rennet coagulation time.15 C17:0 0.67 NS NS 3.76 0.33 3. Cholesterol content was greater in Casolet than a hard variety of cheese from Crete (Andrikopoulos et in Vezzena and Grana Trentino.10 68. *P < 0.82 0.55 NS NS 1.24 CLA7 0.12 0.19 0.08 0.07 0.34 0.18 5.53 0.04 0.33 19. % 4.15 0. and root mean square error (RMSE) of vat milk and cheese traits LSM Contrast Traits HF BS M Breed Mixed1 RMSE R2 Vat milk chemical traits Fat.8 0.54 4.11 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 5. °SH2/50 mL 3.14 Monounsaturated fatty acids 25. milk.86 1.61 Hardness.2 0.48 NS NS 0.12 C18:1 trans-7 1. 4 LBC = log of bacterial count.03 0.29 29.92 Protein.28 2.56 11.55 19.53 Saturated fatty acids 68.76 0. with high dry matter content.16 C16:0 29.70 NS NS 0.18 0.87 30.57 * NS 0.6 mm 18. (2005) in their studies regarding 3 dairy factories.39 1. whereas there were no al.00 3.99 *** * 0.59 a30.37 Cheese physical traits L* 58. 7 CLA = conjugated linoleic acid.14 0.28 3.10 28.75 Vat milk coagulation traits RCT. **P < 0.72 3. % 34. They found that hard Protein and fat content were similar for cheese made cheeses.11 0.46 0.21 NS NS 0.19 2.31 NS NS 0.46 NS NS 0.02 0.72 NS NS 0.58 5.87 ** NS 0. 6 a30 = curd firmness.28 0. 2 °SH = Soxhlet-Henkel degree.91 68. contrasts.13 0.70 28.19 0.38 C10:0 3.57 0.21 2.001.75 3.04 19.91 0.7 13.29 NS NS 0.16 NS NS 1.03 0.63 11.68 −1. richer in cholesterol.81 * NS 0.11 0..10 *** NS 0.4 score 3. 3 SCS = log of SCC.72 NS NS 0.55 3.57 3.35 *** *** 0.65 SCS.73 LBC. Cheese made with M milk was similar in consistent differences between breeds.90 Titratable acidity.65 b* 7.90 NS NS 0.39 0.27 0.70 NS NS 0.53 −1. are usually with HF and BS milk for Casolet and Grana Trentino. 2008 .91 NS NS 0.5 61.39 Ash.59 Cheese chemical traits Dry matter.86 Protein.10 C18:2 trans-1 0.87 33. Trial 2 (Vezzena cheese): least squares means (LSM).61 3.85 0.94 3.16 0.3 NS NS 2. from quality assessment procedures carried out by the and by Kinik et al.05.52 *** ** 0.45 C18:3 n-3 0.91 1.01 0.4 15. N 22.66 0.98 Lactose.85 *** NS 1. % 3. 91 No.32 34.75 1.82 NS NS 0.21 C18:0 8.51 0.83 Lipid.56 0.53 a* −1.21 NS NS 0.30 C6:0 2.5 min 17.

60 3.03 0.58 *** NS 0.61 C8:0 1.78 27.53 ** NS 0.45 2.41 4.16 0.70 2.39 0. This finding is consistent with that HF milk had a greater content of each saturated fatty reported by Lucas et al.69 0. Cheese from (Tables 4. 7 CLA = conjugated linoleic acid.65 SCS.62 Ash.5 min 19.35 Lipid.05 0.45 NS NS 0.03 0.91 10.90 Titratable acidity.7 NS *** 0.01 0. the effect of breed (HF milk had a larger content of almost every unsaturated vs.69 CLA7 0. because the residual varieties of cheese.93 C16:0 27.12 3.73 LBC.84 3.87 NS NS 0.07 15.95 2.57 21.52 *** NS 0. (2006) in French cheeses made acid (SFA) from C4:0 to C16:0 and total SFA. ***P < 0. Trial 3 (Grana Trentino cheese): least squares means (LSM). 5 RCT = rennet coagulation time.82 16.02 27.59 a30.79 Saturated fatty acids 67.47 0.28 Cheese fatty acid composition (% total fat) C4:0 3.07 NS NS 0.88 C18:1 trans-7 1.03 0.26 0.58 *** NS 0.43 0.29 b* 14.67 1.48 0. % 5.91 C17:0 0.14 0. % 3.28 1. Although cows of both breeds were the longer-chain SFA (C17:0 and C18:0) were greater reared together in the same herds and the rearing and in all cheese made with BS milk.07 0.49 *** NS 0.10 31.12 2. followed by C18:1 cis-9 and C14:0 variability was much larger in this trial.7 67.58 C18:0 10.62 0.2 0.72 C14:0 10. **P < 0.14 0. 91 No. *P < 0. and 6). Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the main fatty acid in all zena cheese (Tables 4.46 4. °SH2/50 mL 3.1 NS NS 2.53 Cholesterol.17 1 Contrast between mixed (M) and the average of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS). OUR INDUSTRY TODAY 4099 Table 6.77 0.7 NS ** 0.66 0. mg/100 g 141 148 146 NS NS 7 0.55 0.63 ** NS 0.001.35 3. whereas with raw milk.39 1.36 3.23 ** NS 0.03 0.65 NS NS 0.75 Vat milk coagulation traits RCT. Cheese made with BS feeding condition were the same.3 62.61 0.64 0. Journal of Dairy Science Vol.54 6.93 9.72 3.76 0.05 NS NS 0.46 0.7 20.4 score 5.95 NS NS 0.53 NS NS 0.87 1.34 ** NS 0. 5.69 *** NS 0.79 C12:0 3.29 25.16 0.21 64. % 4. contrasts.14 ** NS 0.59 Cheese chemical traits Dry matter.4 64.92 NS NS 0.58 *** NS 0. % 32.31 0.27 0.9 20.19 0.12 33.67 0. 3 SCS = log of SCC.45 5.19 34.12 0. and root mean square error (RMSE) of vat milk and cheese traits LSM Contrast Traits HF BS M Breed Mixed1 RMSE R2 Vat milk chemical traits Fat.04 0.01.66 0.84 Monounsaturated fatty acids 26.45 NS NS 0.73 2. 4 LBC = log of bacterial count. BS) was significant for almost all fatty acids present fatty acid and of total mono.35 5.67 * NS 0.98 Lactose.24 NS NS 4.38 *** NS 0.61 29.27 11. 2008 .84 20.94 C18:2 trans-1 0. but not in the Vez.98 C16:1 n-7 1.90 66. % 26.88 *** NS 0.72 a* 0. acids.48 5. 5.96 NS NS 0.32 *** NS 0.26 Protein.51 0.55 C6:0 2.79 12.29 0.04 0.52 26. 2 °SH = Soxhlet-Henkel degree.56 26.6 mm 14. % 67.33 0.45 4.2 19.1 16.28 NS NS 0.61 NS NS 0.91 1.08 0.25 3. 6 a30 = curd firmness.05.02 0. and 6).5 NS NS 4.02 5.3 score 3.18 NS * 0.73 C10:0 2.29 2.85 32.58 C18:1 cis-9 19.28 0.03 3.14 Cheese physical traits L* 64.49 1.19 0.and polyunsaturated fatty in the Casolet and Grana Trentino.03 3. % 2.9 0.91 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 5.86 Protein.24 *** NS 0. 10.13 0.8 68.62 0.27 C18:3 n-3 0.08 5.67 Hardness. N 31.

5. Conjugated linoleic acid content was inconsistent ogy is relatively low (Gnädig et al. These differences are intrinsic of the 2 the case of mountain products. Yellow cheese is preferred by consumers in and BS milk. and 6).4100 DE MARCHI ET AL.. Figure 1. whereas it tended to present a more neutral a* (Tables tion with respect to the cheese produced with the HF 4.1 to Journal of Dairy Science Vol. Contrast between Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS): *P < 0. 2006). Hardness was greatest for Grana Trentino (31. 2008 . and 365 d). as reported by Carroll et al. Vezzena... 91 No. Cheese made with M cheese made with BS milk showed greater b* than HF. **P < 0. but are favored for human health. 10. among trials. cheeses made with milk from 2006). BS cows had greater concentrations of fatty acids that Cheese lightness gave inconsistent results. (2006). 2004. Least squares means of cheese yield (%) for the Casolet. Lucas et al. 60. because it is associated breeds. No statistical differ- composition had an important effect on the cheese fat ences were observed between breeds for the hardness composition in relation to all fatty acids (Lucas et al. whereas the influence of cheese-making technol. Milk fat with the pasture-based system.01. In general. Contrast between mixed and the average of HF and BS never significant. 180. and Grana Trentino cheeses at different ripening times (1. ***P < 0.001. values (N) that were very different in the 3 cheeses. milk tended to have intermediate fatty acid composi.05. 30.

Buttazzoni. Lavarone (Lavarone. 1990. 2008 . Reggiano. Latt. Food of protein. 9% more Vezzena. Bollettino dei controlli funzionali del latte. Dairy Sci. Similar trends for HF and BS milk were We thank the Superbrown Consortium of Bolzano and reported by Mistry et al. (1994) and Malacarne et al. Taking into account that the protein:fat (Terzolas. 1977. CY (%) of cheese made of Parma. J. protein content and protein:fat ratio of HF cheese can and Consorzio of Trentingrana – Concast (Trento. Vezzena. +12%. the dairy factories of Cercen making trial.1 (HF) to 7. Italy) for their suggestions. whereas BS cheeses had more MUFA and PUFA than HF. and +12% for Casolet. Kapoulas. S. consistent with those duction aptitude to evaluate the feasibility of within- reported by Malacarne et al. Per day. Trento. K. These differences were confirmed valutazione tecnica del latte: Tipizzazione lattodinamografica. the greater Italy). Cheese yield of Vezzena and logram of milk on average than HF cows. Vezzena. AIA.. According to play an important role in human health. Mora. and Grana Trentino). Moreover. 28:115–126. Moreover. J. Trento. +9%). These findings Figure 1 shows the least squares means of CY (%) could be interesting. 16:155–168. (2002) in a Cheddar cheese. Italy) and Andrea Summer University reported by Chapman (1981). ing the cheese characteristics. as reported by Fossa et al. and superior val. CY (%) from yielded 3% more Casolet. ences were observed between breeds in the chemical ence exits to compare these values. +9%). The better CY (%) of BS milk has a marked eco. Italy. and the difference between the milk of the 2 breeds is related to the greater casein content of BS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS milk.. Brown Swiss milk gave an extra yield coagulation traits for a more comprehensive payment of 3 to 9% over the value expected on the basis of milk system of milk used for cheese production. (2006). Casolet cheese showed cheeses derived from BS milk had a preferred yel- the greatest CY percentages followed by Vezzena and low color. Schneider. and Grana Tren- Brown Swiss cows yielded 15% more cheese per ki- tino cheeses. 2003. because some PUFA are known for the 3 trials at different ripening times.6). N. Annibaldi. 2006. Italy). Caroli. to the technologies employed. C. At 24 h from production. because the superior- Mixed milk had observed values that were on average ity of CY is consistently greater than the superiority of intermediate to HF and BS milk characteristics. As sity of Padova. (2006) for Parmigiano- breed genetic improvement of these traits. According to our knowledge. Anal.6) and Casolet (6. we thank Alessio Cecchinato (Univer- explaining in part the greater CY (%) of BS milk. as reported by Malacarne et al. M. Zerva. vs. ratio was very similar for HF and BS milk.4) followed by Vezzena (19 to 22. and V. A. 73:241– This study confirmed the differences on milk quality 255. greater protein-plus-fat content. A. BS cows Grana Trentino. no refer. R. and coagulation properties between HF and BS milk. BS milk showed greater contents and other nutrient parameters of Greek cheese varieties. 91 No. reflect a lesser ability to retain fat from whey. Cheeses made with the M milk were not dif. Evaluation of cholesterol Compared with HF. Trento province. Aleandri. CONCLUSIONS Davoli. composition and in the cholesterol content. Zerva.. and 3% BS milk were markedly greater than HF milk. BS Grana Trentino cheeses was recorded also at 180 and cows produced 9% less milk. casein. Trento. (2006). AIA. Vezzena (+17% vs. composition. despite some differences ferent from the average of HF and BS cheeses for the among cheeses due to different technologies.8 (BS). BS showed greater yield and 5% more cheese. and protein-plus-fat content as in the case of Casolet (+12% this trend was confirmed also in CY. J. U. Ferri. This Cheese Yield result can be attributed only to genetic characteristics and not to feeding strategies of cows. +8%). Concern- to 6. G. the same protein-plus-fat 365 d of ripening. thus Italy). Nuovi orientamenti nella ues of RCT and a30. The effect of milk protein polymorphisms on milk components and cheese producing ability. Hassapidou. with M milk was intermediate between HF and BS milk. Journal of Dairy Science Vol. M. Moreover. Despite inferior milk yield (−9%). 10. respectively. because (%) of BS milk at 24 h is not totally explained by its their lactose production was 7% lower than HF cows. +17%. no differ- physical traits. titratable acidity. and R. and Romeno Cavareno (Romeno.0 Alps (Casolet. The BS cows presumably CY (%) than HF. Rome. G. also in the vat milk of 3 typical cheeses of the Italian Sci. OUR INDUSTRY TODAY 4101 34. REFERENCES nomic relevance for the cheese industry. Kalogeropoulos. Trento. and Grana Trentino The results of this study suggest the need to consider (+12% vs. and in all cases. more Grana Trentino than did HF. Tecn. and R. N. the results underlined the importance of investigating The CY (%) of Grana Trentino at 1 yr of ripening the genetic basis of the breed differences in cheese pro- ranged from 7. It is evident that the increased CY also had a smaller daily energy requirement. Cas. Andrikopoulos. Italy). L. Compost.

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