A Brief Introduction to

Engineering Graphics

Will Durfee & Tim Kowalewski
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Minnesota

Opening comments
• Engineering graphics is the method for
documenting a design
• Mechanical engineering students must be familiar
with standards of engineering graphics as it is
expected in industry
• This set of slides introduces some of the basics, but
is not comprehensive
• For more, see
• Engineering Graphics section on the Resources page of
the course ME2011 website
• Any engineering graphics textbook

Documenting a part requires...

1. SHAPE
2. SIZE
3. MATERIAL
4. TOLERANCE
5. FINISH

Engineering drawings • Universal language • Conventions (drawing grammar) simplify communication. your drawing is at risk if you defy • CAD packages make formal drawing easy…if you follow the conventions • The machinist will laugh at you behind your back if you show up with a non-standard drawing .

Multiview drawings TOP RIGHT FRONT SIDE “3rd angle projection” .

Multiview drawings TOP Views MUST align RIGHT FRONT SIDE “3rd angle projection” .

Multiview drawings TOP Views MUST align RIGHT FRONT SIDE You walk around “3rd angle projection” Rotate the part part to the right (US) to the right (Europe) .

The Glass Box: Bertoline. Engineering Graphics .

Alignment & Orientation are preserved… Bertoline. Engineering Graphics .

Six Principle views: obey layout .

Basic lines (the “alphabet of lines”) Object line Hidden line Center line Dimension line .

HIDDEN LINES .

CENTER LINES .

Interpreting Center Lines Enough Info? Enough Info? .

...COULD BE THIS.

OR THIS Centerlines imply symmetry. NOT revolution per se .

HERE. ONLY 2 VIEWS NEEDED (Correct drawing) .

Find The Mistakes! .

Find The Mistakes! .

FRONT .

FRONT FIND THE MISTAKES! .

CORRECT DRAWING .

SECTIONS A A YES NO .

Working with person sitting next to you copy this and draw the TOP VIEW .

Possible Geometries Working with person sitting next to you copy this and draw the TOP VIEW .

Working with person sitting next to you. sketch the Section View .

OK OK Correct Section Views .

Find the MISTAKES . Wrong Wrong Working with person sitting next to you.

Working with person sitting next to you. sketch the Section View .

REVOLVED SECTION Preferred “True” section .

MATERIAL 4. SHAPE 2. SIZE 3. DIMENSIONING 1. TOLERANCE AND FINISH .

• Conventions exist for Dimensioning choice and placement • Not too many and not too few • Never should measure off drawing with a ruler 5 3 3 5 .

Under/Over Dimensioning 5 5 3 3 2 3 5 5 .

5 5 3 3 2 3 5 5 .Dimensioning rules: …find the mistakes.

Don’t overdefine or underdefine the object. Don’t dimension to object lines (model edges). use extension lines. Place dimensions on the side of the view were adjacent views exist 3 (for easy referencing). 6. 5. 3 2 8. Don’t overlap a dimension and the model. [MOST IMPORTANT] 5 2. 5 7. Dimensioning guidelines 1. Group dimensions when possible unless it become difficult to read. 4. Don’t cross extension lines if possible. 5 Place dimensions away from the model’s surface. 5 . Dimension to the visible contour or shape of 3 the feature / Don’t dimension to hidden lines.

0 4.1 .Design Detail ½” thick aluminum block Which is more expensive: A or B and why? A B 6.0 4.0 6.

mcmaster.www.com .

Dimensioning Choices & Design Intent If change width of block to 8. what happens to the hole location? A B 6 6 2 4 2 2 6 6 .

Placement conventions

extension line

dimension

small gap

about 3/8" f rom part
2.00
about 1/4" between dimensions
a little extended
3.00

letters about 1/8" tall

dimension line
6.2
arrow touches

Lettering: 1 or 2 directions only

1.00
.50

.50
.50

.50 .50 .50
OK OK NO

Extension Lines

1.000

no break in line

2.000

1.000
.375 .500
2.007 no gaps

All on one side 2.907 .907 2.739 .739 YES NO .913 .913 .

.

25 0.Dimensioning Rounds 0.125 Place dimension on view that shows the circle Show diameter rather than radius .75 R 0.

TOLERANCES www.com/processes/machining/drill_press.com/processes/machining/drill.efunda.cfm www.efunda.cfm .

Tolerances • Matter because parts cannot be made to an exact dimension • Must specify dimension tolerance so that every part A fits every part B • Higher tolerance = higher cost • A ½ inch hole made on an ordinary drill press gives you a hole in the range 0.004).0. . drill undersize and use a reamer…but it will cost you more and take longer to fabricate.496 to 0.504 (+/. For higher precision.

-. ½ inch drill bit: +/..0040 ½ inch reamer: +.0000 .0003.

LEGOS ! • You can combine six 8-stud bricks of the same color 102.7 9. • Exact specifications of the Bayer resin supplied to the LEGO Group are a closely held secret.6 . • Dimension tolerance of mold is 0.000 (110 billion) LEGO elements were molded • Bayer Corporation's Polymers Division is the official supplier of ABS plastic to the LEGO group.500 different ways • 91% of all households with children in Denmark own LEGO products • During the period 1949-1990.981.0002 inch)! D5 8 1.000.000.005 mm (0. 110.

000 ±.005 -.005 1.005 3.000 +.005 1.995 1.005 -.Representing tolerances 1.995 3.005 3.005 .000 ±.000 2.000 +.005 3.000 .

0  .75 ? 15.Tolerance stack-up What is min and max height of stack? 14.05 5 high stack .25 3.

3 .0.Tolerance Stacking What’s the tolerance (+/-) on dimension x? Ans: +/.

1 2.0 ±.0 ±.0 ±.1 1.Chain or Baseline Dimensioning? … You decide 1.1 3.0 ±.1 4.1 1.1 .0 ±.0 ±.

0 ±.0 ±.0 ±.1 .1 2.1 1.Chain or Baseline Dimensioning 1.1 4.0 ±.0 ±.1 3.1 1.0 ±.

1.625 . Will all shafts fit into all holes? Holes and shafts 2. What is maximum clearance? hole shaft .626 .626 .623 .623 .625 .622 .622 .

626 . .625 . etc.622 ANSI standards for shaft & holes Clearance Shaft smaller than hole for all shafts and holes Interference Shaft larger than hole for all shafts and holes Transition Smallest shaft fits in largest hole Running/Sliding RC1 (fit together.623 . no play) to RC9 (fit loosely) Force/shrink FN1 (light drive and pressure) to FN5 (high stresses and pressures) …and others Like Locational. Basic hole Use nominal size of hole as starting point Basic shaft Use nominal size of shaft as starting point .

Preferred Fit Example… .

..0008 1.0000 .smallest shaft] .0028] = [smallest hole-largest shaft.. largest hole .“Basic Hole” Tolerancing Example + .0012 . then size shaft for clearance RC4 clearance = [0. nominal.0016 Drawing shows 1 in. ANSI RC4 clearance fit “Basic Hole” means smallest possible hole = nominal.0000 1.0008. 0.0000 .

010 UNLESS SPECIFIED Dimension Tolerance X.1 X.001 .XXX ± 0.05 X. Title block information for tolerance ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES HOLD ALL DIMENSIONS TO ± 0.X ± 0.XX ± 0.

030 0.Design Detail Bent aluminum sheet.003 A B . 1/16” thick A or B: Which is more expensive and why? 4.0 +- { 0.

Cost 1.00 ±.00005 $$$$ .075 $ 1.Tolerance vs.000 ±.0000 ±.00 ±.05 $ 1.005 $$ 1.

Manufacturing Tolerances .

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) .

005 ? ? .005 3.000 ±.000 ±.Traditional tolerancing is ambiguous 1.

25 ± .25 ± .Ambiguity… .01 .01 + + Square deviation Circular deviation .

.notation. . within circular tolerance zone with diameter .25 • Ideal position of hole.25. • Feature control box shows how close hole is to exact. is marked with box and no +/.01 .002 .01 .Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing .125 +/.

25 .Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing .

GD&T Resources ME2011 website: https://sites.google.edu/me2011/resources • Efunda tutorial: http://www.com/a/u mn.com/de signstandards/gdt .efunda.

Threaded Fasteners What they are and how to indicate on a drawing .

Threaded Fasteners • Holes • Threads • Threaded fasteners .

com unless noted .75 REF Pix from www. 75 DEPTH 0.166 .75 DEEP or O .mcmaster.Holes 19 DRILL – 0.

Thru holes 19 DRILL – THRU or O .166 .

machinist.html http://www.com/technical/thread_terminology.asp .americanfastener. Threads http://www.org/harvard_cotreau/mshop6.

head 1/4-20 x 1. bolts) • Specify diameter. length.Threaded Fasteners (screws. RHMS ROUND HEAD 1/4" DIA 1" LONG MACHINE SCREW 20 THREADS PER INCH . thread.

013) + . = (N*.060 (inches) . Common screw thread sizes Unified Thread Standard • 2-56 • 1/4-20 • 4-40 • 3/8-16 • 6-32 • 1/2-13 • 8-32 • 5/8-11 • 10-24 • 3/4-10 DIA.

Alternate Thread Callout .

Head shapes Cap screw Pan Socket head Flat cap screw (SHCS) Round Set screw .

Driving a fastener Slotted Hex cap Phillips Hex head Torx (Allen head) .

mcmaster.com .McMaster-Carr www.

Name the Fastener: .

Name the Fastener: Socket Head Cap Screw Socket Head Cap Screw with counterbore .

.

Socket Head Cap Screw with counterbore Phillips Flat Head Screw with countersink .

.

Set Screw Countersunk. Phillips Flat head .

Convention for screws “SCHEMATIC” “SIMPLIFIED” .

Convention for threaded holes 6-32 THRU TOP FRONT FRONT SECTION .

4219 1.Blind threaded holes 1/2 – 13 x 1.325 DEEP .325 THREAD DEPTH DRILL DEPTH .50 1/2 – 13 1.

Countersunk holes .125 x 82O . 1.562 – 82O CSK.125 .562 1.

14 DEEP 19 29 14 C-BORE DEPTH .Counterbored holes 19 DRILL – 29 CBORE.

.

Other Items for Drawings .

Leaders & notes FINISH TOP SURFACE SMOOTH NOTE B .

tolerances.. • Follow your company standards . material. scale... finish. sheet number.TITLE BLOCKS • Basic • Title • Name • Date • Units • Optional • Company name.

MY PART
W. DURFEE 10/2/2014
ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES

A title block using a company template www.classic-components.co.uk

Production Drawings Many types of drawings can be produced from the CAD database ASSEMBLY SKETCHES MODEL SKETCHES DETAIL SKETCHES DETAIL DETAIL DETAIL DETAIL MFG BOM MANUALS PROCESS .