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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 Ll55B4LL B T L

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WORLDWIDE
CEMENTING PRACTICES

Sponsored by

COMMITTEE 10
COMMITTEE ON STANDARDIZATION OF WELL CEMENTS

AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE

SPECIAL BOOK PROJECT
API PROJECT 88-59
Dwight K. Smith - Project Leader

Published by
American Petroleum Institute
1991

REAFFIRMED, MAY 1995

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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 9 3 0’732290 0 5 5 8 4 3 2 T 3 8

Copyright 1991 by the
American Petroleum Institute

Printed in the U.S.A.
by
Johnston Printing Company
Dallas, Texas

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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 93 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 5 8 4 3 3 b74

POLICY
API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature with respect to particular circumstances. Local, state
and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed.
API is not undertaking to meet duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to warn and properly train and equip
their employees, and others exposed, concerning health and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obliga-
tions under local, state, or federal laws.
Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, for the

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manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent. Neither should anything
contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.

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FOREWORD
Several thousand wells are drilled and completed annually throughout the world--some productive of oil or gas and
some that are dry--yet during this drilling and completion process most of these wells are cased, with the casing set in the
borehole, surrounded by cement.
In 1959, the API published the first edition of a book covering the technology of “Oil Well Cementing Practices in the
United States” under the leadership of Harry N. Stansbury of the Atlantic Refining Co. Drilling and completion experts
throughout the industry participated in this early project. Its contents covered cementing technology dating from the
early 1920’s through the mid 1950’s. The major part of this cementing information, however, represented practices used
after World War II until about 1956.
Since these early events in our industry, many changes have taken place in cement standardization, in cement testing,
and in field practices, particularly in deep drilling. API Cement Standardization Committee 10 and its members have
played a significant role in the research and development of all phases of cement technology since this original book was
published. In 1987, experts within the industry and from Committee 10 were again selected to write chapters in this
revised volume entitled “World Wide Cementing Practices.” This revised version is an attempt to mold all the
various technologies used today; no part of this book should be interpreted as an American Petroleum
Institute recommendation for any procedure, method, practice or equipment.
In 1990 the processes of “cementing a well” are very similar in most parts of the world. Nomenclature and
terminology may vary from one area to another; however, the basic process is about the same worldwide.
The compositions used in cementing today are essentially API cements or API cements prepared by supplementing
with additives or by variations in grinding or manufacturing processes. Bonding and sealing materials other than
Portland cement are rarely used in wells, yet when applied follow methods similar to those used with Portland cement.
Cementing of surface casing is one of the most uniformly followed procedures. Surface casing depth may vary from
100 to several thousand feet; its function is to protect freshwater formations, to mount wellhead equipment, and to
anchor blowout-preventer equipment.
“Intermediate strings” may range from a few thousand to over 10,000 ft in depth. In some conditions they case off salt
beds of moderate depth and are called “salt strings.” In others they case off troublesome shales, or zones that will not
withstand high fluid pressures, and for these purposes they may be called “protection strings.”
“Completion strings” andlor liners represent more diversified designations. In localities where cement is used to
enable such casing strings to shut off water immediately above the oil production, the term “water string” is customary.
In other areas the customary term is “oil string,” and where the well may produce oil or gas or both, “completion
string,” “production string,” “producing string,” or “long string” may be used.
Where it becomes impractical to continue drilling to the depth intended for the producing string, it is sometimes set at
a lesser depth as a protection string and the hole below is cased with a liner hung in the bottom of the original string.
Technology now being developed and evaluated in selected drilling areas may or may not find wide applications in the
petroleum industry. Of particular interest is the drilling and cementing of horizontal wells. The use of this technology
has been in fewer than 2000 ofthe 3.5 million wells drilled worldwide before 1990. Completion techniques in horizontal
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wells has been variable, yet experts will agree that the same cementing fundamentals are required as in a vertical or
directional well, Le., a well-drilled hole, proper centralization, mud conditioning to remove regions of gelled or immobile
fluids before cementing, use of proper spacers andlor flushes, use of good cementing materials with emphasis on solids-
settling control with no free water, and pipe movement where possible.
The chapters of this volume follow a logical sequence in relation to the development and application of cementing
methods and consequently bear a fairly close relationship one to another. This relationship, however, is loose enough to
permit the chapters to be read and studied individually. To facilitate such use, indexes are provided at the beginning of
each chapter rather than at the back of the book.
Leadership in this major endeavor has been under API Cement Standardization Committee 10 chairman D. G.
“Jerry” Calvert, Mobil Oil Company in Dallas, TX, and coordinated for Committee 10 by Dwight K. Smith,
Consultant (Ret. Halliburton Services), Duncan, OK.

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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0558Y15 L)L)7 =

Development of the volume Worldwide Cementing Practices has involved many people and organizations. So many
individuals and groups of people helped in the development of the book, and in so many ways, that its publication can
truly be said to be a consequence of industry effort.
Individuals, particularly, contributed freely of their time and effort and they and their employing companies are due
more than a small measure of credit for this volume. Among them are the past and present chairmen and secretaries of
API Committee 10 who provided the leadership for the development of much of the original material and the expert
review for individual chapters.

Chapter Authors Co-Authors -
Sam Maravilla - Consultant (Ret. Lehigh Portland Cement Co.)
Richard Gandy - BJ-Titan Co.
R. C. “Bob” Smith - Consultant (Ret. Amoco Production Co. )
Bob Sullaway - Halliburton Services
Fred Brooks - Consultant (Ret. Exxon Production Research Co.)
W. H. “Hal” Grant Jr. - Chevron Research Co.
H. E. “Ed” Lindsey - Lindsey Completion Systems
Mike Cowan - Shell Development Co.
Ben Bradford - Consultant (Ret. Dowell-Schlumberger)
Charles R. George - Halliburton Services
T. R. Garvin - Halliburton Services
Larry K. Moran - Conoco Inc.
K. J. Goodwin - Mobil E&P Services Inc.
W. W. Carpenter - Schlumberger Well Services Inc.
D. G. “Jerry” Calvert - Mobil E&P Services Inc.
R. L. Root - Dowell-Schlumberger
Dwight K. Smith - Consultant (Ret. Halliburton Services)

API Cement Standardization Committee 10 (1951-1990)
Chairmen
Carl Dawson - 1951 through 1955 - Standard Oil of California
Walter F. Rogers - 1956 through 1960 - Gulf Oil Company
George Howard - 1961 through 1962 - Stanolind Oil and Gas Co.
Francis M. Anderson - 1963 through 1967 - Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co.
Bill Bearden - 1968 through 1970 - Pan American Petroleum Co.
R. V. “Bob” Scott - 1971 through 1975 - Standard Oil of California
Frank Shell - 1976 through 1978 - Phillips Petroleum Co.
Horace Beach - 1979 through 1981 - Gulf Oil Company
R. C. “Bob” Smith - 1982 through 1984 - Amoco Production Co.
Dwight K. Smith - 1985 through 1987 - Halliburton Services
D. G. “Jerry” Calvert - 1988 through 1990 - Mobil E&P Services Inc.
Hal Grant - 1991 through 1994 - Chevron Petroleum Co.

Secretaries
Walter E Rogers - 1951 through 1955 - Gulf Oil Co.
N. C. Ludwig - 1956 through 1961 - Universal Atlas Cement Co.
J. B. Alexander - 1962 through 1967 - Southwestern Portland Cement Co.
Sam Maravilla - 1968 through 1987 - Lehigh Portland Cement Co.
Charles R. George - 1988 through 1994 - Halliburton Services

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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 W 0732290 0558436 3 8 3

Some of the organizations from whose literature and resources illustrative material has been freely taken are as follows:

SPE Monograph “Cementing”
Halliburton Services
World Oil Magazine
Dowell-Schlumberger
Petroleum Engineer Magazine
Oil and Gas Journal
Lindsey Completion Systems

To all these people and organizations and to many others who have not been identified, the American Petroleum
Institute owes a debt of gratitude.

It is the hope of API Committee 10 that these few words will express that gratitude, and in part, repay that debt.

Bobby Hall - Director API, Dallas, Texas
Mark Rubin - API Staff, Dallas, Texas
Mike Loudermilk - API Staff, Dallas, Texas
Jim Giddens - Halliburton Services, Duncan, Oklahoma
Caterina Mathes - Halliburton Services, Duncan, Oklahoma
Walt Glover - Halliburton Services, Duncan, Oklahoma
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Chapter 1 . Cementing History and the Development
of API Well Cement Standards ...................... Sam Maravilla 2
Richard Gandy

Chapter 2 . Cement Job Planning .......................... R . C . (Bob) Smith 18

Chapter 3 . Casing Equipment ................................ Bob Sullaway 33

Chapter 4 . Primary Cementing ................................. Fred Brooks 52
W.H. Grant Jr.

Chapter 5 . Liner Cementing .................................. E.H. Lindsey 70

Chapter 6 . Remedial Cementing ............................... K.M. Cowan 82
Ben B. Bradford

Chapter 7 . Down-hole Plugging ............................. Charles George 103

Chapter 8 . Lost Circulation:
Its Consideration During Primary Cementing . . . . . . . . . . . Larry Moran 115
Thomas Garvin

Chapter 9 . Cement Sheath Evaluation ......................... K . J . Goodwin 126
W. W. Carpenter

Chapter 10 . Special Cementing Conditions ....................... Jerry Calvert 149
Ron Root

APPENDIXA . Bibliography ....................................................... 170

APPENDIXB . Patents ............................................................ 211
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APPENDIX C . Worldwide Field Data ............................................... 229

APPENDIX D . Squeeze Cementing Formulas and Calculations ........................... 440

APPENDIX E . U.S. Wells Drilled 1859-1988 ......................................... 447

APPENDIX F . U S . Drilling Record Depths to 1990 ................................... 448

APPENDIX G . U.S. Record Producing Wells (Depths) to 1990 ........................... 449

APPENDIX H . U.S. Drilling Depth Records by State to 1990 ............................ 450

APPENDIX I . U.S. Record Producing Wells by State to 1990 ............................ 452

APPENDIX J . U.S. Well Completions and Footage Drilled by Depth Intervals 1970-1989 . . . . . 454

SUBJECT-AUTHOR INDEX ........................................................ 461

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A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 m Oï322qO 0558438 156 W

Chapter 1

Cementing History and the
Development of API Well Cement
Standards
authors
Sam Maravilla
Richard Gandy
INDEX

SUBJECT PAGE

1.1 Introduction ........................................... 3
1.2 Early History of Portland Cement ......................... 3
1.3 Manufacture of Portland Cement .......................... 4

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1.4 Chemistry of Cements ................................... 5
1.5 API Standardization Background .......................... 9
1.6 Publication of Standardization Studies ...................... 13
1.7 Current API Well Cement Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.8 Cement Properties Covered by API Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.9 Current and Future Development of API Standards for Well
Cements .............................................. 16
1.10 Summary ............................................. 17

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and has been a member of more than 20 API task groups since 1959. where he was director of research and development for well cements. this reaction. During heating to tempera. in the finished product.````. forms a type of growth on its surface that gradually ments.e... A1.0. blast furnace slag. This blending of separate materials was done by English Portland cement is known as a hydraulic cement. The paste of with other materials to give the desired proportions of Portland cement and water will harden under water as well as in air. potassium hydraulic limes..`--- By: S. etc. TX.-`-`. Hydration begins as soon as ce- cement.. he gave the name “Portland cement” to his product because the concrete “Much of the literature cited in this chapter consists of reviews from which the reader produced from it resembled in appearance the building may obtain referencesto the earlier literature. Cao. ores. temperature-pressure condi- dered blends composed of limestone with materials such tions. cement particles or adheres to adjacent substances. called hydration.lIntroduction When hydraulic cements set and harden by reacting The objectives of this chapter are (1) to review briefly the chemically with water. i.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . aluminum (Al.. He retired from Lehigh Portland Cement Co. ICMA. iron (Fe. Indiana. Richard Gandy is a group leader in cementing at BJ-Titan’s research and development laboratory in Tomball.O).).`. (3) to discuss publication of well cement standard. (2) to review the history and development of ment comes in contact with water.`. iron ment and slurry formulation.). early history. This building up results in progressive stiffening. tures of about 2700°F. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0 5 5 8 Y L î O92 Chapter 1 Cementing History and Development of --``. From a chemical standpoint Early investigators found that limes produced by these blends may be considered to be mixtures of the calcining certain limestones had the property of setting oxides of calcium (Cao).. He was secretary of the API Committee 10 on standardization of well cements from 1968 to 1988. SPE. He attended the University of Texas at Arlington. He has a BA degree in chemistry from the University of Indiana (1950) and is a member of API. and sodium (Na. magnesium (MgO). stone quarried on the Isle of Portland. they were (SiO. Engineer Joseph Aspdin in 1824. Because this paste can set under water. siliceous sands. SiO. and chemistry of Portland forms a stonelike mass. Waco. Maravilla and R.`. spreads until it links up with the growth from other ization studies. these oxides combine to form clays and shales. The stiffening of well cement slurries can be recognized by an increase in consistency Portland cement is produced by partially fusing pow.O.Maravilla served as senior research scientist at the Gary. relatively large amounts of argillaceous materials..`. and has worked in cement technical services and R&D since 1958. in other words.```````. and ASTM.* manufacture. that is dependent on time. IN Central Research Laboratories for Universal Atlas Cement Division of US Steel where he authored several well cement patents. Each cement particle American Petroleum Institute (API) standards docu. and (4) to discuss present API standards. hardening. pyrite cinders. TX. and upon the composition and fineness of the ce- as clays. and Fe.2 Early History of Portland Cement‘ and strength development.O).. serving also as publications chairman during that period. From this begin- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.````. These limestones were found to contain (K. 1. From 1950 to 1980. Gandy Sam Maravilla is a private consultant working out of Hammond. From this experience with hydraulic calcium silicates and aluminates (commonly referred to as limes the practice developed whereby Portland cements “clinker”) that can react with water to form a hydrated were made by heating blends of high grade limestones product which has cementitious properties. shales... silicon and hardening under water.`.03). 1.O.

This specification has been States was produced at a plant in Coplay. D. and usually containing one or more forms of calcium about 1750. H 3.0 High Sulfate Resistance (HSR) --``. During man- times. = 0732290 0558420 804 = ~~~ ~ A P I TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 4 CEMENTING ning. F. ment are more stringent than the ASTM Type III HSR that the discovery that calcium sulfate compounds would cement based on 1954 studies reported by S w a y ~ e . exceed 4.`. the present-day Portland cements developed over cations should include maximum limits for the SO. II..`. for use with hydraulic limes and blends of sulfate (gypsum) as an interground addition. 3.0 3. IV.3 Manufacture of Portland Cement Paris and Portland cement in the same equipment with. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . in the middle 1800’s. and V. This work on test methods led Materials used in the manufacture of Portland cement gradually to specifications for Portland cements. therefore.. E. Pa. G. AND C. until 1909. in the cement products.0 8 Moderate Sulfate Resistance (MSR) (Similar to Type il) ASTM Type II ___ API Class 6. sisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates. Since must contain appropriate proportions of calcium oxide. and V cements when the potential tricalcium aluminate cretes that were very difficult to place because of the contents do not exceed 8%.. tent of Portland cement. API Classes B. use in the United States’ developed from may possess either moderate or high sulfate resistance. which 1/2H20This). Oh rnax. and H have a C. con- many years.0. ~ retard the rate of stiffening of Portland cement pastes may have been the result of accidentally mixing plaster of 1. produced mortars and con.0 ___ API Class A. but ment may not exceed 3. III.0 3 High Sulfate Resistance (HSR) (Similar to Type ill) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`. G. There appears to be no record of the discovery. In 1940 ASTM (American Society for Testing Materi- dale. F. content of Type I ce- ble. and 2.`--- (Similar to Type il) ASTM Type 111 4. and since it was observed that calcium sulfate in ufacture. in 1871. and that of Type III may not someone found about a century ago that this rapid stiff.1). with water and aggregate.5% (Table 1.) (CA rnax. 2... II. The first specification for Although Aspdin was the first to prescribe a formula Portland cement appears to be one adopted in Germany for Portland cement and the first to have his product in 1878.D.0 8 API Class 6.0. gypsum was ground with the clinker to control setting silica.A requirements for API Class C HSR ce- Paris to Portland cement mortars. centuries.A content of about 8% or less amounts of either gypsum or plaster of Paris (CaSO. alumina. Ordinary (O) 3.3% found that cement clinker. along The first methods4 of testing hydraulic cements for with some calcium aluminates and calcium aluminoferri- strengths and setting times were developed. C. it was natural that these specifi- TABLE 1 . ening could be prevented by either grinding the clinker As may be seen from Table 1. beginning in tes.1.`. all materials are analyzed frequently to ensure a excess of certain amounts produced excessive expansions uniformly high quality cement. with or blending the powdered clinker with small E. limes with pozzolans.5. reviewed a number of times and the current revision In the early development of Portland cement. C. nate contents exceed 8%. It seems. 3.-`-`. when the limit was set at 2. This specification did not include a limit for patented. H 3.0 ___ (Similar to Type i) ASTM Type II 3. III.* The first recorded als) Committee C-1 on Portland cement adopted specifi- shipment of Portland cement to the United States was in cations (C 150-40T) for five types of Portland cement: 1868 and the first Portland cement made in the United Types I.`. Portland cement is produced by pulverizing clinker con- out cleaning between batches.````.5%.`. IV. an American observing masons in Paris adding plaster of However.A REQUIREMENTS Sulfur Trioxide Tricalcium Aluminate (SO. and are similar in composition to ASTM Type II. calcareous cements had been used for many SO.570. Natural cements were manufactured in Rosen. it was C150-86 carries the limits of 3. G. F. New York.````...0 5 High Sulfate Resistance API Class C 3. E.5 15 (Similar to Type ill) ASTM Type 111 3. the SO.I-COMPARISON OF ASTM PORTLAND VS API WELL CEMENT SO.. contents of Types I. Vo ASTM Type I 3.```````. When the tricalcium alumi- rapid rates at which they stiffened and became unworka.D.5 15 API Class C Ordinary (O) 4. and iron oxide components. when powdered and mixed respectively for the SO..3.

9The crystals are clear-cut. Once in place. generally in clusters. Silica.6 While the opera. tricalcium aluminate. oil.`--- tions of all cement plants are basically the same. 5. Cao. Hexagonal or angular argillaceous (silica and alumina) material such as clay. The clinker is ground to sulting in a set solid mass (Fig. and shale. or moisture attack on outer edge the kiln.-`-`.. pastels.5A. finally re- the setting time of the cement. C. or used in wells is given in Table 1. and correct in per square inch. the grinding rounded crystals. of 2600OF to 3000OF change the raw material chemically When cement is slurried at the wellsite. every the four compounds of API Class G or H dry cement plant has significant differences in layout. a operation a small amount of gypsum is added to regulate plastic lattice structure develops gel strength. general appearance.0 MgO Alkali waste Blast-furnace flue dust Calcium silicate Aluminum-ore refuse* Anhydrite Cement rock Aragonite' Clay' Cement rock Bauxite Calcium sulfate Limestone Calcite* Iron Ore* Clay' Cement rock Gypsum Slag Cement-kiln dust Mill scale' Fly ash Clay* Cement rock Ore washings Fuller's earth Copper slag Chalk Pyrite cinders Limestone Fly ash * Clay Shale Loess Fuller's earth Fuller's earth Marl* Granodiorite Limestone' Ore washings Limestone Marble Quartzite Loess Marl' Rice-hull ash Ore washings Seashells Sand' Shale* Shale' Sandstone Slag Slag Shale' Staurolite Slag Traprock NOTE: As a generalization. In the dry process. Weathering. plants.' The color is drab. A typical oxide anal- diagram can adequately illustrate all plants. The raw mix passes through the kiln ored in reds. After blending. A poor-quality dry cement is illus- land cement. Magnesia.`. C. periclase..`. ~~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 07322%0 0 5 5 8 4 2 1 740 CEMENTING HISTORY AND THE DEVELOPMENTOF API WELL CEMENT STANDARDS 5 TABLE 1.AF. calcium oxide combines with the physical properties of Portland cement pastes Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. probably 50% of all industrial byproducts have potential as raw materials for the manufacture of portland cement. flecks.4 Chemistry of Cements inadequate burning in the kiln during manufacture. 1. pink hexagonal plates. often with rough surfaces and not and blending operations are done with the materials in highly colored. In the wet process.```````.000 openings 1. is used. the ground raw material is fed into the 6 . dicalcium silicate (belite). at a rate controlled by the slope and rotational speed of 7.3. no flow and other materials are also present. size and distribution. Burning fuel (powdered coal. chalk or shells. 200 mesh (75 micrometer) sieve with 40. Small. Alumina. etc.`. tricalcium silicate (alite). equipment..3. MgO. slurry form..`.2 illustrates important tech. Gray blades. purples.5-SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALS USED IN MANUFACTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT' Lime. 1.. or blast-furnace slag.4). 1.2.8 such fine texture that nearly all of it passes through a No. oxide) material such as limestone.S. greens. pounds observed under magnification and reflected light and proportioned in such a way that the resulting mix. This extremely fine gray powder is Port. Gypsum --``. tetracalcium aluminoferrite. C. 1. The characteristic crystal shape of dry cement com- Selected raw materials (Table 1. During this produced in the manufacturing process. A well-burnt API Class H dry cement is shown in Fig. In other respects. crystals may be highly colored with blues. free lime. Figure 1. colorful.5B. C. Small. highly col- upper end of a kiln. together with calculated compound composition of typical Portland cement manufacturing plant.A. grayish-black marble-sized pellets. Iron. Spherical or done with dry materials. using an etched polished section specimen is illustrated ture has the desired chemical composition. water func- into cement clinker.2) are crushed. water. and individual particles are not distinct.````. milled. pounds that make up 90% of cement by weight. trated in Fig.1 and 1. Ca0 Fe203 sio. this condition is caused by 1. forced into the lower end of the kiln where temperatures sometimes caused by outdoor storage or shipping.8 During the burning operation in the manufacture of investigator^^"^ have disclosed a marked difference in Portland cement clinker. Gypsum. grinding and blending are 2. Either a dry or a wet process greens. I *MOSI common sources Steps in the manufacture of cement are illustrated in the acidic components of the raw mix to form four com- the flow charts in Figs. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .3.S.`. nological developments that can improve significantly 4. There is no ysis.````. or gas) is of cement grains causes discoloration of affected crystals.' Statements below are keyed by number to terials are generally a mixture of calcareous (calcium compounds shown in Fig.. 1.`. The raw ma. and an 1. AI203 CaS04*2H.. tions as a carrier for placement of the reactive silicates The clinker is cooled and then pulverized. smooth spheres. surrounding other crystals. in Fig. White matrix are very much alike. the dry and wet processes 3. or the productivity and energy efficiency of dry-process streaks.

SAND OR IRON ORE PRIMARY CRUSHER SECONDARY CRUSHER m GRINDING MILLS 1.. API T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0558422 687 6 CEMENTING m CRUSHER COMBINATIONS OF LIMESTONE.`. CUY. Burning changes raw mix chemically into cement clinker..... then to 3/4 in.`.. Stone is first reduced to 5-in. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . s m R m BASINS PUMP 2..`.-`-`. Clinker with gypsum is ground into Portland cement and shipped.l-Steps in the manufacture of Portland cement.`--- RAW MATERIALS ARE PROPORTIONED OR 2. Raw materials are ground to powder and blended. --``.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`. AND SHALE..```````. mixed with water to form slurry. ARE PROPORTIONED SLURRY PUMPS SLURRY IS MIXED AND BLENDED +.`.````. and stored. PROPORTIONED CEMENT BULK STORAGE BULK BULK BOX PACKAGING TRUCK PUMP TRUCK CAR CAR MACHINE 4. 1.````. size.. CEMENT ROCK MARL OR OYSTER SHELLS. Fig.. Raw materials are ground. and blended.`. MATERIALS ARE STORED SEPARATELY CLINK ER BIN CLINKER AND GYPSUM CONVEYED + m GRINDING MILLS 3.

and stored. API TITLE W O R L D Y I D E 91 W 0732290 0 5 5 8 4 2 3 5 1 3 W CEMENTING HISTORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF API WELL CEMENT STANDARDS 7 DRILLING RIG RAW MATERWLS CONSIST OF --``. AND HOT GASES FROM PREHEATEROR CLINKER COOLER m RAW MATERIALS ROLLER MILL CLASSIFYING IN ONE VERTICAL UNIT RAW MATERIAL FEED PREHEATER.`. then to 314 in. MARL OR OYSTER SHELLS ANDSHALE CLAY SAND ORIRONORE SECONDARY CRUSHER m GRINDING MILLS 1.````. size.. 1. HOT GASES FROM KILN HEAT RAW FEED AND PROVIDE ABOUT 40% CALCINATION BEFORE FEED ENTERS KILN MATERIALS ARE SOME INSTALLATIONS INCLUDE A F U S H STORED SEPARATELY FURNACETHAT PROVIDES ABOUT 85% CALCINATION BEFORE FEED ENTERS KILN CLINKER ~ BIN CLINKER AND GYPSUM CONVEYED + m GRINDING MILLS 3. Clinker with gypsum is ground into Portland cement and shipped. Fig.. Stone is first reduced to 5417..`.`. and shorter kiln. flash furnaces. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`.```````. RGE PORT 1 BLADE GRINDING ROLL PORT DETAIL OF ROLLER MILL. MATERIALS ARE PROPORTIONED CEMENT BULKSTORAGE BULK BULK BOX PACKAGING TRUCK PUMP TRUCK CAR CAR MACHINE 4.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .Burning changes raw mix chemically into cement clinker.`.````.GRINDING. Note four-stage preheater... WHICH COMBINES CRUSHING.-`-`.. DRYING.`--- COMBINATIONSOF LIMESTONE CEMENT ROCK.5-New technology in dry-process cement manufacture.`.

658 x % K..O. and a solid. = C. = C.`.`..3 Calcium oxide Ca0 64..```````. = C.3-Crystalline compounds found in unhydrated Fig.-`-`.S 23 Tricalcium aluminate 3CaO*AI. 1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.Si0. 1..6 Sodium oxide equivalent* Na. 0.`. = C.````.O.5 Loss on Ignition 0. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .O '*Dry Cement --``.8 Sulfur trioxide so3 2.S 54 Dicalcium silicate 2CaO.3-TYPICAL OXIDE ANALYSIS AND CALCULATED COMPOUND COMPOSITION OF PORTLAND CEMENTS (API CLASS G OR H BASIC CEMENT) Oxide Chemical Formula -Oh Silicon dioxide sio..4-Cement setting processfrom a slurry. . 4. 8 CEMENTING TABLE 1.O 0.Si0.O.AF 13 'Na.`.8 Magnesium oxide MgO 0.A 4 Tetracalcium aluminoferrite 4CaO*Al..7 Sodium oxide Na. tic.4 Chemical Formula Calculated ComDound Comoosition and Abbreviation.O equivalen1 = (0. * 010 __ Tricalcium silicate 3CaO.O Equiv.`--- 1 Fluid Plastic Solid Behavior Behavior Behavior Cement Cement Cement + Wafer + Waler aller selling during hydralion Fig. I I cGstai formation.`. form crystal formation.2 Potassium oxide K. 22.2 Iron oxide Fe203 4..````.`.. 1.O 0. -. a plas- set Portland cement.1 Aluminum oxide Alzo.Fe.O) + % Na.

Standard of California atmospheric pressure stir- of cements in wells because ASTM tests were made un. tion for Oil-Well Cements. E. The literature as reviewed by B. which evolved during 1940-1979 for API Code 32 and try. surface area. thickening time. a need arose pressures and bottomhole temperatures. Halliburton atmospheric pressure stirring device ing operations. In 1952 the national API Committee adopted standards The tentative 1948 Code 32 included ASTM devices for six classes of cements used in cementing operations as well as stirring devices specifically designed for testing for oil and gas wells. Well cement test devices for determination of cement the ASTM. Morgan’’ reveals that this fact was recognized since the C.. To fulfill that need. (ASTM type III). However.```````. having average mud circulating tween 1937 and 1950. Portland cement in construction work are maintained by 2. and nonevaporable water content (cement-water mixtures) cured at atmospheric conditions A. IV. 10B was advanced to “standard” by the national API ment used to evaluate and define those physical Committee.4. of reactions of cement minerals at atmospheric condi. A summary for mixing cement slurries.`. The first tentative standard in 1953 well cements as follows.````. tion and uniformity and to eliminate discrepancies and misunderstandings relative to cement slurry behavior in API Std 1OA Standard the laboratory as well as in actual cementing operations..`. API Code 32 was transferred to the jurisdiction of the it was not until 1948 that the first edition of the Tentative national Committee on Standardization of Oil-Well Ce- API Code 32 was issued. dustry to be inadequate for determining the performance A. Table 1. methods. surface area.000 deep. spheric. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Strength-measuring apparatus (compression and 1. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 H 0732270 O558425 376 CEMENTING HISTORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF API WELL CEMENT STANDARDS 9 TABLE 1.`. and in 1956 RI? ification governing test procedures. setting time of neat cement slurries could be determined ture. ring device (80 to 200OF). and are the basis for casing-cementing well simulation the Mid-Continent API Committee on Oil-Well Ce. was designated API Std 10A and entitled “API Specifica- 1.`.`--- termine the fluidity or pumpability of cement slurries at A procedure for determining thickening time under down-hole temperatures. This recommended Cements Used in Wells.-`-`.5 summarizes significant changes properties of special importance to the oil and gas indus.” This code encompassed a spec. are also included for standardization of cement testing. practice remained tentative until 1954.. B. and equip.. tester. der conditions unlike those encountered in well cement. down-hole simulated well conditions in the range of 1000 With the establishment of cement-testing laboratories.. In 1937 the American Petroleum Institute established The types of cement listed in the code were identified the first committee to study cements. Field data for wells many new developments occurred in well cements be. entitled “API Code for Testing ments and redesignated RP 10B.pressure. ASTM device.” During that period. The objects of the code were to promote standardiza. schedules. There already ex.” The standards for six API Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. --``. merely as (1) low fineness (slow-set or oilwell). standard RI’ 10B. ASTM tests were determined by the oil in. Stanolind pressure-temperature thickening time early use of Portland cements in wells. ments prepared the proposed Code 32 in 1940.5 API Standardization Background tensile strength) for measuring the strength of cement API Code 32 and R P 10B Standards.4-EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE ON CEMENT COMPONENTS Well Condition Element Effect on Cement Property Increase temperature up to 2OOOF Increase rate of hydration Decrease thickening time Less severe sulfate attack Increase fluid loss Increase permeability 2OOOF to 4OOOF Range Lower values for strength internal surface area and nonevaporable water content Decreases thickening time generally Pressure Generally decreases thickening time I Pressures up to 1000 psi and 2000psi Pressures above about 2000 psi Greater heat of hydration. (80 to 200’F). Test procedures specimens in the range of 80 to 200’F under atmo- and specifications for the performance of various types of spheric pressure. Setting-time devices (Vicat and Gillmore) wherein tions and at elevated temperatures is cited in the litera. II.`.````. to 18. Home appliance mixer (either hoop or fan type) and at elevated temperatures and pressures. C.000 ft was also incorporated. 5000 to 14.`.. B. V). and nonevaporable water content Cause no appreciable further effect on heat of hydration. (2) normal isted several cement-testing laboratories equipped with fineness (ASTM types I.” The effects of temperature and pressure on cement at temperatures in the range of 80 to 200°F under atmo- properties are shown in Table 1. and (3) high fineness strength-measuring apparatus and stirring devices to de.

1967. Circ those physical properties of special importance to the oil and gas PS-1260). propeller-type. Free Water Content procedure adopted. Class H basic cement adopted as tentative.. 1960-RP 106.```````. temperature consistometer intended for field work only. Circ Testing equipment and procedures divided into sets of manda- PS-1234). June 1966.RP lOB. tion thickening time of different API class cements were reclas- Numbering of sections changed. 1956-RP lOB. test procedure for field work adopted and included as an ap- ond Edition) to 1954 (Fourth Edition). specimens and 1000 to 2000 psilmin rate for low-strengthspec. PS-1363). Normal water procedure adopted based on determination of Delete Pressure-Temperature Consistometer (Fann). Tentative Class J cement based solely on performance data 1186). Tenth Edition. D. January 1959. Eighth Edition. Title changed to include cement additives. Graduate is used in determina- Tentative Permeability Test adopted.e. Determination of water content of slurry using maximum and Tentative Fluid Density Balance adopted for measuring the ab- minimum water procedures adopted. April 1969 (Adopted June 1968.Proposed API Code 32 was prepared by F.`. multiple-speed mixing device. Calibration of potentiometer mechanism using weight-loaded 1161): type potentiometer calibrating device. - Revised (Table 7. Following items were adopted at the June 1958 meeting (Circ PS. the Special Subcommittee on Oil Well Cements. tion of free water of Class G and H cements.`. rium oil adopted as alternate method.RP lOB.RP lOB. 1-qt mixing device (home-appliance Slurry volume requirement for Classes A. ¡. Sixteenth Edition. 248 mm max) of graduated portion of 250 “filter” loss to “fluid” loss. December 1979 (Adopted June tions as severe as 75% of the jobs surveyed). Appendix of RP 1OB. E. Class N cement deleted. Vicat Setting-Time Test deleted (Adopted June 1956. Davis. Slurry container rotation of 150 rpm adopted for Thickening 1109): Time Tester (Pan American). as required. Fluid-loss test advanced to standard. (Adopted June 1959. Circ PS-1401). procedure used in determination of Water Content and Fluid. pendix to RP 1OB.” mended Practice for Testing Oil-Well Cements and Cement Ad. imens. “Tentative” from Class G cement deleted.RP lOB. Circ PS. January 1974 (Adopted June 1972. H changed from 750 ml to 600 ml when using the l q t mixing 750 ml slurry volume for test slurries. Tentative gradient casing-cement well-simulation test sched- Atmospheric Pressure Thickening-Time Test-B (California ules adopted. Mixing procedure for 1-qt mixing device. Circ Loss Tests.. C. January 1967 (AdoptedJune 1965 and 1083). Rotational speed of slurry container increased from “35 rpm” mens specified (¡.RP 1OB. Procedure approved for filling pressurized consistometer cup from the top and use of alternative flat diaphragm. 1955. Circ PS.e. April 1977 (Adopted June 1977. Fifteenth Edition. March 1963 (Adopted June 1962. March 1961 (Adopted June 1960. tices for field operating tests. Tentative Arctic Cementing Testing Procedures adopted. mL graduate cylinder specified.RP 106. 1971. Sixth Edition.````. 500 psi or less). Atmospheric Pressure ThickeningTime Test use changed as Tentative deleted from Pressurized Fluid Density Balance. Tentative deleted from Arctic Cementing Testing procedure. 1961. entitled “API Code for Testing Cements Used in Wells (Tentative). slurry yielding a consistency of 11 + 1 poises.RP 108. Circ PS-1309 and Circ PS-1325. Circ PS-1468. tively based on a survey of field operations and reflecting condi.000 fi). Class G basic cement adopted as tentative (44% water). 4000 psilmin rate for normal-strength to “150 rpm” (Atmospheric Pressure Consistometer). Twentieth Edition. respectively).1 Well-SimulationTest Schedules for Curing Metric conversions introduced. B. Also.`. Strength Schedules).. respectively). January 1958. F. Slurry volumes and mixing time requirements for the 4-qt rnix. Circ PS-1161).” Fann Thickening-Time Tester adopted as tentative pressure- This code encompassed a specification governing test proce. 1969-RP lOB. PS-1422). Fourteenth Edition..`.a-SUMMARY .Basis for Casing-Cementing and through 1l g (1000 ft to 20.`. Gradient Casing-Cementing Schedules redesignated l g Revised (Tables 9.API Code 32 transferred to the jurisdiction of the Committee on Tentative Determination of Rheological Properties adopted. ‘Number designation of API Report for Annual Meetings of API Standardization Committee --``. squeeze-cementing adopted. New procedure based 1940.API established committee to study oil-well cements. Squeeze Cementing Well-Simulation Test Schedules. May 1957. tory (required by Spec 10A) and nonmandatory testing prac- Related API publications included in Foreword. 1952. Schedules designed to represent field practices Tester) deleted.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 1979. March 1962 (Adopted June 1961.. Tentative Pressure-Temperature Consistometer Apparatus and This recommended practice remained tentative from 1952 (Sec. industry. Use of Paratone equilib- Fourquart.-`-`. Chairman of on revisions to Maximum Water Content procedure.. API Recom. 1965.`. Circ PS-1443 and June 1973.” qt mixer. Circ 1959. Eleventh Edition. Thirteenth Edition. Weight of test samples table revised and expanded to include Alternate 1-qt size mixer adopted capable of controlling speed all tests in RP 1OB.. ing device. April 1972 (Adopted June 1971. dures. and F retarded cements Mixing speed “slow” and “high” specifications adopted for 1- reduced from “40%” to “38%. sified as Casing Cement Specification Test schedules.RP 10B. Name changed from Height (238 mm min. methods. January 1960. (1000 ft to 20. 1977. adopted. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . 1962.000 ft). Fifth Edition. Circ 1972. 1979..RP 106. and equipment used lo evaluate and define 1964. Circ PS-1054’). G. April 1971 (Adopted June 1971. Seventh Edition. PS-1536).1 and 9. Nineteenth Edition. respec. Propeller-type two-speed. rate of loading for testing compressive strength speci. 1958-RP 106. 1957-RP 108. Water percentage for Classes D.SIGNIFICANT CHANGES ADOPTED BY API FOR API CODE 32 AND RP 106 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES (1940-1979) 937. Fluid-LossTest procedure revised to include high-pressurefilter 1948-The first edition of Tentative API Code 32 issued February 1948 press apparatus. March 1965 (Adopted June 1964. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732290 0 5 5 8 q 2 b 222 m 10 CEMENTING TABLE 1. Twelfth Edition. May 1956. 1974-RP lOB. Standardization of Oil-Well Cements and redesignated RP 1OB. Following items were adopted at the June 1957 meeting (Circ PS. Ninth Edition. Twenty-First Edition. RP 1OB advanced to “Standard” in June 1955 (Adopted June Circ PS-1285). E. solute density of a field sample. Tentative test for fluid loss also adopted Atmospheric Pressure Consistometer (Halliburton) moved to and included in this edition. 1963-RP 106. Circ Thickening-time test schedules for determination of specifica- PS-1208). E. Tentative well-simulation test procedures for hesitation ditives. Circ PS-1614). device.2 . Seventeenth Edition. Class H cement advanced to “standard. and type and heavy bench-type mixing devices deleted).RP lOB. March 1964(Adopted June 1963. Eighteenth Edition.````.

.-`-`. thickening time tests for ers.. In 1988 the Production Department of determined in accordance with procedures outlined in the American Petroleum Institute issued the first edition RP 10B and ASTM.7 summarizes the chronology of significant annual formance Testing of Cementing Float Equipment” has modifications to the API Spec 10 document (1982-1988). cleared the way for the publication and issuance of RP tional nonmandatory testing procedures which may be 10E (Second Edition) in 1987. Substitution of the alternate fiber for asbestos required to determine conformance of the materials with and other minor editorial modifications removed the con- chemical and physical requirements embodied in the cerns of the API Legal Department. How- annually by API in two booklets. 1OC was issued in 1963. through the joint effort of members of the National Asso- tions. based on centralizer ments of the API Committee during the above period. loss on ignition.. not applicable to rigid or positive centralizers. Standardiza. The first edition was issued in in 1956 and subsequent deletion in 1962.” menting float equipment. ccSpecificationfor Casing Centraliz- and C cements. mandatory test procedures and mandatory test pany the viable surrogate additive was an alkali-resistant equipment for materials (cement and cement additives) glass fiber. for determining centralizer spacing. A solution and Testing for Well Cements. The from all API Publications including all 385 terms listed physical tests included determinations for soundness in the 1984 edition of Bu1 1OC. approximately two years. specifications for fly ash. basis of performance requirements.. and (2) to place in another section op. Upon approval in 1984 by the national cement Spec 10. The first Department concerning the use of asbestos in the cement edition of the combined document.. The first edition of RP 10E RP 1OB). Volume 10A and Vol. and in 1972. compressive and tensile strength. and the change in the document 10A designation to “Spec lOA” API Task Group on Cement Lining of Steel Pipe. ard procedures for the plant application of cement lining to oilfield tubular goods and recommended methods of API Spec 10 Standard (Combined Spec 10A and joining cement-lined pipe. This instead of “Std 1OA” to agree with and to accurately recommended practice was developed to provide stand- reflect specifications content.`. designated “API mix. as well as incorporated in API Std 10A by the national API Com. performance and required stand-off. Adoption in 1959 of bentonite and barite specifica. opment of the RI’. However. and thus this action specifications.. Its purpose is to provide recom- ing documents under the jurisdiction of Committee 10. Devel- Other API Committee 10 Documents. are included.`--- 4.” was proposed and approved by the national Committee Primary objectives for the consolidation were (1) to 10 from a recognized cement lining company to use an place in one section all the chemical and physical specifi. were combined into a single booklet.. Recom- Table 1. “Recommended Practice for Appli- temperature Class J basic cement. recommendations Listed below are some of the most notable achieve.Standardization studies which were published (tentative) was issued in 1978 and reissued in 1982. Adoption of specifications for Classes G and H ba. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 7 1 = 0732290 0558427 L b 9 W CEMENTING HISTORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF API WELL CEMENT STANDARDS 11 classes of well cements were comprised of both chemical associated with well cementing. fineness (ASTM C GOT is to provide a standard of previously used abbrevi- 115 test).6 summarizes significant changes which were mended testing equipment and procedures. marking requirements and the application of the API mittee during the years 1953-1979. Bulletin 1OC was removed from ening time test. The first edition of Bu1 and physical requirements. sic cements in 1965 and 1971. respectively. mended procedures for the performance testing of ce- Bu1 1OC. Halliburton. ever. the API Production Department with- The assigned title of the combined API Spec 10 single drew API RP 10E and a task group was appointed to volume was changed to “API Specification for Materials study the use of asbestos in cement-lined pipe. “Bulletin on Oil Well Cement Nomenclature. (GOI’).`. while the physical requirements were 1969 and 1984.” was developed --``. In addition. insoluble residue. or Stanolind) was optional in the determination of thickening time for Classes A. Modifications to the specifications were added in 2. (California. Modifications were incorpo- Chemical requirements were determined by using rated in two subsequent editions which were issued in ASTM procedures. monogram. Based on tests by this com- cations. 3. the national API Committee approved a Group on Cement Lining of Tubular Goods. ciation of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) T-1G-8 Task In 1972. Installation.`. and C. which commenced in 1986 required tion studies also resulted in the publication of the follow.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . in deviated and dog- 1. alternate additive for asbestos. Ta. Committee 10.````.`. Adoption in 1977 of specifications for high. of “Glossary of Oilfield Production Terminology The chemical tests included determination for MgO. APZ RP lOE. The stated purpose of (ASTM test for autoclave expansion). This recom- mended practice was released in print early 1989.`. By APZ Std 100. and Joining. 1971.```````.````.” was issued in 1982. and the thick. approved solely on the cation of Cement Lining to Steel Tubular Goods. been approved by the national committee. The proposed “API Recommended Practice for Per- ble l .” covers the minimum performance requirements for Classes Dy E.A. The choice of thickening time tester the jurisdiction of Committee 10 on Well Cements. Handling. It is Stanolind pressure-temperature tester.” Abbreviations and definitions were compiled SO. provides the definitions for the commonly used terms Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. used in association with specified field applications. and F cements had to be determined in the standard and close tolerance spring-bow centralizers. 1973 (second edition) and 1986 (third edition). ations and definitions. Adoption of Class N retarded cement specifications leg holes are presented. in 1984 concerns were raised by the API Legal ume 10B.

000 ft).Spec 10A. Circ PS-1022. atmospheric pressure.`. Classes A. re.” vised downward (shortened).. Circ PS-1536).e. 1500 psilmin. and F short. Eight-hour and 24-hour compressive strength specifications re.Std 1OA Advanced to “standard. E. 1401). proved for Classes A. C. January 1958 (Adopted June 1967. March 1966 (Adopted June 1965. May 1965-Std 10A. Thirteenth Edition. Circ PS-1562 and PS-1588.0% max” shortened from 110 to 90 minutes under Schedules 1 (1000 A) to “6. Fourth Edition. Circ PS-1083 and 1083A). and F) used in cementing operations for API Classes A and B cements redesignated “ordinary (O)” oil and gas wells. Twenty-four hour tensile strengths for all classes of cements No.6-SUMMARY . 6.HSR cement deleted. C. Class B (MSR and HSR)..Eight-hour compressive strength specifications approved for “3.. Fourteenth Edition. and Class C (O. In case of dis. C..” First Edition.Std IOA. oxide specification raised for Class C “O” type from 1957. Twenty-four hour compressive strength specifications approved Free water specification approved for Classes G MSR and HSR for Classes D. Circ PS-1054). (California) relegated to alternate tester status. cements for which values increased are for cement additives. Class A (O). March 1963 (Adopted June 1962.000 ft). 300 psilmin. April 1969 (Adopted June 1968.Tentative Class N retarded cement requirement approved Std HSR types. spheric pressure consistometers deleted. Circ PS-1327). Class G HSR cement only.`. and H-HSR cements when 1963. ¡.`. Sixteenth Edition. January 1959 (Adopted June 1958. March trade names vs API Cement Class Designations. 1972 (Adopted June 1971. Circ specifications revised downward when cured at 140’F under PS-1363). 140°F Thickening-time specifications for Classes D. E. Fifth Edition. Maximum C. ASTM construction-type cements. Fly ash advanced to “standard. and G) designated “moderate” sulfate-resistant (MSR) ASTM Type II cement. Eighteenth Edition. 1955 (Adopted Specification approved for total alkali content expressed as so- June 1953. March 1964 (Adopted June 1963. Circ Atmospheric pressure thickening-time (Halliburton) specifica. dium oxide equivalent for tentative Class G cement (both MSR tively). C.`. Specifications for untreated bentonite and barite (barium sul. B. Circ PS-993 and June 1954. E.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. tested at 1OOOF and 14OOF under atmospheric pressure.and C cement were similar to instead of “regular” type. Std lOA. Mandatory Test Equipment for additive suppliers approved. 1958. Twentieth Edition.-`-`. and F revised. 10A. 1971 (Adopted June 1970. increases approved by ASTM for similar types of ASTM ce- Thickeningtime specifications for D. and filtration properties). respec. E. customary units commenced in this Pressure-temperature thickening-time specifications for edition. Tenth Edition.`. Specifications for 24 hour compressive strength revised for 1966-Std 10A. 1972. Use of API Monogram requirements by cement manufacturers Requirements included for soundness. tions for Classes A.````. Class J cement advanced to “standard.```````. retarded cements possessing a chemical composition similar to D. and C cements. 1979-Spec 10A. approved. PS-1309). Twelfth Edition. 8..Std 10A. Approved change to designate document API “Spec” 10A in- pute.. January 1960 (Adopted June 1959. Thickening-time specification (Schedule 1. and F. and June 1973. pressure-temperature thickening test shall govern.C.00%. 1953. Circ and HSR). 6.SIGNIFICANT CHANGES INCORPORATED IN API STD 10A (1953-1979) 1953. Class N thickeningtime specification under Schedule 5A re. 1959-Std. (under elevated pressure). May 1970 (Adopted June 1969. Fifteenth Edition. Third Edition. Circ PS.. and F were Chemical specifications approved for cements (Classes B. 1974.Tentative standard was approved and issued in 1953 and entitled Table incorporated showing authorized manufacturers’ cement “API Specification for Oil-Well Cements. Circ 1957 (Adopted June 1956. (Classes A. Classes A. Classes G-MSR.`. 1260).e. Circ PS- Circ PS-972. D. January 1974 (Adopted June 1972 Thickening-time specifications for Classes N and D using atmo. Thickeningtime physical requirements specified for atmo. Eight hour compressive strength specifications approved for Class G cement elevated to “standard” for both MSR and HSR Classes N.and C cements Magnesium oxide (MgO) content increased from “5. March 1965 (Adopted June 1964. 1234). and N cements.Spec 10A. spheric pressure consist meters A and B deleted. G-HSR. March 1962 cal performance requirements.00%” to “4. Circ PS-958 and 1964. and length- ened for Class F under Schedule 9 (16. 8OoF BHCT) a p Additional specifications for bentonite approved (Fann reading. PS-1285). 1957. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . (Adopted June 1960 and 1961. --``. April 1979 (adopted June 1977 and vised for Classes D and E cements.” Chemical and physical test requirements for Class N cement Tentative chemical specifications for Class H . IOOOF atmospheric pressure. B. Sampling approved as mandatory test. B. Circ Classes A and B cements. atmospheric pressure. and HSR types). cement. SO. yield point. Circ PS-1186 and PS-1208. types.````. types. Specification SO. Eleventh Edition. ments. stead of API “Std” 10A. Std lOA. and thickeningtime for MSR and 1956. proved for Class H cement (MSR type only). respectively). values approved to correspond with changes Document of title changed to reflect inclusion of specifications made by ASTM. (lengthened). ened). respectively).Std 10A. January 1967 (Adopted June 1966. compressive strength incorporated. Mandatory tests and equipment required for conducting of Tentative 8-hour compressive strength specs approved for physical tests for API manufactured cement. D.” Classes A. Ninefeenth Edition. Seventh Edition. Class N cement 8-hour and 24-hour compressive strength 1969-Std lOA. (Adopted June 1952 and December 1952. D. Circ Atmospheric pressure consistometer A (Halliburton) and B PS-1422). spectively).” Second Edition. Ninth Edition. 1977. Metric conversions of U S . Sixth Edition. 325 sieve residue specification approved for barite. E. Tentative Class J basic cement approved based solely on physi- 1962-Std 10A outlined in E i g h i Edition of Std 10A. PS-1161). E. 6. PS-1381).. tions for Classes N and D revised upward (lengthened).Spec lOA. Specification provided standards for six API class cements Specifications for tentative Class G basic cement approved. Seventeenth Edition. Circ PS-1443 and PS-1468. N. N. 1970-Std 10A. Thickeningtime specifications for Classes A. 10A. 1978.S specification raised to “65%” from “58%” for fate rock) approved. 1955. 1971-Std 10A. H-MSR. and ”high” sulfate resistant (HSR) types. respectively). F. April 1977 (Adopted June 1966. Circ Tentative chemical and physical requirement specifications ap- PS-1137). E. deleted. Circ PS-1109). E. ¡. MSR. Circ PS- Atmospheric pressure thickening-time (California) specifica. ened when tested under Schedule 6 (10.Std IOA.0% max” for all API cement classes to correspond with and 4 (6000 ft). A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 073229fl 0558428 O T 5 12 CEMENTING ~ TABLE 1. List of authorized manufacturers approved (total six domestic Physical test specification requirements approved for Class G manufacturers). 1960. and D revised upward (length. and F cements revised upward Tentative specifications for fly ash approved. May 1956 (Adopted June 1955. and F. Classes D.

Intended for use from 10. tion Procedures for Thermocouples and Temperature Indica- erating Test” section.I4 These standards have and pressures. and approved. vestigation of Preflushes and Spacers for Cementing. The petroleum industry purchases cements manufac- tured predominately in accordance with API classifica. Table 1.8 summarizes these signifi- sulfate-resistancetypes.7). resistant types.1984 (adopted June 1983. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Revised statement of precision approved for API Testing.* Class H. Third Edition. Intended for use from surface to 6000 ft depth. atmospheric pressure) advanced to “standard.. 1988 (Adopted June 1987 Circ Revised Section 14. or can be used Class B. Texas since 1953. Available in both moderate and high sulfate- resistant types. Available in both moderate (similar to ASTM C Studies 150. August 1.````. These spec. “Packaging. and Storage.`. Revised section on “Sampling” specification requirement ap- 1986-Spec IO. Rate for Plug Flow and in Appendices A through O. shall be interground or Spec 10 dated August 1988.. Circ New tentative operating test procedure approved entitled ‘’In- PS-1712). Intended for use from surface to 6000 ft depth.than --``.000 ft 1. Change in temperature requirement of water and cement for Specification on barite deleted. Standardization of Well Cements. dardization studies. cant paper contributions by API Committee 10 and Mid- Continent District Committee (MC).`. PS-1664).````. Available in sought to inform both users and manufacturers about the ordinary and moderate (similar to ASTM C 150. operating test procedures are covered cedure for Calculating Pressure Drop.```````.14 blended with the clinker during manufacture of Class G well cement. No additions other . sistometer (ABC)was approved.” New tentative calibration procedure approved entitled “Calibra- * Test Manual of Cement Testing approved for insertion into “Op. well depths and temperatures. with accelerators and retarders to cover a wide range of when conditions require moderate to high sulfate resist. Available in moderate and high sulfate- Class A.7 -SUMMARY - CHRONOLOGY OF THE MODIFICATIONSTO API SPEC IO. PS-1827). July 1986 (adopted June 1984 and June proved. or both.. the committee has when conditions require high early strength.000 fi to 14.`. Many of the significant papers on early standardization efforts were either direct or indirect studies sponsored by the API Mid-Continent District Class D. Type II) and high sulfate-resistance types.” 1988.Spec IO.7 Current API Well Cement depth. pressure medium in pressurized consistometer. Rate for Turbulent Flow for Cement Slurries in Pipes and An- Compressive strength requirements (8 hours @I 100°F and nuli. 1985..`. surized consistometer (Bc) and the atmospheric pressure con.000 ft to 16. Available in both moderate and high Oil-Well Cements.’ Class E. No additions other than and pressures are defined below.” Specifications for Class H . Type I). properties. Circ PS-1739.” 1984. 1. when the first national stand- ards on cements for use in wells were issued.Second Edition.’’ combined into one document. when special properties are not required. Intended for use as a basic well cement from ifications are reviewed annually and revised according to surface to 8000 ft depth as manufactured. or can be used the needs of the oil industry (Table 1. They are listed in API calcium sulfate or water.000 fi tions as published in API Specifications for Materials depth. and Circ PS-1767.6 Publication of Standardization ance. Class F. under conditions of extremely high temperature and Testing for Well Cements. Intended for use from surface to 6000 ft depth. First Edition.” ap. The different with accelerators and retarders to cover a wide range of classes of API cements for use at down-hole temperatures well depths and temperatures. Throughout the existence of the API Committee on Class C. respectively). Circ Fluid-loss test (revised) tentative designation deleted. Specifications are covered in New tentative calculational procedure approved entitled “Pro- Sections 1 through 14. Available only in ordinary type (similar to ASTM C 150. Class G. Handling. under conditions of moderately high temperatures Study Committee on Cementing Practices and Testing of and pressures.-`-`. Available in both moderate and high been published by the American Petroleum Institute in sulfate-resistant types.Spec IO.HSR advanced to “standard. Intended for use as a basic well cement from surface to 8000 ft depth as manufactured.000 ft depth. Dallas.`. posed during quiescent 2-hour period of free water test (73 * Rate of loading for compressive strength specimens revised 2OF) was approved. Revisions approved in procedure for determining rheological Relationship of Bearden units of consistency between the pres. Intended for use from 6000 ft to 10.” 140°F. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 7L û73229a 0558429 T 3 L CEMENTING HISTORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF API WELL CEMENT STANDARDS 13 TABLE 1. Fourth Edition.” New tentative precision statement approved entitled “State- Name of document designated “API Specification for Materials ment for API Testing. Specifications for fly ash deleted. tors. Type important contributions which have resulted from stan- III) and high sulfate-resistance types. June 15. Information guidelines on fly Specifications revised and approved for oil used as heating and ash inserted in operating test section.. mixing cement slurries (73* 2OF) approved.” and Testing for Well Cements.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Specification for weight loss requirement of l q t mixer propeller Change in temperature requirement to which graduate is ex- blade approved.Spec I O . Intended for use from 10.. proved as tentative.`. Revised procedure approved for “Determination of Rheological Spec 10A Standards and RP 1OB Recommended Practices are Properties Using a Rotational Viscometer. January 1982 (adopted June 1981. under conditions of high temperatures and pres- Classifications sures. “MATERIALS AND TESTING FOR WELL CEMENTS” (1982-1988) ~ 1982.

Spc.````. 105. or water. (MC) Applications. Study (10) (Sept.: API Code 32. 1951). Spring Meeting of the Mid-Continent District. APl Proc. 4.A. Well Simulation Tests Task Group 1952-Saunders.-`-`.. M.`.J.Morgan.” Cementing Practices and Testing of Oil-Well Cements (1O) committee on Standardization of Oil-Well Cements. low freezing in permafrost areas to more than 700’F in resistant types.9 and 1..000 ft. (10) Temperatures Are Needed. Eng. and of the Mid-Continent District.” Spring Meeting Division of Production. It furnishes the manufacturer temperatures.: “Effects of Sodium Chloride on Setting tices.” Mid- (Prod.`.“A Basic Oil Well Cernent. and Nussbaumer.” Spring 1959. 1977-“Cement Blends Can Be Tested for Arctic Environ- 1953. “Testing Oil-Well Cements . D. classifying Portland cement for use in wells.: “Trend in Use of (May 25. Oil and Gas J. 5. 1951). Prac. Oil and Gas J.Dawson. and it assures cium sulfate.Smith.000 ft depth under conditions of extremely high Specifications do. and H are available from manufacturers and dis- TABLE 1. Francis M. however.“New Cement Test Schedules Issued. cements are almost uni. the casing-cement specification tests (Schedules 1.” Oil and Gas J.Roberts. Philadelphia. 1953. Art: “Accurate Bottom-Hole (1O * *) Standardization Committee on Oil-Well Cements. ’MC -Abbreviation for API MidContinent District Committee “10-API Committee 10 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`--- Specifk a tions agency. B. wells drilled for geothermal steam production. Engr: lnfl. API Division of (1O) mittee on Standardization of Oil-Well Cements. (MC”) Properties of Oil-Well Cements.`.” ment is available from American Society for Testing and The chemical and physical requirements of API Materials.Ludwig..: “Effects of High Temperatures and Pres. Division of Pro- Oil-Well Cements. 1980. (10) (July 25. Bull. Although the between the casing and the openhole.C. Prac. pose. 1955. N. Prac.000 ft ments over such broad ranges of depth and pressure. 1955.: “Silica Flour-Mechanism for Improving Ce- 1954-Swayze.W. Continent District Study Committee on Cementing Prac- 1951. 1959). C.” 1951.“The Effects of Drilling-Mud Additives on Oil-Well Ce. a list of properties needed in the product. 1980) 43-48.. PA 19103. shall be interground or ments varying from those at the surface to those at depths blended with the clinker during manufacture of Class H exceeding 30.” API Mid-Continent District 1965..10. 1951). or both. 228. J.8 Cement Properties Covered by API API specifications are not enforced by an official --``. 1953. TX (March 21-23. Committee on Cementing Practices and Testing of Oil- Well Cements (1955). 1972). where temperatures range from be- well cement. 1965). 1953). 1985). All 1965 District Spring Meetings.. (10) 1955.“Report on Cooperative Tests on Sulfate Resistance of 1986. Limitations. cements must be designed for wellbore environ. the distributor. Sec. TX (March 21-23. 1986). and Prod. and Tragesser. API (1954) 72. Well Simulation Tests Task Group 1951. 1958.” Pet. Amarillo. or both. and should be considered as approximate val.W. only A.” Com- Meeting of the Mid-Continent District. C. IV (MC) Cementing Practices in the Mid-Continent District. and Versatility. cation purposes. well cements should have other proper- ues. use of the API monogram indicates that In well completion operations.```````. No additions of retarder other than cal. Available in moderate and high sulfate. 2.: “API Specification for Oil Well Cements. Bull. 1985-API Geothermal Paper.M. functions down-hole. Midyear Meeting of the vision of Production.: “Accomplishments and Objectives of API 1972-Shel1. June 16. the manufacturer has agreed to make cement according to versally used to displace the drilling mud to fill space the specifications outlined in API Spec 10. however. (Aug. (MC) Low-Weight Cement Slurries. 1916 Race Street. In addition.B. and the *Depth limits are based on the conditions imposed by consumer. to 16. mittee on RP lOB. Midyear 1977. Although these properties describe cements for specifi- 6. API defines nine different classes of cement.B-SUMMARY . 8. 1.````.” Oil and Gas J. R.`. 1977) 22-30. Classes of cements as defined in API Spec 10 are shown in Tables 1.: “Modern Oil-Well Cementing Op.” API Mid-Continent District Study Committee on 1959.” Sym. C. Meeting of the Division of Production. F. and Prod. API (1958) 83. committee on RP lOB.`. 228) (1941) 84-85. API. Prod. it greatly simplifies cornmuni- well cement. (MC) Drill.K. 1977). Amarillo. Division of Production.“A Survey of Field Squeeze Cementing Operations. Sub- (Sept. (Dec. G. API (March 6-8.” Symposium on Oil-Well Cements. API (June 16. cation among the manufacturer. Wichita. Specifications do not cover all the properties of ce- Class J. 11.: “API Revised Procedures. 1959). Drill. / Y “Report of Special 1955-“A Study of Surface Casing and Open-Hole Plugback Subcommittee on Oil-Well Cements” API Proc. (Feb. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Intended for use as manufactured from 12.SIGNIFICANT PAPERS ON STANDARDIZATION EFFORTS DEVELOPED BY API COMMITTEE 10 AND THE OLD API MID-CONTINENT DISTRICT COMMITTEE 1941-APl Prod.” Pet. (1O) erations.. duction (Feb. embody a realistic method of temperatures and pressures or can be used with accelera. ~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 07322’70 0558430 753 14 CEMENTING calcium sulfate or water. 9). API. shall be interground or the purchaser that the product meets certain minimum blended with the clinker during manufacture of Class J requirements.” Second Annual Meeting. (March 16. lntl. 22. 1954) 103.Beirute. March 23-24-25.. (10) menting Composition for High Temperature Well Condi- (MC) sures on Strengths of Oil Well Cements. (1O) ments.” API Standardization Commit- Study Committee on Cementing Practices and Testing of (10) tee 10. KS (March 1952). by specify- tors and retarders to cover a range of well depths and ing the required properties. tions.. F.D. (Feb. To serve this pur.`.” API Mid-Continent Dist. API Division of Production.“A Survey of Field Casing Cementing Operations. Subcom- Production.Anderson. Di- posium on Oil-Well Cements. BE. (MC) Cements and Additives. (10) ments.” Drill. ties and characteristics to provide for their necessary ASTM C 150: Standard Specification for Portland ce.

O equivalent) shall be calculated by the formula: Na.F) = (2.75 0.-`-`.. maximum 3.) plus twice 24 24 the tricalcium aluminate (3CaO*AI. maximum 6. ' When the tricalcium aluminate content (expressed as C.43 x OO / Fe203). maximum 3.75 0.O-CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS* FOR API CEMENTS Percent Reauired bv Cement Class G H Ordinary (O) Magnesium oxide (MgO). maximum - * Methods covering the chemical analyses of hydraulic cements are described in ASTM C114: Standard Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement.O.`.* Fe. maximum2 58 58 minimum2 48 48 Tricalcium aluminate (3CaO*A1203).75 Tricalcium silicate (3CaO*SiO.10 x O10 Alzo.60 x O10 SiO.O Equivalent = (0. maximum2 3 3 Tetracalcium aluminoferrite (4CaO*AI. maximum _____ Sulfur trioxide (SO. maximum ___-. to Fe.69 x Oh Fe203) C.85 x 010 SO.64.60 x 010 90. maximum 3.75 0. maximum _____ _____ Insoluble residue.S = (4.03).maximum2 Total alkali content expressed as sodium oxide 0.`.0 Sulfur trioxide (SO.O.F)] is formed and the compounds shall be calculated as follows: ss (C.)...) (2.85 x 010 SO.(6.72 x OO / Alzo3).07 x O/o Cao) .). _____ Tricalcium aluminate (C3CaO*AI.`.O) equivalent.O.04 x 010 Fe.0 6.) The sodium oxide equivalent (expressed as Na.AF + C.A) of the Class A cement is 8% or less. ratio is greater than 0.658 x 010 K. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558Y3L b 9 T CEMENTING HISTORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF API WELL CEMENT STANDARDS 15 TABLE 1...O.75 0.`.0 6.(2.0 3.(4.65 x 010 Alzo. content shall be 3%. an iron-alumina-calciumsolid solution [expressed as (C. When the ratio of the percentagesof AI. maximum2 65 65 minimum2 48 48 Tricalcium aluminate (3CaO*AI.) . maximum2 Total alkali content expressed as sodium oxide 0.O Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.).(7. maximum' _____ _____ Loss on ignition.```````.70 x 010 Fe.O.)+ (1.(7. maximum2 ----_ _____ Moderate Sulfate-Resistant (MSR) Magnesium Oxide (MgO).AF + C.0 Sulfur trioxide (SO.0 3.O) equivalent.A = (2. the maximum CO.O) + % Na.````.) and C. the compounds shall be calculated as follows: C.75 Tricalcium silicate (3CaO*SiO.). maximum 0.64.(2.S = (4. is less than 0. maximum3 High Sulfate-Resistant (HSR) Magnesium oxide (MgO).0 3.(1.O.48 x 010 Alzo.````.07 x 010 Cao) . maximum 0.).) .0 Insoluble residue.`.0 Loss on ignition.75 (Na. to Fe.`--- are actually or entirely present as such compounds.0 Insoluble residue.75 (Na.) - .O.). 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .`. maximum 3. C. maximum 6. The expression of chemical limitations by means of calculated assumed compounds does not necessarily mean that the oxides --``.0 Loss on ignition.O.0 3.) When the ratio of Alzo.AF = 3.O.86 x Fe203).(1.)..

80 0. percentage equivalent of 3. Schedule Bc5 Minimum Thickening Time. maximum. 010 46 46 56 38 38 38 44 38 ‘ Soundness (autoclave expansion). Strength Test. ’ Maximum thickening time requirement for Schedule 5 is 120 minutes.’ most of the well cement Much of the industry’s current capability to design a used is API Class G (Canada. able set of requirements for well cements. __ _. which is The same dedication of purpose is still in evidence marketed in the California and Rocky Mountain areas. m2/kg Free water content..80 0. apparatus.. Thickening time requirements are based on 75 percentile values of the total cementing time observed in the casing survey. well cement slurry is the direct result of the standardiza- South America.S.’ Approximately 80% of the ce. --``. those most widely used.. Minute cation Stirring Test Period. :ributed in the USA. service companies.80 0.`. continent operations).5 mL is 1. to prepare a practical. The mmber of API classes has been the result of the cooperative effort during the past leen reduced to the point that API Classes G and H are several decades of personnel from producing companies. __ Temperature 30 Thickening 30 Time Test 30 I ’ Water as recommended by the manufacturer.80 0.80 0.. testing and field operations. Europe. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .80 0. 4s 170 3000 24-Hour 6s 230 3000 Curing 8s 290 3000 Time 9s 320 3000 1os 350 3000 Maximum Consistency 15-30 Speci. Bearden units of slurry consistency (Bc).`. tion of laboratory equipment and testing procedures and tute less than 1% of the worldwide down-hole market.lo-PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR API CEMENTS Well Cement Class A B C D E F G H J’ Water by weight of well cement.9 Current and Future Development Current and future standardization studies under in- of API Standards for Well Cements vestigation include (1) revision of cementing temperature The development of API standards for well cements has schedules based on well cementing field data.80 ---- Fineness* (specific surface).53 ---- Curing Curing Schedule Temp Pressure Number. minutes’ Pressure 30 90 90 90 -.`. Determined by Wagner turbidimeter apparatus described in ASTM C 115: Fineness of Fbrîiand Cement by the Turbidimeter Based on 250 mL volume. 150 160 220 ____ ____ ____ ____ __I minimum. ___ 140 Atmos. 3. the availability of laboratory facilities for testing at simu- lated down-hole cementing conditions.`. Strength Test.53 3. who are well qualified.`.```````.S. Middle East..````. standards have evolved and have been planned by people ufactured in the U.80 0. maximum O/o 0. (2) devel- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. work- is API Class H (mostly in the Gulf Coast and mid. These ment used in wells in non-Communist countries is man.`. 1.`--- In international operations. A R 1 T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732290 0558432 526 16 CEMENTING TABLE 1 . plus a 25% Safety factor. by experience in both laboratory Approximately 65% of the well cement made in the U. and cement manufacturers. ‘ compressive strength afier 7 days shall be no less than the 24-hour compressive strength on Schedule 10s. ml ____ ____ ____ ____ ---. and Far East). today in the refinement of API test methods and equip- The remaining well cement used is either Class A (10%) ment and the development of new API standards and or Class C (109’0). Specialty cements’ consti. and 15% is API Class G.4%.-`-`. and falls within these two classes. 12-Hour 8s 290 3000 Curing Time Curing Curing Schedule Temp Pressure Number..````. (OF) (Psi) Compressive ___ 1O0 Atmos. 8-Hour 6s 230 3000 Curing 8s 290 3000 Time 9s 320 3000 Compressive Strength Test. (OF) (Psi) Compressive ___ 1O0 Atmos. ---.

C. Fourth Edition.: “Microscopic Method Helps As- ing equipment required to conduct thickening time. W. (1924). G. Chapters 2 and 4. 1..” Oil and GasJ.````. International Trade Press Inc. 9. Skokie. Prac.`. and chemistry of Port. B.`.`.. New York (1959). 72. IL (1958). Study Committee on Cementing nual basis using a manufacturer’s API Class G or Class Practices and Testing of Oil-We11 Cements (1954). API. (1958) 83-90.: “Practical Oilwell Cement Micros- with the procedures specified in API Spec 10.” Proc. manufacture. Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement (London) (1952). 4 SPE Henry L. 10. compressive strength. are beneficial to the oil and gas industry.```````. 1983).. of the program is placed on controls.: Cementing. 11. Fort Worth.’ also presented.: History of the Portland Cement Industry in the tions after a simulated placement time.” API.H. Re- conducts a voluntary. Cement Association. terested oil industry and cement manufacturers possess. H. Hansen.W.`..E. 6. API Spec JO.K. H basic cement. and Panarese.-`-`.” API Drilling and Prod.J. “Oil-Well Cementing Practices in the United States. and Weigand. 1. Smith. NY and Richardson. Conference on Cement Microscopy. IL (1988). Bogue.lO Summary 12. (4) revision of current standard static fluid. dure for a stirring device that allows measurement of the 2. E. and free water tests in accordance 8. and governmental regulatory bodies. W. Portland Cement Association. W. Putnam’s Sons. API opment of API well cement standardization documents is (1939) 567-91. sess Cement Performance. 1985).C. Drilling and Prod Prac. Caveny. cement manu. (5) development of new test proce. Significant contributions and papers on 14. filtration rates of a cement slurry under down-hole condi- 3. cooperative test program on an an. Prac.J. API TITLE WORLDWIDE 71 m onzau 05513433 462 m CEMENTING HISTORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF API WELL CEMENT STANDARDS i7 opment of a recommended practice for the calibration of ments and the old API Mid-Continent District Commit- cement bond-logging tools using a test facility at Texas tee are presented and summarized for future reference.” Bulletin 93.: The Chemistry ofPorrland Cement. (Sept.`. Emphasis copy. “Specification for Materials and Tesring for Well standardization efforts made over the past several decades Cements. Gonnerman. W. R. A historical review of the devel. Research Department. Third International facturers.: “Oil Well Cements.H. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . R.: “Cooperative Study on Strength of Set Cement ments also has under its jurisdiction a task group which Cured at High Temperatures. Lesley. lishing Company (1947).`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.````. TX (1987).A.J. (3) preparation of a trade journal ar- ticle for standardization of pressure-temperature curing References equipment.F.: The Magic Powder.. New York (1945). M.W. Caveny. Skokie. Dallas (August 1988). Do- recommended tightening of controls in Spec 10 which herty Series. D. Swayze. and Requirements. W. by API Committee 10 on Standardization of Well Ce- --``. and Weigand. and (6) revision of United States. port for Mid-Continent Dist.`. W. The program is open worldwide to in. W. Reinhold Pub- loss test procedure. Monograph Vol. Morgan. Kosmatka.: “Cement for Oil Wells: Status of Testing Meth- ods and Summary of Properties:’ Drill. 7. Hadley.. land cement is reviewed.. 5.: “API Specification for Oil-Well Cement. the Spec 10 document to meet the challenges posed by 4. P.: “Development of Cement Performance Tests the new upgraded API Ql quality specification program.” 1985 Int’l. Robinson. 26.” API The early history. 13. Portland The API Committee on Standardization of Well Ce.: Design and Control of Con- crete Mixtures. A&M University. S. test procedures and T X (March 25-28. and Prod.

..... 21 Selecting Slurry Density ...........1 Introduction ........................... 27 2.................`................... Smith INDEX SUBJECT PAGE 2.......3 Cement Slurry Density ....................4 Thickening Time Testing ........................````......... 29 2.............11 Job Execution ........7 Fluid-Loss Testing ........ 19 2.................................................... 23 Down-hole Pressure ................ 31 2.. 22 2.. 29 --``..........`...... 20 Casing Setting Depths .-`-`..................... 30 2....... 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .................................2 Cement Job Planning and Design .10 Bulk Blending .......`....5 Compressive Strength Testing ...........9 Rheology Determination .......... 23 2................... 32 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale........8 Free Water Testing .......................`.. 30 2.............................. API T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91i 07322îCl 055A434 3 T î Chapter 2 Cement Job Planning author Robert C... 31 2.......................................12 Job Monitoring ............ 19 2.............````............. 30 2............. 23 Cementing Temperature ..........`.........`.................................................................6 Permeability .........```````....13 Quality Control ......`--- 2................

^ Steps total. they contribute to successful cementing. Wellbore Geometry. and the drilling contractor. production.. of employees of the service company. and (6) selecting initial Frequent contacts and checks must be made with the slurry design for testing. displacement flow regime. (4)determining whether specific condi- tion must begin far in advance of reaching casing setting tions exist that require fluid loss control.`. drilling contractor. the first planning meeting with service prevention. gas migration depth. with a BS degree in engineering from the University of Wyoming. and types of exposed formations (such as necessary to handle the many quality control measures salt). quires special attention and offers many challenges. To assure proper job planning and requirements and is affected by well depth.`. etc. This includes wellbore geometry.````. and displacement require. Before a cement slurry can be ments. fluid loss. etc. which starts with planning and leading to successful slurry design are (1) determining design. He joined Amoco in 1957 as a petroleum engineer.1 Introduction job. continues through blending and mixing cement. and kind of cement.. Equipment requirements and spotting on designed. information about the wellbore must be col- location are included. about a week before the lected. manner from one slurry property to the next until all well Engineering the design of the cementing job to fit well requirements are fulfilled. service company regarding slurry design. mud weight. type and quality of mix water. Finally. mud and gas channels have been perma- nently prevented. of drilling mud. A properly engineered slurry design satisfies . packers. A successful primary cementing opera- well preparation.'. Planning in these other areas must be coor- 2. and secondary recovery operations in Wyoming and west Texas. The design proceeds in a logical pany engineers. Detailed planning of the cementing opera. the author of numerous publications and patents. tor and flow regime (Chapter 4).'S2 Each area re- tion requires careful coordination and control of many factors. between the casing and the formation throughout the The major areas of consideration in job planning are slurry design. strength devel- pany. and circulating). The literature contains proce- requirements takes time. safety fac- company personnel is held a few weeks before the job. and operator) is required to part on a good primary cementing job. He retired from Amoco Production Co. In a high-quality review the entire cementing operation. (2) determining the down-hole fracture pressure for required in each of these areas. down-hole fracture pressure.. cement and culminates in pumping cement. type of mud. beginning with job planning.all well The Team Effort.`.`.. (5) estimating pumping time. and slurry pumping.Smith Robert C.```````.. and past chairman of the 1988 SPE Forum series meeting on primary cementing.-`-`. He is a registered professional engineer (Oklahoma). wellbore geometry. blending of bulk materials. Chapter 2 Cement Job Planning --``. OK. primarily in the field of cementing.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . he has been engaged in basic research on well completion and repair. type and density cooperation must be established early among all parties. in 1989 after 32 years service. centralizers.`.`--- By: Robert C. (3) determining the down-hole temperature (static Planning. gas migration. Safety meetings and detailed briefings are held on location before each cement job. slurry density. pumping time. The team consists temperature. zones of interest. 2.. engineered concept. This chapter dis. the operating com. Smith is a well cementing consultant in Inola.. mud weight.````. All personnel must apply the dures for determining most of these proper tie^. Communication and opment. For the past 21 years. a team effort is essential. The previous 11 years he specialized in drilling. down-hole slurry design. Ideally. a major meeting involving all participants (service The producing performance of a well depends in great company. planned m k - ing and pumping schedules. A team effort is column height. selecting maximum slurry density and maximum pump rate. slurry mixing. and brand particularly between drilling engineers and service com. and there is a complete hydraulic seal operation. cusses the important aspects of job planning and how Other aspects of job planning (discussed in Chapter 3 ) include casing equipment such as floats.2 Cement Job Planning and Design dinated with overall job planning. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.

. strength can not be accurately measured in situ. menting. Of utmost impor. It seems possible that during normal drilling opera- tions the formation could be broken unintentionally 2. stress coefficient. Figure 2. fracture initi- It is imperative that the cementable wellbore not be ation pressure was about 450 psi or 1 lblgal higher than sacrificed in the efforts to reduce drilling days and mud fracture extension pressure.`. . .. well. . .. Lost production and lost re.`. tentative should be considered the maximum safe pressure for ce- decisions must be made about casing seats. (2) as nearly gauge as possible that show the difference between fracture initiation pres- (without washouts). Qowing.2-The cementable wellbore. 20 CEMENTING Ccinplete Cement Sheath without Mud cf Gas Channels . Therefore. However. . menting job. this extra pressure due to rock savings in drilling costs. type of mud. .3 presents two formation control capability tests mum is 11/2 in.````.) . pore pressure. The formation fracture pressure at maximum slurry density on the basis of initiation pres- the last casing point or at weak formations must be sure could easily lead to lost circulation during the ce- known to enable optimization of cement slurry density.. comes imperative.1-Objectives of a primary cementing job. optimize the casing and drilling plan. as given by the following expre~sion:~-~ sure. . .. and types of forma. 2. tensile strength of the exposed rocks. . mud weights. If these tion pressure. remained essentially unchanged. . yet fracture extension pressure on the two tests all plans. and lithology is required not only to --``. . (Fig. . (2. cement column height. It should not be confused with fracture initia- within the cement sheath must be prevented. Note on tioned (without sloughing.```````.1) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. the outside diameter of the casing (the absolute mini. the fracture extension pressure During the planning stage of drilling a well. It be- begins long before the well is drilled. 2. and (4)stabilized and properly condi.`. . Fig. In Test 1. 2. and matrix drilling. but also to provide tions exposed to the wellbore. since rock signed and drilled to be cementable. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . therefore.p. The wellbore should meet for a successful cementing job. Sufficient knowledge of formation fracture pres. . the wellbore must be de. total hydrostatic pressure at which exposed formations tive of obtaining complete zonal isolation in the wellbore will fracture. . . pore pressure. Designing for Fracture Pressure. . Test 2 the absence of a breakdown or fracture initiation tion). Casing setting depths certain requirements to be cementable and achieve the must be selected to prevent lost circulation problems and desired objectives. or losing circula. for the designer to know the tance in all planning and drilling decisions is the objec. Drillers must keep these requirements foremost in pressure. This portion of cement job planning to permit proper control of the well at all times. at the same time. 2.1).D + 3” Properly Conditioned Hole & Mud No Sloughing Cement Bonded Gauge Diameter To Fwmations Straight As Possible Cement Bonded No Flow No Lost Circulation Fig. .-`-`. formation fracture pressure is de- cement and the casing and between the cement and the fined for cementing purposes as the fracture extension formation.`. ..3 Cement Slurry Density without its being indicated at the surface. which is usually higher because of the goals are to be accomplished. strength can no longer be counted on for control of the serves must also be included in any analysis of costs.`. larger than initiation pressure can not be predicted very accurately. (3) as straight as possible (without sure and fracture extension pressure. The cost of repairing the cement job can far exceed mation has been broken. The ideal cement. . It appears that once the for- costs. and cementing requirements. fracture able wellbore (Fig. ducted about 1 hour apart on an 8000-ft well. A hydraulic seal must be obtained between the For safe operations.`.`--- pf = pp + K (S. The tests were con- severe doglegs).````. . mud and gas channels pressure. The decisions become Formation fracture pressure is affected by the interrela- more firm as more information becomes available during tionship of overburden stress.2) is one that is (1) 3 in.

1.4. field rules. 2. formation pore pressure.24) 2500 I1 Fracture Initiation Ressure 'c Shut-In Pore Pressure a D 8000 10000 12000 ' 0 2 4 6 2 4 (32) í. Casing Setting Depths. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0558437 O O B CEMENT JOB PLANNING 21 '17. 2." Fig. it is back-calculated from Eq..`. Care must be exercised in developing empirical correlations for stress coefficient. Also. Assuming an overbalanced drilling situation. casing pressure using Eq.-`-`. 2. and (2) established field rules. however reliable values for Poisson's ratio are not always available.```````.. the matrix stress coefficient (K) guidelines must be followed in selecting the final casing must be determined from actual destructive testing of the string setting depth and size program. Fig. 2. the regulatory body having jurisdiction over the drilling tained from formation density logs. I where: pr = formation fracture pressure. psi.W i.4-Formation fracture pressure onshore. selected to ensure that the well can be controlled and that So. An updated procedure for determin- g 6000- F i Mud Weight n 4 Drilling Liner ing down-hole fracture pressure from which maximum 8000 .`. Maximum and minimum obtained for overburden stress.. the fracture pressure gradient must be adjusted for EQUIVALENT MUD WEIGHT.`.. pn must be the value of fracture 2000 - extension pressure determined in the destructive test. lost circulation can be prevented during both drilling and K = matrix stress coefficient. dimensionless.. cementing. Overburden stress is ob.95) SHUT-IN TIME. Casing .`. a correlation has been devel- --``.5. and drilling area.1 when the other parameters are known. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . psi. The value of for.5-Casing setting depths.. Usually. 2. representative estimates must be seats can be selected (Fig. 12000 Notice that overburden stress. is not constant. these requirements. as shown in Fig. 2. setting depths for surface casing are often dictated by (1) and matrix stress coefficient." However. hydraulic fracturing. = overburden stress.`--- 4000 .`.3-Formation control capability tests. for offshore applica- 14000â 10 12 14 16 18 tion. psi.`. often given for pressure gradients for the other casing line log parameters and measured pore pressures for the strings.````. PSliíi bbl (m3) Fig. Casing setting depths must be pp = formation pore pressure. a mud weight curve is established.. MINUTES PRESSURE GRADIENT. 2. 2.. Also. or formation control capability testing at the casing shoe where the formation was fractured) or from leakoff test data. and pore pressure is area.I W 0 slurry density can be obtained is presented in Reference 8. which is calculated from density logs. formation @e. therefore. guidelines are usually obtained from empirical correlations using wire.5).````. An example curve representing a calculated onshore fracture pressure gradient in relation to curves of over- burden stress and pore pressure is shown in Fig. For I Intermediate some active drilling areas. mation fracture pressure. VOLUME PUMPED. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.8 \ j Sometimes Poisson's ratio' is used in place of the stress I coefficient.I Recsure oped by Matthews and Matthews. Ib/GAL depth of water and height of mud return line above water levei. To obtain a reasonable prediction of formation fracture From this curve and the fracture pressure curve.

considerable effort. 1 Conventional lightweight cement additives are impor- tant in lowering cement slurry density to prevent fractur- ing down-hole formations and to decrease slurry costs. onshore that of Fig. LB/SACK Many well situations require densities lower than those attainable with the above conventional high water addi- Fig. 2.6-Density range of cement slurries. For a casing program like shore conductor and surface pipe operations. has certain properties which are directly affected by additives and additional water.5. The most important of these properties is reduced strength.7 also shows above. Stage tools are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. this increase in density must be of a generalized grouping of cements ranging from neat (with no additives) to cements variously weighted with additives that alter density.. Shallow formations like those encountered in off- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. increase yield and reduce density by allowing use of high concentrations of mix water. These products allow achievement of in-situ hydrostatic head of the required cement column. 2. Ultra lightweight additives" production liner.`. the usable minimum slurry density for conventional additives is about 11. are used to extend a cement.8 shows slurry density versus glass bubble in successful cementation of the well. other non-API cements. and in some cases even for stage tool as it is for the long string cementing described perforating opposite pay zones. tives. Le. slurry densities as low as 7 lblgal and perhaps lower. strength characteristics of some ultra lightweight glass Determination of optimum slurry density involves bubble slurries. A neat cement system (ce- ment and API water requirement). Fig. (2) ceramic bubbles. and (3) nitrogen to foam the If the down-hole fracture pressure will not support the cement.`--- Selecting Slurry Density. however. 2.7.. require losing circulation would be (1) about 17..5 lblgal for the densities as low as 7 lblgal.. Since some mi- the nine API classes of cement.5 lblgal. 22 CEMENTING l6 r 24 Hours . cate). and (3) 11..6 shows slurry densities slurry density increases.````..-`-`. the maximum slurry density to prevent coal seams. and naturally fractured formations. 2. vantages and properties. diatomaceous earth. Figure 2.`. concentrations for two glass bubbles.5 to 12. These additives. Laboratory testing will deter- mine the upper and lower limits for application. as shown in Fig.7-Conventional and ultra lightweight cements. crospheres are crushed as pressure is applied in the well. 16.````.`.. one for shallow A wide range of slurry densities can be obtained using wells and one for extremely deep wells.8 lb/gal tail-in slurry for the intermediate string. but the extra effort can pay dividends Figure 2. strength of these lower density cements is more than The process of selecting slurry density is the same for a adequate to support casing.`.Conventional Slurry î 14 - a 3 2 12 - Ecn z w L3 10 - *O 500 1000 1500 2000 CEMENT SYSTEMS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (PSI) Fig. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . such as bentonite.```````. The eration should be given to using stage cementing tools. --``. (2) nearly 15 lblgal for the drilling developed for these applications include (1) hollow mi- liner. GLASS BUBBLES.`. and various additive^.^ Figure 2. and sodium silicate.8-Glass bubble concentration versus density.5 lblgal filler slurry followed by crospheres such as glass bubbles @oro or sodium sili- 15. the strength reduction associated with lower density is significant. Each group has distinct ad-. consid." Based on compressive strength development.`. 2.

Fig. in Section 2. the best potentiometer..2 0. and a pseudo BHST (bottomhole cement slurry can be exposed to down-hole temperature --``. Fig. are drastically affected by down. and liner cementing. (2) strength development. To illustrate breakage that since the effect of pressure on the thickening time of of bubbles.````.. 2.10-Casing and liner cementing techniques.1 and are shown graphically in Fig. as shown in Fig. proper laboratory job simulations The API’ has developed. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Cementing Temperature. Sources of down-hole temperature measure used to designate the consistency of a cement information are primary well logs.`. 2. However. calibration procedure for the high-pressure consistometer Horner plots. It is emphasized before running and cementing casing (Fig. which is defined as the fore important to know down-hole temperature as accu- elapsed time from initial mixing of the cement with wa. 2.000 psi for the high strength bubble. Several tests with varying concentrations of 1. followed next fluid.`. These relation- cement retarders are usually required until an adequate ships have been expanded for this presentation to make pumping time is obtained.9°F/100 ft and for depths to 20. These schedules are discussed In all cementing operations. and local practices. . Class G cement with Fig. These data are presented in Table 2. the most time than does pressure. Accurate knowledge of down.. unlike pressure. I ~ ment slurry thickening time. and third. This unit is a torque-weight equivalent in the tures during circulation surveys prior to cementing. retarder. Pressure can be easily observe the change in bubble concentration. A Bearden Unit is a dimensionless unit of ways readily available.```````. To use the API charts.9.1 1). 2. The API pseudo curves on Fig. it is incorrect to refer to its viscosity in poise.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Down-hole cementing tem- ology. Notice that as down-hole pressure with down-hole recording tools run on the drillpipe just increases. (4) fluid loss rate. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558439 9 8 0 CEMENT JOB PLANNING 23 accounted for in the design phase.`. a pseudo BHST rather than mulation. To select a cement composition that will have adequate The Horner plot method and local practices can be inac- pumping time in the down-hole environment for casing curate and must be used with caution.. the thickening time decreases. which were developed for a Class G BHST are the maximum shut-in temperatures measured cement with retarder. For all U W- E 3 Ga W n 3 ! I- 3 o E o Y P O E O 0. ( 3 ) permeability.````. and ( 6 )free water. The typical effect of pressure on cement slurry true static temperature is required because API measured thickening time can be observed from the family of values are not true static temperatures. liner cementing operations.8 shows the bubble concentration re. . rately as possible.9 to and pressure.000 fi. Since a cement slurry is a non-Newtonian source is a bottomhole circulation survey.`--- static temperature) for temperature gradients of 0. 2.000 it based on API data. it is important to include down-hole pres- pare the top curve with the second curve at O psi to sure in any lab simulations made.3. O to 20. Com. ties. perature has a greater influence on reducing thickening hole temperature and pressure.4 Thickening Time Testing be used in cement testing.’’ Of these. from actual well measure- must be made.’. the simulation is conducted in a ments. measured tempera- slurry. any given slurry may be completely different than shown quired at 10.. 2. Of these.. so the by using API schedules in conjunction with primary well dimensionless Bearden Unit is actually a viscosity index.9. It is there- important is thickening time. relationships between BHCT (bottomhole ce- high-pressure.. (1) thickening time (pumping time). the cement slurry proper.`. high-temperature consistometer where the menting temperature). or standard pressure schedules developed by the API’ can 2.10 for casing and Down-hole Pressure. the ter to achievement of a final consistency of 100 Bearden down-hole circulating temperature for testing is not al- Units (Bc). the API gradients. in this figure. Usually.4 0. 2.-`-`. (5) rhe. hole pressure is required for laboratory consistometer si.8 1 THICKENING TIME --. API data. estimated from drilling mud weight and cement density. logs of 24 hours or longer shut-in.`.9-Effect of temperature and pressure on Ce. . The expansion to include more determine down-hole temperature and pressure to use in gradients was made with a simple interpolation between the lab tests.6 0.. but first it is necessary to them more complete.

primary well logs and API data.0 for the BHST. For each of the temperatures.377 for the first log time of 14. true static formation tem. ..000 ft has a BHLT (bottom. .543 for the second log time of 28.. . therefore.1 at 12..5 hours shut-in and moving vertically to a temperature gradient of 1. .-`-`. Similar BHCT and pseudo BHST data for many wells were correlated with At/(T + At). OF1100 ft the cement slurry and long WOC (waiting-on-cement) BHLT = Bottomhole log temperature. ratio of 1. Ø. criterion for the technique is the straight-line relation- utes. .. . Measured log By entering Fig. perature.10 can be used for ature measured during logging operations. The straight determining BHCT. the well had been circulated for 24 hours during testing is found to be 207OF. . where menting temperatures. CIRCULATING TIME. Prior to shut-in for log- left to the Y-axis. temperature measurement.80)/(depth/100) . .6OFI line between at least two points is extrapolated to a log 100 ft is calculated from the fohowing equation. static temperature.. hole log temperature) of 272'F after 24 hours shut-in since the last mud circulation. An example will illustrate the use of well logs and API At = shut-in time since last circulation ceased for temperature data for determining BHCT for use in ce. then read 207°F BHCT.1 1-API circulation temperature survey. . ature versus the ratio of ature had nearly stabilized at 197'F. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .`--- 180 o 1 2 3 4 5 . /' E 0 / I 0 /# --``.6.800 ft. the circulating temper. 2. job. 2. the shut-in time since the The Horner method is still used bv some to arrive at a last mud circulation averaged 31 hours (range was 7 to 76 BHST.5 hours shut-in. the BHCT should be used in cement ging.`. .800 ít. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. wells included in the API data.000 ft and move to calculate a ratio of 0. hours.14 a BHST is calculated from at perature must not be used with API data. least two temperature measurements taken at different An example of temperatures measured during a field shut-in times at the same depth during logging opera- survey from which the API charts were developed is tions. a comparison is made between the Horner plot.3) temperature gradient and depth to develop the API ce. Notice that after ship (on semilog paper) of maximum bottomhole temper- about 4 hours of circulation time. Table 2.800 ft casing cement Depth = Well depth of measured tem.`. . hours and 0.1 or Fig. . O F In the following example for a 17. circulation of the well was begun..`. . .10 at 12. The corresponding BHCT determined where by using the BHST calculated from the Horner plot will Temperature gradient = Temperature change with be much higher also and will result in overretardation of depth.3 is used to easier to use. HOURS I Fig.`. Fig. . In the Horner method. . ft. The log of the above ratio is plotted versus linear temper- menting.000 ft on the X-axis and temperatures were 264'F after 14. . For casing or liner ce. then 283'F after 28. A temperature gradient of 1. . hours ment testing. Eq. (2. . . 2.5 hours. The basic shut-in temperature (pseudo BHST) for about 15 min.2) using API charts. .12-Horner plot. .1 is drilling. Enter Table 2. This hours) when the temperature was measured.6 gradient.````. 24 A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 71 O732270 0558440 b T 2 = CEMENTING L! 3431 L ? Extrapolated to 315°F BHST 5 320- u 0 # U /' i 300.`. . After monitoring the bottomhole lar to Horner's pressure buildup technique. which is then used to determine a BHCT. . It uses an analytical extrapolation technique simi- shown in Fig. A well at 12. 2.11.5 right to 1.`.```````. A much method is inappropriate for using API temperatures and longer shut-in time than this is required to reach true schedules but is described here so the reader may beware. . The BHST calculated by the Horner method is always significantly higher than the pseudo-BHST required for Temperature gradient = (BHLT . and an actual down-hole circulating survey for determining BHCT. times. . either Table 2. (2. . 2. . In this case. 2. .````. . depth 12. depth 17. T = circulation time prior to shut-in.

BOTTOMHOLECEMENTING TEMPERATURE BY DEPTH3 Temperature Gradient.. This BHCT is 40" higher than The corresponding BHCT is 24OoF. that the Horner method should not be used be made using the 28.o . for a BHST of 314°F. CEMENT JOB PLANNING A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 = 0732298 0558441 539 25 TABLE 2.`.1 .13..0 - Depth Temp* .`.````. an API BHCT of 277°F is shown the 1.4 ~ 1. 2. .1 or 3 15°F. 1. followed 50 hours shut-in for logging operations.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .3 temperature gra.000 BHCT 176 191 207 222 242 261 275 289 307 325 344 363 382 BHLT 216 233 250 267 284 301 318 335 352 369 386 403 420 --``.13).1.. Fig.000 BHCT 165 176 187 199 214 230 241 252 266 280 298 317 335 BHLT 200 215 230 245 260 275 290 305 320 335 350 365 380 16.1 and 1.1 .5 1.000 BHCT 170 183 197 210 228 245 258 270 286 302 321 340 359 BHLT 208 224 240 256 272 288 304 320 336 352 368 384 400 17. This comparison confirms.000 BHCT 150 155 160 165 175 185 191 197 207 217 232 247 262 BHLT 176 188 200 212 224 236 248 260 272 284 296 308 320 13.`.`. 1.000 BHCT 139 141 144 146 152 158 163 167 174 180 190 200 21o BHLT 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 11.7 1.2°/100 ft temperature gradient at 18. 2. O F 1O00 BHCT 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 BHLT 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1O0 2000 BHCT 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 91 BHLT 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 3000 BHCT 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 BHLT 104 107 110 113 116 119 122 125 128 131 134 137 140 4000 BHCT 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 105 BHLT 112 116 120 124 128 132 136 140 144 148 152 156 160 5000 BHCT 105 106 106 107 108 109 1o9 110 111 112 113 115 117 BHLT 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 6000 BHCT 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 123 126 129 BHLT 128 134 140 146 152 158 164 170 176 182 188 194 200 7000 BHCT 118 119 120 122 124 126 127 129 131 133 138 143 148 BHLT 136 143 150 157 164 171 178 185 192 199 206 213 220 8000 BHCT 125 126 128 129 132 135 138 140 143 146 153 160 167 BHLT 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 9000 BHCT 132 134 136 138 142 147 150 154 158 163 172 180 189 BHLT 152 161 170 179 188 197 206 215 224 233 242 25 1 260 10.`.000 BHCT 155 162 169 176 188 200 208 215 226 238 254 270 286 BHLT 184 197 210 223 236 249 262 275 288 30 1 314 327 340 14.2). BHLT is the bottomhole log temperature after 24 . as do many others not in- A better estimate (than the Horner plot) of BHCT can cluded here.000 BHCT 182 199 217 234 256 277 293 308 328 347 366 385 404 BHLT 224 242 260 278 296 314 332 350 368 386 404 422 440 19. 2. The log of these values versus measured temperature is 283OF and the API charts. an API BHCT can be interpolated between dient (from Eq.000 BHCT 193 215 237 259 286 312 330 348 370 392 412 431 45 1 BHLT 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 + BHCT is the bottomhole circulating temperature. 2. Since the shut-in time is more plotted in Fig.6 - -1.-`-`. .````. The 6-hour circulation survey survey (Fig. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale..3 1.`.000 BHCT 187 207 227 247 271 295 31 1 328 349 370 389 408 427 BHLT 232 251 270 289 308 327 346 365 384 403 422 44 1 460 20. which compares the circulation survey BHCT of 237°F shown for the very closely with the 237OF measured on the circulation same well on Fig. OF/lOO ft Well 0. 1.000 BHCT 160 169 178 187 201 215 224 233 246 258 276 293 31 1 BHLT 192 206 220 234 248 262 276 290 304 318 332 346 360 15. 2.1 and a 1.8 0. Referring to Table 2.8 .10..5-hour shut-in log temperature of for determining BHCT from the API data for cement testing.0 yields a BHST of BHST for cementing purposes.```````. this BHLT can be considered a pseudo these two points to a log ratio of 1. 2.`--- 18. From either Table 2.000 BHCT 144 148 152 156 164 172 177 182 190 199 21 1 224 236 BHLT 168 179 190 201 212 223 234 245 256 267 278 289 300 12.9 .12.ours shut-in.2 -1..000 ft.9 . Temperature. Extrapolating the straight line from than 24 hours.

estimated batch mixing time. a laboratory the API tables or other correlations are used for estimat.1. HOURS Fig. One company extrapolated this simulation.15 shows The local method for estimating circulating tempera. From the above comparisons. 2. this method for BHCT re. This required a high concentration creased from 80°F to 207°F in 44 minutes. and safety factor desired..000-ft ft (liner setting point).000-ft casing cement job since the last circulation.`--- I i j. or the determined using (1) log temperatures obtained approxi. 26 A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 71 = 0732290 0558442 bi75 D CEMENTING u""I I --``. In the absence of a ometer test. The illustrates how inaccurate this technique can be. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . The thickening time to 100 ing the API data from Table 2. the BHCT for cement testing can be ply stirred in the consistometer at 80°F for 1 hour.900 ft showed a BHLT of 291°F after 24 hours For the earlier example of a 12.`. either After determining the appropriate BHCT. Figure 2.````.5 at 15.2. Well logs schedules in API Spec 10 can be used for this purpose. schedule determined above. a BHCT of 270°F was selected. the temperature is 25°F below the previous estimate.`. HOURS STIRRING TIME.400 ft were run.000 fi. This schedule to 315°F BHST at 15. factor. Note that this example job requires knowledge about the job time.1 or Fig. Figure 2. The consistometer exposes a cement slurry formulation tion of the cement slurry and long WOC times. For wells with a low BHCT.4 and 1. at 14. In some areas. On this table.`. Subse.```````. This method also is inappropriate because it particular test schedule for temperature and pressure. If the only log on Fig.`.900 ft.. and a 1-hour safety in error by a high percentage. et al. to temperature and pressure similar to the actual environ- An example from a Gulf Coast liner cementing job ment of the slurry as it is pumped down the well. type of mixing.10. Labo. ing and the job completed at least 1 hour before the dation of the slurry nor long WOC time at the lower slurry reaches a consistency of 50 Bc. before increasing tempera- mately 24 hours since the last mud circulation and (2) ture and pressure following the chosen schedule as shown API values from Table 2. 207°F and final pressure of 10. since it often is count job time.. Interpolating for this gradient on Table 2. From is reproduced here as Table 2.300 slurry consistency for a cement tested on the 12.14 shows curves for temperature and pseudo BHST at 14. a circulation survey which results in a BHCT that is too high. Thus. The final temperature of 55 hours WOC time. consistometer simulation must be conducted following a ing BHCT. 2.. constant throughout the remainder of the test.6"/100-ft temperature gradi- ratory consistometer tests were conducted on the cement ent.200 psi are maintained sulted in overretardation and a long WOC time.````. suggest an even lower value of 40 Bc. the slurry is sim- circulation survey. determined by interpolating between the temperature Determining whether this slurry is satisfactory for the gradients of 1.14-Pilot test job simulationon consistometer. depth - big. Hartog. there was no overretar.-`-`.`. When compressive strength tests for the liner ponding pressure increase schedule is shown in Column top at 12. column for the calculated 1. 17.. deoth 12. it is most temperatures available are obtained much sooner than 24 important that the batch-mix time be simulated in the Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. then this source for obtaining BHCT is a down-hole circulation extra time at the surface must be included in the consist- survey near the casing setting depth. Us. the pseudo-BHST is 297°F.. increased by 5% to 15% to arrive at a BHST.800 ít. mixing-on-the-fly. The corres- of retarder. i F T e s t Temperature I I 1 I I 1 I 1 <I) I I I I I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 O 1 2 3 4 5 CIRCULATING TIME. 2. the slurry was not set within 2 for a 14 lblgal drilling mud.`. 2. taking into ac- ture should be avoided in cement testing. then. As a general quent testing at this temperature resulted in a mixing of rule.16.1 3-Circulation temperature survey. Extrapolating this to 15. it is obvious that the best If the cement slurry is to be batch mixed. The BHLT is should be conducted to determine the BHCT. locate the API correlations. the minimum acceptable thickening time. To simulate batch mixing.2 shows slurry until a thickening time of 5'12 hours was obtained that the temperature of the cement slurry would be in- at 270'F at 15. API Schedule 7g can be used.000 it.300 ft (liner setting depth).300 ft. The test is A better method for determining BHCT in this case is completed when the slurry consistency reaches 100 to use the 24-hour shut-in log temperature of 291°F as a Bc. a cement slurry should be in place behind the cas- slurry having much less retarder. a BHCT of 246°F is Bc is 6 hours. can result in a high BHCT which results in overretarda. the local practice is to use a method hours since the last mud circulation.'5 temperature that existed at the top of the liner.

Figures Very little strength is needed to support pipe.`. HOURS - Fig. perforating. Slurry Consistency z U o J O lime--+-Seiety-l ~ 3 Ectimaled Job lime-l-Safety+ et=-Estimated “ o O O I 1 2 I 3 4 I 1 5 I O 1 2 3 4 5 STIRRING TIME. depth 12.````. requirements. Test Temperature < I ! Acceptable MINIMUM Time Acceptable MINIMUM Tme For Blend Test to 508c For Blend Test to 500c is 5 Hours. If the blends do not meet the specified well needed to support and secure the casing in the hole. if not all..1 8-Blend test batch mixing job simulation on ter.````. will perform at designed conditions down-hole.-`-`.5 Compressive Strength Testing it is recommended that a consistometer test be run on Strength requirements of cements are dependent on some. A mini- 2. 2. If time does not permit strength to (1) support and secure the casing in the consistometer tests to be run. . then consideration should hole. consistometer.`. (3) be given to running a chemical thickening time test on prevent communication of fluids behind the casing. i Acceptable MINIMUM Time For Filot Test to 50Be is 5 Hwrs is 4 Hours Sluny Consistency Sluny Consistency > a a Batch _ I _ Estimated ab rme&saiety+ 3 Estimated Jab l i m e & S a f e t y 4 Miring I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 STIRRING TIME. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . For most surface 3 n 1501 I. - Fig. This is because on liner jobs. Generally. depth 12.`.. however.. consistometer. consistometer test because 1 hour of mixing at the surface The BHCT for casing and liner cementing jobs is the can shorten the thickening time almost as much as 1 hour same. cement is This simple analysis will show if the selected slurry is pumped down drillpipe and reaches the bottom of the satisfactory for the job with either type of mixing.`. than for casings. HOURS STIRRING TIME. the heat-up schedule for liners is faster of mixing at low down-hole cementing temperatures.17 and 2.`.17-Blend test job simulation on consistome. 2.`. hole faster than for casing jobs.000 it.’ (2) achieve zonal isolation in the wellbore.```````. additional blending and testing are re.000 ft. strength later on in the life of the well. and each blend. After the selected cement composition has been blended at the service company yard for the intended job.’.000 ft.16 This is to ensure that the additives are (4) withstand the shock of drilling. 2.. HOURS - Fig. --``. depth 12.16-Pilot test batch mixing job simulation on depth 12.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732290 0558443 301 CEMENT JOB PLANNING 27 /cTest Temperature / AcceptaMe MINIMUM lime For Filot Test to 50üc -.15-Pilot test job simulation on consistometer. the cement must have sufficient wells drilled deeper than 8000 ft. cement blends on critical jobs or for many factors. however. and frac- present in the proper ratio and that the cement slurry turing. this does not eliminate the need for higher quired.-.18 show examples of acceptable times for mum compressive strength of about 100 psi is all that is blend tests. HOURS STIRRING TIME.. IS 4 Hours -7 u 50. /c. - Fig. 2.. 2.000 ft.

````. Figure 2.`. 2. at higher temperatures 2 strengths are decreased. Up to 23OoF. however. ment recipe.1 9-Compressive strengths. '>F/lOOfî deDth Time. v: W 2- nomenon for three different cements using 24-hour com. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Where closely-spaced zones during stimulation . strength. the most widely used minimum strength required for any operation is 500 psi in 24 hours at down-hole static tem.BOTTOMHOLE CIRCULATING TEMPERATURE BY TIME AT 12. To increase early strength around the shoe joints also contribute to savings because development and shorten WOC time at the lower tem- they shorten WOC (waiting on cement) time before shoe peratures.39 2. 2. O F O 1500 80 80 80 80 80 80 2 1900 84 84 85 85 86 88 4 2300 87 88 89 91 93 96 6 2700 91 92 94 96 99 105 8 31 O0 94 95 99 102 106 113 10 3500 98 99 103 107 112 121 12 3900 101 103 108 113 118 129 14 4300 105 107 113 118 125 137 16 4700 108 111 117 124 131 145 18 51 O0 112 115 122 129 138 154 20 5500 115 119 127 135 144 162 22 5900 119 122 131 140 150 169 24 6300 122 126 136 145 157 176 26 6700 126 130 141 151 163 183 28 7100 129 134 146 156 170 190 30 7500 133 138 151 162 176 197 32 7800 136 142 156 167 183 204 34 8200 140 146 161 172 189 21 1 36 8600 143 150 166 177 195 21 8 38 9000 146 153 171 182 202 228 40 9400 149 157 176 187 207 232 42 9800 152 161 180 192 212 239 44 10.'^ The addition of silica to the cement CURING TEMPERATURE.`. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0 5 5 8 4 4 4 248 D 28 CEMENTING TABLE 2. cement of high ultimate O 7 strength should be used.000 FT DEPTH' Temnerature Gradient.5 1. An industry survey conducted by API" re.11 3..1 1.7 1.`. When using expendable jet per- forators a minimum compressive strength of 2000 psi fQ 4- Z may be required. and intermediate strings it is the usual practice to use vealed that most companies routinely add 35% silica to high-strength cement around the shoe joints and lower.```````. This same trend is also usually = a observed at longer curing periods.3 1.`. This strength retro- gression is thought to be caused partially by large particle o 1- size growth during the hydration process at the higher O I 1 I l 20 80 140 200 260 320 2 tempe rature^.200 155 165 185 197 217 247 Heating Rate OF/min 1.19 illustrates this phe. Note in Fig.. increasing temperature in. Because of the uncertainty in correctly simulating down-hole conditions in the laboratory.- <I) perature. .93 2. lower-cost filler cements around the upper por. 0.9 Min psi Temperature. calcium chloride is usually added to the ce- joints can be drilled.9 1. on the strength of the cement. among other factors. 2.`. Pressure. The capability of a cement sheath to resist communica- --``.. W Temperature has a pronounced affect on strength de.20. 3- velopment.. as shown in Fig..66 3.2 . O " 5- operations are of concern. E pressive strength values. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`. Fig. "F formulation prevents strength retrogression.70 1. Lj W creases strength.80 NOTE: Mud density used was 14 Ib/gal.-`-`.19 that very low strengths are indicated tions of these strings. The higher-strength cements at temperatures below 80'F.````. cement at static temperatures of 230'F and above.'^.`--- tion during fracturing and subsequent producing opera- tions is dependent..

cially available device which allows the slurry to be ity development. O F I Fig. Any change in the water ratio down-hole can so drasti. Listed below are typical values for fluid-loss control For a cement to be pumpable. For liner cementing: 50 cc/30 minutes ties. ring fluid-loss cell is recommended. Fluid-loss additives “tie up” the excess wa- slurry is mixed at the proper water:cement ratio. Some or all of slurry without fluid-loss additives has a fluid-loss rate of this excess water can be easily squeezed from the slurry if about 1000 cc/30 minutes. 2.. the cement may experi. the ter and prevent it from being squeezed from the s l ~ r r y . the --``.. The larger cell volume is the most larger amounts of water required to form a pumpable accurate for all fluid loss rates. The amount of filtrate recovered in 30 minutes is strength. much like its utes. Increasing water also increases volume cell the slurry can completely dehydrate before permeability.6 Permeability ture and a differential pressure of 1000 psi for 30 min- The final permeability of a neat cement. cells having a slurry volume of 250 cc to permeability.7 Fluid-Loss Testing The cell is then inverted.^ For comparison. The same process fore.`. there- manner in which it affects strength. If the prematurely.`. \Cernent + W 18% Silica 4000- v) W 5 3000- v) W g 2000- I O 0 1000- O I I l I I I I I l I CURING TEMPERATURE. and will generally de.`. If a high portion of the excess gas channeling. This cell is similar to the large API static cell but Another important cement slurry property to control is with the addition of the stirring and inverting capabili- fluid-loss rate. 2. loss rate of the cement and‘maintain the proper water:ce- ment ratio. this trend is often balanced by the 400 cc are available. whereas in the smaller slurry with finer grinds. and high additive content decrease strength. At the greater depths where longer pump For squeeze cementing: 50 to 200 cc/30 minutes times are required. the finer the grind the lower the static testing. The loss of only a por. 2. Additives are available to control the fluid. the best choice is the larger 400-cc cell. a cement required for proper hydration is required. For casing cementing (if needed): 250 cc/30 minutes tion of this water can significantly alter cement proper. water content above that rates versus field pera at ion. the cement encounters a permeable formation in the wellbore during the cement job. Thickening time.`.```````.`. A choice of cells is provided for the user.” stirred in a large volume cell while the slurry tempera- ture is increased to the simulated down-hole temperature.. Note: All fluid-loss determinations must be made at bot- cally reduce the thickening time that the job may be tomhole circulating temperature except for preventing terminated prematurely.`. For a more representative fluid-loss rate test. A P I TITLE W Q R L D W I D E 71 u 07322901 1 1 5 5 ~ ~ 4 184 5 m CEMENT JOB PLANNING 29 . when a job is terminated prematurely.21-Permeability development (without silica). For cised. is decreased with For prevention of gas channeling: 20 cc/30 minutes water loss. the stir- ability development in cements. and the job is terminated factor over which little control can be exercised. These additives prevent slurry dehydration. and the fluid loss test is con- ducted.````.-`-`.” At this point... as shown in Fig. Usually. that causes strength retrogression also causes high perme. remedial velop adequate strength. Excessive water:cement ratios work is required. however. Extrapolating the results Temperature affects permeability in much the same to equivalent 30 minute values can be misleading. which is conducted at bottomhole static water is squeezed from the slurry. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . The fluid-loss test is conducted in accordance with API procedures by exposing the cement slurry to test tempera- 2. As a general rule. ~ ~ slurry will be readily pumpable. ties. for example.21.````. measured.. ence what many call a “flash set. ’ ~ . This is a commer- Adding silica to the cement also prevents high permeabil.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. thickening times must be predictable. The ultimate strength of a given cement in a well is a cement is no longer pumpable. the 30 minute test period is up. temperature. is a factor over which little control can be exer. /-Ceni + 74% Silica - ’g6000- -/----- I 82 5000.

`--- purchased from the manufacturer. therefore. performance in the wellbore. required three tests. ture and pressure. After the cementing system has been the design phase of the cement job quite easily by adding carefully designed in the laboratory. water for the cement portion of the slurry 2.`. After completing the determined by the free water test and a settling test. The most widely used models to determine flow 2. be run in the consistometer under bottomhole tempera- ing cement with water should be limited to near 30 Bc. free water tests as described earlier should be con- The amount of free water will depend on the total mix ducted at surface conditions and at temperatures and water used in the slurry and the desired slurry consist.’”’’ Small 2. Visually inspect all bulk tanks before transferring rheological properties of a cement slurry. Any cement remaining in tanks from The cement system and spacer must be designed to previous jobs can contaminate a cement slurry to the achieve the desired mud displacement efficiency in the point that it will not perform down-hole. If tank for each blend. tanks at least three times. this specification varies from 38 to 56%. fecting this performance are the concentration and the distribution of additives in the cement blend. and before terminating the proce- Often.````. Blending of bulk materials often is taken for granted tions.” Steps shown below should be carefully gap to arrive at the shear rate versus shear stress. any bulk material. using a rotational viscometer. the maximum consistency on mix. --``. down-hole plugging and premature termination of the lems can occur with thickening time. API sets free water additive out of the blend can have drastic consequences specifications (1. Usually. pressures as close to bottomhole conditions as possible. free water should be held to To verify that the slurry is capable of suspending a minimum. therefore. this may be an acceptable value. Appendix P. Blending of the various additives and cement of the final ment. In this test. Slurries not passing this depending on the additives present in the recipe. For routine opera. Slurries failing this test should be cement slurry to be designed to meet all the other impor. the slurry should be checked to determine whether the rheological properties are ade- The free water test is important because excessive free quate to suspend solids. This is required to prevent solids settling cement sheath at casing collars and hardware can cause and bridging while pumping. API T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 U 0732290 0558446 010 D 30 CEMENTING 2.2% bentonite or other similar additive. be cleaned if it contains excess cement. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .`. dure. in bottom in the annulus.. Verify air valve positions made by the operator..10 Bulk Blending will follow the API specifications for each class of ce. quality control during this phase is extremely tric bob and rotor to shear the cement slurry in a small important.9 Rheology Determination variations in concentrations of additive can significantly Determination of rheological properties is usually done alter the performance properties of the cement slurry. Also.-`-`. and if not corrected. can lead to a value should be zero.```````. Verify the calculations of additive weights. the slurry consistency is lowered to achieve turbu.````.4%) for only Class G and H cements as in the oven-like environment of a high-temperature well. the composition or 0. can cause bridging and gas migration. not only at surface conditions water can allow adverse conditions to develop in the during mixing. This device uses a concen. tion. packing. even though it is a process in which serious errors can menting and prevention of gas channeling. Paragraph P. and other job.`. 5. Typically. A tank should annulus without excessive pressure buildup due to fric. the free water occur undetected.. settling tests should consistency. The lower end of consistency value can be 10.. Examine the slurry for settling.`.`. but also at the down-hole temperature down-hole region. a competent and consistent cement column from top to ter can allow settling of weighting materials which. Perhaps a ometer and the condition of the slurry should be better way to achieve turbulence in the annulus is to use a observed. and to ensure placement of accelerated corrosion at these locations. API followed. free water pockets in the and pressure. Limit batch size to 50% of total tank capacity. The free design selection must be carried out with diligence to water content of a slurry is determined in accordance ensure that the ingredients are properly blended. This will allow the tion.1% to 0. The amount of supernatant water developed is Altering an additive ratio or inadvertently leaving one designated the free water content. The settling test should be conducted Higher values than this may cause mixing and pumping in accordance with the procedure described in API Spec problems.6. This low value can be achieved in cementing failure. Other prob. pressure or excessive pump rate requirements. The amount of mix water for a slurry will vary and at the hole deviation angle.2”’6 Spec 10 provides an excellent procedure for determining 1. Blend materials with air and transfer them between Settling Tests. The two major factors af- ity control of cement density. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Excessive settling can cause turn. the slurry 4. gela- properly designed spacer or preflush. There is test should be redesigned. recipe must be correctly blended to ensure proper slurry Achievement of this value on the job requires close qual. ency. a practical range of mix water content based on slurry In addition to the free water tests. both are adequately described in API Spec 10. For slurries containing weighting mate. should be redesigned to lower the rheology values. the slurry mixed importance of this diligence becomes more evident when with recommended water content is usually poured into a one considers that in some cement recipes as little as 50 250-ml cylinder and allowed to stand quiescent for 2 lb of an additive is blended with 18. the slurry cup should be removed from the consist- lent flow in the annulus at low pump rates. tant requirements for the well.. For example.000 lb of cement.‘ hours. cement properties. redesigned. and free water. 6. strength. excess wa. Count and stack the sacks of each the results of these calculations show excessive friction additive placed in the cement blend. Verify the weights of all additives put into the batch model. solids. The with API specification 10. regime are the power law model and the Bingham Plastic 3.8 Free Water Testing rials such as hematite. but for liner ce..`.

The number of pumps required depends 2. and hook load during pipe r e c i p r ~ c a t i o n . provided for water trucks to replenish the supply as it is and a portable data recorder. the surface pump pressure is essentially zero). Once the cement slurry is shows the mud return rate during an actual primary ce- routed to the wellhead. he single-plug head.16 or the thickening time using API procedures. On critical jobs. Bulk tanks should be located near associated mixers the water to ensure that it is free from contaminants. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . to permit use of short bulk cement delivery lines to the cement mixers. that can occur and cause a departure from job predictions low for dropping any of the several plugs it can hold of pressure and return rates include cement channeling. Container heads are available for pump rate in. After blending. Although investigations into proper sampling the entrained air that can cause an erroneous measure- techniques have been limited. Of particular importance is the lower return rate during the latter part of free fall. laboratory tests should be conducted to This dictates that the RA densometer is installed in the determine the additive concentrations using the chemical discharge line to the wellhead where pressure is usually method. A radioactive (RA) densom- that three transfers of the blend should be made before eter is used to obtain a continuous recording of density sampling. ing procedures to achieve desired results. cumulative return vol- undesirable. These may be an in-line radioactive jobs the required volume of mix water exceeds storage densometer. With- --``. fall.f available. arrangements which he can observe the entire operation. a and can be very accurate if the slurry is under at least representative sample can be taken of each blend. With a continuous in-line sampling device. returning (using radioactivity devices or equivalent).`. and multiple-plug applications. pump trucks or skids.1 1 Job Execution measurements. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732290 05581147 T57 m CEMENT JOB PLANNING 31 7. the industry consensus is ment by as much as 1 lb/gal. return rate is much different from the surface pump rate during most of the job. Density control is maintained with ysis. In this event. portable tanks are used to hold head (plug container). Proper slurry are jet mixers. The total rial tanks. On some vices are needed. Note that the (Chapter 4).. S u r h e Equipment and Devices. Always check sion.To ~~~~ mended. The multiple-head container is lems during the cementing pera at ion. mix water for the cement and for displacement. the single-plug container is not recom. two-plug. A mini. the pressurized balance. particularly into the system to permit its immediate use if one of the on critical jobs. lyzed to ensure that timely decisions affecting the overall operation can be made. cu- eration while the other two do not. since density control usually is the way to do this is to measure the mud return rate and only method that can be used to ensure that the cement compare it with the predicted free fall rate. This requires careful planning to prevent running to minimize the length of all lines and to prevent confu.. and a restric- tion in the casing. Surface equipment required for the cementing operation includes a cement Water Tanks. monitoring de. but requires some special planning for should have a central monitoring point such as a moni- its use. ready access to the tanks must be mud-return line. Early detection and correction of these Mixers. 200-psi pressure at time of measurement. cementing head). recirculating mixers. This device permits the most Close attention should be paid to the proper collection accurate measurement of density because it collapses all of samples.22 recipe is correctly mixed. since a shut-down is mulative displacement volume. Without pres- mum of two 1-gal samples of bulk material should be sure. One This is important.````. the-fly without a holding tank or can be directed into a batch mixer before the slurry is routed to the well. therefore.`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. In any event. rate due to the influence of unpressurized. the slurry can not be changed menting job versus the surface pump rate. ume. Proper job execution includes standby pump truck or skid should be included and tied monitoring and controlling several factors. must be made ahead of the job for longer bails to be Proper monitoring allows real-time diagnosis of prob- changed before the job. flowmeters in the injection line and in the capacity.. Figure 2. cement mixers. The standard mud balance can be very inaccu- at the expected down-hole temperature and pressure. pressure transducer at the cement head. a means of determining the down- ment slurry because the slurry can be mixed to proper hole performance of a cement job is needed (during free density before the first barrel is pumped into the well.`.1 2 Job Monitoring on the mixing method and pump rate. and batch monitoring techniques also allow evaluation of cement- mixers. a Locations To Monitor.-`-`. mix-water tanks. annulus rate out. The Monitoring Mud Return Rate. density of fluids pumped in and those The single-plug method requires a shut-down in the op. entrained air and is not generally recommended for slurry density 2.`. the RA device will measure density incorrectly if collected and identified for every weigh-tank batch. Certain data must be collected and ana- primary pumps fails. The three types of mixers for mixing cement problems may prevent a costly cementing failure.`. Usually the elevator bails are not long enough to toring van or portable electronic data recorder from accommodate the two-plug head.*^'^^ Some events remotely operated and does not require shut-down to al. wellhead pressure (at the single-plug. Usually. nomenon of free fall. bulk mate.. lost circulation.````.```````. and a source volume should be equal to the required operation plus of displacement fluid.. out of water before the job is completed. Equipment must be located used.. entrained air is in the slurry and has not been collapsed. Density Devices. In view of the phe- most accurate method of mixing is to batch mix the ce. a restriction in the annulus. Collect representative samples of the blend for anal. (Chapter 3). Recorded data should include Container Heads. The first two can be used to mix the slurry on.`. excess for washing up equipment after the job. The two-plug container is preferred over the enable the job supervisor to make timely decisions.

. McElfresh.” JP?.” World Oil.E.Dec. Las Key words in quality control are “never assume. always Vegas..” JPT (Oct. 11.: “How to Predict Formation Frac- ture Pressure and Fracture Gradient. Denver..A. and Ellis. Sept. Cementing.. meters are available in low pressure for the return line April 1958. and Goins.S. and Dobkins. 16-19. C. Smith. Smith. been published.A. other nonconductive fluids. P.````. Houston. W. Hottman. R. Smith.. M. 1982.” JPT(June 1965).’’ Pet.” World Oil. 9.: “A Study of Bulk Cement Handling and Testing Procedures.” JPT. nificant importance is the change in displacement flow 16. Matthews. J. and Stewart. 717.” JPT. Applying 25.” JPT (Aug. the surface pumping rate Composition for High Temperature Well Conditions.C.1 3 Quality Control Sept. R.” paper SPE 13041 presented at the SPE 59th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Hartog.” Oil and Gas J. L. 1983. 1851-1858.C.E. 1984). S.. DC (Aug. the many details must be checked. For oil-base muds and J.L.`.. They are applica. Smith. Simon. have been engineered to a set of specifications.: “Better Wellbore Temperature might be made that lost circulation is occurring. P. and George. 1984.. Davies. ment Squeezes by Using Low-Water Loss Cements. Dallas (1976). 1988). Powers.K. B. 1967). 16-19. always calculate.” JPT(Feb.: “Chemical Thickening-Time Test for Cements. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . 6-9.. Technical Conference. C.J. SPE 14196 presented at the 60th Annual SPE Fall Meeting. 92. D. O’Brien. an erroneous conclusion 13. ous conclusion could contribute to an unsuccessful 15.” AFI Spec. 22-25. 20. 1984.: “Geothermal Cementing . Smith. A comprehensive checklist for quality control has operations. Data Equal Better Cement Job.`. J. and Johnson. proach for Successful Primary Cementing. To ensure that each phase of the cementing operation is 22.J. 1985.: “Silica Flour-Mechanism for Improving Cementing flow displacement is desired. C.: “Cementing. 1985) 39-43.. (Feb. Beirute. Beach. berg. must be high enough to prevent the free-fall rate in the Intl. Lower. 1974.: “Cementing Handbook. Shell. based on free-fall predictions. D. 18. 10. 10.`.” Paper No.: “Estimation of Formation Fracture Pressures from LogDerived Shale Properties. rate that occurs in the latter part of free falLZ5If turbulent 17..`.K.: “Formation Ce- and high pressure for the injection line. the most Cement Slurries. and Sabins. 1353. 20.: “Improved Bulk Blending Techniques for Accurate and Uniform Cement Blends. 6. J. T. Pace.`.: “The Phenomenon of Free Fall During Primary quality control from the beginning of design and contin.. 1961). R. followup 24. Fig.Jr.L. API Publications and Distribution Section.. 3.’ Oil and GasJ.. March 1986. G.. McElfresh. J. J. SPE. It is pointed out again that of sig. R. 1983). R. Pilkington. Aug.S. (Dec.. and Wynne. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0558448 993 W 32 CEMENTING m I 20 I I References 1. R.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.” JPT. S.K. and Kelly. Venditto. never estimate. (July 8. Sept.R. and Matthews.” --``.R.M. Houston.A.K.`. J. Gerke.22-Variables monitored.C. Oct. Washington.. There are various meters available for 19. ature on Strength Retrogression of Cements.M.: “Successful Primary Cementing Can be a Reality.: “An Integrated Ap- cementing operation. C. 12. D. R.” paper SPE 13045 presented at the 59th Annual Fall uing throughout job execution will eliminate many po.A. (May 29 and June 12. of Production Spring Meeting. Sept. E.: “Long-Term Effects of High Temper- cal flow rate. 5. 8.: “Fracture Gradient Prediction and Its Application in Oilfield Operations. tential errors or mistakes that can cause a cementing 26.: “Application of Low-Water Loss measuring the flow rate into and out of the well. “How to Determine BHST from Well Log Data. Arnold. R.M. January 1977.A. EJ. Eng.L.R. R. These Mountain District Div.: “Fracture Gradient Estimates in Tertiary Ba- sins. 4th Ed.A. R. turbine meters and wedge 21. Smith. check. “Specifications for Materials and Testing for Well Cements. Logan.” Halliburton Services Brochure C-1274.A. lightweight Cement with Super Strength.: “A New Ultra- out the knowledge that this lower return rate is normal. W. 7.” Oil and Gas ble only for water-base fluids.: “Program Calculates Frac Gradients for Many Basins.C. Houston. Matthews. 1969).” JPT(Nov.The State-of-the-Art.C. annulus from becoming lower than this minimum criti.-`-`.Jr. (May 1978). ing the surface pumping rate on the basis of this errone. must be made to ensure a successful operation. J. H.: “Offshore Fracture Gradients.” World Oil (1977).B.’’ 23.C. P.````..B.M. June 1986. Intl.O.’’ paper properly carried out.” Monograph Series.J. 2. R.R.. Cobb. R.H.: “Improved Cementing Success Through Real-Time Once cement slurry design and the entire operation Job Monitoring. D. Shryock. EL. Suman. Texas.” World Oil (Feb. 2. 2.H. Eaton. 1980. and Ols- meters have been used successfully. 1. W. 875-12-1 presented at API Rocky accurate is the full-opening magnetic flowmeter. Eilers. 4. 1980).. and Smith.” Pet. 14. Engr.. 1984). and Root.```````. Christman.: “Use this checklist to improve primary cementing failure.C.: “Cementing: Bridging the Gap fmrn Laboratory Results to Field Operations. Flow Meters. T. 1973). Smith.R.” paper SPE 5028 presented at 49th Annual Fall Technical Conference.

.. 34 3...14 Innerstring Cementing Method . ..... ..... 39 3. .. 49 Sealing Adapter and Floating Equipment with Sealing Sleeve .... ......... 36 3...`.................. 34 3.```````.. .....................................................2 Guide Shoe and Float Shoe ..3 Float Collars .... 39 3.....10 Free-Fall Method Hydraulic Modification ..........1 Primary Cementing Equipment .....13 Casing Attachments . 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .... .6 Slurry Compositions ... 45 3....................... 40 Two....````............12 Cementing Plugs ........ 43 3....... 37 3....`....5 Multiple-Stage Cementing Collars .............. .......Stage.............8 Details of Multistage Cementing Operations .... 40 Two.. 50 Baffle Collar with Latch-Down Plug and Sealing Sleeve ................ .... ...... . . ...............4 Float Equipment Performance ......-`-`............................ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 = 0732290 0558449 8 2 T Chapter 3 Casing Equipment author Bob Sullaway INDEX --``.............. .................................1 1 Workstring-Operated Multistage Cementer .....9 Three-Stage Cementing .15 Summary ..........Stage.................................. Displacement Method ... Free-Fall Plug Method .....`..................... ..... 38 3....`..................````........... .... 48 3. ..... ................................. 47 Centralizers ................... 40 Free-Fall Cementing ........ ...............`--- SU BJECT PAGE 3. .. .7 Centralizers and Scratchers ...... 44 3.. ....... 50 3.. 47 Scratchers . 43 3........ 51 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.....`................... .......`............................... 41 3..........

````. Chapter 3 Casing Equipment --``. Sullaway graduated from the University of Oklahoma in 1963 with a BS degree in petroleum engineering and worked as a reservoir and production engineer before joining Halliburton in 7969. describes the basic types of cementing equipment availa. 3. This guide shoe is useful in sev- and to enhance mud removal from the wellbore. Jetting washed-out.`.2 illustrates a side-discharge guide shoe which Numerous casing attachments have been developed for allows discharge of fluids through the steel case or con- use in primary cementing operations to aid the operator crete nose. Casing flotation is above the shoe. Penetrating bridges when running casing. Up to 60% of the fluid pumped travels in successfully placing the casing string in the wellbore through the side ports.. Jetting off and washing down mud cake and cuttings individual well requirements and may vary widely with from the bottom of the hole while rotating and/or recipro- geographical areas and from fietd to field.`. over-sized sections of the well- bore. automatic-fill float shoe. The eral cementing practices. 2. applications for specialized var.`. 3. Since that time. iations of the equipment have been avoided.````. The contaminated cement after cementing has been com.`--- By: Bob Sullaway Bob Sullaway is a section supervisor in the Halliburton Services Tools Research and Engineering (TßE) department in Duncan.`. Afier the cement job is com- strings. densities creates a differential pressure across the float Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. This guide shoe is typically run minimized by using a float shoe to essentially float the in combination with a float collar ser one to three joints well casing to the bottom of the hole..```````. These shoes established through the casing and float valve and up the are also used to cement surface casing and production outside of the casing string. 3. This equipment is available in the hole and also provide an integral backpressure valve. Density of the casing joints are typically made up in the casing string cement used in cementing oil and gas wells is commonly with a thread-locking compound to further help prevent greater than the density of the displacing fluid used to backing off the bottom joints of surface and intermediate pump the cement to a shutoff. from the surface. guide shoe. diate casing strings to help prevent backoff of bottom When casing is safely landed on bottom. upward through the float valve inside the casing. ble to perform all phases of primary cementing opera. he has worked in the TßE department. specializing in design of down-hole tools used in cementing. a variety of steel grades and threads. OK. Agitating and distributing cement to minimize chan- tion. Assuring circulation even if the casing is resting on the bottom of the hole or the bottom outlet is plugged Four styles of guide and float shoes available are the with cuttings. and Float shoes guide the casing string as it is lowered into differential411float shoe. The difference in these casing during drillout. 4. helps the casing move safely past hard shoulders and Strain on the derrick caused by casing weight can be through crooked holes.. float shoe. 3. amount of suspension is controlled by the amount of pleted. circulation is joints during drillout of floating equipment. Spacing between the guide or float shoe accomplished when drilling fluid is not allowed to flow and the float collar provides a chamber to contain mud. General descriptions and uses of the types of neling around the shoe to provide a better anchor for the equipment are discussed. This practice helps assure placement of good fluid placed on the inside of the casing by a fluid fill line quality cement outside the bottom few joints of interme.. (located one to three joints above) on deep or intermedi- The rounded nose of the guide shoe directs the well ate casing strings where an additional safety factor of two casing away from ledges to minimize sidewall cave-in and float valves is desirable.-`-`. This chapter cating the casing. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . shoe joint.`. pleted. and the bottom two or three ment below and behind the casing. float collars.. type of primary cementing equipment used depends on 1.1). the backpressure valve hnctions to keep the ce- Guide shoes.`.. with the simplest Float shoes may be used in conjunction with float collars being the plain-end guide shoe (Fig.1 Primary Cementing Equipment Figure 3.2 Guide Shoe and Float Shoe 5.

3. minimizes casing sticking. Automatic filling of the casing is usually controlled by a spring-loaded backpressure valve held in the open position with a plastic orifice tube (Fig.`--- valve to aid in keeping the valve closed until the cement sets. aluminum. The ID of the external case is larger than the drift diameter of the lightest weight of the casing range for a given casing size. Most manufactur- ers provide equipment compatible with casing grades through API N-80. Fluid is allowed to enter the bottom of the float Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.````. Three types of valves are found in float shoes: poppet.. 3. Inter- nal components of the float shoe or guide shoe are usu- ally made of drillable materials such as brass. 3.````..`. providing immediate closure of the valve. Another variation of the float shoe is the automatic.3 to 3...4-Ball-valve guide shoe. 3.-`-`. Use of cast or ductile iron is unde- sirable because of increased use of polycrystalline dia- mond compact (PDC) bits. 3.`.`. one-third running-in time by eliminating frequent stops for top-filling pipe.6) or restricted opening (Fig. ball. I Fig.. Fig.5). The ball-valve type depends on some backflow of fluid to raise the ball to its shutoff seat. The float valve must have sufficient strength to withstand this differential pressure. --``.1-Plain-end guide shoe. Higher-strength float equipment is usually available on special order. 3.3-Poppet-valve guide shoe. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 CASING EQUIPMENT 35 I Fig. and flapper (Figs. Poppet and flapper valves are usually spring-activated. or differential-fill type.`.```````. plastic. The external case of a guide shoe or float shoe is an integral part of the casing string and is usually made of the same material grade as the casing.2-Side-discharge guide shoe.. Automatically filling the casing as it is being run into the well saves costly rig time over manu- ally filling. and concrete.`. and saves up to I Fig.7) in the float shoe or collar.`. 3.

`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 3. more float collars may be used as an added safety factor.`..`. shoe while the casing is being run.. 3.8 allows fluid entry into the casing. Fig. Strength of the spring on the fill valve determines the rate of fill.`. Disengaging the automatic-fill feature on the orifice or restricted valve- type float shoe is usually accomplished by pumping through the valve at higher-than-normal circulation rates.5-Flapper-valve guide shoe. where the differential pressures across the valve are quite large.`.7-Restricted opening.. a weighted ball is usually pumped down the casing and through the orifice or restricted opening. thereby reducing running time and surge pressures or “ram effect” on the formation.. 3.. The main purposes of the float collar are to provide a --``. A pump rate of 3 to 6 bbl/min deactivates the automatic- fill feature. Fig. converting the equipment to a standard float shoe.11) is an essential tool used in cementing the casing string.`. automatic-fill guide 3. On long or deep intermediate strings of casing. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .```````. To disengage the automatic-fill device.6-Orifice tube.`. ~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732290 a558452 314 m 36 CEMENTING Fig.. 3.9 to 3.-`-`. Float collars are normally run one or more joints above the guide or float shoe and contain backpressure valves similar to those found in float shoes. The float mechanism of differential411 equipment is activated by a ball dropped or pumped through the casing.````. automatic-fill guide shoe. 3.3 Float Collars shoe. The speed at which the casing is being run into the well does not affect the operation of the fill valve. filling through the bottom to maintain a controlled differential pressure between the inside and outside of the casing.````. The float collar (Figs. The differential-fill float shoe shown in Fig.

04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . the float collar also controls the amount of cement left in the casing. 3.````.10-Ball-valve float collar. many international manufacturers do not follow the API specification.-`-`. Standard float collars are made of drillable materials such as brass..8-Differential-fill combination float and guide float collars may be obtained with either differential.. Fig.' The operator should state the thread specification desired when ordering this type of equipment. weldments. 3. Higher-strength float collars are usually available on special order. When used in con- junction with cement plugs. Most manufacturers provide equipment compatible with casing grades through API N-80.`. Fig. For use with a guide shoe or automatic. 3.`.or differential-fill float shoe.' The pur- pose of RP lOF.. 3. float collars are available with box-up. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. The external case of a float collar is an integral part of the casing string and is usually made of the same mate- rial grade as the casing.or shoe.`--- Fig..````. plastic. prepared under the jurisdiction of the API Committee on Standardization of Well Cements (Committee lo).4 Float Equipment Performance A task group of the American Petroleum Institute (API) has formulated a recommended practice (RP) for perfor- mance testing of cementing float equipment. box thread connections are available on special order. The equipment is made up in the casing string by casing threads.`. automatic-fill features. Most 8-Rd and buttress-thread float collars made in the United States are machined per API Spec 5B.`.. and (2) a means of comparing vari- ous equipment on the market for operators or end users of the equipment. is to provide (1)performance-testing cri- teria to the industry..9-Poppet-valve float collar. check valve to prevent cement from reentering the casing ID and to act as a seat for cementing plugs to indicate when cement placement is complete.`. and concrete to facilitate easy drillout with standard three-cone rock bits or PDC bits.`.```````. or both. As a standard. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 9 % 0732290 0558453 250 CASING EQUIPMENT 37 --``. pin- down thread connections.

3.. has Temperature Maximum Pressure’ been circulated through the equipment for a period of Category* (OF) (Psi) time. and 6 bbllmin for 3112 in. Full-depth cementing in deep holes at pressure (both ment are shown in Table 3. “The maximum test pressure should be the Iesserof the valve shown or 80% of the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid occupying the annu.`. and smaller float equipment. “‘The maximum test pressure should be the lesser of the valve shown or 80% of the manufacturer’srated burst or collapse pressure for the float equipment casing.3. As nor. A 200 1500 tions while exposed to elevated temperatures and pres.`--- I 8 1500 II 12 3000 111 24 5000 *Circulationrate is 10 bbllmin for float equipment larger than 3112 in. pressure of the fluid inside the casing becomes less than The RI’ further provides a test chamber schematic of the pressure of formation fluids in formations near the one means recommended for conducting high bottom of the casing.````. TABLE 3. C 400 5000 2.. “Circulation rate is for float equipment larger than 31k in. choose what sections of the wellbore will be cemented. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.```````.`. The three service categories pump and hydrostatic) below formation breakdown and of temperaturelpressure tests are shown in Table 3.5 Multiple-Stage Cementing Collars To facilitate communication between users and suppli.`. sometimes containing abrasive solids. In such a situation. long section in two or more stages of cement. 1.`. cementing float equipment must function HIGH TEMPERATUREIHIGH PRESSURE TESTS’ after a fluid. casing.1-CATEGORIES FOR FLOW DURABILITY* Duration Maximum Pressure* * Category* (hours) (Psi) --``. and 6 bbll min for 3Vz in. 1. Multiple-stage cementing tools are used under certain ers of cement float equipment.. ally greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the corresponding column of the fluid inside the casing. the well may try to flow up the temperature/pressure tests (Fig. casing.2. If the hydrostatic for testing. Differential pressure capability from below. “The maximum test pressure should be the lesser of the valve shown or 80% Of the manufacturer’s rated burst or collapse pressure for the float equipment casing. the manufacturer’srated burst or collapse pressure for the float equipment lus immediately after the cement has been placed is usu. Although there are many criteria to be examined in determining performance of float equipment.````. three service categories of conditions for cementing two or more separate sections of flow-durability testing and three service categories of the wellbore behind the same casing string or to cement a static high-temperature/high-pressure testing are de. 111 6 24 5000 ‘Circulation rate for a11categories is 3 bbllmin. Less than full-depth cementing in deep holes where ment also stipulates the mud properties and temperatures it is permissible.2-CATEGORIES OF FLOW DURABILITY TESTS FOR CASING FILL EQUIPMENT’ Duration (hours) Maximum Pressure’ Category Reverse* Forward** (Psi) I 2 8 1500 II 4 12 3000 Fig. and smaller equipment. multiple-stage cementer tool allows the operator to ity are shown in Table 3. casing collapse pressures. The capability of float equipment to The document provides suggested means of backpressure withstand differential pressure from below is also impor. whichever is applicable. Categories for flow durability for casing-fill float equip. 3.1 IA).-`-`. whichever is applicable.`. Because ‘Duration at temperature is 8 hours for all Categories. Durability under down-hole conditions.3-CATEGORIES OF STATIC mally used..1 1-Flapper-valve float collar. The proposed RP on competitive testing of float equip.1. 2.`. Categories for flow durabil.. testing during the tests and a suggested flow loop setup tant in certain well control situations. the float equipment becomes a primary well-control device. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558454 197 38 CEMENTING TABLE 3. the RP is limited to consideration of the criteria listed below. un- der normal operations float equipment must be capable of withstanding a differential pressure in which the higher pressure being exerted is from below the check under which the flow durability tests are to be conducted. valve mechanism. The equipment must function in various orienta. The scribed in the RP document. 3. TABLE 3.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . B 300 3000 sures. whichever is applicable.

`.. 3. This special equipment --``.`. but there is no limit to the number of stages of cement TEMPERATURE RANGE . A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 = 0732290 0556455 023 CASING EQUIPMENT 39 I 3. Completing dual-zone wells. are frequently used in multiple-stage cementing. such as bentonite. i.6 Slurry Compositions In some areas. perlites. avoiding lost circulation.1OC) ..g.12-Plug-operated multiple-stage cementer.13)..14). 3.000psi (34.-`-`. a different cementing head for two- or three-stage tool operations and the plugs required for tool operations.```````. and (3) the rH EATING drillpipe-operated (Fig. lost circulation materials are used in ce- menting both the lower and upper stages.`.`.TEMPERATURE TEST CELL 5. Cementing off formations at any point. 3.````. -FLOAT COLLAR The latter method has been outdated by the development OR FLOAT SHOE of drillpipe-operated multiple-stage cementing tools and SYNTHETIC has not been commonly performed in recent years. 3. CONTROLLED 4. Reducing channeling. 3.````.`--- will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.7 Centralizers and Scratchers Centralizers may be used in conjunction with the upper ~ and lower stages. 3.`.. special baffles or float equipment must be used.70°F (21. in Arctic regions where nonfreezing fluid is required across the permafrost zone. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . OIL Multiple-stage cementing consists of conventional placement of cement slurry around the lower portion of the casing string.. Equipment and material requirements for stage ce- I menting are not significantly different from those of a conventional cementing operation. Operations using lost circulation materials indicate that the maximum dimen- sion of any such material should be less than half the diameter of the multiple-stage cement ports. and diatomaceous earth. In addition to these tools.400 kPa) stage collars on the market today.5. Three basic types of multiple-stage cementing tools in common use today are (1) the plug-operated (Fig. and economically increasing slurry volume. Scratchers are sometimes used in both I Fig. The plugs for the first stage of cement operations are designed to pass freely through the stage cementers.`.12). Multiple-stage swivels allow the use of rotating scratchers during the second stage even though the lower Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale..4WoF(204°C) which can be performed using the drillpipe-operated PRESSURE RANGE-O . the primary use of multiple-stage cementing tools is to reduce or elim- inate the possibility of lost circulation as a result of exces- sive hydrostatic pressures from a high column of cement. PRESSURE The multiple-stage cementer will allow the use of dif- INLET ferent blends of cement at different levels in a well. pozzolans. PRESSURE . stages. (2) the pressure-operated (Fig. r D E B R I S SCREEN 6 .e.. The primary differ- ence is the equipment needed to operate multiple-stage cementing tools. and in some operations. Other common additives for reducing slurry density. Although numerous stages of cement may be placed in the wellbore with currently available tools. Chemical washes commonly used during the lower stage are also frequently used in the upper stages. after the lower section has been cemented. The amount of lost circulation material in cement slurries should be re- viewed based on individual areas. ELEMENTS multiple-stage cementing may be completed by perforat- ing various sections of the well casing and pumping ce- ment during initial cementing operations on the well. e. Most multiple-stage cementing is done in two or three stages. followed by placement of successive upper stages through ports in a multiple-stage cementing tool. Minimizing loss of cementing slurry to thief zones..

The shutoff plug separates most common method of multiple-stage cementing used the slurry from the displacement fluid and stops circula- and is usually preferred because it provides a positive tion when pumped to shutoff against the shutoff bame. bottom and may be left closed after cementing the first stage.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. which prevents overdis. shutoff following the first stage. When first-stage cement has been displaced. Generally. if this is a critical Operations point in the well.`.-`-`. menter is usually located relatively far away from the 3.`.. a squeeze job might otherwise be nec- Free-Fall Cementing.````.12 illustrates one type of stage cementing collar used with the free-fall plug set.8 Details of Multistage Cementing the lower joints during drillout. Centralizers are sometimes used immediately in the uppermost flöat collar or in a casing coupling one above and below the stage tool to prevent distortion of the or more joints above the bottom end of the casing. the plug. thereby preventing overdisplacement of the first stage of placement of cement around the shoe joint. The free-fall method is the the seats inside the cementer. Its flexible wipers permit it to pass freely through free-fall plug set may be used.13-Pressure-operated multiple-stage ce- menter. the bame is placed either displaced. both scratchers cement will be left inside the casing at the end of the first and centralizers are used with the same regularity in stage. 3. Some tool due to hole conditions. The shutoff bame is made of drillable material for quick and complete removal when the casing is drilled r bottom stage is often set before the upper stage is out after cementing.```````.````. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Free-Fall Plug Method. Two-Stage.. Following the first stage of cement is the shutoff the bottom of the casing all the way to the cementer. Components of the free-fall plug set are described below.. rather than risk overdisplacement of the first stage. Usually. the --``. Figure 3.`. cement. a free-fall plug set must be used.`.14-Drillpipe-operated multiple-stage ce- menter. In cementing operations where essary to place cement behind the casing. When using the free-fall (or “bomb”) type cementing method... 1. or it may be opened to allow displacing fluid to be pumped to establish and maintain circulation while wait- ing for the first-stage cement to set. The ce. 3. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732299 0558456 TbT m 40 CEMENTING Fig.15 illustrates plugs used in this method.`. Figure 3. Ce- ment around the shoe joint helps to prevent unscrewing 3. first-stage cement is not required to fill the annulus from 2. It is preferable to drill out some first-stage cement single-stage and multistage cementing.`.. Fig. Also.

`. After each pressure buildup. it is placed in the casing immediately ahead of the first stage of cement and acts as a bottom plug for first-stage cement. When using a free-fall plug. or above. If this does not occur. If a bypass Shüt -Off PIüg plug is used.`.. The desired amount of cement for the second stage is pumped through the cementer ports. a displacement plug set should be used. and into the annulus. Surface indications of cementer opening are a rapid decrease in pressure and the start of fluid circulation. or (2) debris on the opening seat is preventing the free-fall opening plug from sealing. A sudden increase in casing pressure and stopping of circulation indicate the cementer is closed.-`-`. it is placed on top of the float collar. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . and some contamination of the slurry may be ex- pected.. shearing opening sleeve pins. as well as circulation through the stage collar for as long as is desired.16.`. displacing fluid should be pumped to maintain circulation while waiting for the first stage to harden. Its Free-Fall Plug function.````. I Shut-Off Baffle Two-Stage Displacement Method. a rapid pressure release will flush debris off the seat. When the v estimated falling time for the free-fall plug has elapsed.```````. and minimizes the amount of cement in the casing at a given time. it precludes use of a plug ahead of the slurry for the second stage. When the multiple-stage cementer is placed closer than 500 ft from the float collar. is to shear the releasing sleeve pins and close the ports.. The bypass plug passes through the cementer and shutoff bame and stops on the bypass baf- fle. After the cementer is opened. An operating schematic of cementing using a free-fall plug set for two- stage cementing is shown in Fig. may also require the use of the displace- ment plug set. in conjunction with applied pressure.15-Free-fal1. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 9% W 0732290 Ci556457 î T b CASING EQUIPMENT 41 I free-fall opening plug is dropped into the casing and is allowed to fall by its own weight to the opening seat in the multiple-stage cementer. (1)the free-fall opening plug may not --``. When cement is t Fig. which might retard the falling rate of the free-fall plug. Time is determined by the viscosity and density of the fluid in the casing as well as the degree of hole deviation. and a seal can be obtained.`--- have reached its seat and more time should be allowed. through the float collar and shoe. First-stage cement is then pumped freely past the plug. This procedure permits a check on the displacement of the lower stage. The time required for the free-fall plug to reach the cementer must be estimated since there is no surface indication when this occurs. and Closing Plug opening the cementer. pressure is applied to the casing. However. 3. compressing the fluid below the cementer. Consideration of displacement control is proba- bly the greatest single factor in the decision to use the free-fall (or “bomb”) plug wherever possible. two-stage plug set.````. the cementer. an optional first-stage bot- tom plug set (Fig. If a bypass bame is used. Circulation is usually maintained at a lower pressure than before the cementer was opened. through the holes in the bypass bame. to be placed in the entire annulus from the bottom up- ward to.. Greater depths or highly deviated holes (exceeding 30°). 3. but is normally in the range of 200 ft/min.17) consisting of a bypass bame and bypass plug may be used if desired. 3.. followed by a clos- ing plug.`.`. This plug is similar to the five-wiper cement- ing plug but has a hard nose on its lower end.`. the dis- placement plug set should be used because fluid com- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale..

the have been completed.. Since it is usually preferable to ware must be used. flat concrete base in the float tain circulation while waiting for the first stage of cement collar. and a no interruptions of pumping until all cementing stages seat near its top end. Fluid volumes must be accurately calculated casing capacity between the bypass baffle and calculated and carefully measured to prevent overdis. It is installed in the upper. then pumped to seat the opening plug in the opening When cementing using the displacement method. displacement of the first stage. and as that used in the free-fall method and closes the ce- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. quired to open the tool. 3. The placement or underdisplacement of any of the stages. lus.`.-`-`. a sleeve of the cementer. pression below the cementer is required to open the serve to separate the slurry from the displacement fluid.. it might be preferable to 1. The displacement-type opening plug consists of method may be employed as a continuous operation with flexible rubber cups. API T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0558958 832 D 42 CEMENTING 'Opening Plug Closing Plug Seated ports Locked closed --``. centering fingers on each end. followed by a bypass plug. cementer with the free-fall plug set. displacement-type opening plug by one or two barrels to most float collar as the casing is lowered into the well and help prevent overdisplacement of the first stage. First-stage cement.`--- DISPLACING DROPPING DISPLACING MULTIPLE CEMENT FOR OPENING CEMENT FOR STAGE FIRST STAGE PLUG SECOND STAGE CEMENTER CLOSED Fig.`.`. or the second stage of cement may be pumped pumped out the bottom of the casing and into the annu. The displacement 2. cementer is pumped and the opening plug released. The equipment required is illustrated drill out cement inside the casing rather than to risk over- in Fig.````. After releasing the bypass plug. Pressure is then applied as re- displacement-type plug set with appropriate casing hard. balance of the calculated displacement fluid volume is especially the first stage. Displacing fluid may be pumped to main- supported by the strong.`. 3.````. is to harden.`..16-Operation of cementer with free-fall plugs (two-stage cementing). 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . This baflle Pressure applied to the opening plug opens the ce- can not be installed in a casing coupling but must be menter ports. is held in place by the casing joint above it. immediately.. The bypass plug has flexible wipers which allow it to The closing plug in a displacement plug set is the same pass freely through the seats inside the cementer..18. The bypass bame has large fluid ports in its side and cut the spacer fluid volume between the bypass plug and center for unobstructed flow..`.```````.

`..1 8-Two-stage displacement plug set.20..````.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . 3. may be opened. This is an optional plug set (Fig. the cementer may also be opened by using a free-fall plug. When re- quired. API TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 m 0 7 3 z z w 0558459 7 7 9 m CASING EQUIPMENT 43 Closing Plug - Bypass Plug 1 Bypass Baffle fig.. 3. 3. 3. the second stage is displaced by the displace- ment method using displacement plugs. This cementer Fig. If desired.. The hydraulically-operated multiple-stage cementer has Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. If a plug is desired ahead of first-stage cement to sepa- --``. 3. 3.````. A detailed operating schematic using a displace- ment method operation is illustrated in Fig. are made to engage and actuate a modified collar for the second stage.`.```````.9 Three-Stage Cementing Three-stage cementing is not often attempted. Special stage cementers are available which permit the use of free-fall plugs on both second- and third-stage collars.10 Free-Fall Method Hydraulic Modif¡cation Bypass Baffle A hydraulically-operated multiple-stage cementer may be used with a free-fall plug set (Fig.`--- rate it from the fluid in the casing.-`-`.15). Smaller plugs.`. a first-stage bypass plug set may be used with either the free-fall or the displacement methods. The upper stage cementer must always be opened with a free-fall plug because the casing is closed to flow by the closing plug of Bypass Plug the lower cementer. and the upper stage is controlled with free-fall plugs..-First-stage bypass plug and baffle (op- tionali..`. the lower stage is displaced in the conventional manner.19).`.17. Opening Plug menter in the same way. if desired. which will not actuate the upper stage cementer. with application of pressure to the casing and requires no free-fall plug. 3.

3.. sists of an outer body.`. CLOSING STAGE PLUG CEMENTER SEATED CLOSING PLUG SEAT . the opening pressure is set for a predetermined differential pressure at the tool.. If a pressure differential exists between the annulus and the cementer ID. 3.20-Cementer operation with displacement plugs (two-stage cementing).14 con- stage tool can be used in any well. and closing plug. but can be used to open the tool if for some reason pressure can not be applied. Nor- mally.````.-`-`.. DISPLACING (DRILLABLE I FLUIO PORTS CLOSED OPENING PLUG SEAT PORTS IORILLABLE) LOCKE0 CLOSE0 OPENING PLUG SEAT IORILLABLE) CEMENT FIRST STAGE BOTTOM BYPASS PLUG BAFFLE FOR BOTTOM BYPASS PLUG FLOAT COLLAR HALLIBURTON GUIDE SHOE DISPLACING MULTIPLE PUMPING I N CEMENT FOR STAGE OPENING PLUG SECONO STAGE CEMENTER CLOSED Fig. The free-fall plug set is not recommended in well ment or other fluids outside the same casing string at deviations greater than 30°. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . menting tool used to place any number of stages of ce- 1. the free-fall opening plug is not necessary for oper- ation of the cementer.19-First-stage bypass plug (optional). The tool may be opened or ~~ DISPLACING CEMENT FLUIO F I R S T STAGE TOP BYPASS PLUG . waiting time can be excessive in deeper wells with heavy. it must be added or subtracted from the preset opening pressure to arrive at the calculated opening pressure.`. Fig. The hydraulically-operated stage tool saves rig time usually spent waiting for an opening plug to fall. If the first-stage cement is to be pumped to a point string. tool open or pull it closed. The cementer is operated with a free-fall plug set. When the hydraulically-operated stage cementer is used.`. The basic tool shown in Fig. A first-stage bottom plug set consisting of a bypass plug and bame may also be run. OPENING MULTIPLE PLUG . 3. shutoff baflle. viscous mud systems. The remain- ing components of the free-fall plug set are required.`. including a shutoff plug. The hydraulically-operated selected points.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. and an internal ported sleeve sealed by heavy duty above the stage tool. regardless of deviation.. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 W 0732290 0 5 5 8 4 b 0 490 CEMENTING 3..`. The tool is opened or closed by a set of operat- an advantage. which is made up in the casing 2. --``.`.1 1 Workstring-Operated Multistage Cementer The workstring.or drillpipe-operated cementer is a ce- the applications listed below. the hydraulically-operated tool offers seal rings.````.```````. 3. in that it can be opened immediately after ing tools which latch into the internal sleeve to push the the completion of first-stage cementing..

The same cementing proce- dure is followed on each succeeding stage operation. must be installed. a rubber bottom plug is pumped ahead of the Fig.. Fig.21) and closing sleeve (Fig. The drillpipe-operated tool offers the following When cementing the second and subsequent stages features and applications. balanced sleeve down. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . depending on the application se. These plugs hold 3. through the drillpipe. 3. a surface casing annulus packoff. operated cementer. differential pressure ruptures the be operated.`. The closing sleeve positioner will menting. fully closed.. Operating tools are run below the cementer to reaches the float collar.1 2 Cementing Plugs pressure from above while the operator cements upper At the beginning of a cementing job performed on a stages through drillpipe. through the ward force of 10. with high-pressure packing capable of holding maximum 2. moving the pressure- sequence at preselected depths for cement bonding.`--- the casing ahead of the cement slurry. and lock- 4. menters installed in the casing. 3.`.000 lb moves the sliding plug and float equipment. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.```````. 1. to reduce con- opening (Fig.22) posi. and up the annular space be- sleeve to the open position. 3. API TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0 5 5 8 4 b l 327 CASING EQUIPMENT 45 closed multiple times. Well may be cemented through any number of ce. squeeze ce. multiple- drillpipe cementer is performed through casing in the stage cementer is shown in Fig. The cementer has no plugs or seats to be drilled out. or retesting of the primary cement job. the closing sleeve positioner is lowered to engage the formed through any drillpipe-operated cementer in any internal sleeve in the cementer.`.. In most areas.````.. The second and subsequent rotary-drilled well. tween the pipe and the hole. reducing dilution minimize movement of the drillpipe in operation of the and contamination of the cement. anticipated circulating pressure.21-Opening sleeve positioner on workstring. After pumping the second stage of cement into place. engages the positioner from the tool. Stage cementing or testing operations may be per. Up. Fig. lected.23.0 to 10. conventional manner. be reversed out of the casing. An Operation.23. While in this position.`. cement slurry to proceed down the casing. The first-stage cementing job using a operating diagram of the drillpipe-operated.0 ft to --``.. 3.````. The distance between the opening and closing cement slurry. release from the sliding sleeve when the sleeve has moved 5. The tool may be reopened for testing.22-Closing sleeve positioner on workstring- operated cementer.`. A formation opposite the tool may be tested. When this plug cementer. the casing and hole are usually filled stage cementing operations are performed by running an with drilling mud. 3. 3. Drillpipe is raised for the opening sleeve rubber diaphragm at the top of the plug and allows the positioner to latch into the cementer internal sleeve. This plug wipes mud from the walls of sleeve positioners should be held to 8. ing the sleeve closed. Continued upward force dis. 3. treated. closing the outer ports. excess cement may and evaluated for production purposes.-`-`.000 to 20. A top and bottom cementing plug are normally used on the first stage. tamination on the interface between the mud and ce- tioner tool on the bottom of the drillpipe as shown in ment.`..

`. multiple-stage cementer. Some plug designs on the market have a conical or Two types of top and bottom five-wiper cementing tapered bottom. When all the cement has been placed.```````.`. Each set is identical in external ap.-`-`. Landing the top plug will lessen the possibil.. These plugs are made to shut off on a plugs are available.23-Operation of workstring-operated.. The top plug is solid. a rubber top rubber above the top plug insert permit high landing plug is released from the surface plug container. where a good bond is required.. but are normally used in wells with temperatures less ity of any further displacement of the cement slurry and than 300OF. a mismatch will prevent the plug from obtaining a needed to withstand high landing forces. even with the provide better cement around the bottom of the casing PDC bits commonly in use today. cast alumi. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Both types are easily drillable. 3. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.. which provide the strength ment. Caution should be exer- pearance and differs only in the material and design of its cised not to mix tapered plug and flat top floating equip- internal cores or inserts.24. Plastic-inserted plugs are some- float collar it causes shutoff of fluids being pumped into what more drillable than the aluminum inserted plugs the casing. tapered or matching float collar.`--- Opening FO FO FO Cementer Cementer Cementer pori Pods Cementing Open Closed pons Closed Closing Sleeve Closing Posilioner -Sleeve Posilioner OPENING FO PUMPINGTHROUGH REVERSINGEXCESS INNER STRING CEMENTER FO CEMENTER CEMENT CEMENTING OF FIRST STAGE Fig. ator desires to pressure-test the well casing to elevated ing mud or fluid used to displace the cement column pressures after the top plug has landed on the float collar. Plug inserts complete shutoff.`. Strength of the drillable. (both top and bottom) are commonly made of a plastic or Top and bottom plugs are different in color to help cast aluminum material. Cast alumi- plug follows the cement and is designed to reduce the num insert plugs are also frequently used when the oper- possibility of contamination or channeling with the drill.. and the design is Aluminum-inserted plugs are typically used at tempera- such that when it reaches the first or bottom plug at the tures in excess of 300°F.````.````. 3. down the casing..`. = ~ A P I T I T L E Y O R L D W I D E 91 U 0732290 0558462 263 46 CEMENTING Casing Drill Pipe Opening Or Tubing Sleeve Posilioner --``.`.`. tom plug typically is red or orange in color and the top num insert plugs and the “packer action” of the mass of plug is black. This pressures and dependable sealing capability. The bot- shown in Fig. Examples of these plugs are ensure that the plug may be readily identified.

The basic types of centralizers are bow-spring and rigid (also known as positive).556463 L T T CASING EQUIPMENT 47 3.25-Slip-on centralizer.26-Rigid centralizers. 1. A general rule of thumb for spacing centralizers in relatively straight holes is to place one centralizer for every joint in the section of the hole to be covered with cement. These programs give recommendations for the spacing of casing centralizers when furnished vital well input such as mud weight.24-Top and bottom wiper plugs.26). thereby pre- venting differential-pressure freezing or sticking of the casing to the walls of the welibore. and numerous technical papers written on the subject of removing mud and mud filter cake from formations during the primary cementing operation.`. Centralizers will help provide equal hydrostatic pressure in the annulus around the casing. Benefits of using centralizers are shown below. and required casing standoff.25) or an integral short section of casing with fins or bars welded onto the casing (Fig.```````. 5. Casing can be positioned in the center of deviated or crooked holes and guided past ledges and keyseats... --``.`. hence it has a low running force. Chemical removal studies usually are limited to the rheology of the displacing and dis- placed fluids with chemical washes and preflushes pumped ahead of the cement at turbulent rates. 3. Centralizers help reduce pipe movement prior to cement setting up. The main purpose of casing centralizers Fig.. The fins or bars of the rigid central- izer are tapered to guide the casing past ledges in the wellbore.-`-`. 3.M Centralizers. These investigations have been grouped into the categories (1) chemical removal and (2) mechanical removal.`. less than the hole size in which it is being run and offers Fig.````.````. Fins of the rigid centralizer are solid and usu- ally produce higher drag forces than bow-spring central- izers in highly deviated or horizontal holes. The rigid-type centralizer has an OD to V4 in. hole deviations.. Cement flows to more uniform thickness between the pipe and formation. no substantial contact with the wellbore.. Centralizers help protect casing while it is being rotated or reciprocated. 3. this reduces gas channeling.`.`.`. 4. is to center the casing in the hole to provide sufficient area for cement to flow uniformly around the casing to form a uniform sheath. Most service companies have computer pro- grams that calculate a recommended spacing of casing centralizers. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 07322’70 0. This document stipu- lates requirements for all standard sizes of API casings.. I Fig. 3. reducing the risk of channeling. The rigid type may be either a slip-on (Fig. Most bow-spring centralizers on the market today are tested to meet requirements for performance set out in API Spec This specification establishes such per- formance criteria as maximum starting and running forces and minimum restoring force of the bow-spring centralizer at 67% casing standoff. Programs are also available to give a recommendation for the spacing of rigid centralizers. 2. 3. Mechan- ical means of removing mud filter cake and centralizing the casing in the wellbore have been studied extensively in large-scale displacement research. 3.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Most programs can reverse the standard program and allow the user to enter the spacing of the centralizers and obtain the standoff at various points of the casing string as output.1 3 Casing Attachments Extensive research has been performed. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .

27-Hinged. Centralizers are held in their relative position on the casing by installing the centralizer over the casing collar the mud cake from the borehole provides a clean surface or by mechanical stop collars installed on the casing be. The rotating action of the cleaner mud cake or other foreign material from the borehole spikes or cables also helps obtain a more even distribu- walls in the areas to be covered by cement.. channeling in primary cementing operations..```````. strength of the casing is reduced in the heat-affected zone. In use today are reciprocating scratchers and rotating ciprocation of the well casing is desired during primary scratchers. Welding of centralizers and other casing attachments is generally discouraged by casing manufacturers because Fig.`.. and reciprocation of the well casing. When re. scratchers have aided in reducing gas cutting and required position and still allow expansion.28-Wire-type. chances of sticking casing off bottom are minimized.29) are cementing operations.. Centralizers. The inte- gral rigid (or positive) centralizer is threaded into the casing string. Common types are made of cable loops limit ring or clamp or between two limit clamps. hinged and integral centralizers are usually installed on the cas- ing as it is being run into the well. to allow good bonding of the cement to the formation and tween the casing bows.`. If the casing is prop- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Rotating scratchers (Figs. and wide to the casing at predetermined locations as it is lowered spacing of cleaner spikes or cables permit free flow of in the wellbore. Cleaning of --``.`.`--- tion of cement around the casing.. 3. or spring wire fingers. There are many variations of the way in conjunction with properly spaced centralizers and ade- which these stop rings or clamps may be utilized. bottom of the centralizer avoids distortion of the springs that can result from pushing centralizers from the top. When used in them in place. but quate chemical washes pumped ahead of the cement their primary purpose is to confine the centralizer in a slurry.-`-`. 3. for installation purposes. bow-spring centralizer. Rigid centralizers are made up in helps prevent contamination and channeling as the ce- the casing string and do not require other devices to hold ment is being placed around the casing. Ro- Scratchers.28 and 3. slip (Fig. Since scratchers are rotated rather than reciprocated. the solid-body centralizer may be slipped over the pin end of the joint. Bow.25). Applying force at the where welding is not appropriate. 3. Clamps are collar or limit clamp to reduce running force required to primarily used on N-80 and higher grades of API casing place the centralizer down-hole. Purpose of the scratcher is to remove fluids in the annulus. rotation. 3.````. Slip centralizers are normally installed at the pipe rack prior to running casing to save rig time.`. and the hinged type is hinged closed with pins installed to hold it in the closed position. 3.````. These scratchers are attached to spring centralizers are normally installed over a casing the casing by welding or with ring clamps. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 = O732290 0558464 036 m CEMENTING '8 Fig. rotating casing scratcher. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .`. are manufac- tured in three types: integral rigid (or positive) (Fig. A scratcher is a mechanical device attached tating scratchers do not bridge off the annulus.`. contraction.26). 3. the centralizer is usually allowed composed of a metal strip with some type of metal fin- to slide up and down the pipe between a casing collar and gers or bristles. and hinged (Fig..27).

the inner string may be removed after the cement has set. The reciprocating scratcher cleans the wellbore wall as the casing is reciprocated a sufficient distance (normally 10 to 15 fi) to ensure that each scratcher is overlapping the area covered by the next scratcher above. Solid-body or slip- on scratchers are normally installed on the pipe rack prior to running casing. Fig. --``.`. 3. and placement of large volumes of cement to obtain high fill-up has neces- sitated some revision in cement placement techniques. wire type. long distance apart. In a variation of this technique. spiral drive-screws.````. spikes or cables do not break under normal conditions.14 Innerstring Cementing Method The increased usage of large diameter surface and/or in- termediate casing at extreme depths.30) and hinged type (Figs. guid- ing. three reciprocating wall cleaners to each stand- ard length are considered adequate. These cleaners are activated by rotat- ing the casing string 8 to 15 RPM while circulating the wellbore. scratchers and centralizers will not be run continuously but installed only opposite these zones.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .`. and where the casing is equipped with a backpressure valve or latch- down bame. the hinged type may be installed at the rotary table as the casing is being run. Some special applications of scratchers are to use close spacing on the bottom one or two joints of casing to assure the best possible cementing around the casing seat or to aid in obtaining good formation bonding on openhole plugback operations. the inner string can be disengaged as soon as a plug is seated and withdrawn from the casing while preparations are being made to drill ahead. Reciprocating scratchers are confined to their respective locations on the casing by providing stops 18 to 24 in. above the scratcher body. API T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558465 T ï 2 M CASING EQUIPMENT 49 erly centralized. Normally. solid Often when there are two or more producing zones a body. rotating casing scratcher. By using appropriate floating..`. below..29-Cable-type.```````.````.`. On models of this type. Maximum wellbore mud cake removal can be achieved by spacing reciprocating cleaners equal distances apart at 50 to 100 ft above.`. or to minimize the amount of cement that has to be drilled out of large diameter casing after it has been cemented in conventional manner. f in a more convenient manner. and through the zones to be cemented.31 and 3. This technique permits the use of small-diameter cementing plugs. rotating casing scrat. They are manufactured in solid-body type (Fig. ce- menting may be accomplished through the inner string Fig.-`-`.. This space is to allow upward movement as the pipe is being picked up off the slips while running casing.32). Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. or some models may be attached to the casing using heat- treated.... Scrat- chers may be attached directly to the casing by welding. or bame equipment and sealing adapters that may be attached to small-diameter pipe (such as drillpipe). 3. 3. the industry has developed down-hole equipment and improved placement methods. but more may be run closer together if desired. To combat the problems of packing large volumes of cement slurry outside the casing through small diameter grouting pipes.30-Solid body. 3. 3. the drive-screw is inserted into slots in the cleaner body and driven tightly between the body and casing for a friction grip.`--- Reciprocating scratchers are made of metal bands with numerous wire spikes or cables attached to the band.

WORKSTRING Two variations of down-hole equipment may be used LATCH-DOWN PLUG for innerstring cementing.33) consists of a special bame collar.`. float collar.31-Hinged. cable-type reciprocating casing scratcher. Large diame.````. SEALING SLEEVE FLOAT SHOE --``.`.33-Innerstring method of cementing.32-Hinged.. The upper part of the concrete has a deep chamfer to aid in attachment of the Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. CASING Sealing Adapter and Floating Equipment with Sealing Sleeve. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732290 05584bb 909 m 50 CEMENTING WORK STRING CASING SEALING ADAPTER Fig. preventing re-entry of cement into the casing ID.`. The concrete molding has a deep chamfer to help guide the sealing adapter into the sealing sleeve.34-Innerstring cementer with latch-down plug. 3. Fig. 3. Upon completion of the cementing operation. The bame collar has a sealing sleeve with a built-in latch-down Fig.```````. the drillpipe is pulled from the hole with the float equip- ment valve. Cement is mixed and pumped down the drillpipe. as the name implies. 3. This variation.34). 3. wire-type reciprocating casing scratcher.`. The SEALING ADAPTER equipment has a sealing sleeve molded into the concrete. BAFFLE COLLAR ter casing to be cemented is equipped with the desired floating and guiding equipment and run to the setting SEALING SLEEVE depth. Baffle Collar with Latch-Down Plug and Sealing Sleeve.-`-`..`.. ... baffle molded in the concrete.This arrangement (Fig.`.````. l-l. or float shoe which is attached to the casing string to be cemented. 3. Drillpipe (the inner string) with attached sealing WITH LATCH-DOWN adapter is run to depth into the float equipment sealing sleeve.`--- Fig.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . 3. is incorpo- rated into a special baffle collar (Fig.

955-960.Houma. 4. saving cement volume and minimiz- --``.````.C. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . 7. R. Cement slurry is then Trico Industries. 3. 1973). API Specification 5B for Threading. . when a float collar or float shoe is used.`. CA .” JPT (Aug.second edition (Feb. . and also acts 966.5 and 3. 3. first edition Large diameter casing can be cemented through an (April 1971). 1. Crook.11..15 Summary menting Float Equipment.:“A Laboratory Investigation of necessary to cement the entire casing string in one col.`. Crook. It may be used with a ing the work of drilling out casing after cementing. down cementing plug. i 982) Scratchers clean mud cake from borehole walls. the bame collar sealing sleeve.. 3.: “Primary Cementing: Optimizing for provide for a uniform sheath of cement all around the Maximum Displacement.29 and 3.4.C. Gaging.” JPT (Aug. API TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 ~ 5 5 8 4 6 7845 W CASING EQUIPMENT 51 sealing adapter to the inner string.J.`.: “Deviated Wellbore primary cementing process. and Haut.J. API Spec IOD.R. 3. LA .C. DC (1985). R. R.7. Crook.````.” First Edition (June 1989). umn of cement. D. and Kulakofsky. selected locations along the casing string so that it is not 6. Las Vegas. Inc. API lOF.S.```````. 3. American Petro- the cement is setting. Upon landing. and Line Pipe Threads.: “Primary Cementing: The Mud Dis- into the casing. R. NO. Wilson. 2. to 8.10.R.: “Laboratory Investigation of Light- weight. After landing and latching the plug. S..Duncan.`. casing. R. Haut.. Haut. R. 1980)105-16. and Sabins. Tubing.Figs. No. M.” paper SPE 16928 SPEDE (Sept.J.” paper SPE 8253 presented at the 1979 SPE Stage cementing tools allow placement of cement at Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Part 1.. leum Institute.” World Oil (Nov. Inc. and Keller.. The bame collar is usually installed in the large diame. and Crook. API Dallas. Specification for Casing Centralizers.All others. Sept.A.. R.`. Haut.Fig. Hydraulically-operated stage cementers 1988)275-280. through the sealing adapter and latches directly into the Halliburton Services . and Crook... Keller. Wilson. 3.26. OK . LA .J. After the casing is run to setting depth. centralizers place casing near the center of the hole. 3. R.Huntington Park. and Thread Inspec- the inner string may be withdrawn from the well while rion of Casing. This. EL. Problems. Washington.30.Figs.C. “Recommended Practice for Performance Testing of Ce- 3.API. 8.28. R.`.. pumped through the inner string followed by a latch.J. and 1828-34.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. centralizer if desired.: Casing equipment is available to help ensure placement “Deviated-Wellbore Cementing. 961- casing buoyancy to relieve strain on the rig. 1987) 39. third edition (1986). inner string of pipe. the plug passes Ray Oil Tool Co. 9. Acknowledgements ter casing string one or more joints above the guide or The author acknowledges the following companies for float shoe. Float equipment provides Cementing: Part 2: Solutions. provide the means to cement deviated sections of casing. 23- 26.. M. S. the supplying the figures used in this article: inner string is run and the sealing adapter is inserted into Gemco . Cementing Horizontal Wells.A. locking recesses of the sleeve. placement Process. of a competent cement sheath around casing during the 1987) 39. Low-Viscosity Cementing Spacer Fluids. as a barrier to return of cement from the annulus back 5. provides a double check to minimize References backflow of slurry.” JPT (Aug. 3. Dallas.8.Lafayette.-`-`.

W H Grant Jr ... ... .................... 53 4.. .......... ...... ..................................... ............... ................ .................... ..................... ............................. ............ ....... 59 Separation of MudlCement in the Annulus ........ .......... ...... 55 Liquid Additive Systems ......... .............. 55 4.....................6 Cement Evaluation .`.. 66 Definitive Indications ... 67 --``...7 Annular Gas Flow Mitigation ......1 Introduction .. . 64 4......................... ...........5 Special Operations ........ 62 Liner Cementing ........... API T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 m 0732290 05584b8 781 = Chapter 4 Primary Cementing authors Fred Brooks ........... ........................ ............. 56 Cement Slurry Mixers ...... ............................ 66 Reasons for Occurrence of AGF ..````.. INDEX SUBJECT PAGE 4..-`-`.. .................. 61 4....... .. ........... 66 4..4 Primary Cementing Procedures to Enhance Success .......```````. ......................2 Subsurface Equipment ........ 65 More Direct Indications ..... ....... . 53 Guide Shoe ... . 55 ScratcherslWipers ...... 58 Cementing Heads .................................... 58 4. ..........`... 58 Separation of MudlCement in the Pipe ......................................`........ 55 Centralizers .... 62 Primary Cementing Opposite Plastic Formations .... .. .... .........`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale............````..... ............. ...... 53 Float ShoelCollar .... 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .............. 55 Dry Blenders .......... 59 Post-Job Considerations ............... 56 Density Monitoring Devices ......... ....... 53 Cementing Wiper Plugs .......... 66 Prevention ofAGF ...................................... ......... 59 Recent Research ..................... 64 Indirect Indications ................................................ 62 Stage Cementing .`............... ........3 Surface Cementing Equipment ..............................................`........................`...

This 5.-`-`.`. Confines secondary and tertiary recovery processes. resulting in a reduction of the hook load. after 321h years of service. it may be necessary to partially fill the casing with drill- 7. entire length of the casing. TX. of a well.`. cement must develop sufficient mechanical strength to: --``.. H. Depending on 5. Not shatter when perforated.2 Subsurface Equipment before drilling is resumed or the well is completed. stances. Grant Jr. This is of particular impor- is accomplished by pumping cement slurry down the tance if halite (NaCl) intervals are penetrated. hole.```````. Float ShoelCollar. Absorb drilling shock. the hole. Confines stimulation treatments to the target inter.”whether it is incorpo- val(s). 6. is the supervisor of the Chevron Research Cementing section in Houston. where he has worked for 23 years.2. 4. the inside surface of previously set casing. Primary cementing can be defined as the placement of 2.H. Grant Jr. API T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 = O732290 0558469 b L 8 Chapter 4 Primary Cementing By: Fred Brooks and W. This function is of particular impor. Prevents contamination of freshwater aquifers by ing fluid from the surface as it is being run.1. 2. might be controlled in event of a problem. Before this service he was with Halliburton for 72 years. a private consultant on drilling and completions. Approximately one-half of his career with Exxon was spent on research. casing collapse. Fred Brooks. It is run on the first joint operation of the well than a successful primary cement of casing and guides the casing past irregularities in the job. 4.’ Of all the operations performed during the drilling and completion Guide Shoe. Provide casing support.1 Introduction 1. and into the annular space. 4.````. The guide shoe can be an open-end collar. Side ports provide a means of maintain- hydraulic (sealing) function achieves the following: ing circulation if the casing rests on bottom or is plugged 1. rated in the shoe or a collar or both... retired from Exxon Production Research Co.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. The valve prevents fluids from 4. cement in the annular space between the outside surface 3 . Example calculations illustrating this tance in wells used for disposal of produced brines. out the borehole joint. Circulation is established down the casing and out The set primary cement sheath performs hydraulic and the open end of the guide shoe or through side ports in mechanical functions. the density of the drilling fluid in control). Set point follow. The cement is then allowed to set 4. The “fl~at. majoring in chemistry Grant is presently chairman of API Committee 10 on well cements. Prevent casing buckling. Exercises control over production patterns (reservoir the depth of the well. 4. Assures integrity of the casing shoe so that the well entering the casing while pipe is lowered into the hole.. liner in an example well is shown in Fig. of steel casing and the borehole wall or. Brooks is presently vice-chairman of API Committee IO. Excludes extraneous fluids from the production with cuttings. and the collapse-resistance rating of the casing.`. The proper performance of the the guide shoe. pressure check valve.. The The most important items of primary cementing subsur- cementing of several casing strings and a production face equipment are shown in Fig.`. stream. He holds a BA degree in chemistry from Austin College and an MS degree from Texas Tech University W. in some in. to prevent formation fluids. is basically a back- 3 . Prevents external casing corrosion.`. Support the formation. and assistance to Exxon operating affiliates in the areas of well cementing and platform grouting.````. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .`. He attended the University of Houston.. technology transfer. none is more important to the safe and efficient with or without a molded nose.

1-Casing program.`.. NORMAL 10000 - PRESSURES 11000- INTER- 13000 - RECI PRESS RECEOING i7000 Cement Slurry Fig.```````. extent of fill...````. 5l/2 in. 4. Available differentiallautomatic fill-up shoes permit the casing to fill to some predetermined extent (usually 90% or 81%).5 lb/gal x 8300 ft x 0. The hydrostatic pressure imposed by the drilling fluid at the bottom of the hole would be: psilft = 5395 psi 12.-`-`.052 - Ib/gal and the minimum collapse pressure rating of 17 lblft K- 55 casing2 is 4910 psi.052 - psi/fi 1 4910 psi Iblgal D = 7554ft so at least the bottom 8300-7554 ft = 746 ft should be filled with drilling fluid as the casing is run into the well. Differential fill-up equipment has been promoted as a means to reduce pressure surges while --``.5 lb/gal drilling fluid in the hole into which 17 Iblft.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale..`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .. The casing string should be able to resist hydrostatic pressure to a depth of: 12. Consider an 8300 ft well with 12. Example.````. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 7 1 U 0732270 0558470 3 3 T 54 CEMENTING m 1 2 14 i 6 ' ANIIYDRITE MATION CAVERNOUS E PRESSURE UNCONSOLIDATED 6000 7000 - 8000 - CONSOLIDATEO BRACKISH NORMALLY PRESSURED SECTION .2-Subsurface cementing equipment. K-55 casing will be run..`. 4.`. It should be noted that this is a minimum value and that sound well-control practices may dictate a significantly greater amount of fill.`. ~~ and conventional float equipment offers more control of Fig.`. WATER 9000 .5 lblgal x D ft x 0.' These devices are not widely used since they are less reliable than conventional float equipment.

`. and the additives must be casing in the proper sequence. the critical region of the annulus. which can be placed one to three casing joints off may be added to the mix water and this “solution” mixed bottom.3A-Bulk blending station. and silica.`. surface alone in that the mud film and other debris pushed im- equipment required to mix and pump a slurry includes mediately ahead of the top cementing wiper plug will dry blenders or liquid injectors. in some formulations). API Spec 10D3 defines less sensitive to blend size than are the other systems. (2) one per joint through the productive interval.```````. If the top plug should be run in the For transport to the wellsite. Chemically active dry additives. Most service companies provide recommendations cement sample. Well cementing is accomplished using a dry blend of ing of cement slurry is completed.. Cementing Wiper Plugs. and (3) one every three joints for the remainder of the cemented sec- tion.3A. the additives (solid or liquid) lar.. Centralizers also help prevent sticking of the 3. It with either or both types are similar: the correct amounts is important that the two plugs are inserted into the of additives must be used. proper additives. i. accelerators. the job can not be pumped through the ally referred to as “pods”) are equipped so that material solid plug. based on starting force and restoring beneficial in obtaining a well-blended and representative force. Cas. pounds of additive in thousands of pounds of dry ce- The top wiper plug is solid rubber. 4. Some “rules-of- thumb” that have been found effective are to use (1) two centralizers per joint on the bottom two joints. and cementing head. The job is terminated. and dis- provides a pressure indication. the backpressure valve cement and additives mixed with water.. through the plug. fluid-loss additives.````. and admix ing can be centered in the wellbore by placing centraliz. hole size. has an advantage over the use of a float shoe with dry cement to form the slurry. pozzolans. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558471 2 7 b PRIMARY CEMENTING 55 casing is being run. Centralizers may be of the blend bottle volume. The problems of producing an effective dry blend plug has a hollow core covered by a rubber diaphragm. When the pump. Also. casing size. are used in relatively small amounts (tens of has been pumped.3B. Incorrect additives or incorrect concentrations of the completed. Poor performance of the base cement. it is important that the casing is ally a cement that does not meet API performance speci- centralized so the cement slurry will have a symmetrical fications. Centralizers. on proper placement of centralizers based on casing load. the bottom wiper ment).3C. All dry- casing and keep the casing from entering keyseats. blending methods (air agitation. slurry densometer. Layer cement and additives. When the bottom plug uniformly distributed throughout the blend. 4. but has been found to be ineffective for this purpose. The admix pod blending method is parabola-bow or rigid designs. bulk transports. Use of both a float shoe and float collar helps ensure that floats will not fail. barite. Scratchers are attached to the cas- ing to aid in removal of drilling mud and mud filter cake. The effectiveness of scratchers has always been open to question. This is ac- seats at the float collar. are used in relatively wiper plugs provides for segregation of the cement slurry large amounts (approaching the weight of the dry cement from wellbore fluids while the slurry is inside the casing. hematite.`. 4. then pumped prevents flowback of cement into the casing. 4. Kunze4 has reported that the main circulated from the casing because of the check valve action of the float. Overfilling of the blending equipment.-`-`. pods) perform best if dry solids are less than 30% of the ers on the casing. pumps. slurry remain inside the casing instead of being deposited into mixers. It is advisable to use API-monogrammed centraliz- ers. Once casing has been run to the desired depth. They should be located in gauge sections of the hole (if possible) and they should be sized to nominal hole size plus ’i4 in.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. and hole deviation. retarders.. A float col- down-hole. Alternately. circulation is established through the casing and 4.````. Two types of scratchers are (1) those used when the cas- ing is rotated and (2) those used when the casing is recip- rocated. 4. 1. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .. transfer. seating of the top wiper plug at the float collar Le. which signals that the job persants. Therefore. though not reasons for poor performing blends are: 1. Scratcherslwipers.e. Bulk dry additives. To achieve adequate removal of drilling 2.`. flow path.`. and the cement slurry can not be reverse can be pneumatically transferred into or out of the pod (Fig.`.3 Surface Cementing Equipment float valve and up through the annulus. I --``. Scratchers can be effective only if the casing is moved while cement slurry is flowing in the open hole.4). I Fig.. with some skeptics stating that the only benefit of scratchers is to encourage the operator to move the pipe.. minimum strength requirements for centralizers carrying One study has shown the following guidelines to be the API monogram. Dry Blenders.. dry blend containers (usu- bottom position. The use of top and bottom bentonite. This is usu- fluid from the annulus. the diaphragm is ruptured by complished using a 100 to 300 cu ft capacity blender hydraulic pressure and the cement job is pumped (scale tank) such as shown in Fig.

4 x 10.08 = 4. Weigh additives on a close tolerance scale.`.```````. Fig. or the slurry may be mixed using a jet mixer and Consider a slurry that was intended to be composed of then pumped into the tank for uniform mixing and den- 100 sacks of Class G cement retarded by 0. sure through an orifice. free water. thickening time.08 lb/gal. then the specific A batch slurry mixer (Fig. 4.) that apply to all cementing additives. Remember --``. but so is the additive:cement ratio. If density deviates in a liquid additive slurry (or any slurry with additives dissolved in the mix water) not only is the water:cement ratio changed. but are dispersible. 1920. Move the cement a minimum six times before sam. 4. Weight of dry retarder in the design slurry: 9400 lb X 0. This point is illustrated by the following ex.7 ga1/1000 sacks. tainers. 4. or they may be metered into the mix water from The original jet mixer (Fig. to mix.5) was developed in an on-site reservoir using liquid additive equipment. or the more recently developed recirculating mixer (often referred to as an RCM). usually of gravity and percent activity of the liquid additive must be about 100 bbl capacity.. Required liquid retarder for the redesigned slurry would be 47 lb/lOOsack = 11.````.`. tended to as much as 16 hours when mixed at '12 lblgal 3. The cement falls into a mix- additives. etc. Well cement slurries can be cement as the blend is being transferred to the transport mixed using a continuous type mixer (referred to as a jet vehicle. It is important to mix any slurry at the design waterlsolids ratio (i.3B-Bulk transportation unit. Some liquid additives are not truly soluble in mix wa- ter. It utilizes a hopper which receives dry cement by There are precautions to be observed when using liquid gravity from a storage silo.. Finally. It is best to consider liquid addi- tives as entities unto themselves.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. The Liquid Additive Systems. 4. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732Z9Q 0558472 LO2 m 56 CEMENTING Weight of dry cement: 100 sacks x 94 lblsack = 9400 lb.21 and is 40% active. If the needed concentration of a given liquid ing bowl and is mixed with water admitted at high pres- additive in a slurry is intended to match the concentra. bring the slurry to the exact design density. water may be placed in the batch mixer and the dry cement blown into the water while agitation is taking Example..005 = 47 Ib. then add water to equivalent of this dry retarder.. batch mixer.`. and the effect on slurry properties can be pronounced. Some agitation of the mix water will be required as liquid additives are introduced. and strength development) will be as specified and as expected.. as the most important precaution. Active component per gallon of the liquid retarder is 0. tion of a more familiar solid additive. circulate.````..03 lb. and agitate cement slurries.21 x 8. but it must be remembered that liquid additives are individual materials subject to the same restrictions (such as lot numbers. a batch mixer. to the designed slurry density) so the proper- ties obtained (consistency. Take care to obtain a representative sample of the Cement Slurry Mixers.-`-`. The true batch mixer is equipped considered.5% (SWOC) sity adjustment. place. less than design den~ity.`.6) is a tank.. The equivalent liquid retarder has a specific gravity of 1. the density of liquid additive slurries must be controlled precisely. Many prefer to mix the slurry slightly of a dry retarder.03 lblgal These equations are useful in obtaining a starting point for laboratory testing.`. Density of the liquid retarder = 1.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .33 lb/gal = 10. Slurries with designed thickening times of 4 hours have had their thickening times ex- 2. The mix ample calculation. it was decided to substitute the liquid heavier than desired in a batch mixer. mixer).~ ples are taken. 4.e. Liquid additives may be RCM incorporates features of both a continuous and added to the mix water directly from the shipping con.

4. Two radial axial- flow turbines and a recirculating pump provide mixing action and homogeneity for the slurry. One version of the RCM is shown as Fig. .5 bbl.`--- BATCH MIXING TANK CENTRIFUGALRECIRCULATING 'vu- PUMP Recirculating CEMENT SUCTION Centrifugal Pump Fig.`.6 Since there is some slurry residence time in the RCM.. and this surface time should be observed on the job. 4. 1 Bulk Cement Control Valve DRY CEMENT PREHYDRATOR TURBINE --&. RCM are often used as small batch mixers. capacity of about 7..5-Schematic of ¡et mixer.. so the time re- quired to manipulate the slurry in the batch mixer should be allowed for.`. I 0 WATER 0 DRY CEMENT CEMENT SLURRY CEMENT HOPPER CEMENT SLURRY I Fig.7-Schematic of recirculating mixer.. 4.6-Batch slurry mixer.`. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.7. 4.-`-`..```````. squeeze jobs and plug setting..`... 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . The average RCM has a I Fig.````. 4.````. slurry density control is more readily accomplished in the RCM than in a jet mixer.. i. Fig.4-Marine bulk cementing and pumping unit. This surface retention time generally becomes less important as the down-hole temperatures for which the slurry is designed become hotter.`. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 D 03322913 CI558473 049 D PRIMARY CEMENTING 57 that surface time on some slurries is one of the factors in the required thickening-time equation. AGITATOR --``.e. For small-volume cement jobs.`.

uniform dry blend. Controllable Problems. It is important conducted pre-job testing. Pipe important if the primary cement is required to cover a movement (rotation andlor reciprocation) is beneficial to potentially productive interval or freshwater sand up the irilling-fluid displacement from the annulus. gilsonite) can be added to the cement slurry to promote bridging in highly permeable. Other frequent causes of prob- to place the source in a high-pressure line so the effect of lems are an improperly constituted dry blend or a non- air entrainment on slurry density will be minimized. A common. 4.`.`.`. fractured. This can be and allows for casing rotation while cementing. BOTTOM Lost circulation material such as cellophane flakes and/ CEMENTING PLUG or granular material (e. Also. The slurry density must be reduced to pre- vent fracture of the formation. the cement may lose fluid to the formation so rapidly that the cement filter cake that develops bridges the annulus. The printed strip chart dis. higher-strength tail slurry.```````.. this colorimetric test is not meant to balance. but the operator’s representa- tive on the job should be satisfied that lines. or vugular formations. The avoidance of Fig. but often overlooked. some cement jobs are not successfully pumped because of equipment malhnctions. and that there is redundance for the critical equipment items. This is done to reduce overall hydrostatic load- ing while still maintaining suitable cement properties --``. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. For a cement slurry to have its desired and expected properties it must be mixed Enhancesuccess to the design density. Finally.. Loss of and allows continuous operation. Loss of circulation while cementing can also be caused TOP CEMENTING by the application of excessive hydrostatic pressure to the PLUG formation. Currently in use are single-plug con. high-pressure consistometer.. and rotating heads. These failures can be the result of a lack counter. Some potential primary ce- dioactive densometer mounted on the cementing unit is menting problems are not only controllable but can be useful to the cementer since he has access to a continuous and should be avoided by proper design and execution of readout of slurry density and can make adjustments in the cement job. If there is a problem in which equipment malfunctions cause a delay in the cementing operations or prevents successful completion. The in which cement does not come all the way to the top of double-plug container holds both top and bottom plugs the annulus because it is lost to the formation. Pre-flushes containing sodium silicate have been useful in preventing lost circu- lation.8. A colorimetric test’ has been The unit is normally calibrated with fresh water in the developed for use in the field to indicate (1) agreement of line and the span can be set by reference to a known the field dry blend with the design dry blend and (2) the source. Most jobs are not successfully pumped because of problems densometers utilize a Cesium 137 source and a Geiger with the slurry. A working. one of the the top of the casing to provide for attachment of cement. A rotating head holds both plugs as to the location of the cement top (TOC).`. The top and bottom wiper plugs are also that the cement slurry is too often not mixed to the pumped from the cementing head. properly calibrated ra. more common (and completely avoidable) problems is ing lines.. hole or if the cement top must be placed inside an inter- mediate casing string.`.. It is impossible to test ce- Cementing Heads. Loss of circulation is the term applied to the condition tainers.8-Two-plug cementing head. pre- vents further pumping.4 Primary Cementing Procedures to Density Monitoring Devices. It is not uncommon to perform a primary cementing operation using a low- density lead slurry and a higher-density. A two-plug head is designed density. water:solids feed as needed.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . which are attached to a short pup joint that is of pre-job testing of the composition or of improperly placed in the high-pressure discharge line.`. shown as Fig. and causes a loss of returns. It can also be calibrated by reference to the actual uniformity of the dry blend (by analyzing several sam- slurry density. The cementing head is attached to ment too much before going down-hole. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 H O732290 0558474 T85 58 CEMENTING 4.````.’ replace testing of field blends on a high-temperature.`--- over the completion interval. 4. cause of lost circula- tion relates to the design of the cement slurry. If an attempt is made to pump a cement slurry having poor DUUBLL P L U G C E M E h T HEAG fluid-loss control past a highly permeable formation. and manifolds have been pressure tested. it should be duly noted and re- corded.g.````. once pumping of ce. However. cementing head. these problems is primarily the responsibility of the ce- merting service company. as measured by a pressurized fluid-density ples). A surprisingly large number of primary cementing play provides a permanent record of slurry quality. cement slurry to the formation will result in uncertainty ment slurry has started..-`-`. double-plug containers.

Slurries prepared us. achieving the removal of bulk mud. a placement). thickness is left after the passage of density of 15. can help solve the contamination Separation of MudlCement in the Annulus (Dis. Cement slurries of 16 to 17 lblgal with yield since the effect is variable depending upon the particular points of O. ( 4 4 set. unlike channeling. dilution is the least serious. The water:cement ratio can be reduced by the high. tains a high concentration of CaC12.1736 CU ft base mud can cause the cement to be overretarded. Inade. which results from mud being by. or 116 lbl100 ft2 were employed as the mud system.-`-`. Most comple.35 ftlbbl (6. . low.. Even if a float vention. After the = 172 ft. . 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . casing is 26. having slurries. The test section of the flow model (denoted "forma- ing a relatively low watercement ratio are more resistant tion" in Fig. Three publications9'" provide background for the for- tially intact. annulus or an even ment. O 291 O 7010 10 2530 5005 Example: 30 1400 291 O If it is assumed that 8500 ft of 29 lb/ft.. mud film. or channeling (column of bypassed mud of suffic. to result in effective displacement. casing will 60 340 231 5 be cemented using only a top wiper plug and that a mud Cement A is mixed with 5.4 bbl. .92 x 6.' about 1 darcy permeability.````. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 m 0732270 0558L175 911 m PRIMARY CEMENTING 59 Separation of MudlCement in the Pipe. Compressive Strength contaminated cement will not be left in the critical Dilution psi casing-shoe region of the annulus. Volume 1 (VI)is the volume of the clean.) is the volume of the casing with the '/32 in.V. The conclusions summarized can not be consid- curs if the cement and mud mix more or less uniformly. ID of the 29 lblft. (4. = 1772 CU ft . Of the problems resulting from inadequate mulation of practical procedures and materials intended mud removal.`. follow. casing is 6.`.25505ft)' 8500 ft . problem. therefore contamination by a highly treated.. Volume 2 (V. the use of a fluid of casing and in the annulus. but are presented for the reader's consideration.1. = 36 CU ft The internal aqueous phase of some oil-base muds con- 36 CU ft (0. Haut and Crook9 re- tion interval cement slurries will tolerate considerable ported the results of a study which utilized a large-scale dilution of a lightly treated water-base mud and still have flow model. .184 in. This undesirable (04 Cement A Cement B result can be illustrated by the following calculation. . depending on the concentration. or no permeability. acceptable fluid and set properties.`.4Ib/gal. . is found in the paragraphs that Dilution andlor contamination of a cement slurry oc. the cement slurry.48gal mix in the lower part of the well would amount to 6. wiped casing. The test drilling fluids were It is not possible to make generalizations concerning water-base muds with densities in the range of 14 to 17 the effect of mud chemical contamination on the cement lblgal. 7 in. and there would be mud left in the lower joint cement slurry enters the annulus. 7 in.9) consists of a synthetic formation of to the effects of dilution than are normal water ratio consolidated sand 10 ft long with 6ll2 in. ing. 33. = m12 h = ~(0. 4. . As will be described in a following section. Adequate removal of drilling mud from the properly chosen fluid spacerlpreflush is also of benefit in annulus is essential to achieving primary cementing suc.25765fi)' 8500 ft . is mixed with 3. This aspect of primary cementing has received more attention than any other from researchers. ered complete answers in this area of ongoing research.2gal mix water and has a slurry film averaging l/32 in.1) V..1-EFFECT OF MUD DILUTION ON of the drilling fluid and the cement slurry while the STRENGTH OF CEMENT cement is in the casing is achieved by the use of top and bottom wiper plugs.. with emphasis on re- the annulus). . so NaCl in drilling mud amounting to 37. 7 in. Most of the experiments use of a chemical dispersant. . ID. . and has a slurry density of 17. = ar22 h = ~(0. It is important to use both top and Curing Temperature: 230°F bottom wiper plugs so drilling mud and mud. Prevention of contamination of the cement --``. .4 = 239 ft) of mud in the or any wellbore fluid is a potential contaminant for ce- lower part of an 8% in. cess. chemical contamination of the cement drilling mud from the annulus to help prevent channel- slurry. .`. Unless several joints of casing are run between the float NaCl accelerates or retards the setting rate of cement shoe and collar. all the mud would enter the annulus. water. the capacity of 29 lblft. and 7 in. The effect of NaC1 is difficult to predict. Separation TABLE 4. the contaminated mudlcement slurry Cement B has a dispersant added.6Ib/gal. Various techniques and material have quate removal of mud will result in dilution of the ce. Lignosulfonate mud thinners retard cement Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. .4 can be achieved by the use of two wiper plugs. .```````. been developed to achieve adequate displacement of bulk ment slurry. A synopsis of techniques and materials proposed for ient vertical extent that there is loss of hydraulic seal in achieving effective displacement.`--- collar one joint off bottom is used in this hypothetical slurry (as illustrated previously) while it is in the casing well. longer interval of mud-contaminated cement if there is The best approach to a contamination problem is pre- some mixing of the mud and cement. as discussed in the Subsurface Curing Time: 12 hours Equipment Section.1781 bbllcu ft) = 64 bbl..````.2 V. The effect of mud dilution were performed using a high-permeability test section of on cement compressive strength is shown in Table 4. passed and the cement slurry and mud remaining essen. cent relevant research.`. behind the resident drilling mud.`. . Recent Research. spacerlpreflush ahead of the cement slurry.1772 CU ft . contamination by this type of mud can cause premature set of the cement. water- V.

. 4. and sample flow regime. 4. Since the axial velocity in laminar flow is not as gelled and lost additional filtrate.10 can rate will result in the same mediocre displacement effi- be defined numerically as ciency (40 to 50%). in- increased to 23OoF. The test section was cooled.10). 4. As a result. (everything inside the testing jacket) was saturated with that a thin (low viscosity. 5. 4. the cement slurry is to be avoided.. The temperature was a dissimilar non-Newtonian fluid i.. (4.`.-`-`. some have assumed that laminar flow of bbllmin and 180OF. Based on a consideration of velocity distribution in a heating oil temperature was then raised to 200°F and the single flowing non-Newtonian fluid.e. 20 O -~ .```````. Data developed by the velocity profile of the displacing fluid. displacing fluids. Fig. 4. the mud slurry.. by cement slurry acting alone. V. at 180°F. though. and high flow velocity of the displacing hour.````.100 10’ 10’ 103 104 (VELOCITY)’/MUO IMMOûILITY FACTOR ~ Fig. uniform across the annulus as is the case for plug flow or There followed a 1-hour period of mud circulation at 3 turbulent flow. stances in which 100% of the drilling mud was displaced 2. Rheological differences between the mud and ce. cement slurry through the narrow side of the annulus. Its density can be as high as 34 lblgal.10 that characteristics of the ble are beneficial and flow regime of the cement slurry is resident fluid (drilling mud) and the rate at which the not important. The “well” was then cemented us. not the API fluid loss rate of the mud. To perform an experiment. x 6 in. The 3. i. For this large-scale model study there were no in- Flow was difficult to initiate for even slight asymmetry. low --``. Or to state their observations somewhat displacing fluid (cement slurry) is flowed are very impor.10-Mud removal requires mud moblllty.````..min 4. annulus for 1 thicker slurry.. min = 10 Two likely reasons for this are (1) M M F and flow ve- minute gel strength of the mud. which was measured. the interfacial profile in the “wafers” were cut so casing standoff and mud displace. The volume of filtrate lost fluid is beneficial (Fig. sufficient slurry to cement 1200 Newtonian fluid. Centralization of the casing is important to flow of density of the parent mud is not relevant. can be flowed at higher rates than is possible with a ing and returned through the 5 in.`.e.`. and (2) immobile mud has undergone gelation and tests. is being displaced by ft of a 5 in. It should be noted. low yield point) cement slurry water. Haut and Crook concluded the following: filtration. 4. annulus during a primary cement job does not resemble ment efficiency could be measured. then the drilling fluid was circulated into the cas. It was found that 100% of ment were not found to be controlling factors with regard the drilling mud could be displaced if a low-density.10. the authors reported that flow rates as high as possi- It is apparent from Fig. 4.`.. During this period.10).. is displacement efficiency (Fig. Differences in density between the displacing and resident fluids were not controlling factors with regard to V. through the synthetic formation was measured.. it has been assumed mud allowed to stand quiescent for 24 hours with 100 psi that certain flow regimes are favored for the cement confining pressure imposed. at 3 bbllmin..... for most of the tests. drilling mud... G. The same two slurries flowed at high rates (same flow regimes as noted above) will achieve high 1 displacement efficiency (>80%).3) V. Actually when a non- ing.. X 6% in. rize. cement slurry.. = Volume of mud filtrate collected during a test.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT ..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. the system to displacement efficiency. MMF = . A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 9L 3732290 0558476 858 W 60 CEMENTING 1O0 80 Y 5 O 60 5 æ O EI Y 40 Y a.9-Down-hole section of the test model.`.`. annulus. To summa- this study are summarized by Fig. and the cement was allowed to cure stabilities at the interface result in mixing regardless of for 24 hours. so 1. differently. a thick (laminar flow) and a thin (turbulent tant to the efficiency of the displacement process. The flow) cement slurry flowed at the same intermediate flow mud mobility factor (MMF) referred to in Fig. x G. From a consideration of locity of the displacing fluid are strong overriding fac- the data and observations of the results of these flow tors.

From the relatively difficult." For this study. tended periods of mudlhole conditioning can be counter- lated spacer all resulted in enhanced mud productive since displacement of mud from washouts is Some typical data are shown by Fig. there is no backflow) the casing should be left unpressured while ~ waiting-on-cement (WOC). If the use of a water spacer is precluded could not be resumed. If the float valve(s) are holding.11-Influence of spacers in mud removal.. a low-density. 5. Manry.`. low-viscosity spacerlpre. Pumping the displacing fluids (pre-flush and ce- ment slurry) as rapidly as possible without losing re- A 10 BELS WATER turns. i. Le. it will be expanded during the period when the cement is Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. The calculated volume was based on an alternate between wide and narrow side..`.-`-`. densified spacerlflush can be used to collar. (i.. run until "bottoms up" are obtained at the surface and viscosity flush.`. ing pre-flushes are discussed in a subsequent paragraph. and ifthe drilled with a 9. 4.e. Only one of the 30 est benefit of pipe movement. In 30 wells benefit when displacing mud by cement slurry. Kocian. if any. They to create and enlarge washouts with hole size changing found that water. the casing stuck and movement to be effective. casing movement was stopped to allow the top 500 to 1000 annular feet of water spacer has been found plug to be dropped. opposite sands. formation signal.```````.`. such as water. While it could less than that of the drilling fluid so some of the benefits be debated as to whether or not the turbolizers were cited for a water pre-flush can be achieved. It tends to break down the gel structure. Utilizing a drilling mud having minimum time de- pendent gel strength and fluid loss consistent with good drilling practice. If this is done. conditioning is to circulate the hole after casing has been who used a transparent flow model). and Smith. bow-spring centralizers. it is evident that no benefits were realized. et al. pressure should be bled from the cas- ing. all the primary cement used in several East Texas wells 6.`--- described in the preceding paragraphs to investigate the by circulation.`. Using a low-density. adequate displacement of drilling mud during a primary cementing operation can be achieved by: 1. and also that some hole enlargement occurred while run- 4. The experiments reported in Reference 9 did not was tagged with a short half-life radioisotope which emit- address the subject of pipe movement. four-arm caliper survey. Best practice with regard to mudlhole observations of Haut and Crook (and also McLean. reported by Kline. After a well has been pri- 5 marily cemented.9 in conjunction with the materials and techniques ning casing and while conditioning the mud and the hole --``. circulation tended flush fluids in enhancing displacement efficiency. To achieve great. prevent chemical contamination of the mud by the ce. This well showed poor density of the spacer/flush should be adjusted to a value cement coverage across the bottom sands. the stead of conventional centralizers. while the displacing fluids (preflush and cement slurry) Obtaining more than 100% annular fill indicates that are flowing in the annulus. et al. 18% NaC1 BWOW (by water weight) very little. Fig. the mud displacement by the cement slurry was efficient Haut and Crook utilized the flow model shown by Fig.5 lblgal water-based. low. 2. In two wells included in the Kline. low-viscosity spacerlpre-flush. turbolizers (vaned bow-type centralizers) were used in- ment andlor the cement by the mud. 50 BBLS WATER Post-Job Considerations. formu. For one of these the less-dense displacing fluid.`. In the other well showing deficient mud removal. 4. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .````. a formulated." Experiments involv. In summary. reciprocation)... hole enlargements were irregular. 3. 6. Moving the casing while the displacing fluids (pre- flush and cement slurry) are flowing in the annulus.. There was an obvious deficiency because of hydrostatic control requirements in a given of cement quality to approximately 100 ft above the float well. 4.e. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 W O732290 0558477 794 = PRIMARY CEMENTING 61 viscosity pre-flush (intervening fluid between the mud An interesting field study of displacement has been and cement slurry) was employed. study. In field practice the use of wells. ted gamma rays at an energy different from the natural and Whitaker" reported that pipe movement (reciproca.````.. If the casing is left pressured.2 lblgal mud and utilizing a 10 bbl water pipe was off center. Centralizing the casing.. openhole. Lat. Reciprocation was of greater benefit pre-flush. responsible for the poor coverage. annular fill by the cement slurry eral movement of the pipe is an accompanying benefit of amounted to more than 100% of the calculated annular reciprocation since a given section of the annulus will volume. it must be performed wells required a remedial cementing job. The wells were logged with a special tion andlor rotation) is beneficial.Conditioning the mud and hole (but do not overcon- dition)..11. Rotation was of most gamma ray tool immediately after cementing. McLean. and same. and a low-viscosity 9. since the mud is heavier it tends to slough and fall into displacement was less than complete. and casing movement if the pipe was well centralized and when displacing mud (either simultaneous reciprocation and rotation or just with a low-density l6w-viscosity preflush. This suggests that ex- brine. affects the immobile mud until in-and-out properties of the mud are essentially the in two ways. water. The spectral gamma ray log indicated that effectiveness of low-density.

4.l~ ment of an annular seal for production casing cement is in the vicinity of the casing shoe. ation. They can be and should be moved. After the cement slurry has been mixed at the sur- present which must be cemented.. Since the displacement near the shoe of the casing string. liner or as much as 500 ft for a production liner. the flow ports may be plugged. A liner is defined as a string of pipe and ScalesL4reported a significant improvement in ce- which does not extend to the wellhead. achieve initial set before performing second-stage ce. are used in the casinglliner lap region. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558478 620 D 62 CEMENTING setting (converting from a fluid to a solid). including seating in a conventional manner. inside another string of casing or liner. although additional stages are possible. of-cement wiper plug is used. Bow-spring centralizers may be used in the open hole menting.`.. Production liners are often set at great resumed.12.14). and loss of bond between the cement and 2. an opening bomb is dropped to landing collar in the vicinity of the float.. For most production 4. uncemented interval of annu. is deviated. The liner cementing plug will not support the hydrostatic head of such a column. drilling environment.`. or plastic formations. the shoe and the lap (top and bottom) are both Stage Cementing. liners are not usually moved during liner cementing. then performs the After first-stage cementing has been performed in a usual fùnction of a top wiper plug.5 Special Operations liners.```````. It is important that liner lap lengths increase the chances of obtaining a hy- the casing is well centralized in the vicinity of the stage draulic seal in the liner lap region. the retaining pins are sheared. has a hollow center and has a seating shoulder at its lower and (2) when two or more widely separated intervals are end. well is shown by Fig. Because of this only a top- Stage cementing is used when (1) a long column of ce. Cement The successful running and cementing of a liner can used to cement an intermediate casing string should have be one of the most challenging operations in the oil field. environment during second stage is not ideal (the casing Because of narrow annular clearance2 long liners can not be moved) centralization of the casing. and in a deep well the use of a liner Sufficient WOC time must be observed for the cement can result in significant savings in steel.” The required period of cessive pressure.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. the formation with surge pressure. has smaller ID than the liner. Typically. then cementing successive upper stages can also make effective cementing more difficult. Most stage cementing is Liners are normally run on drillpipe. Kolthoff Liner Cementing. sloughing. depth under conditions of elevated temperatures and pressive strength of at least 2000 psi before the well is pressures. and also in the lus between the top of the first-stage cement and the stage open hole in cases of very narrow annular clearances. Liners are pany wells at Prudhoe Bay by changing from a 9% in. A drilling liner is usually casing string using conventional primary cementing required because of some kind of hole problem. The well is ment problem even more difficult.. lost circulation. a pumpdown opening plug is used instead of a ing mud is essential to a successfùl liner cementing oper- gravity-driven opening bomb. seats in the Fig. Completion interval cement should have com. some time may be allowed for first-stage cement to with slips is usually employed. hole conditions of temperature and pressure. of three types. Running speeds of 2 tioning of the mud all become very important. 4.`.. compressive strength of at least 500 psi before drilling is for several reasons. If the well to 3 minutes for each stand of drillpipe are common.“ quality to develop adequate strength before operations 3. critical regions (Fig.````. or the operation is continuous two-stage ce. use of a should be run slowly to reduce the tendency to fracture low-density. production liner --``. Maximum length of collar because if the casing is against the wall of the hole lap is used if there is gas near the top of the liner. A scab bumped. but buckling is inevitable and the up (1200 to 1500 psi). which techniques. a cement basket or external casing packer (ECP) The length of the lap can be as little as 50 ft for a drilling may be placed immediately below the stage collar to pre. In cases of severe lost circulation in the vicinity if there is sufficient annular clearance. liner is used to isolate worn or damaged tubulars or to and any damage sustained by the cement sheath during provide additional protection against corrosion and/or ex- this period does not “reheal. reduced OD.`. Drilling liners are used to permit deeper drilling by wells (hole angles up to 67’) to a 7 in. it is used to case menting success in 210 Sohio Alaska Petroleum Com- the open hole below an existing casing string. the cement is rigid but has very little strength. An example sequence of liners in a deep WOC time varies depending on the cement and down.`.-`-`. A liner may be land in the lower seat of the stage collar. Usually the most critical region for establish- ~erf0rated. overpressured the now-rigid cement sheath will not conform to the new interval. and careful condi. Greater vent the fall of second-stage cement. Rigid centralizers of the first stage or a long. which usually in two stages.. collar. Production liners are used for the same purposes as casing is inevitable. through ports in a stage collar. and the ports are opened. By pressuring set on the bottom.e.13. the resulting wall contact makes a difficult mud displace- sleeve moves down. Scab liners extend from the top of a liner to a point are resumed.`. hydraulically-set (utilizing pump pressure) liner hanger lem. Even though achieving adequate displacement of drill- menting. mechanically-set (using reciprocation and/or rotation) or Depending on the severity of the lost circulation prob. 4.. i. the casing will contract. Le.” production casing completion in 10. For a period of hours after the plug is up-hole. On reducing isolating a section of the hole which presents a difficult the pressure to bring the well in.````. production casing. wiper plug and the combination plug.. For this reason a then circulated to clear the ports and condition the mud. a pumpdown plug is equipment for a stage cementing operation is shown in launched which passes through the drillpipe. the annular clear- ment of cement slurry first around the lower portion of a ance for a liner is very small. loaded into the top of the ment is required and formations exposed in the wellbore liner as the liner is being run. low-viscosity pre-flush. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . The arrangement of face and is in the drillpipe. Stage cementing consists of place.000 ft M D deviated 1.

A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558Y79 567
PRIMARY CEMENTING 63

REGULAR TWO-STAGE CEMENTING
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Fig. 4.12-Stage cementing operation.

completion. The improvement in cementing success was bility of differential sticking of the pipe while running
attributed to the facts that 10,800 ft of 95/8 in. OD casing and/or reciprocating the liner.
could not be reciprocated in most of these wells, and Some operators use sufficient slurry to cement the
1500 ft of 7 in. liner in the 8% in. hole drilled below the open hole and the lap region with 25 to 45% excess, then
9% in. casing shoe could be reciprocated. To permit clean up by reverse circulation after stinging the drillpipe
reciprocation, a hydraulically-set liner hanger was used. out of the liner hanger. During the reverse circulation
The liners were reciprocated through one 30 fi cycle-per- procedure, the friction pressure drop resulting from the
minute while pumping pre-flush (water in most in- return fluid flow up the small diameter drillpipe is re-
stances) and cement slurry. After the liner wiper plug flected on the just-placed cement slurry. To avoid forcing
seated, the liner hanger was set hydraulically by pressur- the slurry down the hole away from ,the liner lap as a
ing up. When the 8% in. hole was drilled, sufficient result of this pressure, reversing out should be done
rathole was provided so that if the liner stuck at the top of slowly and carefully, if at all. Other operators use only
the upstroke, the liner shoe would be at the desired T D about 80% of the slurry required to fill the annular vol-
or below. ume, then perform a planned squeeze of the lap. It is
Liners can also be rotated by the use of a mechanically- preferred to employ the first technique (cement both an-
set liner hanger equipped with a clutch that is engaged nuli with some excess), then later squeeze the lap, if
by additional rotation after setting. The running string is necessary. The planned-squeeze technique is not prefer-
then partially disengaged, and the liner is rotated using a red because the success rate of liner cementing operations
spline drive equipped with bearings.’’ has improved in recent years. Kolthoff and ScalesI4 re-
The importance of liner centralization in achieving ported zero failures for wells where the liners were recip-
adequate displacement of drilling mud has been dis- rocated during the entire time preflush and cement
cussed. Centralization is also needed to reduce the proba-
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT

~

API TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 0732270 055848@ 2 8 9
64 CEMENTING
slurry on the high-pressure, high-temperature consistom-
eter prior to curing the cement at liner top conditions.

Primary Cementing Opposite Plastic Formations.
Evaporite beds exhibit plastic behavior after being pene-
trated by a borehole, Le., the formation material tends to
flow and close the borehole. The propensity for casing
collapse exists. Evaporite beds contain NaCl along with
impurities; often present also are interbedded stringers of
sand, shale, anhydrite and/or gypsum. Casing to be set
opposite plastic formations is usually designed to with-
stand collapse pressure equivalent to full overburden and
any point-collapse loading which may be applied during
the life of the well (i.e., the absence of a cement sheath is
assumed). Although the absence of a cement sheath may

iam.

?o.m.
]i/ m U C T K H I LINEII

I 10 i l 14 18 18 10
EOVIVALENI MUD W.,PPO
be assumed, every effort should be made to reduce casing
collapse and bending load by obtaining complete fill of
the annulus with quality cement.13 The cement top
should be placed at least 500 ft above the top of the
plastic formation. In some areas, because of low fracture
gradients, this can be best accomplished by placing a
Casing and liner program used to seal off high pressure zones in a deep well.
stage tool immediately below the evaporite interval.
Fig. 4.13-Casing and liner program. Cement slurries containing 18% by weight of water
(BWOW) NaCl (half saturation) or 36% BWOW NaCl
(full saturation) have been employed in the past for ce-
menting over evaporite intervals. This was done because
of concern that freshwater cement slurries would be too
slurry were flowing in the annuli. Also, the planned greatly accelerated by contact with the NaCl-containing
squeeze technique inevitably leaves some uncemented evaporites. More recently, laboratory tests and field expe-
annulus which can be difficult to access should subse- rience have demonstrated that other techniques might be
quent remedial operations be required. used for this application. In 1982, Beach" reported that
Since the volume of cement slurry required to cement NaCl added to cement remains active (soluble) after hy-
liners is relatively small, batch slurry mixers should be dration and hardening of the cement. As a consequence,
used. Batch-mixed slurries can be more uniform than the durability of the set cement will be affected.
slurries mixed using a jet mixer or RCM. Based on laboratory and field studies Goodwin and
Liner cementing slurries require fluid loss additives to Phipps'? reported that excessive acceleration of salt-free
control the extent of cement filter-cake buildup in the cement usually does not occur, or it can be prevented in
typically narrow annulus. It is not uncommon to cement cementing opposite evaporite sections. Laboratory work
a 5 in, OD liner below 7 in. casing inside a 6% in. done by Goodwin and Phipps involved pumping suffic-
drilled hole; the resulting annular clearance is only 9 i ~ 6 ient salt-free cement slurry through cattle-supplement
in. This small clearance can cause problems that are salt blocks so that the cement slurry/salt formation con-
sometimes attributed to premature set of the cement dur- tact time would be simulated for the leading edge of the
ing liner cementing, but are, in fact, bridging of cement cement slurry. The NaCl content of the test slurry was
filter cake in the annulus. A cement slurry having an API measured and if excessive acceleration by leached NaCl
HT/HP 30-minute fluid-loss rate of 50 to 100 ml is suit- was indicated, organic retarder could be added to the
able for liner cementing where clearances are small. slurry to compensate. This slurry design approach allevi-
The most difficult problem found in designing a slurry ates the problem of excessive slurry retardation, which
intended for a long liner at great depth is to incorporate
can result if 18% BWOW or 36% BWOW NaC1 is used
sufficient thickening time to place the cement and re- as an additive in primary cementing slurry used for this
verse circulate any excess cement slurry from the well.
purpose. Excessive retardation is to be avoided because
Sticking the drillpipe in a deep well is a cardinal sin, yet full-scale collapse loading can be imposed on the casing
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

the cement should not be excessively retarded, since this by the evaporite formation while the excessive retarded
could result in undue delay in strength development of
cement slurry is still in a fluid state.
the cement left in the lap region (which can be more than Small amounts (2 to 5% BWOW) of potassium chloride
100°F cooler than the shoe). The only solution to this
have been shown to be beneficial in cement when used in
problem is carehl pre-job laboratory testing using realis-
cmjunction with fluid-loss additives and dispersants.'s
tic BHCT and BHST. To address the problem of
strength development at the top of the liner, it has been
reported by some investigators that curing pressures 4.6 Cement Evaluation
higher than 3000 psi (standard for the API compressive The functions of a primary cement sheath are to seal the
strength tests) hasten the onset of measurable strength. A annulus and provide mechanical support to the casing.
more realistic estimate of compressive strength develop- Ideally, evaluation methods would provide a direct mea-
ment in situations where the static temperature at the sure of the performance of these functions, but actually
liner top is less than the circulating temperature at the most of the evaluation tools and techniques are more or
liner shoe can be obtained by preconditioning the cement less indirect.

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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT

~

A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 71 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0558483 3 3 5 W
PRIMARY CEMENTING 65

LINER CEMENTING
HXNG SPLACIN DISPLACING

--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Fig. 4.14-Liner cementing operation.

Indirect Indications. A cernent-top temperature survey to the formation and to provide other details of annular
(described in the cement chemistry section) used in con- coverage. For example, if the collars are not bonded,
junction with annular volume calculated from an characteristic “W” signatures are found within the total
openhole caliper log, taken before casing was run, can energy display. Casing signal amplitude is a measure of
provide some indication of mud-displacement efficiency. the attenuation of the acoustic signal, which varies di-
For example, if the primary cementing job is conducted rectly with the bonding of the casing by the cement
with essentially full returns and the indicated length of sheath. Fitzgerald, et al.” have developed a method of
the primary cement column is 15 to 20Yo.longer than using the information from the casing amplitude curve to
calculated, it can be assumed that a substantial amount of calculate annular fill of cement, which in turn can be
mud was bypassed. used to estimate the zone isolation achieved by cemented
The cement-bond log (CBL) is widely used to provide casing of a given size. An example of this calculation is
a measurement of cement coverage in the annulus. The shown by Fig. 4.15.
CBL is an electroacoustic device which provides three According to Fitzgerald, et al., 10 ft of 7 in. OD casing
separate measurements: signal travel time, casing signal with 80% cement is sufficient to provide zonal isola-
amplitude, and total energy display. The travel-time mea- tion.I9 Larger casing requires longer cemented intervals
surement is used to assure that the casing amplitude to achieve isolation. It is evident that the CBL provides
signal is accurate, i.e., it is an indicator of tool centraliza- considerable information, but it must be considered to
tion. The total energy display is used to define coupling be an indirect cement evaluation tool, since it does not

Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT

A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 W 0732290 0 5 5 8 4 8 2 0 5 1
66 CEMENTING

The location of the top of cement can be established
using a cement-top temperature log or CBL.
Following the cementing of surface and intermediate
casing, a pressure integrity test (PIT) of the casing shoe is
usually conducted. The procedure is to drill the float and
the shoe plus a small amount of additional hole. Suffic-
ient surface pressure is then applied so the pressure at the
shoe is at least equal to the maximum hydrostatic pres-
sure expected to be imposed on the shoe before the next
casing string is set. If the required pressure is reached,
drilling proceeds. If the required surface pressure can not
be attained, the shoe must be repaired by squeeze ce-
menting.
After perforations have been sealed by squeeze cement-
ing, they may be tested using formation pressure. This is
accomplished by swabbing fluid from the wellbore so
formation pressure will be imposed across the squeezed
perforations. If one or more of the perforations has been
plugged with mud or other wellbore fluid, the plug will
be expelled, and the squeeze cementing operation can be
repeated.
% CEMENT
The most definitive test of the primary cementing of a
production well is a production test. If the well produces
Fig. 4.15-Amplitude versus cement covering. the expected fluid(s) at anticipated rates, it can be as-
sumed that the primary cement job is successful. If the
above described conditions are not met, some of the diag-
nostic procedures just described should be applied so a
address annular hydraulic seal directly. decision can be made as to whether or not remedial ce-
More Direct Indications. More direct cement evalua- menting is required.
tion methods actually monitor flow behind pipe by mea- The primary cementing of an injection well is consid-
suring temperature or noise anomalies using appropriate ered successful if the injected fluids are confined to the
cased-hole logs. intended target interval. Diagnostic techniques used to
When unwanted gas enters a cemented annulus there verify that such is the case include temperature and radi-
will be a cooling anomaly at the point of entry resulting oactive surveys. “Slugs” of short half-life gamma ray-
from expansion of the gas. As the gas moves up-hole, a emitting isotopes can be included in some of the injected
heating anomaly will be observed as the geothermally- fluid and a gamma ray log can then be run. If an
heated gas from down-hole moves to cooler portions of openhole, natural gamma ray log is available for the well,
the wellbore. Unwanted water normally moves down- it can aid in interpretation of the log described above.
hole after entering a cemented annulus, resulting in a
cooling anomaly moving down. A radial differential tem- 4.7 Annular Gas Flow Mitigation
perature (RDT) tool has been developed by Cooke.20This Annular gas flow (AGF) can be defined as gas or gas
tool utilizes either one or two temperature sensors in the pressure at the surface some time after primary cement-
same horizontal plane. In use, the tool is positioned in ing. AGF can also occur down-hole as interzonal flow.
the casing at the elevation of the suspected unwanted This type flow can be detected using a noise or tempera-
flow, then rotated. Logs taken using this tool provide ture log. Although AGF is most often observed 12 to 16
information regarding both the presence (or absence) of hours after the primary cementing operation, it has been
unwanted flow and the location (depth and azimuth) of observed much earlier (as soon as the top wiper plug
unwanted flow. The latter information is useful in repair- bumped) and much later (days after the primary job).
ing the well. AGF is a costly and even dangerous problem. It can
A noise logging tool utilizes a sensitive microphone in lead to safety hazards for bath men and material. Repair
conjunction with amplification and other electronics. If (by squeeze cementing) is difficult and costly. The most
the background noise level is low, Le., with the well shut- serious economic impact can be loss of reserves.
in, the noise logging tool can “hear” the entry of un-
wanted fluid into the wellbore. Flow of gas is more easily Reasons for Occurrence of AGF. Cement starts the
detected than flow of water. setting process with the formation of a gel coating on the
cement grains as soon as they are contacted by water. As a
Definitive Indications. Stated briefly, if a cement job consequence of this, the cement slurry develops high gel
accomplishes the intended purpose, it is considered suc- strength when quiescent. During this same initial setting
cessful. The intended purposes of a cement job include period, the cement undergoes some shrinkage. It later
protection of the casing, pressure containment, and at- I rebounds and eventually shows some volume expansion.
tainment of desired production (or injection) patterns. The early time shrinkage is illustrated by Fig. 4.16.*’
For the cement sheath to protect the casing from exter- The data of Fig. 4.16 represent combined internal and
nal casing corrosion it must reach sufficient elevation in external volume changes. External volume shrinkage is
the annulus to cover any potentially corrosive aquifers. 1.5 to 2.0% for most cements. Because the cement slurry
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A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 m 0732290 0558483 T98 m
PRIMARY CEMENTING 67

PUMPING COMPLETED

L
TIMES WHEN EACH
SENSOR RETURNED TO
MEASURED
M U D WEIGHT

5 -
t 6

n m . MINUTES
SENSOR NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6
DEPlHi~ilRKBi W W 4781 4632 JbJI
TIME IN HOURS

Fig. 4.1 7-Annular pressure and temperature mea-
surements from sensor after cementing.

is also undergoing gelation, it can not slump to compen- rence of free water from a slurry used to cement a devi-
sate for the shrinkage, and full hydrostatic pressure of the ated well. In such a well, free water will migrate to the
fluid column is not transmitted to the bottom of the hole. top side of the hole (usually 1 ft or less in a deviated well)
This allows gas to enter the annulus. Cooke, et made and form a coherent, uncemented channel for the entire
measurements of annular temperature and pressure in length of the cement sheath. Webster and Eikerts” con-
seven gas wells by attaching sensors to the exterior of the ducted a laboratory study utilizing inclined models
casing at different elevations. Data were transmitted to which indicated that gas readily flowed through free wa-
the surface using a logging cable, which was also at- ter channels.
tached to the exterior of the casing. Pressure and temper-
ature measurements were made while the casing was Prevention of AGE Many materials and methods have
being run, the mudlhole conditioned, and the cement been considered and tried in the attempt to solve the
pumped, until the cement attained initial set. Data from AGF problem. These materials and methods are dis-
one well are shown in Fig. 4.17.*’ cussed below, sequenced from least successful -to most
It is apparent from Fig. 4.17 that the hydrostatic pres- successful.
sure started dropping as soon as the top plug seated; 1. In an attempt to increase hydrostatic pressure down-
pressure recorded at each sensor eventually dropped to a hole, weighted cement mix water has been tried. Cooke,
value below the equivalent mud weight (EMW) required et al.” found that the hydrostatic pressure down-hole can
to prevent gas influx. It is also of interest to consider the fall to values lower than would be exerted by a column of
annular temperature curves. The inflection point in each mix water, regardless of mix-water density. This behavior
temperature curve !occurring about 1000 minutes after is illustrated by Fig. 4.18. The usual method of increas-
the first joint of casing was run into the well) represents ing the density of the mix water was by dissolving NaCl
the principal exotherm of the cement that occurs when in the mix water. Since high concentrations of NaCl
the cement achieves initial set. In the seven-well program retard the set of cement, this approach can be counterpro-
it was observed that the wells which did not show AGF ductive because of overretardation of the cement.
were those indicating this principal exotherm at about 2. Mechanical vibration of the casing to break the gel
the same time or before the annular pressure dropped structure of the cement slurry in the annulus has been
below the EMW needed to control gas. If gas enters the evaluated in the laboratory and in the field. It was found
annulus while the cement has little or no strength and that vibration of anything other than short casing strings
high permeability, it flows upward and expands. As a (approximately 1000 to 1200 ft) was both expensive and
result, the cement sheath is rendered permanently defec- difficult. This approach was not always effective because
tive. High cement slurry filtration rate makes a bad situa- the need is to vibrate the cement, not the casing. Timing
tion worse in that loss of water from the cement slurry of the operation is critical; if vibration is attempted after
results in more shrinkage and more gelation. In extreme the cement has started to bond the casing, vibration will
cases of high fluid loss a cement filter-cake “packer” can be counterproductive.
form in the annulus and make transmission of hydrostatic 3. Gas-generating additives have been used, with some
pressure impossible. success, to make the cement slurry compressible. To be
Another mechanism for AGF is related to the occur- effective, the gas must be generated when pumping of
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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 0732290 0558484 924 m
68 CEMENTING

SENSOR DEPTH FT -

; /-i : Im l
K w
ao 1
1900
2 3
GEOTHERMAL

4
15
I
u.
P
Y
01

11 12 13 /4 IS 16 17 18 19
HUNDREDS OF MINUTES
20 21 22 2:

TIME - HUNDREDS OF M I N U T E S

Fig. 4.1 8-Down-hole temperature pressure during
cementing. Fig. 4.19-Annular pressure and temperature.

slurry is stopped, not too long before or after; timing of the “conventional approach.” Many features of this ap-
gas generation is sometimes difficult to achieve. Because proach are applicable to any primary cement job and will
hydrogen is the gas generated, there has been some con- achieve optimum results whether or not gas is a potential
cern regarding safety, particularly when appreciable vol- problem. Elements of the “conventional approach” are
umes of hydrogen have been produced to the surface. listed below.
The most serious reservations concerning this process
have been expressed by those who have measured pres- A. The casing used in a gas-prone well should not be
sures down-hole following pumping of compressible ce- coated with mill varnish. The deleterious effect of
ment slurries and found no improvement in the mill varnish on bonding is shown in Smith’s Mon-
transmission of hydrostatic pressure. ograph (Table 4.2).6
4. Successes have been cited” in preventing AGF for B. Since displacement of drilling mud from hole ir-
cement slurries containing an additive which reduces the regularities is very difficult, the attempt should be
cement permeability to very low values while the cement made to drill a uniform hole. In some wells this can
is liquid, in transition and a set solid (Fig. 4.19). Other be best achieved by drilling mud-chemistry.
advantages cited for this additive are less shrinkage, low C.During the cement job, the best possible mud-
filtration rate, and better bonding. displacement practices should be employed. This
5. Historically, the greatest successes in preventing includes control of drilling mud properties to mini-
AGF have been by the use of what may be referred to as mize fluid-loss rate and time-dependent gel

TABLE 4.2-BONDING PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS PIPE FINISHES
Cement API Class A
Water content 5.2 gallsk
Curing temperature: 80°F
Curing time: 24 hours
Casing size: 2 in. inside 4 in.
Shear Hydraulic Gas
Type of Finish (Psi) (PW (PSb)
Steel Pipe
New (mill varnish) 74 200 to 250 15
New (varnish chemically removed) 104 300 to 400 70
New (sandblasted) 123 500 to 700 150
Used (rusty) 141 500 to 700 150
New (sandblasted resin-sand 2400 1100 to 1200 400 +
coated)
Platic Pipe
Filament wound (smooth) 79 21o __
(rough) 99 270 -.
Centrifugally cast (smooth) 79 210
__
I

(rough) 1o1 310
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~ ~

API TITLE W O R L D W IDE 91 0732290 9558‘485 8bO
PRIMARY CEMENTING 69

strength, and the use of a pre-flush. The pre-flush IADCISPE Drilling Conference, Dallas, Feb. 28 - March 2.
and cement slurry should be pumped as rapidly as 6. Smith, D.K.: Cemenring, Monograph Volume 4, Henry L. Do-
herty Series, revised Edition, SPE of AIME (Publishers), Richard-
possible without inducing loss of returns. Pipe son, TX (1987).
should be centralized and either rotated or recipro- 7. API Specification for Materials and Testing for Well Cements, API
cated. Specification 10, Third Edition, July 1, 1986.
D.The cement slurry used in a gas-prone well must 8. McElfresh, P.M. and Cobb, J.A.: “Chemical Thickening Time
not be overretarded; short transition time is Test for Cement Blends,” paper SPE 10220 presented at the 1981
SPE Fall Meeting, San Antonio, Oct. 5-7.
needed. The 30-minute HTIHP API’ fluid-loss 9. Haut, R.C. and Crook, R.J.: “Primary Cementing Optimizing for
rate (tested according to Appendix F) should be in Maximum Displacement,” World Oil, (Nov. 1980).
the 50 to 100 ml range.? For a deviated gas-prone 10. Haut, R.C. and Crook, R.J.: “Laboratory Investigation of Light-
well, free-water occurrence should be as low as pos- weight, Low-Viscosity Cementing Spacer Fluids,” paper SPE
10305 presented at the 1981 SPE Fali Meeting, San Antonio, Oct.
sible. Free-water measurements should be made ac- 5-7.
cording to the API operating free-water test 11. McLean, R.H., Manry, C.W., and Whitaker, W.W.: “Displace-
(Appendix M) with zero free-water content being ment Mechanics in Primary Cementing,” JPT(Feb. 1967) 251-60.
the goal. If a slurry is designed according to Sec- 2. Kline, W.E., Kocian, E.M., and Smith, W.E.: “Evaluation of Ce-
menting Practices by Quantitative Radiotracer Measurements,” pa-
tion 1I.E. of this test and free-water “breakout” is per IADCISPE 14778 presented at the 1986 IADC/SPE Drilling
excessive (tested according to Appendix M), 1.2% Conference, Dallas, Feb. 10-12.
(BWOC) bentonite can be added to the dry blend 3. Suman, G.O. and Ellis, R.C.: “Cementing Oil and Gas Wells -
with no corresponding increase in mix water. Used Part 6,” World Oil (1977).
in this way, the bentonite is functioning as a chemi- 4. Kolthoff, K.W. and Scales, G.H.: “Improved Liner Cementing
Techniques for Alaska’s Prudhoe Bay Field,” paper SPE 10756
cal “blotter” and the resulting slurry will probably presented at the 1982 California Regional Meeting, San Francisco,
have acceptable properties. March 24-26.
E. Pump pressure from the surface applied to the an- 15. Lindsey, H.E., Jr.: “New Tools Make Liner Rotation During Ce-
nulus can be effective. The amount of permitted menting Practical,” World Oil (Oct. 1981) 165-174.
16. Beach, H.J.: “Consequences of Salting Well Cements,” paper SPE
pump pressure is limited by lost circulation consid-
10032 presented at the 1982 IPE&TS of SPE, Beijing, Mar. 18-26.
erations. Pr:ssiire should be applied immediately 17. Goodwin, K.J. and Phipps, K.: “Salt Free Cement-An Alternative
after the top wiper pliig is bumped and maintained to Collapsed Casing in Plastic Salts,” paper SPE 10885 presented
until after the principal exotherm of the cement at the 1982 SPE Meeting, Billings, May 19-21.
has developed; it will be found that the amount 18. Grant, W.H., Jr., Dodd, E.L., and Gardner, C.A.: “Simplified
Slurry Design Increases Wellsite Success,” paper SPE/IADC
pumped is usually about 1.5% of the cement vol- 16135 presented at the 1987 SPEIIADC Drilling Conference, New
ume. Cooke, et al verified that surface annular Orleans, March 15-18.
pressure can be transmitted down-hole.” 19. Fitzgerald, D.D., McGhee, B.F., and McGuire, J.A.: “Guidelines
for 90% Accuracy in Zone Isolation Decisions,” paper SPE 12141
References presented at the 1983 SPE Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Oct. 5-8.
20. Cooke, C.E.: “Radiai Differential Temperature (RDT) Logging -
1. Suman, G.O. and Ellis, R.C.: “Cementing Oil and Gas Wells-Part A New Tool for Detecting and Treating Flow Behind Casing,” JPT
5,” World Oil (1977). (June 1979).
2. HaIlibunon EnglishlMetric Cementing Tables, Halliburton Serv- 21. Parcevaux, P.A. and Sault, EH.: “Cement Shrinkage and Elastic-
ices (Publisher) Duncan, Oklahoma (1981). ity, A New Approach for a Good Zonal Isolation,” paper SPE
3. API Specification for Casing Centralizers, API Spec 10D, Third 13176 presented at the 1984 Fall Meeting, Houston, Sept. 16-19.
Edition, Feb. 17, 1986. 22. Cooke, C.E., Kluck, M.P., and Medrano, R.: “Field Measure-
4. Kunze, K.R.: “Obtaining and Verifying Quality Cement Blends,” ments of Annular Pressure and Temperature During Primary Ce-
paper SPE 15576 presented at the 1986 SPE Fall Meeting, New menting,” paper SPE 11206 presented at the 1982 Fall Meeting,
Orleans, Oct. 5-8. New Orleans, Sept. 26 - Oct. 2.
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5. Granberry, V.L., Grant, W.H. and Clarke, J.W.: “Monitoring 23. Webster, W.W. and Eikerts, J.V.: “Flow After Cementing - Field
Blended Cement Quality and Design with a Mobile Cement Test- and Laboratory Study,” paper SPE 8259 presented at the 1979
ing Laboratory,” paper IADCISPE 17179 presented at the 1988 SPE Fall Meeting, Las Vegas, Sept. 23-26.

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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 m 07321298 0 5 5 8 q 8 6 7 T 7

--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Chapter 5

Liner Cementing
author
H. E. Lindsey
INDEX

SUBJECT PAGE

5.1 Introduction ........................................... 71
5.2 Designing the Liner Program ............................. 71
5.3 Bottom-Up Completion Design ............................ 71
5.4 Liner Equipment Selection ............................... 72
Liner Hangers ........................................ 72
Plugs and Collars ..................................... 75
Centralizers .......................................... 75
5.5 Running the Liner ...................................... 77
5.6 Testing Liner Tops ...................................... 78
Hydrostatic Testing .................................... 78
Differential Testing .................................... 80
5.7 Slurry Mixing .......................................... 80
5.8 Summary ............................................. 80

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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 M 0732290 055BY87 633 M

Chapter 5
Liner Cementing
By: H. E. Lindsey
H. E. Lindsey is president of Lindsey CompletionsSystems Inc., a manufacturer of oilwell down-hole tools.
He founded the company in 1952 as M WL Tool Co. He is an engineering graduate of Georgia Tech and was
a distinguished lecturer (1981-82)for SPE. He is a member of numerous industry organizations including
API, PESA, SPE, NACE, and others. He has authored several articles published in trade magazines and
API and SPE Journals.

the bottom up. It is important to know the expected pore
5.1 Introduction
pressures and where the casing and liner strings are to be
Modern deep well liner cementing technology, which set. Casing and liner programs should be selected to pro-
began with deep wells drilled in the late 1 9 5 0 ’ ~has
~ vide a full size and type selection of bits.
changed rapidly with the development of new tools and If potential pressure problems and hole conditions are
techniques. This chapter will deal with some of the early not thoroughly researched and factored into the design,
history of such technology and will address present liner the resultant wellbore could require special bits, special
cementing methods and eq~ipment.’.~ drillpipe, and a very small liner at bottom, making this a
high-risk completion.
5.2 Designing the Liner Program
The term “liner,” as defined here, is any string of casing 5.3 Bottom-Up Completion Design
having its top below the surface of the ground. Most A typical well pore pressure profile in a deep well is
liners are supported by liner hangers, although shorter shown in Fig. 5.2. In this example, two abnormally pres-
liners may be set on bottom. Liner length may vary from sured sections are from 21,000 to 22,000 ft, and from
less than one hundred up to several thousand feet. A liner 12,000 to 18,000 fi. These are the keys to designing a
suspended or set opposite a section of the hole and casing and liner program for this well. If the designer
through which further drilling is contemplated, is called desires to have at least a 6%-in. diameter drilled hole at
a drilling liner. A liner set opposite or just on top of the bottom for optimum bit selection, then the drilling liner
producing zone is called a production liner. Liners which above must be of at least 75/s-in. OD. The drilling liner
extend from the top of a previously existing liner to some above, covering the largest part of the upper abnormally
point further up the hole, but still below the wellhead, pressured section from 12,000 to 18,000 fi, should have a
are called stub liners. A tieback liner is a liner sealed in a minimum OD of 95/s-in., and the intermediate casing
previously existing liner extending to the ellh head.^,^ All should be set into the abnormally pressured zone, from
four liner types are illustrated in Fig. 5.1. the surface to about 12,800 ft. The intermediate casing in
The main reasons for running liners in preference to this case would have to be at least 113/4-in.OD.
full strings are cost and design necessity. In some cases, In the example given in Fig. 5.2, the largest possible
drilling hydraulics are severely restricted if a full string is liner OD that will still permit a 61/2-in. ID drilled hole at
run instead of a liner; or, in other cases, tension require- the bottom of the well is shown. Perhaps the main prob-
ments would limit casing selection, greatly increasing the lem in cementing deep well liners is the small annular
cost of drilling a deep well. Several years ago, derrick clearance designs. If more annular clearance is desired to
strengths and hoisting limitations precluded full strings. obtain a thicker cement sheath, larger surface and inter-
This is a rare problem today. Liner and casing programs mediate casing string must be run. Underreaming has
should be designed “from the bottom up,” taking into not been a popular choice for obtaining more annular
consideration completion requirements, better cement- clearance in deep holes. Liner rotation is still not com-
ing, availability and cost of corrosion-resistant casing and mon in wells deeper than 18,000 ft, but is increasingly
other tubular alloy steels, bit selection, optimum hole popular in wells of lesser depth.’ The best way to ensure
cleaning, directional or horizontal drilling, and hole sta- maximum bonding in deep-well liner cementing jobs is
bility.6 to provide proper centralization and optimum displace-
As mentioned above, the well should be designed from
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- ment velocity.’
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`. 5. and the in the lower end to receive a retrievable cementing bush- rig is stationary. This hanger is most popular in phase. The two liner hanger types generally have equal slip areas and hanging capacity. respectively. 5. The mechanically-set liner The PBR (Fig. 5. 5. The hydraulically- set liner hanger is preferred for setting stub liners (Fig..m which the slips are set.5) has a profile cut areas where the hole is reasonably free of doglegs.`...5. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . 5.8.8) the liner hanger.-`-`.5. causing the slip cage to “unjay” at used as a receptacle for a tubing seal assembly (Fig.7) to the liner. while not essential to the liner hanger (Fig. The equipment assembly in Fig. These are shown in EOUIVALENT MUD WEIGHT (PPG) Figs. Liner hangers are either mechanically (Fig.. Key equipment used in liner installation includes the ¡TOI 2 4 . In cases where the hole is quite deviated or crooked. 5. liner setting tool. Results of lab testing have shown that the primary failure mode from tensile 21. 5. tieback seal nipple. 5.5 I. heavier liner jobs or those liners in which high slip-holding capacity must be designed for 18. 5.```````. and 5. the setting collar.`.4) is a more acceptable choice.m loading to yield is failure of the intermediate casing in 22. -~ ~~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0 5 5 8 4 8 8 5 7 T W 72 CEMENTING 7’0.9). ing (RCB) (Fig.````. It is liner hanger downhole.`.I-vB‘ UPPERPARTOF TIEBACK LINER TIEBACK STUB LINER -.````. The RCB locks into Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.. The setting collar.7. may be run on the production liner to be string at the surface.5 shows the liner ~ ~ Fig. and PBR (if used) are run just above the liner hanger.5W the full weight of the liner. or positive seal between the setting tool and the liner for where the liner hanger must pass through an existing directing the cement down and around the liner.5.`.9). The liner setting collar (Fig.4 Liner Equipment Selection and provide the means of attaching the liner setting tool Limer Hangers. and a PBR with a --``..1-Liners for deep wells.5). m liner tieback receptacle. 5.m maximum expected loading without damaging the liner or the suspending casing string. 5. The RCB provides the primary.`--- profile cut to receive a retrievable cementing bushing (RCB) (Fig. 5.`. 5. 5.1). tieback receptacle. 5.3) is set by turning the drillpipe setting cementing job. set or hydraulically set. polished bore receptacle (PBR).ll2 L s O. and tubing seal assembly for PBR. 5.2-Pore pressure profile.6. liner setting 8 10 12 14 16 collar. tieback receptacle. plus any additional weight caused by tension forces from internal pressure or from temperature change.’ This liner hanger o is also more popular when the drilling rig is on a floating vessel and subject to vertical motion. and allowing the slips to set when the when production tubing is run during the completion drillstring is lowered. Liner hangers may have single or multiple cone config- urations to provide adequate slip area capable of holding 12. 5. the hydraulically-set liner hanger essential to the liner cementing job.? LOWERPkRT OF TIEBACU LINER SPRODUCTION LINER DRILLING LINER PRODUCTION LINER STUB LINER TIEBACK LINER Fig. Liner hanger selection is most im- portant in longer. 5. (Fig. saS.

6-Liner tie-back seal nipple. 5.. and Dollshed bore receptacle íPBR1.`...`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .4-Hydraulically set liner hanger.`. liner setting col- lar.. I Fig.3-Mechanically set liner hanger...`. I Fig. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 9L 0732290 05515489 406 LINER CEMENTING 73 Fig.-`-`.```````. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`. 5. --``.````.````.5-Liner tie-back receptacle.`.`--- ~~ Fig. 5. 5.

10) are run in at the same time as the liner hanger when the liner is cemented. if the liner was a production liner. Days of rig time could be saved. liner packers would be subjected to high differen- tial pressure and temperature. Elements on the early liner top packers were canvas. 5.6-Tubing seal assembly for polished bore re. I Fig. 5.`. Using the hydraulic setting tool. only later were more reliable elastomer seals used as they are today. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . only a small percentage of set-down force reaches the packing Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Because of buckling friction of the drillpipe in the casing.. when liners are cemented through difficult and Fig.`--- Fig. 5. When the first modem liner cementing equipment was designed in the late 194O's. is superior to using the drillpipe weight for setting a tieback packer. and no drillout was necessary above the liner (or inside. and may be set either by weight of the drillpipe string or by hydraulic setting tools. The original intent of a liner top packer was to relieve the hydrostatic head from the formation when the packer was set after bumping the plugs.-`-`. 5.. high dfierential pressure may often be excessive for thin pack- off elements which may have been damaged during cir- culation and cementing.`. Today. run a high-pressure liner tieback packer (Figs.9-lhe retrievable cementing bushing (RCB). 5. The operator could then reverse out all excess cement. the setting adapter assembly and permits higher cement- ing pressures than are allowed by a cementing PBR. as deeper wells were drilled. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 O732290 0558490 128 74 CEMENTING --``.'0*'' Liner tieback packers are run after the liner is ce- mented and cleaned out.````.7-Liner setting tool.`. liner packers were included as a basic part of the liner installation..`.. with its capability to convert pressure into setting force.11A) to shut off liner top leaks that can not be squeezed... especially in larger size liners. abnormally pressured formations.`. Nevertheless. Liner top packers (Fig.```````.`. it may be necessary to cedacle IPBRI. However.````. and the plug landing collar was below intended perforations).11 and 5.

The liner wiper plug (Fig.`.. Centralization.. DRILLING LINER num and rubber.`--- Fig. Both plugs are constructed of alumi. The amount of differential pressure a packer will hold is directly propor- tional to the force setting the packer. 5. Centralizers are as essential to proper Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. ~-~ - If a hydraulic liner hanger is run. 5. When all the cement is pumped into the drillpipe. and both plugs travel as one until they latch together in the plug landing collar (Fig.14) near the bottom of the liner. because pressure can not be held on the plugs if the floats do not hold. circulation can be maintained. Most operators use standard rather than fill-up float i_4 equipment with side ports in the shoe. Table 5.`. 5. leaks. fol- LINER TIE-BACK PACKER lowing the slurry down until it latches into the liner -USED TO CONTROL LINER wiper plug. Plugs and Collars. element of weight-set tieback packers.11A-Liner tie-back packer to control liner top must be set on bottom. Fig.```````. and the setting tool and drillpipe must be removed 6'W' OPEN HOLE quickly after cementing to prevent risk of excess cement becoming set around the drillpipe. The ball and seat shear out after the liner is hung.1 provides quick reference for use in designing a liner cementing installation. so that if the liner Fig.13) is installed in the plug dropping and cementing manifold..15) is run so that a pressure MIGRATION closure may be effected to set the hanger. 5. LINER CEMENTING 75 --``. 5. Float equipment (see Chapter 3) is more important in a liner job than in a full string cementing job. 5.. and are easily drilled out.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .11-Liner tie-back packer.12) is shear-pinned to the bottom of the liner setting tool (Fig.. a plug-landing collar HIGH PRESSURE GAS with a ball seat (Fig.````.7) and run in with the liner. 5. the pumpdown plug is released.`.`. The drillpipe pumpdown plug (Fig. permitting circula- tion to continue.-`-`.`. 5.10-Liner top packer. Internal parts of the plug landing collar are also of drillable metal..````.

`.`. --``. 5.12-Liner wiper plug. 5.14-Plug landing collar. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .`.. A R 1 T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 W 0732290 0558492 T T O W 76 CEMENTING Fig. Fig.````..-`-`.`.````.13-Drill pipe plug..`.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 5.`--- Fig.```````..15-Plug landing collar with ball and seat..`. 5. Fig.

Use of bottomhole temperature subs for information nt Single-stage cementing or “planned squeeze” program sary to slurry design. Plugs Procedure Size. Size. Rubber and lead or rubber with copper backup seals. weight. Tell-tale for plug. A typical liner setting assembly is shown in Fig. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.1-BASIS FOR LINER EQUIPMENT SELECTION Liner Selection Landing collar Size. It is important to drift (run a device through dependable centralizers and stop rings that are compati. screw-down or hydr other liner? pressure.````. Bottomhole treating or break-down pressure. The drillpipe wiper plug in the manifold is released and Centralizer spacing is a matter of each operator’s pref. Length.```````. are displaced as one plug to the plug landing collar. Spacers. Cement recommendations Weight. Spacing above float shoe. It is the author’s belief that properly selected plug on the bottom of the liner setting tool.. ing string. Webs. In practice. Mechanical or hydraulic set. causing a centralizers will not hinder circulation. The setting tool is then released from the in the well. pumped into the drillpipe through the cement manifold. Weight.`.-`-`. Preparation for completion. Casing wear.. Plug dropping head and cementing manifold Displacement efficiency. Should the setting collar or tie-back receptacle be modified Is PBR bore to be used for seal area while cementing? for retrievable packoff bushing? OD of stabilizing ribs on setting collar or tie-back receptacle. type and compatibility with ha setting. Cement is then mixed and from the setting tool or prematurely set while being car. OD and grade. the hanger. and grade of the suspended casing string. Pump rate. Primary cementing aids Slip-load distribution.5 Running the Liner strings. Type liner hanger to use Wipers. and joint size. Post-cementing procedures Is ball dropping manifold required (for hydraulic-set hangers Cleanout with mill or roller bit. small increase in pressure before the two plugs shear and they will greatly improve mud displacement efficiency. Combination landing collar. Single or multiple cone. Does the liner hanger have to pass through the top of an. flushes. = ~ A P I TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 D 0732290 R558493 937 LINER CEMENTING 77 TABLE 5. Latch-under type or handling sub pickup type. Setting method--set down weight. 5... Weight. Deep well liners require selection of high quality.````. Rotation could cause the liner to be released liner by right-hand rotation. displaced by mud until it latches into the liner wiper erence. and ball and seat test subs)? Jel-sub to clean out PBR.`.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . grade and joint size. grade. and grade. 3 ft or 6 ft. scratchers. Will rotation and/or reciprocation be performed during ce. Length.. will liner hanger and receptacle Coated or uncoated.16A tions. Displacement to shear wiper plug. the liner is run to and hung at a point just tact will impart rotation to the liner while it is being run above bottom. ried into the hole. above or below hanger in a tapered lin pected? size transition point. External resin-sand coating for improved bonding.`--- Differential pressure expected from above or below pa( Provisions for future tie-back string Use of setting collar only or tie-back receptacle. Spacing above float collar. If PER is run o n production liner Length of receptacle bore. If centralizers are used. cementation of liners as they are to cementation of full 5. but because of low annular clearance and connec. Regular or combination with float. withstand maximum internal and external pressure ex. or (2) that the centralizer-to-hole friction con. internally.`. permanence. Float shoe Fill-up or straight float type. The drillpipe is used as a running-in and cement- jobs. weight. viscosity. --``. many operators do not use centralizers on liner and B. compressive strei Type of liner job fluid loss. Hole geometry. Drilling production or stub liner. side ports in case liner is set on bottom. grade and joint size. thickening time. Liner packers menting? With or without hold-down slips. weight of drill pipe operating string Pre-cementing conditioning. and loss circulation material. Is ball and seat test sub to be used? Joint Selection. Connection. Weight. Position in liner. If tie-back is completed. the pipe to confirm that it is open) the drillpipe just ble with the liner hanger and setting tool. or other hardware. Shear pin rating of liner wiper plug. on the contrary. ID.`. since the should not be welded or otherwise fastened to the liner in drillpipe wiper plug must be pumped through the set- such a manner that (1) the liner can not be rotated to set ting string behind the cement. Centralizers before its use in the liner cementing job.`.`. Float collar Fill-up or straight float type.

” must be considered. Other methods of liner cementing to control gas are Techniques vary within the industry for the placement discussed in Chapter 2.6 Testing Liner Tops 5.`.. Sometimes the operator may choose not to bring cement over the top of the liner. testing the top proper amount of cement to be used. the annular capacity behind the liner with cement. how- ever..’ used method is the placement of cement around and over the top of the liner in a conventional single stage (Fig. pressure integrity of a cemented liner top.. they are dis- Another widely used practice in the Anadarko basin is cussed separately. there are many reasons why this objective might not be achieved.’*. Perhaps the most commonly procedure is included in Table 5. ~~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558494 873 78 CEMENTING PLUG DROPPING k CEMENTING MANIFOLD D R I U PIPE is SETTING TOOL CETTNG COLLAR RETRIEVABLE CEMENTING BUSHING SUCK JOINT UNER HANGER --``.`.````..1GA-Typical liner setting assembly..`. in a planned squeeze method. burst limitations of the intermediate casing to squeeze the overlap area.2. but some operators find where the plugs will latch and a pressure buildup at the this cement gap to be tolerable so long as the top of the surface will be noticed. 5. Testing the liner top with applied casing will contain cement to be drilled out after setting.16B-Cement displacement with plug.`--- Fig.`. A recommended liner running of cement around the liner. The setting tool and drillpipe are liner does not leak. problem during future drilling operations. Excess cement above the top of the liner may be A leaking liner top can become a serious and expensive reversed out before the drillpipe is removed. out. 5. Of course. If the cement vol. he may fill only 60 to 70% of Fig.`. UNER UNER WIPER PLUG PLUG LANDING COLLAR the mud behind the liner with good clean cement. pressure can be done with or without a packer. 5.````. of a liner after it has been cemented is absolutely essen- ume is overestimated. For example. and FLOAT SHOE this should be the objective of the well operator. or during the vantage of this method is the difficulty in calculating the production life of the Therefore. the placement of excess cement over the top of the liner in a single stage so that 8 to 10 joints of the intermediate Hydrostatic Testing. the excess cement must be drilled tial to the success of the well completion. then removed from the well. The philosophy is that it is easier to drill set cement than in either case.17).. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . The disad. The squeezed cement rarely joins the top of the previously displaced cement. the ideal liner cementing job will replace all In the case of a drilling liner. however. pressure applied to the Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. and then squeeze the top of the liner later by pumping a slurry into the liner annulus after setting a retrievable or drillable packer in the intermediate casing above the liner (Fig. There is also the possibility of the drillpipe sticking There are two methods that may be used to test the if the cement sets before the operation is complete.-`-`.```````.17).`. 5.

.17-Techniques for placing cement around liner..000 Ib of drill pipe weight resting on setting tool and liner top. spot perforating fluid (if in production liner) or other conditioning procedures as desired. Trip out 11. --``.2-PROCEDURE FOR RUNNING AND CEMENTING LINERS Well name and location: 1. Run ~ ft of liner with float shoe and float collar spaced ~ joints apart. D.`. 8. drill out cement inside liner as necessary. Cement Conlaminalion Good Cement 8 ~ 1 0Joints Casing Mud Mud Cement CONVENTIONAL . 7 . 4. If unable to break circulation. Sandblast lower 1000 ft and upper 1000 R of liner. Slow down pumps just before pump down plug reaches the liner wiper plug.```````. Watch for plug shear. whichever is greatest. Circulate bottoms-up with b b l h i n rate to achieve Almin annular velocity rate (approximately equal to previous drilling rate).`. TABLE 5. Cement Conlamination Mud..`. Release liner setting tool and leave 10. Volume between float shoe and plug landing collar is bbl. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`. Run thread-locking compound on bottom five to eight joints.. pull out of liner and reverse out any cement remaining in drill pipe. 5. Tie off other drill pipe on opposite side of board. If unable to continue circulation or cementing due to plugging or bridging in liner-open hole annulus. if fill-up type floats are not used. drill cernent to top of liner. Drill pipe capacity is bbl. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Install liner hanger and setting assembly. Strap drill pipe to be used for running liner. OD bit. pump calculated displacement plus bbl (1000/0 + 1 to 3%). PLANNED SOUEEZE REVERSE EXCESS TO BE DRILLED OUT WITH RETRIEVABLE CEMENT PACKER Fig. Cement liner as follows: A. Run 1-2 minutes per stand while in open hole.. joint) (grade) drill pipe with Ib minimum over-pull rating. and hold pressure on top of cement until cement hardens to prevent gas migration. Trip to condition hole for running liner. Run plug landing collar ~ joints above float collar. A P I TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0558q95 70T = LINER CEMENTING 79 Mud. if possible.`. 6. Run liner on size.````. Shut pump down. Displace hole for further drilling.````. E. pump on annulus between drill pipe and casing to maximum ~ psi and attempt to remove bridge.-`-`. EXCESSIVE CEMENT . Wait on cement ~ hours. C. Fill dead space (if packoff bushing is used in lieu of cups) between liner setting tool and the liner hanger assembly with inert gel to prevent foreign material from settling around setting tool. Hang liner 5 ft off bottom. Do not overpressure and break down formation.`--- 2. Temperature subs should be used where bottomhole circulating temperatures are unknown. Test liner overlap with differential test. Trip out of hole 9. OD bit or mill. Circulate last joint to bottom with cement manifold installed. If there is no indication of plug shearing. Drop hollow drift (rabbit) to check drill pipe ID for pump down plug.`. 10. Pump through first few joints to make sure float equipment is working.. Run ~ in. recalculate displacement plus bbi maximum over-displacement. 3. 5. Fill each 1000 ft while running. Run ~ in. Pull out 8 to 10 stands or above cement.

192 psi). 11-12. also known as 14.052) (12 lb/gal) = 8736 psi. The anticipated maximum mud weight in the next sec- has been successful and is popular for liner jobs because tion of hole is 14 lblgal. a differential pressure test may be used Nothing is better for a good liner cement job than good to determine the pressure integrity of a liner top. R. a 2. is accomplished by lowering the pressure above the liner 5. D. the pres.: “Deep Liner Cementing In The Delaware Basin. Thus. all the necessary requirements for a uniform slurry. Parts 1-9. This may even require partial evacuation of the 6.: “Liner Operations Made Easy.000 fi with 12-lblgal mud. Prac. presented at the 1979 Annual Technical Confer- Cement performance required by liner placement makes ence of SPE. Levine.-`-`. final slurry mixing occurs (14. (4) better plug systems (including More often than not. thus giving a hydrostatic References mud weight on the liner top of 8736 psi. 9. the liner top is at 14. there could be a poor cement job in 5.D C K (July 1979). Cer- static pressure at the liner top when the maximum antici. outlined in the hydrostatic pressure test. and a mud weight of 12 lblgal. Bezner.J. On longer liners. and West. J. Las Vegas.” 5. (3) accurate circulating tem- static testing alone will not reveal a faulty cement job.E.192 psi.000 ft) (0. Davis.: “Liner Reciprocation While Cementing. M. Durham. the fracture gradient of the zone at the shoe of continuously.: “How to Prevent DeepWell Liner Failure. it can not be repaired by squeeze cementing slurry chemistry. (6) better spacers.`.8 Summary the overlap section.````. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Agnew. Until The foregoing was based on information obtained from pressure is high enough to fracture the zone. 1988 .. (May 8-10). H. and should be kept separate by spac- weight fluid.: “An- nular Gas Flow After Cementing:A Look At Practical Solutions. and sure to a column of 12 lblgal mud.’’ Drill. In this event.” paper differential of 2674 psi. A proper watersolids ratio must be maintained. using either air or mechanical agitation. Batch mixing. the hydrostatic (< pipe-time. (March. and undoubtedly.000 fi) (0. hole conditioning and stability.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. B. and it would not be detected.A. API (1966) 33-42.052) (14 lblgal) = 10.: “The Leaking Liner Top. using the same conditions as ers and wiper plugs. 1986). slurry program may be required to span a temperature 11. Running And Cementing Liner in The Dela- gal mud is displaced with 8.`.: “How To Run And Cement Lin- permit gas migration to the top of the liner. Lindsey.. bination of nitrogen and fluid to lighten the column. development in deep well liner cementing will include (1) improvement in liner equipment.7 Slurry Mixing paper SPE 8255. n\rG . with a liner top at uniform slurry. and is not observed at the surface. weights greater than 18 lblgal. a 10. (14.`.. H. API. 1989). the liner. umn..R. proper slurry mixing very important. Future intermediate casing burst strength is not exceeded.” DRILL- the collapse rating of the liner itself. H. If all the 12-lbl 1. 8. posium of SPE. It is well documented that hydro. The proce. of the intermediate be in excess of 0. Inri. the possible existence of a “honey-combed” cement col. which would result in sufficient permeability to 4. sure beneath the packer would be reduced to 6062 psi. Dallas (March 1983).. Lindsey.” World Differential pressure testing requires close scrutiny of Oil Part 1 (Oct.April 1-3. caution must be used so that the have been made in equipment and techniques. 23-26. which is extremely important with cement the intermediate casing must be considered. For example. and Prod. and many liner cement- Differential testing of a liner top requires the use of a ing problems can be eliminated if the hole is free of packer. the cement several thousand deep liner cementing jobs completed job on the liner top has not been tested.R. (2) movement of Differential Testing. The recirculating mixer appeared in the late 1970’s. 7. E. SPE 12614.```````. Amarillo. which would increase the hydro- slurries can be properly mixed in small volumes by this static pressure at liner top to: method. tain types of additives must be held for a certain time to pated mud weight has been attained in subsequent allow development of the properties that will yield a drilling operations. This testing ers. ER. normally set 100 to 300 ft above the top of the doglegs and the mud is in good shape. It satisfies mud would require application of 1500 psi surface pres. Howell. however. The primary objective of differential testing is to detect 3.: “Zone Isolation Through Effective Liner Cementing to a point lower than the highest pore pressure behind . S.January.” presented at the Rocky Mountain District Meeting of API. G. 187-191. Texas.000 fi equals 10. Sept. low.S..” can be attained when a continuous mixing pressure at the liner top would be: procedure is used. ware Basin. the United States.3-lb/gal fresh water. and Klein. 1987). E. Sms.W. Should the fracture gradient of the zone at the shoe handling higher volumes. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0558476 646 W 80 CEMENTING liner top should be equal to or greater than the hydro.” API New York (1959). and Sherer. Eng.Second Edition. is not limited in volume requirements. (5) better cement detected. Arceneaw. presented at the 1984 SPE Deep Drilling Symposium.W. This period of time.`. down-hole.: “Deep Gas Well Completion Practices.H. Sept. Amarillo. --``. For example.: “Cementing Liners: Oil Well Cementing Practices in fluid from the drillpipe by adding nitrogen or some com.````.E.`. Colvin.C.. Bowman. Mud and cement Fluid in the drillpipe is displaced by a lighter. are not compatible.. and Tolle.P. dure outlined above demonstrates that the liner top The recirculating mixer is rapidly replacing the batch would withstand the hydrostatic pressure of 14 lblgal mixer in deep liner jobs because it is more versatile in mud. liners during cementation. (Sept. The recirculating To complete the testing of the pressure integrity of a mixer permits the operator to monitor slurry weights liner top. (7) because the permeability of the overlap cement is too better planning.73 psilft (14.” paper range of more than 100°F between the bottom and the SPE 3908.`. When hydrostati.S. to test the liner top to the equivalent of 14 lblgal and has proven very popular and successful. 1987) and Part 2 (Nov. over a rather long period of Some improvements cally testing a liner top. BULLETIN D 17.’’ World Oil. presented at the 1972 International Deep Drilling Sym- top of the liner.600 ft. Thomas. Calgary. perature measurement.Elk Basin Field.” Per.. K. R.C. when a leaking liner top has been a plug before and after the slurry). G.

April 23-24.`. and Ellis.. ïnd. D.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 1981. Mona- ern Petroleum Short Course.R.” World Oil (Oct. H. presented at the SPE Deep Well Symposium.: “Liner Cementing And Techniques. Lubbock.J. 18.” JPT (Feb.” Per.C. Lubbock.`. Lindsey. H. H. hans. Eng. Part 3 (Jan. H. C. Part 1 (Nov. 1974).W. and Bateman. 1981). G. Smith. 1975).: “Techniques For Liner Tie-Back Cementing. Texas (March 1968). Manry.” World Oil World Oil. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .````.-`-`.E.O. W.E.” Southwest.E. 1974).: “Completion Practices And Tech- ing Liners In Deep Wells.: “Recent Developments In Tools For Liner Move. Texas.W..````. Lindsey. 16. Lindsey. (1977) 50-56. 1973). Lindsey. Suman.” SPE Monograph Series..H. McLean.`.: “Displace- 15. --``. 14. H. “New Tools Make Liner Cementing During Rotation Practical.. 1973). Texas.” 20. ment Mechanics In Primary Cementing. Part 2 (Dec. 1977. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 U 0732290 c155849? 5 8 2 9 LINER CEMENTING 81 12. Also published as 19. S.. Lindsey.: “Running and Cementing Deep Well Liners.```````. Course.” Southwestern Petroleum Short 260.: “Cementing Handbook. (Oct.E.`.: “Improve Cementing Of Drill. and West. 1967) 251- ment During Cementation.” 17. H. World Oil.`. R. niques In Deep Gas Producers In The Delaware Basin.K.” paper 13. and Whittaker. E.. SPE 2078. (July.`. R. 4 (1976) 2. April 21-22..: “Cementing.E.E. Lindsey.

.. 96 6..````........`...3 Squeeze Techniques ..........1 Introduction ....... 95 6..............10 Waiting on Cement .... 87 6............ 96 6..............2 Myths and Misconceptions .................................................8 Cement Testing .........6 Job Planning ....... API TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0 5 5 â Y ï 8 419 Chapter 6 Remedial Cementing authors ..-`-`....................... 83 6.. 87 6........`..5 Material Selection and Application .............````....`.....9 Job Execution ................ 87 6..................... 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT ..................... 101 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 96 6... 85 6.......... 83 6. 95 6................................................ ..................................12 Squeeze Applications ........`..... 92 6.......................13 Summary . K M Cowan --``...............................7 Cement Slurry Design .........................................1 1 Job Evaluation ............```````..4 Squeeze Pressure ............`.....`..............`--- B B Bradford INDEX SUBJECT PAGE 6.....................

. B. 60 and 150 microns. the most diffi. B. techniques and materials used for injection fluid. documented technology. Activities included numerous publications. was employed by Dowell and Dowell Schlumberger for 28 years.```````.. since ce- 7. Bradford. Squeeze cementing operations may be performed dur. determine cement slurry (or seal- tions which are performed to remedy an undesirable con. development. squeeze cementing operations continually chal. Cowan graduated in 1978 with a BS degree in chemistry from Southwestern Oklahoma State University He was employed by Dowell for six years and served in a variety of laboratory and field engineering assignments. ment slurries are suspensions of solids in water. in 1984 as a cementing specialist in the Drilling Engineering Research Section. One of the oldest myths is that 5 .````. for this to occur in most formations. More recently. ~ ~~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558499 355 = --``. a typical cement slurry would one operation may not be successful in another. The average cement particle is too large 6. M. the term has been used to ation. Cowan and B. Shut off unwanted water or gas. Modify injection profile in injection wells. 6.`.````. 4. prepare a detailed squeeze cementing oper- dition in a well. and execute the designed operation at the wellsite. B. He specialized in cementing services research.2 Myths and Misconceptions ing drilling and completion operations or at some later time during the well’s producing period. whole cement slurry will enter the matrix permeability ing. Cement Invasion.. Repair casing leaks.. tions linger despite considerable understanding of the fundamentals of the process. Cowan joined Shell Development Co. and chairmanship of the API task group on cement additives. 2.`--- Chapter 6 Remedial Cementing By: K. Regardless of the reason for the squeeze.`. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Application of sound technology coup- pressure to a cement slurry to (1) force or “squeeze” the led with detailed attention to the many variables involved slurry into the desired location and (2) force water from in the design and execution of a squeeze cementing oper- the slurry after placement to create a mass which will ation will greatly improve chances of success. ficient concentration of particles having a diameter of at Squeeze cementing operations are performed under a least one-third the average pore diameter area are in the variety of conditions.`. Some of the Several misconceptions about squeeze cementing opera- reasons squeeze cementing is performed are listed below. M. ing material). Seal off thief zones or lost circulation during drill.1 Introduction lenge engineering and operations personnel to correctly Remedial cementing broadly describes cementing opera. a private consultant.squeeze cementing. squeeze cementing is an ap- operation -. membership in the API Committee 10. and marketing. Isolate a zone prior to perforating for production. membership in the SPE. remain in place and harden to provide a seal. According amount of cement or sealant in just the right place to to particle invasion theory.’ Therefore. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Abandon a nonproductive zone. Because bridge on formation faces having pore diameters between of this. plied science plagued by persistent misconceptions and Squeeze cementing is the process of applying hydraulic rules of thumb. Bradford K. technical services. trate forced from the slurry under differential pressure may enter the formation. Provide initial seal for a liner (tack and squeeze).. diagnose the problem.`.. the fil- 8.`. of formations. 3. However.-`-`. 6. squeeze operations is often jeopardized because of failure to apply sound. bridging occurs when a suf- remedy the problem.`. refer to the most widely practiced remedial cementing Often considered an art. success of 1. For this reason. Many cements have a mean particle size between 20 cult problem in squeeze cementing is placing the proper and 50 microns equivalent spherical diameter. Repair of a faulty or inadequate primary cement job.

that the cement has been placed into the proper position Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. . High Final Pressure Does Not Ensure Success. the cement develops compressive strength and some shear bond to adjacent surfaces. not all perfo- formation (limestone or dolomite) will have an average rations will accept fluid at the same pressure. . fracturing pressure of the exposed formations. . Cement-filled fractures may also damage the produc- tivity of the well. = mean pore diameter. . Even with clean.-`-`.`--- drated at the point final squeeze pressure is reached in most squeeze operations. to remedy the problems. .. a productivity decrease may occur. Another common mis. During hydration.. Cement will sufficient flow rate must be used to create a pressure drop readily bridge on the face of these formations. . niques may be used. a high tional to the square root of their air permeability as de. more cement slurry may be required to fill the extended fracture network and more squeeze operations may be required. little or no productivity decrease may be observed. .3 overburden pressure is greater than the fracturing pres- Pressure may begin to increase during the job.`. . However. High pressures do not guarantee squeeze with high fluid loss cement.1-Node buildup in casing for high pressure the successful squeeze. However. The fracture extends and the pressure decreases. d. the fracture extension pressure of the formation is exceeded. fluid-loss cement may lose sufficient fluid to become scribed by the Carman-Kozeny' equation: immobile at the upper injection point without filling other voids. Over long intervals. etc. .. Low Pump Rates Will Not Always Open All Perfo- ter of about 42 microns. thus diverting flow into other perforations. therefore. . . and the final squeeze pressure is applied before the cement has developed substantial com- pressive strength. High is commonly used. .````. .`. microns. . perforations will accept fluid. . (6. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 W 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0558500 ï T 7 W 84 CEMENTING Mean pore diameters of typical sandstones are propor. As pressure builds.````. . cementation. This type of pressure profile may occur In deviated wellbores or in dipping formation beds. = cJk . When establishing injection into existing perfora- d. pore diameter that is less than 20 microns. Once a fracture is created. successful cement squeeze may be achieved by using only enough pressure to place the cement at the proper Fracture Orientation. . then sure. A fluid. 6. High pressures may create fractures or extend fracturing pressure of the zone is greater than the over- existing fractures in the zone... high pressure will not always ensure that all c = constant related to grain size distribution. tions. As a result. sealers may be used to seal off perforations accepting quired for a successful squeeze cementing operation. pressure squeeze cementing operations are oriented along Trying to achieve an unrealistically high final squeeze the plane perpendicular to the direction of the least prin- pressure may be detrimental to obtaining a successful cipal stress. as illustrated in Fig. The cement has not chemically hy- --``.. 6.`. natural fractures. Final Squeeze Pressure Must be Equal to Future Working Pressure. pressure may be detrimental by (1) filling perforations with nonhydraulic solids which will not effect a reliable k = air permeability.`. The cement can withstand greater forces after hydration.1. A clean. This is particularly true if ing. when cement-filled fractures inter- sect the wellbore or the plane of natural fractures in a formation.. A vertical fracture will be created if the less pressure is generally required to propagate it.1) High Pressure Will Not Always Open All Perfora- where tions. . Fractures created during high- point and hold it there until it hardens. . . as existing fractures are filled and a filter cake begins to form. .`. the rate should be at a pressure below the formation is by entering vugs. . 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . . or frac. sort. Solid diverting agents such as ball conception is that a high final squeeze pressure is re. millidarcies (md). . . .95 solids-laden fluids are used as the injecting fluid. burden pressure. If radial flow from the formation into the wellbore exists and the fracture is in the same axis as the wellbore. For clean sandstones 0. solids-free fluids. . across the perforations to divert flow into more perfora- the only way most cement particles will penetrate the tions.4 decrease sharply. Therefore. . . .`. . seal or (2) creating fractures which will accept whole fluid. A horizontal fracture will be created if the squeeze.. very porous sandstone having an air permea- bility of about 2000 md will have an average pore diame. An unfractured carbonate rations. A high final pressure is not always an accurate indication of Fig. mechanical diverting tech- High Pressure is Not Needed. tures created during the squeeze operation.```````. When sufficient rate can not be obtained at a pressure below the fracturing pressure.

3-Orientation of fracture plane in different axis A comparison of the results of a low-pressure squeeze from wellbore. the cement slurry is forced into or against zones of weakness because it can no longer move up the annu- BOREHOLE . Squeeze operations may be performed at pres- sures above or below the fracturing pressure of the ex- posed formations. 6.`. This is an- other reason that high-pressure fracturing may not re- store isolation to the wellbore.````.2 and 6. As pumping con- tinues. and a higher pressure squeeze in a perforated interval is illustrated in Figs. operations where the sealant is placed at pres- sures less than the fracturing pressure of the formation are called low-pressure squeezes. 6. and the fluid pumping procedures used.5. .2-Orientation of fracture plane in same axis as wellbore. 6..````.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .. and displacing fluid is pumped down the workstring. Pressure.3 Squeeze Techniques Fundamental squeeze techniques can be categorized by the pressure at which the cement or sealant is placed. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 R 0732290 0558501 8 3 3 REMEDIAL CEMENTING 85 created fractures may not be truly vertical or horizontal relative to the wellbore (Figs.`.`.`... Fig. 6. Two general methods of pressure isolation are used for squeeze cementing operations. Placement of a cement slurry or other sealant at pressures greater than the fracturing pressure of the zone are referred to as high-pressure squeezes. Pressure isolation is needed to in- ject slurry into the proper place in the wellbore. W Fig. The wellhead is closed in at the surface..`--- slurry is pumped to a specific height outside the work- string.`. Similarly.-`-`. a predetermined amount of SQUEEZE JOB --``. 6.`. 6. Fluid returns are usually taken at the surface (ex- cept for cases of lost circulation) while the cement is spotted.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. FORMATION Fig.```````.4 and 6.4-Results for low-pressure squeeze of perîora- tions.3). the methods used to provide pressure isolation for injection.5 Pressure Isolation. CEMENT FROM In one common procedure. The workstring is then pulled out of the slurry. Pressure is built up by closing the blowout preventers or wellhead control valves after the cement has been pumped to near the bottom of the cementing workstring. The original method of squeezing was the Bradenhead EXISTING CEMENT SHEATH which is accomplished through the tubing or drillpipe without using a packer or similar tool.

into the target zone. 6. 6. A typical pressure profile for a be squeezed.7. ~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE %L 073229U 0558502 7 7 T 86 CEMENTING 3000. this must not always ment is placed. 6. 6. a hesitation squeeze operation is illustrated in Fig. Displacing fluid is pumped until the desired squeeze U W FORMATION pressure is reached or until a specific amount of the fluid 4 œ L 1000 . Shutdown periods are usually between 5 and in field operations to describe the constant or intermit. When retrievable tools are there is no assurance that the slurry will reach all the used. 6. flu.. in plugging. In deeper wells. TIME (MIN) ids in the tubing may be displaced into the formation ahead of the cement..`.`. \ 3000 1 PRESSURE TO Fig. However.6. cement volume is cleared out of the workstring and spot- niques are commonly employed for squeeze operations -. high-pressure squeezes. 15 minutes followed by pumping cycles of l/2 to 2 bbl at tent injection pumping techniques. Terms have been used are stopped. a pressure test is conducted to determine be the case. Two types of pumping tech. injection rates may be reduced as or set on wireline to a position near the top of the zone to the pressures increase.````. ted across the target interval before pumping operations constant or intermittent injection. PRESSURE TO SLURRY PLACEMENT COMPLETE -I TO CHECK l I l l l i l O 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 --``. MIXING ANO has been pumped. Typically. BACKFLOW OI I I I I I 1 180 200 ally lost circulation during drilling. The applicability of Bradenhead squeezing is restricted. The method is used extensively in ul DISPLACING CEMENT squeezing shallow wells. whether high pressure or low pressure is used.7-Pressure profile of hesitation squeeze tech- nique. All desired squeeze pressure is obtained. The pressure profile of scribed in subsequent paragraphs. because the casing must be pressure-tight above the point of squeezing and because maximum pressures are limited by the burst strength of The “running” or “walking” squeeze is a constant- the casing. the cement may be squeezed into the upper portion of Squeezing objectives and zonal conditions determine the interval due to node buildup (Fig. perior to the Bradenhead method because it confines Running squeezes have often been associated with pressures to a specific point in the hole.`. straightforward to design and execute. and sometimes in squeezing off zones of parti. In certain instances.1). 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .. running squeeze is shown in Fig. 6.`. Before the ce. TEST SQUEEZE rations. the section below the perforations to be squeezed must be A significant disadvantage of running squeezes is that isolated with a bridge plug. Running or walking squeezes are generally the formation breakdown pressure.```````.5-Results for high-pressure squeeze of perfo. SLURRY PLACEMENT COMPLETE. tained as the cement or sealant is continuously injected The squeeze tool method uses a retrievable or nonre.`. The hesitation squeeze’ consists of alternating cycles of pumping and brief shut-in periods.6This technique is generally considered su.. Also.6-Pressure profile of running squeeze tech- niaue. 1500 CEMENT ENTERING lus. rates less than about ‘12 bbl/min.````. spotted halfway down the tubing before the casing valve at the surface is closed. i U Ii v PRESSURE LIMIT 2000 LL 3 P U M P S STOPPED INTERMITTENTLY. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`. in coiled-tubing 500 BLEED OFF TO CHECK squeezes. These terms are de.-`-`. the remaining slurry may be washed out after the wellbore entry points and provide the desired seal. Although the cement slurry is trievable (drillable) packer or retainer tool run on tubing moved continuously. it is difficult to accurately spot the injection method where the final squeeze pressure is at- cement across the target interval. the cement may be Fig.. O 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 When shallow wells are squeezed by this method. the entire Pumping Techniques.`--- TIME (MIN) Fig..

and this pressure. The pressure should presents example calculations to aid planning a squeeze hold for 10 to 15 minutes with no flowback. A secondary concern is filling the void beyond include low densities (less than 14 Ib/gal). Diesel injection wells may have been cooled by injection of oil cements (or slurries of Portland cements in oil) were fluids. and diesel oil cements may Casing splits or holes are often the most difficult also be considered.’ addressed. pro- stability range of Portland cement. Type of Well.g. and sulfates. if the cement can be placed at the proper Planning of the squeeze operation is critical once the point. A squeeze cementing When reversing out is planned to follow the squeeze.`. Limitations of synthetic cements casing. Ninety-degree Portland cement slurries have limitations in some phasing of perforating tools will improve chances of con- squeeze applications. water flows. In some cases.`. When squeezing perforations. A safety factor of about 300 psi below formation frac. pressure shown on the gauge at the surface is Although widely used. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . high aluminate cement. The flow channel environments. The type of problem is the key factor turing pressure is reasonable for low-pressure squeezing.`. Well type must also be considered when High aluminate cements may be required when the planning a squeeze operation. If the channel was --``. Each problem has a reverse circulating pressure if the zone will be exposed to key variable which must be identified. particu. Appendix F pressure (at the injection point). Ultimately. void large enough to accept cement.. problem. fracturing or acidizing (in carbonates). pressure squeezes are recommended where possible. establishing communication to the slurries. Leaking liner tops are often not sealed because the faces and does not seal well against oil-wet surfaces. high aluminate ce.`--- available additives. future use. the principal problem is ensuring that all perforations are open and 6.-`-`. Syn. and the condi- pressure minus the frictional pressure loss. or tieback sleeves may present similar prob. Lack of water to set the cement particles and allow hydration is the most common cause of failures where Squeeze pressure is the pressure at the injection point. Type of Problem. too often.````.5 Material Selection and Application will accept fluid. Low-pressure wells may have exposed zones developed in the early 1950’s and have been used to which will fracture easily.. Pressure at the injection point is operations. a successful squeeze can be obtained with 500 to problem has been diagnosed and the objective of the 1000 psi standing pressure above the initial injection squeeze operation has been defined.. the increased hydrostatic pressure. this volume is often very difficult to deter- and operational problems (some synthetic cements soften mine. Producing wells and injec- cemented area can be exposed to temperature beyond the tion wells present slightly different challenges. the damage.. 6. Low- job.4 Squeeze Pressure gal. squeeze operations. Leaking collars. 6. Pressures can not be penetrated by Portland cement solids.`. pump rates are low and frictional pressure losses are small. Gas leakage from liner tops may come trated in Fig. Portland cement is chemically attacked by acidic particles needed to provide the seal. diesel oil cements are used.6 Job Planning In most cases. Most oilfield cementing equipment is caused by cement bypassing drilling fluid during pri- designed to readily prepare and pump Portland cement mary cementing. brines. therefore a void must be created by penetrate to seal the leak. This is misleading and can ries may not always be the best choice of material for all contribute to job failure. channel is often the most difficult task. depending upon temperature and pressure conditions). Portland cement does not chemically bond to steel sur. sel oil cements must be contacted with water to set and Both types (producing and injection) of wells may have are difficult to mix at densities greater than about 16 lb/ deposit buildup on casing and tubing. The fracture may ing tools.8. Fi.`. stage cement. In many tions and objective of the squeeze operation. larger flow channels must be created requiring multiple squeeze operations to remedy the by high pressure. A casing scraper Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. not extend in the same direction as the channel. the choice of materials should be the sum of the surface pump pressure and the hydrostatic governed by well conditions.. aqueous Portland cement slur- called the squeeze pressure. Synthetic cements are generally true squeeze operations to design. or another material may be considered. existing flow channel is too small to accept the cement nally. tions of all kinds. must be enlarged by acidizing or fracturing to provide a Other materials such as synthetic cements (epoxy res. applied to the casing during squeeze operations may ex- thetic cements can chemically bond to surfaces.`. the operation should not be performed unless the problem final squeeze pressure should be 300 to 500 psi above the and expected results are well defined. understood.```````. Die. ducing wells are often at reservoir temperatures while ments are difficult to retard at high temperatures. Prevention of additional fluids and can flow into small voids or channels which casing damage is often the principal concern. greater cost. Formation fracturing may oc- control unwanted water production under a variety of cur as the cement is pumped into the workstring due to conditions where aqueous slurries had poor success. e. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0732290 0558503 bOb = 87 I REMEDIAL CEMENTING 6. thus lems. If the channel was caused by and therefore may not be able to penetrate very small poor centralization during primary cementing as illus- voids or channels. after placement is the major problem when squeezing mon basic materials used for remedial cementing opera. Dilution or washing away of the slurry Slurries of Portland cement and water are the most com.’ influencing the planning process.. there may be no true void for the from such small channels that cement solids can not cement to enter. Cement slurries are not true fluids necting with the channel. ins). after curing. Portland cement slurries are relatively Channels can pose several different problems depend- inexpensive and can be modified with a variety of readily ing upon the cause of the channel.````. tend splits or open up new holes in weak areas of the larly oil-wet surfaces..

quently complex. How- the wellbore. Some scale deposits may have to be removed by mechani- Cement volumes will be influenced by the voids existing cal methods. Well History. These for. Hydraulic fracturing treatments may have created large voids which will accept a large volume of cement. but less cement is often needed and Gas wells should be circulated to remove any gas from there is generally better control over placement. and volumes or (2) injection rates. tions. --``. Shales. Salt formations are easily dissolved by aqueous fluids.````. Squeezing small single zones.````. what may have been diagnosed should be run to remove deposits from casing surfaces if as a channel behind the casing may be due to fractures packers or retainers are used for pressure isolation.-`-`. Also. porous matrix. Also. and salts may be damaged by fresh- water filtrate from cements. 3. have a less porous matrix.`. anhydrites. these voids will accept whole cement. and anhydrite formations are also often en. countered in squeeze cementing operations. and production of fluids occurs through 6 . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 4. Fig. 2. Formation Types. Sol- created during the completion process. Carbonates may contain natural fractures or vugs which will accept whole cement slurry. Squeezing when clean.. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Filtration loss from the cement occurs more readily 3. Squeezing multiple zones in one operation.. Squeezing productive intervals. Salts (sodium chloride or potassium chloride) may be added to the cement formula- tion to reduce the adverse affect of cement filtrate. but low matrix permea- bility makes filtration occur at low rates.`. the interconnected pores which constitute the permeabil. and volumes should be reviewed during the planning process.`. Sandstones are characterized by a 5.`. If mud is used. hole.`. Filling existing voids behind the casing. Insight into pressures and temperatures which may be experienced during the squeeze operation can be obtained from such data. Most fluid production or flow High-pressure squeezes are often required or applied occurs through vugs or interconnected natural fractures. 1. Wells often applied for the purposes listed. there are conditions which preclude the use of low cement into the zone to be squeezed. In general. or calcium Squeeze? chloride brines are strong accelerators for most cement Low-pressure squeezes are preferred for most squeeze slurries. Carbonates such as limestone and dolomites typically wellbore and used as injection fluids ahead of cement. salt included in the cement formulation may improve sealing of the cement to these formation types. Squeezing long perforated intervals.`. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 0’732290 0558504 542 88 CEMENTING against zones with good permeability such as sandstones.. calcium bromide. and gas should not be pumped ahead of the ever. Squeezing low permeability zones. Cement and a low-pressure squeeze job may not correct the prob- will not bond or provide a reliable seal to surfaces which lem. with CO. Cement slurry designs are fre- should be avoided. 7.. Stimulation history and any previous remedial cement- tion during primary cementing. Stimulation proce- dures create voids behind the casing. Producing wells may have to be killed to prepare the well for the squeeze operation. fracturing or acidizing treatments create be removed by soaking with acids or chelating agents. voids and may connect with natural fracture networks. pressures. Squeezing low bottomhole pressure wells. Scale deposits may have to In carbonates. Squeezing jobs where no voids exist behind casing. and permeabilities are much lower than sandstones. Contamination of the cement by muds or brines cementing operations. ing operations are also important. These fractures vents may have to be spotted across the target interval to may extend a considerable distance from the wellbore..```````. Bridging agents may be required in the cement slurry to plug natural fractures or vugs and prevent loss of whole slurry to the formation. 6.8-Channel caused by poor casing centraliza. Low-pressure squeeze operations are percolate back through the cement as it sets. salts. for the following conditions or types of squeeze opera- Shales.. Clear completion flu- Low-Pressure or High-pressure ids. Information about (1) production rates. a high- pressure squeeze may be required. remove hydrocarbon deposits from perforations. Squeezing with solids-laden fluids (drilling mud) in mations typically have low porosity and permeability. such as zinc chloride. squeezed in zones which are water-flooded or flooded 1. since gas could pressure placement. pressures.`--- flow between zones or intrazonal fluid movement. solids-free fluids are in the ity. or other gases may also be affected by cross. larger volumes of cement and cement slur- ries with higher fluid loss are required for squeeze opera- tions in carbonates than for sandstones. 2. in the interval to be squeezed. are not clean and water-wet.

solids-free fluids..`--- squeeze even when the initial job procedure was intended to be a running squeeze. are generally used when the potential for backflow after the operation is low.`. Also. there is no assurance that slurry will be forced into all the wellbore entry points that need to be sealed. ~ A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 07322%0 0 5 5 B 5 0 5 Y89 REMEDIAL CEMENTING 89 4. Fig. Squeezing casing shoes. as when squeezing to: high-pressure zones or water flows. tools are retrievable and nonretrievable (drillable) tools. The basic types of squeeze 5. Block squeeze productive zones... Backflow into the wellbore may be Pumping Technique.. Running squeezes are often used flow after cementing is probable.`. Shut off water flows. Tools should not be There is a better chance of placing cement into all set in worn or corroded casing. Casing condition must also be considered when using the Bradenhead technique. Packers are the common type of retrievable tools al- Low-pressure squeezes can be used in most operations.```````. collapse) above the tool. Running or walking squeezes are induced by the swabbing effect created as the tool is generally simple to apply. if the casing is in poor condition. Sealing leaking liner tops. Supplement cement top. accuracy required in spotting the cement across the interval. though drillable packers are also used. some conditions make high-pressure squeezes several squeeze operations in one trip. Several factors influence the location of squeeze pressure may not indicate a successful squeeze.9 is com- monly performed with drillable tools since there is a high Two major disadvantages of the running squeeze are (1) potential to cement the tool into the well. when using retrievable tools. after the job to reduce drillout time when the squeezed Failure to realize this seriously jeopardizes the applica. however the cement can not 1. fluid-loss cement slurry is used. However. Drillable tools are also used 3 . Squeeze tools also facilitate more accurate placement of cement to the target interval. slurry designs.-`-`. use relatively simple cement released and pulled. Pressure Isolation Methods. Repair some casing damage. The circulating 7. and (2) final Tool Location. or “suicide” squeeze plan shown in Fig. during the job or when there is weak casing (which could 5.`.`. or when pressure is applied to the casing during the Hesitation is not recommended unless a controlled squeeze. Careful planning and well prepa. 6. and afford a good chance of reaching the Drillable tools are generally recommended where back- final squeeze pressure. setting a retrievable tool may be risky. allowing however. exposing the casing to the pressures during the squeeze may create new problems. regardless of type.````. Retrievable tools offer the advantage of being removed ration are required for low pressure squeeze operations. Anticipated pressures at the injection point. On the other hand. Retrievable tools necessary. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. If the squeeze operation is being performed to remedy a casing part or hole in casing caused by corro- sion. Fluid lost from the slurry dur- ing hesitation may develop a filter cake which (1) may divert fluid to other areas which were not previously accepting fluid or (2) develop a filter cake or partially dehydrated mass which will remain in place and harden to provide the desired seal. the squeeze tool. In either case. Down-hole Tool Selection. Both drillable and retrievable tion and success of low-pressure placement techniques. Slips may puncture the wellbore entry points when using the hesitation method. be spotted over the entire interval. Casing surfaces should be free of burrs or deposits ten increases the chances of obtaining a successful which could damage elastomeric sealing elements or pre- --``. hesitation of.`. pipe or the tool may not seat because of pipe enlarge- Hesitation squeezes require more sophisticated cement ment. The Bradenhead method exposes the entire annulus to pressures applied during squeezing. Pipe enlargement could occur as the slips are set slurry and operational designs and judgment. which is possible 2. Squeeze casing shoes. 6.````. clean. when there is a high risk of getting cement above the tool 4. packers can be moved and reset multiple times.9-Diagram for circulating or “suicide” squeeze.`. Squeeze liner tops. Retainers are the provided that a void exists and can be opened up with most common type of nonretrievable tools.. Only a portion of the casing is exposed to pressures applied during squeezing when squeeze tools are used. tools should not be set in collars. and economics will influence the decision of which type of pressure isolation will be used. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Drillable tools can be set close to the perforations. Stop many types of lost circulation. interval is to be reentered. it may not be 6 . possible to retrieve the tool after the job..

the upright design is shown in Fig. which would allow all the cement slurry to clear the 2.`.. and often represents the cement that must be company representative..`.`. Oil-base mud contam.v. cement. A squeeze manifold is recom- strings or for pumping large volumes of cement since the mended for most squeeze operations. particu.```````. minimizing the volume of The advantages of the squeeze manifold is that fluid mud pumped into the zone is important.`. fluids could occur. A safe assumption to make is that time.10-Reduction in 24-hour compressive strength of cement by oil mud contamination. annulus. Both types perform point that contamination of the cement from wellbore the same function. the zone. Fig. Further. pump truck. Two general de- tool would have to be placed so far from the injection signs are available -.`. pressure during the squeeze. --``. The lignosulfonates used in water muds are strong pressure applied during the squeeze will also be applied retarders for most cement slurries. These materials can be easily parted reserve pit. Treating lines are run to the manifold from the the injection point exposes a greater section of casing to pumping equipment and from the workstring. The calcium chloride brine internal phase of oil muds can cause a dramatic reduction in thickening Tubular Pressures. 6. The between the tool location and injection point represents squeeze manifold should be placed in a position where the volume of fluid which will be pumped ahead of the the operator can easily communicate with the cementer.`. and recommended.10. A distance which will provide a volume of 2 to 5 bbl The safest location of the tool would be at a point below the tool..````. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 = 0732290 0 5 5 8 5 0 6 315 CEMENTING 90 vent setting or sealing. Extra double-wing and regular chicksans are should the cement dehydrate around the tailpipe. 6. Squeeze manifolds contain multiple valves which are logical properties. generally needed for proper hookup. but still permit spotting of cement near Extra treating line may be required to run all the lines the target interval. Fig.1 1. Pressure gauges located on the manifold When mud is in the hole and will be pumped into the indicate workstring pressure and annular pressure.' larly where high fluid loss cement slurries are used.upright and flat. The distance flow paths can be diverted from one central location. and waste pit. lapse of the casing is possible and should be considered as shown in Fig. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .. sheath. % b. Aluminum or fiberglass tail pipes are from the manifold to the wellhead. and down-hole tool operator. drilled out after the job. thickening time. A tailpipe may be used below The cementing service company should be informed some tools to allow such tools to be set farther from the prior to the job when a squeeze manifold will be used. Col- ination can reduce compressive strength by 75% or more. and compressive critical to the diversion of fluid flow. to the outside of the casing during the operation. zone ahead of the cement. the tool should Guidelines listed below should be considered when be set in a section of casing surrounded by a good cement selecting the point at which to set the tool. Where possible. during planning. injection point..1 1-Upright squeeze manifold. + 18%Sait in C e r n e n t -40 - -eo - -80 I I -100 O 5 10 15 20 25 30 O11 Mud Contarnlnatlon In Cement. No more than 75 ft from the injection point for workstring before injection into the zone occurs.-`-`.. Burst pressure of the casing should not Reduction in 24 Hr Compressive Strength of Cement By Oil Mud Contamination Percent Change In Compresalve Strength -20 . 1. Oil muds are thickened by water-wet solids and tested for proper working condition and the squeeze can produce a viscous mass which is hard to inject into manifold should be pressure-tested before each job. 6.````. This practice may not be suitable for use in small casing Surface Equipment. setting the tool too far from 6. retrievable tools.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. All valves should be strength. Contamination of the cement by mud can affect rheo.

5 . breakdown implies fracturing min can be obtained. the results are cific water:cement ratio. since creating a split in the casing or be. Surfactants can have good density control. . Know- precipitation of iron hydroxide in the formation as the ing the pressure at the injection point during the opera- acid spends and the fluid pH rises. cementing liners with the tack-and-squeeze method and may be used in the estimation. the is often required to provide a channel large enough to volume of acid treatments and formation solubility (car- accept cement particles. and (3) pressure gives addi. which can not be reversed out. of cement than do fractured sandstones. The optimum amount of cement is sure of the tubing string.````. where Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. the volume required to seal the void. and when a solids. remove hydrocarbon residue. more slurry is used. solids-free fluids 4. Recirculating cement drilling fluid filter cakes and residue. Fracturing of the formation be.-`-`.. the filtration which occurs down-hole. Formation fracturing may be required to establish in.P. accurate method of preparing cement slurries.````. Cement volumes ommended to divert flow to as many perforations as pos. minimum. The following may be considered when determining the volume of cement to Establishing Injection. = P. Batch mixing is presently considered to be the most chloric or hydrofluoric acid are commonly used. ball sealers are rec.” are effective at attacking easily prepared in a batch mixer. tion is critical to understanding the progress of the operation. + ISDP rials) are encountered.`. fracturing pressure of the zone. fluid loss. monitored during the job. Injection 3. Mix. Cement Volumes. Because of prob- lar pressure is recommended for most squeeze operations lems in placing the cement into the correct place to pro- where squeeze tools are used. scribe the process of establishing injection into the zone 2. The pressure at the injection point is: oil mud residue. maintenance of annu. A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 073ZZ90 0558507 2 5 1 REMEDIAL CEMENTING 91 be exceeded. bonates).’a3”Dilute inorganic acids such as hydro. Failure to open a perforation can result in a ate~. but not less than 50 sacks. Although this changes during often poor. If a Fractured carbonates typically require larger volumes perforated interval is to be squeezed. use. Annular pressure must not exceed the collapse pres. sidered when estimating the burst and collapse pressure. Jet mixers are not recom- should be used in any fluid to reduce surface tension of mended for preparing slurries for squeeze cementing. injec.’~’’~ requirement for more than one squeeze operation to seal the zone. = P. anhydrites or salt sections. otherwise. between 200 and 400 sacks are common for carbon- sible. Clean. of the zone is desirable when establishing injection. Two sacks per foot of perforations with a 50-sack established. Three reasons for keeping vide a seal. toluene or xylene may be substi- tuted for part of the diesel oil for improved cleaning. Condition of the casing must be con. strength.. Fracture widths (propped fractures) of l/s to l/4in. Chelating agents may also be required in acids to prevent Estimating Pressure at the Injection Point. Volume of the void to be filled behind the cement or in the zone plus the volume to be left in casing (if any). injected into the interval.. cleaning agents. Cement slurries are designed to have specific properties of thickening time.” tion of fluid into the interval to be squeezed must be 1.```````. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . shales. Hydraulic A minimum injection rate of 2 bbllmin for a solids-free fracturing design programs may be helpful if no other fluid pumped at a pressure below the fracturing pressure data are available. and aid in water- wetting surfaces which will be in contact with cement. the fluid. however. (2) annular pressure can be tion pressure and directly proportional to injection rate. Clean.. Fracture height and depth when squeezing casing shoes.`--- jection into carbonates. Weak organic acids mixers are used to continuously mix cement slurries and such as acetic or formic acid are also used. + P.`. Volume of slurry should not result in a column are preferred for determining injectivity. Fracturing of the cement sheath around a liner top The latter may be estimated from the caliper logs. low-permeability sandstones. or P.`. The volume of cement annular pressure are that (1) pressure integrity of the needed is generally inversely proportional to the injec- annulus can be determined. a fluid composed of diesel oil with 1 to 10% mutual solvent (by volume) and can make the difference between a successful or unsuc- 10% acetic acid (by volume) is recommended to remove cessful job. the slurry should Acid solutions containing surfactants are very effective be prepared as designed on the surface. Monitoring the pressure at the injection point Where oil muds have been used. The small tures of dilute hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. are high and injection rates are low. solids-free fluids are preferred.`. Mixing Equipment. however. Small cement volumes are used when injection pressures tional support for the casing to help prevent collapse. and rheological properties at a spe- When solids-laden fluids precede cement. laden fluid such as drilling mud is used as the injection fluid. This should be avoided if possible.`. Before pumping cement. The term “breakdown” is often used to de. When high concentrations of paraffinic or asphaltic deposits (or muds containing asphaltic mate- P. compressive Injection Fluids... volumes typically used for squeeze operations may be commonly called “mud acid. This fluid should be followed by water or brine contain- tween perforations may cause a greater problem than ing about 1% surfactant (by volume) before cement is originally existed. of the zone. or the volume of hydraulic fracturing treat- low the previous casing shoe is routinely done when ments. of penetration are more difficult to estimate. A 100-sack minimum if an injection rate of 2 bbl/ before squeezing. Volume of slurry should not exceed the capacity of into the zone should be attempted at pressures below the the workstring. use a 50-sack minimum. --``.`.

Cementing composition designs based ues. 250 I cess of the job. If not.13-Effect of fluid type on temperature at the circulation time.`.`. Pressure has some effect on thickening time (Fig. 2 4 4 1 Inch I D injection point. the tempera. 175' 0 2 4 6 8 10 sary to design a cement slurry for the squeeze operation. Injection of The effect of circulation rate and time on well tempera. = Hydrostatic pressure of fluid column. Highly accurate information about temperatures is neces. 6.. The temperature profile of a normal producing well Brines have different specific heats and heat capacities having a bottomhole static temperature of about 178OF is from drilling fluids which contain a high solids content. 175 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 sure will provide a safety factor since the estimated pres- sure will be higher than the actual pressure at the Circulating Time. hours 2 7 / 8 Inch Tublng. shut-in periods prior to the squeeze operation.D.`. floods. erably different. bore and near-wellbore reservoir temperatures are consid- --``.14 to a similar well which has been The API schedule squeeze temperatures are based upon waterflooded with 100°F brine for five years. the static temperature of the interval should be used to design the bly lower temperatures than normal producing wells at cement slurry. A 95% success rate was noted where the cement 220 was allowed to set and excess cement was drilled 2% KCI Water 205 6. 6. Depth 10. Cool or cold fluids can cool the well. under the same condition. which is the surface gauge pressure at the instant pumping is stopped.`. The well- circulation of muds..13.12. Effect of Pump Rate and Circulation Time on Temperature at the Injection Point P. The inlet temperature of the circulation fluid must upon temperatures for the normal producing well may also be considered.000 feet and history.. deg F disturbed by this operation and thus jeopardize the suc..12-Effect of circulation time and rate on tem- at the injection point during a job is presented in Appen.or three-day the pseudosteady-state circulating temperature. more striking impact on thickening time at the lower end Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 2. Temperature is the single most important variable affecting cement hydration. = Pressure at injection point in zone. Circulating Time. API TITLE WORLDWIDE 91 m o m z m 0558508 198 m 92 CEMENTING P. P.````.````. A success rate of 65% has been reported 235 for operations where cement was washed through after Fluldpr:e :1 : 80 F ~ the job. ing operation is performed are influenced by well type Depth 10.000 leel An example of a graphical method for tracking pressure Fig. hours Temperatures in the well at the time a squeeze cement.`. Fig. The wellbore and the time required for the temperature to stabilize at temperature may not increase even with two. and rate and circulating fluid type.. perature at the injection point.7 Cement Slurry Design Temperature and Pressure. 6. 2 716 Inch Tublng. In many cases frictional pressures are low and can be omitted when estimating pressure at the injection point I 190' I Fluld Inlet Temperature 80 F 1 during pumping operations. dix D. but not as much as temperature. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . have excessive thickening time and much lower fluid loss bore down more than a warm or hot fluid circulated for the injection well squeeze operation. 6. Omitting the frictional pres..`--- tures may be significantly different from published val. I 2501 Clrciilatlng Temperature. The circulation point. = Frictional pressure during pumping opera- tions. the mechanical configuration of the well.-`-`. The freshly placed cement may be Bottom-Hole Temperature. most important question in determining squeeze cement- ing temperature is whether or not the well can be circu- lated across the intended injection point. 6. and I 2351 ISDP = Instantaneous shutdown pressure. If brine is circulated.15) Well type will also influence well temperatures. Washing Through Excess Cement. 6.441 Inch I. = Pump pressure applied from surface equip- ment. as is common in water- tures at the circulation point can be seen in Fig. compared in Fig. Washing through is commonly done on squeezes Effect of Circulating Fluid Type with coiled tubing and when a tailpipe is used below a on Circulating Temperature retrievable packer.`. the same depth and temperature conditions. The impact of fluid type can be seen in Fig. deg F I 1 P. cool fluids over long periods. can significantly reduce wellbore and near- Differences in flow rates affect circulating temperatures wellbore reservoir temperatures. Pressure changes have a tion wells like those in water floods may have considera. Washing through excess cement in the casing is done to save the time and expense of drilling out the hardened cement in the cas- ing. Injec.```````.

Sufficient thickening 30 time to place the cement and reverse out any excess (if 15 . Filter-cake formation generally occurs at a slower rate for the low fluid-loss cement compositions Fig. anhydrite. Filtration al- and Formation Temperatures ters the original water:cement ratio.5 15 well conditions.i REMEDIAL CEMENTING 93 Thickening time is primarily important only to the Effect of Well Type on Wellbore slurry from which filtrate is not removed.. for example. .-`-`.`.. 2000 md Sendstone . Thickening time is changed more the Amount of Filtrate Lost with Time API Fluid Losa 134 cc's/30 minutes by increases from O pressure to 5000 psi than by the increase from 10. filtrate loss with time at 500 psi differential pressure. thickening time to less than the laboratory determined value. tion permeability.. thus reducing the I Temperature. 6. Long working times may be required to develop suffic- ient filter cake when using a low fluid-loss cement in low permeability wells.2 md Llmestone Running squeezes usually require less pumping time 60 md Sendstone than hesitation squeezes. an API fluid loss of 200 cc/30 minutes or higher is com- 1- monly used. and differential pressure all affect the amount of fluid loss needed for a squeeze operation. .5 10 12.`. Fluid loss for slurries used in hesitation squeeze operations is generally between 25 and 150 cc/30 O' II minutes.````. Fig. Squeeze technique. psl x 1000 pected differential pressures. degrees F 200. The amount of thickening time re- quired for a particular operation varies with well condi. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT .. 6. hrs (1000 psi differential pressure).16 compares the effect of formation permea- Effect of Pressure on Thickening Time bility on cumulative filtrate loss over time for a cement slurry having an API fluid loss of 134 cc/30 minutes API Thlckenlng T h e . Compressive Strength. In carbonates..580 md Sendstone .8200 f e e t Huid-Loss Control. _ _ . Figure 6. For running or walking squeezes and in carbonates. A minimum safety Elapsed Filtration Tlrne. _- planned) plus a safety factor can be determined from the / O O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 operational plan for the squeeze job. and ex- Pressure on Slurry. no 4 fluid-loss control in the cement slurry may be needed..`. the compressive strength of the cement provides resistance to pressure applied to the cement. High fluid loss is typical of slurries used for running squeeze operations.`. Filter-cake buildup is generally 1.```````.000 psi. API T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 I0732290 0 5 5 8 5 0 9 02i.````. As this data suggests.`.5 5 7. Normal Producer - Water Injector Depth 9100 . These values may be adjusted depending upon O 2. permeability of exposed zones.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. Low fluid-loss cements are required for hesitation squeeze operations. Compressive strength of the cement is not a major concern for squeeze cement slurry design. mlnutes factor of 30 to 45 minutes over the estimated job time is recommended.75' Diameter x 0. ?erCent Filtrate Lost from Slurry 500 psl Olfferentlal Pressure Thickening Time.`.. The most commonly asked ques- Fractured carbonete waterflooded w l t h 100 F brlne SOO bbllday for 5 YeerS tion regarding cement slurry design concerns the amount of fluid-loss control needed.975' Thlck faster for the higher fluid-loss slurries used for running sandstone or Llmeslone Dlsks squeezes. forma- I Fig.14-Effect of well type on bottomhole tempera.16-Effect of formation permeability on cement used for hesitation squeezes.15-Effect of pressure on cement thickening Effect of Formation Permeability on of the pressure scale. shales.000 psi to 15. higher fluid loss may be used in lower permeability for- mations. Compressive strengths determined from laboratory tests 100' 1 I on the slurry are not indicative of the strength or rate of O 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 strength development of the filter cake deposited in the Distance Away from Casing O D f t squeezed interval. 6. 45 tions and squeeze operation design. --``. Low fluid-loss cements can be effective fracturing fluids. However. or salts.

API TITLE W O R L D W I D E 71 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0558530 846
94 CEMENTING

Common Retarder Temperature Ranges Effect of Temperature on Thickening Time
Class H Mid-Range Retarder, 16.4 ppg

-
+

HR-4 HA-12 Thlckenlng Tlme, hours
10

- HA-5
HR-15
HR-20
8 -
- 0.36% Retarder
0.668 Retarder
0.66% Retarder

- D-13 D-28
6-

D-800 4L
'. .. - \
D-110 (liquid)
2
D-121
"
I 126 150 175 200 225 250 275
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Temperature, degrees F
TEMPERATURE, DEGREES F
Fig. 6.i7-General working temperature ranges for Fig. 6.18-Thickening time versus temperature profile
some commercial cement retarders. of a mid-range retarder throughout its working range.

Retarders. Retarders may be required to provide suffic- unusually high pressures to be required when reversing

--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ient thickening time to place the cement. The most com- out a long column of cement in the workstring.
mon retarders are lignosulfonates or their derivatives.
Many polymers which control fluid loss or disperse the Special Additives. Cementing service companies have
cement may also retard the thickening time of the ce- a variety of additives to modify cements for special situa-
ment. Carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC) tions. Temperature stabilizers, thixotropic additives, ex-
is a widely used fluid-loss control agent which is also an pansive additives, density-reducing materials and
effective retarder in some temperature ranges. bridging agents are some of the types of additives availa-
Some commercial retarders and their reported ble. An entire chapter could be devoted to slurry design,
working-temperature ranges are shown in Fig. 6.17. but only a limited discussion is presented here. (See
There is a noticeable gap between about 190°F and Chapter 2).
210'F where few retarders are applicable. This tempera- When static temperature in the zone exceeds 23OoF,
ture range is the gap between the upper working- silica sand or flour is used to prevent strength retrogres-
temperature limit of many low-temperature retarders and sion. Silica flour is preferred for slurries where tempera-
the lower applicable working temperature range for high- tures are greater than 350'F. Either silica sand or flour
temperature retarders. Errors in temperature within this may be used at lower temperatures, depending upon the
range can seriously affect squeeze cementing results. cement formulation. Silica flour has greater surface area
The thickening-time profile of a commercially availa- and tends to increase slurry viscosity. However, the small
ble mid-range retarder is shown in Fig. 6.18. At the lower particle size is less likely to bridge in small voids or
end of the effective working range, substantial changes in channels. Silica sand may settle out of the slurry if vis-
temperature have less effect on thickening time. As the cosity is low.
temperature increases, the slope of the thickening timel Thixotropic additives are used to provide high gel
temperature curve increases, indicating that temperature strengths to cement slurries at rest. Thixotropic cements
changes have a greater effect upon thickening time. At are more resistant to washing away or dilution after place-
temperatures near the upper working-temperature limit ment. Also, thixotropic cements may develop high gel
of the retarder, small temperature variations can have a strengths in large voids, which will require less cement to
catastrophic effect on thickening time. be used to accomplish ~ealing.'~"~
If possible, a retarder having the mid-point of its rec- Expansive agents are available for temperatures up to
ommended working temperature range near the well tem- 50O0F. Expansive additives are best applied where ce-
perature expected for the squeeze operation is ment is placed against hard, high-strength formations or
recommended. in pipe-in-pipe c~nfigurations.'~
Sand, gilsonite, ground coal, walnut shells, mica, and
Rheology. Low viscosity fluids are generally required to cellophane flakes are some of the bridging agents used in
allow easy flow into flow channels; unfortunately, most cements. Bridging agents are used to block large voids or
fluid-loss additives increase viscosity and gel strength of fractures which will accept whole cement slurry.
the slurry. Viscosity and gel strength should not be low In most cases, cement compositions contain cement
enough to allow sedimentation of solids. Also, gel retarder, fluid loss additives, and dispersants. Bridging
strength should not develop during hesitation squeeze agents and thixotropic cements may have applications in
cementing operations, since gel strength could jeopardize squeezing carbonates, naturally fractured zones, lost cir-
Dlacement of the slurrv. High gel strength mav also cause
d Y I nilation zones, and to shut off water flows.

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Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT

REMEDIAL CEMENTING 95

Effect of Salt in Mix Water Effect of Hesitation on Thickening Time
on Cement Thickening Time Conslstency. Bc
1O 0
Conslstency, Bc i
i
1O 0

I -
i 80 API Schedule 17
API Schedule 17
188 F, 9400 psl
60 186 F, 9400 psl I
60 -

o' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II
O 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 O I

Elapsed Time, mlnutes O 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330
Elapsed Time, minutes
~ Fresh Wster
10.000 ppm NaCI
- 2.500 ppm NaCI
- 30,000 pprn NsCI -No Hesltatlon - 10 min. Hesltations

Fig. 6.19-Effect of sait (NaCi) in mix water on cement Fig. 6.20-Effect of hesitations on cement thickening
thickening time. time.

6.8 Cement Testing cubes of cement cured at the bottomhole static tempera-
ture and 3000-psi confining pressure. The slurry is pre-
Testing before the job should be done with a sample of
the cement composition and mix water to be used for the pared at the designed water:cement ratio, and no fluid
can be lost from the slurry during the test."
operation. Laboratory tests should model conditions of
the designed squeeze-cementing operation as closely as
Fluid Loss. Fluid loss is determined against a 325-
possible. However, cement performance varies between
mesh, stainless steel filter screen at the bottomhole tem-
production (mill) runs and suppliers, and performance of
perature and 1000-psi differential pressure.18 The
additives varies with cement and between additive lot
effective permeability of the filter medium is high, and
numbers. Also, the composition of mix water will affect
filtration loss which occurs during the operation is prob-
thickening time, and salt is often a contaminant in field
mix waters and can affect thickening time (Fig. 6.19). ably lower than the laboratory filtration loss in many
Organic contaminants, which retard the cement, may be jobs.
present in some water sources in certain seasons.
6.9 Job Execution
Thickening Time. Laboratory thickening-time tests are Care and attention to detail must be used to make sure
longer than thickening times of the cement during a the designed operation is executed at the wellsite. Well
squeeze cementing operation. Filtration occurring dur- preparation, materials, slurry mixing, down-hole equip-
ing squeezing reduces the water:cement ratio, causing a ment and location, and pumping operations all must be
reduction in thickening time; no filtration occurs in labo- controlled or performed as designed.
ratory thickening time tests, and it can not be simulated
using present industry-standard methods and equip- Well Preparation. The workstring should be inspected
ment.l* and rabbited as it is run into the well to make sure it is in
Temperature, pressure, heating and pressurizing rates, good condition and free of blockage. Inner walls of the
and hesitations can and should be closely duplicated in workstring should be free of deposits which could reduce
laboratory tests. Heating and pressurizing rates can be the normal capacity. Displacement errors result from de-
determined from the planned pump rate and tubular vol- posit buildup or excessive wear to the inner walls of the
umes. Hesitations can be simulated by shutting off the workstring. If the workstring is plastic coated, inform the
stirring motor, then restarting it after the elapsed static cementer and tool operator of the exact inner diameter so
period (Fig. 6.20). accurate displacement can be calculated.
The shear rate in the consistometer is between 600 and If retrievable bridge plugs are used below the packer to
800/sec, which is considerably higher than what the ce- isolate a zone, 10 to 15 ft of sand should be placed on top
ment experiences before and after hesitations. The in- of the bridge plug to prevent cement from getting into
stantaneous increase and sustained high shear-rate breaks the tool.
down cement gel strength more than the conditions of If tailpipe is run below the packer to spot cement
field operations. Therefore, hesitation in the field may across an interval, consider using aluminum or fiberglass
produce a thickening time not accurately reflected by pipe. These materials have lower strength and can be
laboratory results. parted if cement should dehydrate around them.
Most importantly, the wellbore should be circulated.
Compressive Strength. Compressive strengths and Wherever possible, clean, solids-free fluid should be
compressive strength development of cement slurries de- used. Potassium chloride or sodium chloride brines are
termined in the laboratory are very conservative esti- the preferred fluids in the wellbore for squeeze opera-
mates. Strength tests are performed on unconfined 2-in. tions. Gas should be circulated out of the hole and the
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT

~~
~

API TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 m 0732290 0 5 5 8 5 3 2 b L 9 m
96 CEMENTING

well should be hydrostatically balanced. Circulation rate
and time should be sufficient to reduce the temperature Effect of Fluid Lost from Cement Slurry
at the injection point to the temperature used for cement on Compressive Strength Development
testing. ,2000 I m p r e e s i v e Strength. PSI

Pressure Testing. Once in place, the workstring, treat- - Cement FI1 ter Cake
10000 -
ing line, squeeze manifold, and annulus (depending 40% of Fluld Lost
8 No Fluld Lost
upon operation) should be pressure tested. The pressure 8000 -
used will depend upon the injection pressures and antici-
pated squeeze pressure. 6000 -

Surface Equipment. Cement mixing and pumping 4000 -

equipment and squeeze manifold (if used) should be set
up within easy view of each other. Since hand signals or
unamplified voice communications are used during most
jobs, this will facilitate exchange of important informa- O 4 8 12 16 20
tion during the job. Elapsed Tlme, hours
Cement mixing and pumping equipment should be
Fig. 6.21-Compressive strength development of ce-
inspected for proper operation before the start of the job. ment with and without loss of fluid.
Locate cementing equipment 40 to 60 fi from the well-
head. Job monitoring equipment should be set up and
tested for proper calibration and operation before the job.
The average WOC time is about 18 hours.YLess wait-
Slurry Preparation. Batch mixing is the preferred
method of preparing the slurry, since it provides better ing time may be used but a minimum of 8 hours is
recommended.
control of the water:cement ratio. After preparation, the

--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
slurry density should be checked using a pressurized
mud balance. Accuracy of the pressurized mud balance 6.1 1 Job Evaluation
should be checked (with fresh water) before use. Radioac- Pressure testing is the most common means of evaluating
tive density-measuring devices are often used to deter- the success of the operation. Both a positive and negative
mine density during continuous mix operations. Density test should be used. A squeeze job may appear successful
should be checked with a pressurized mud balance to when pressure is applied to the wellbore but may fail to
verify the accuracy of the device. hold backpressure from the zone into the casing. Pressure
at the zone should be considered when pressure testing.
Accidental Fracturing. Occasionally, unplanned for- Positive pressure tests should be conducted with pres-
mation fracturing” may occur during a squeeze opera- sures equal to any fiiture working pressure in the well
tion. Inaccurate fracture gradient information is a from fracturing or acidizing treatments. Negative pres-
common cause, although failure to properly monitor sur- sure tests should be conducted using pressures no greater
face pressures or hydrostatic pressure may also contrib- than the expected maximum drawdown in the well when
ute. Formation fracturing may be indicated by (1) a it is put into production.
sudden drop in pressure during the job and (2) inability Logging methods and tracers are also used to evaluate
to build up pressure. job success. The cement bond log and pulse echo tools
When unplanned fracturing occurs, hesitation may be (Schlumberger’s CET or Halliburton Logging Services’
used to obtain a successful job. A shutdown period of 5 PET) are sometimes used to determine the presence of
to 10 minutes will allow the cement to dehydrate in the cement immediately behind casing. Radioactive tracers
fracture. Pumping may be resumed at a low rate and such as Iridium-192 impregnated sand, gold isotopes,
another shutdown period may be used if sufficient ce- and Iodine-131 are also used to determine the location of
ment volume is available. cement in a zone. However, these methods can not deter-
mine whether a seal has been established by the squeeze
6.10 Waiting On Cement operation. Radioactive materials can not be reliably de-
tected if more than 12 to 16 in. from the wellbore.
The waiting-on-cement (WOC) time after squeezing
should be determined by the strength required of the set
cement. The cement must be able to withstand the
6.12 Squeeze Applications
stresses applied during drilling, resist the flow of fluids, Most squeeze operations are unique to the set of well
and any pressure differentials created by future opera- conditions and problems encountered in a specific well.
tions. A compressive strength of between 500 and 1000 The following methods may be used in the design of a
psi is recommended before cement is drilled out. squeeze operation. Many of these techniques have been
Compressive strength development of a partially or used successfully to solve squeeze cementing problems.20
fully dehydrated cement mass can be much faster than
that of a slurry which has not lost fluid. A filter cake of Abandonment. Zones may be abandoned by mechani-
cement may develop compressive strength of several cal means or cement plugs with little expense. A bridge ’
thousand pounds per square inch in the first 8 hours. plug or cement plug may be set above or across the zone
The compressive strength development profile of ce- to be abandoned. However, these methods may not en-
ments is shown in Fig. 6.21. sure that the zone is effectively isolated.

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REMEDIAL CEMENTING 97
I The recommended method for abandoning a perfo- low fluid-loss cement is the recommended method to
rated zone is to set a drillable packer or retainer and remedy this problem. High-pressure squeezes may not
attempt to squeeze the perforations with a low fluid-loss guarantee placement of the cement in a position to pro-
cement at less than fracturing pressure. Hydraulically- vide a seal, depending upon the location of the channel
induced fractures may extend upward into other zones. relative to the orientation of the formation fracture plane
A standing squeeze pressure is not necessary, only as- and perforations for squeezing. Possible results of high-
surance that the zone is not taking fluid. After squeezing, pressure squeezes to fill channels are illustrated in Figs.
pull up and dump about 10 ft of cement on top of the 6.22 to 6.24.
(nonretrievable) tool. Reverse circulate to clean the hole
above the cement.

Casing Shoe. Squeezing the casing shoe is commonly
done when the formation below the casing shoe is too
weak to withstand the mud column hydrostatic pressure
needed to control formation pressures in the next drilled UNCEMENTED
CHANNEL
interval. However, there are some cases where a severely
channelled primary cement job may allow communica-
tion from the casing shoe to an upper zone behind the CEMENT FROM
casing. These two cases can often be distinguished if the SQUEEZE JOB
fracturing pressure of the zone immediately below the
casing shoe is well known. If the breakdown pressure
during a shoe test is lower than the formation fracturing
pressure, a channel in the primary cement sheath is a
probable cause.
The procedure for cementing a channel may be used if
the primary cement job is poor. If a weak zone below the
casing shoe is the problem, a high pressure squeeze is
used to place cement in the fracture plane of the forma-
tion immediately below the casing shoe. A running
squeeze method using a moderate to high fluid-loss ce-
ment slurry is used. The cement may be preceded with a
sodium silicate fluid which will develop a stiff gel in the
formation and prevent extensive fracture propagation. A
retrievable squeeze tool is often used although the Bra-
denhead method may be used depending upon pressure
I
~~ ~

and casing conditions. Fig. 6.22-High-pressure squeeze of channel fracture
plane in same axis as channel.
Casing Splits. Several different approaches may be used
to repair casing splits. If the split is less than 2 ft long,
the same procedure for squeezing a set of perforations
may be used. A low-pressure squeeze with a moderate
fluid-loss cement (150 to 250 cc/30 minutes) is used.
Difficulty of squeezing casing splits increases with the
length of the split. As the length of the split increases,
the fluid loss of the cement should be lower and the
thickening time of the cement should be longer. The
objective is to place as much cement into the split as
possible before the cement loses too much filtrate. The
cement design and operation for casing splits longer than
10 ft should be about the same as the design for squeez-
ing a longer perforated interval. Low-pressure squeezes
are recommended to prevent increasing the length of the
split. Drillable squeeze tools are recommended to prevent
flowback until the cement sets. This is particularly help-
ful for splits over about 3 ft in length.
If the split is across uncemented casing, unconsoli-
dated formations, or salt sections, a considerable void
may exist which will have to be filled. Foamed cement or
other highly extended slurries have been used to fill
voids. These filler cements are usually followed by a tail-
in cement having good compressive strength.
Channels. In primary cement jobs, channels caused by
poor mud displacement or poor casing centralization are Fig. 6.23-High-pressure squeeiëof channel fracture
difficult to seal. Performing low-pressure squeezes with plane not in same axis as channel.
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98 CEMENTING

hole. Using squeeze tools such as bridge plugs and pack-
ers or retainers may be risky. The tool may not seal in
enlarged casing, or slips may puncture the casing. Also,
the well may be easily sidetracked during cement dril-
lout.
Cement should be preceded by a low surface tension
(less than 40 dynelcm) water flush. Acids should be
avoided because they may cause new holes in previously
weakened areas. A single small hole may be squeezed
without a squeeze tool by pumping cement into the af-
fected string and following the cement with a cementing
plug. The plug can be displaced to a point just above the
hole.
Success is more difficult to achieve if the hole is large
or several holes exist over an interval. Placing cement
into the hole becomes more difficult. A low-pressure
technique with a low fluid-loss cement is used. The ce-
menting plug method may not be suitable for large holes.
The procedure used for long perforated intervals may be
required.

Coiled Tubing. A Bradenhead method using coiled tub-
1ing*’ inside production tubing can be applied without
dane intersects channel. workover rig or pulling unit since no drillout is required.
A low viscosity, low fluid-loss (25 to 110 cc130 minutes)
slurry is used. One procedure for coiled-tubing squeezes
is provided:
1. Coiled tubing is run to the bottom of the interval. A
Two methods are widely used to squeeze a channel.” drilling fluid with a density greater than the density of
1. A retrievable packer is set above the perforations and
the cement to be used is spotted below the lowest perfora-
cement is squeezed into the existing perforations. It is tion. The coiled tubing is pulled above the mud pill and
presumed that the channel will offer the path of least the well is flowed or reverse circulated until clean. The
resistance, and flow into the channel will occur. This annulus between the production tubing and the coiled
may not be the case if the channel is filled with dehy- tubing is loaded with a fluid of a density which will
drated or settled drilling mud, or crosses encroaching
require a positive surface pressure during the operation.
zones such as unconsolidated sands, sloughing shales, or 2. The coiled tubing is lowered to a point just above
salt formations. A high-pressure squeeze may be required
the waterlmud interface and the cement is spotted over
to place cement in the vicinity of the channel. Attempt- the interval from the bottom up. As the cement is placed,
ing to establish flow into the channel with acids or chem- the coiled tubing is slowly raised. The bottom of the
ical washes followed by a low-pressure squeeze is the coiled-tubing string is kept below the cementlwater inter-
preferred first approach. face to minimize dilution and contamination.
2. Two to four holes are perforated adjacent to a low- 3. A water spacer (part of the displacing fluid volume)
pressure zone, water section, or some other advantageous is used between the cement and a cement retarding solu-
spot. A drillable squeeze packer is set between the exist- tion. Once the cement is spotted, the annulus between
ing and new perforations but closer to the new perfora-
the coiled tubing and the production tubing is packed off
tions. It may be the intent to seal off the particular zone at the surface. Pumping down the coiled tubing con-
that has been perforated; therefore, annulus pressure tinues and cement is squeezed into the zone.
should be monitored closely to prevent communication. 4. Once the desired squeeze pressure is reached it is
To fill the channel completely, communication must held for the desired time. Surface pressure on the coiled-
occur between the sets of perforations and into the
tubinglproduction-tubing annulus is slowly bled off;
tubinglcasing annulus. This is sometimes called a “sui- however, a positive pressure must be maintained on the
cide” or “circulating” squeeze (Fig. 6.9). This may be zone. The coiled tubing is then pulled up to the highest
dangerous but can be accomplished safely if the well is point where cement could be. Pumping down the annu-
not too deep and temperatures are low. A standing lus is resumed to displace the retarding solution into the
squeeze pressure need not be attained. The workstring is cement in the casing.
released from the drillable squeeze tool and pulled to a 5. Pump rate is controlled while the coiled tubing is
point about 10 fi above the existing perforations. The lowered through the cement to obtain a dilution of the
hole is reverse circulated until clean. remaining cement with the retarding solution. Returns
are taken up the coiled-tubinglproductiontubing annu-
Corrosion Holes. Holes in casing due to corrosion may lus. The last of the retarder solution is pumped out of the
present challenges similar to both perforated intervals or coiled tubing as it is pulled out of the zone.
casing splits. Stress on the casing caused by tool sealing Some operators omit the retarding solution because
elements or slips, high pressure, or drillout of cement they fear it will penetrate the filter cake in the perfora-
should be avoided whenever possible. Corrosion may tions and result in a weaker cement plug in the perfora-
have weakened the casing above and below the area of the
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A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 H 0732290 0558515 328
REMEDIAL CEMENTING 99

tion. Cement is washed out of the hole immediately if no high-pressure fracturing may damage well productivity
retarder solution is used. When a retarder solution is depending upon the orientation of the cement-filled frac-
used, the remaining cement may be washed out of the ture relative to the wellbore.
hole immediately or after waiting on cement in the
squeezed interval. Cement inside the casing may gel up Liner Tops. Liner top leaks are commonly caused (1) by
but will not set. Water may have to be jetted through the a poor primary Cementing operation, (2) by casing con-
cement to break gel strengths as coiled tubing is lowered traction as heavier fluids are displaced with lighter fluids
into the area to wash out cement and mud. for completion, or (3) by drilling ahead after setting a
drilling liner across high pressure zones. Leaking liner
Collar Leaks. Leaking collars usually have such small tops often will not accept the cement particles needed to
openings that cement particles will not enter. Resin ce- provide the seal. Often a small channel exists which will
ments may plug the leak. If Portland cement slurries are allow flow of gas or water but will not accept cement.
used, the casing will probably have to be perforated for Two general approaches are commonly used to provide
the squeeze operation. the required seal.
1. The liner top is broken down to create a large flow
Highly Deviated Wellbores. Deviated wellbores re- path for the cement.**A retrievable packer is generally
quire special attention to three variables of the squeeze used and drilling fluid is often used as the injection fluid.
cementing operation: pressure isolation of the target in- A preferred variation is to use a tailpipe below the packer
terval, pumping technique and cement placement, and and spot a solids-free injection fluid at the top of the liner
squeeze pressures. These variables become increasingly for injection. Diesel is commonly used when oil muds
important as the angle of deviation (from vertical) in- are in the hole. Acids containing surfactants may be bene-
creases beyond about 30’. At angles greater than about ficial to opening small channels. Acid solutions contain-
45’ to 50° from vertical these variables become critical ing 5 to 10% mutual solvent may be used in the presence
to the success of the squeeze operation. Coiled-tubing of oil muds.
squeeze operations are particularly applicable to deviated After injection has been established, a low fluid-loss
well treatments. cement (50 to 100 cc/30 minutes) is used to fill the void.
Positive pressure isolation of the target interval is re- If the well is filled with mud, the cement should be
quired to accurately place cement into the desired inter- preceded by a chemical wash. Minimizing the amount of
val. Bradenhead squeezes (other than coiled tubing) are mud injected into the liner top as the cement is spotted is
not recommended because of poor control of the place- critical. Spotting the cement or part of the preflush at the
ment of the cement. Straddle packers with cup-type seal- liner top before injection is beneficial. Water or diesel oil
ing elements, drillable packershetainers and bridge may be used as part of the displacing fluid to reduce the
plugs, or combinations of retrievable packers and bridge hydrostatic pressure in the workstring as the cement is
plugs may be used to provide isolation of the interval. spotted. The reduced hydrostatic pressure differential
Chemical plugs such as crosslinked polymers or viscous will reduce U-tubing of the cement as it is spotted.
drilling-fluid “pills” may be used for coiled-tubing 2. The liner below the previous casing shoe is perfo-
squeeze operations in permanent completions. Details of rated and a squeeze is performed. A high-pressure
the coiled-tubing squeeze procedure have been previ- squeeze is generally required for liners where the primary
ously discussed. cementation was performed in one stage. Liners ce-
When combinations of conventional packershetainers mented using the tack-and-squeeze method may have suf-
and bridge plugs are used, spotting of the cement across ficient void space behind the casing to allow placement
the entire interval before squeezing is highly recom- of cement at pressures below the formation fracturing
mended to prevent channeling of the cement during the pressure. If an injection rate into the liner top can not be
squeeze. (This may not be possible when straddle pack- established, mechanical methods such as isolation pack-
ers are used.) Channeling of the cement through the ers or cemented tieback strings may be required to isolate
fluids in the wellbore across the injection point is highly the leak.
probable due to gravitational influences on fluid flow in
deviated wellbores. If the wellbore fluids are drilling flu- Long Perforated Intervals. The difficulty of success-
ids, contamination of the cement could adversely affect fully squeezing perforated intervals or casing splits in-
thickening time, compressive strength, rheology, and creases with length. In general, spotting cement slurry
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

fluid loss of the cement slurry. across the interval to be squeezed before starting any
Cement should be spotted across the interval starting injection into the zone is preferred. Low fluid-loss ce-
at the bottom and moving upward until the entire inter- ments (25 to 100 cc/30 minutes) with long (4 to 6 hours)
val has been covered with the cement slurry. Coiled tub- thickening times are used in conjunction with a hesita-
ing or a tailpipe below a retrievable tool may be required tion technique.
to place the cement slurry across the interval in this If the interval is less than about 50 ft, cement may be
manner. The bottom of the tailpipe or other workstring spotted across the entire interval before injection of the
may then be set above the top of the cement before the cement is started. Coiled tubing or a tailpipe below a
cement slurry is forced into the interval. Remaining ce- retrievable squeeze packer may be used to spot the ce-
ment may be washed out after squeezing, if desired, to ment. Commonly called a “set-through” technique, the
reduce operational costs. However, washing out excess bottom of the coiled tubing or tailpipe is lowered to the
cement may jeopardize the success of the squeeze opera- bottom of the interval. After spotting the cement, the
tion as discussed earlier. coiled tubing or tailpipe is pulled above the cement, and
Finally, low-pressure fracturing is recommended since injection is started by closing off the annulus and pump-

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A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 m 0732290 0558536 264 m
1O0 CEMENTING

ing displacement fluid down the workstring. fractures to provide a base to squeeze against is pumped
Spotting cement across intervals greater than 50 fi is first. Methods discussed below can be used for bridging.
often not practical unless coiled tubing is used. Conse- 1. Pump between 35 and 100 sacks of a fast-setting
quently, intervals greater than 50 ft long (or between two lead cement which will take initial set in 10 to 15 min-
zones to be squeezed) require a different procedure. Sev- utes. This is followed by a moderate fluid-loss cement
eral stages of low fluid-loss cement with a long thicken- which will fill additional voids. For low-pressure zones
ing time have been used. The purpose is to fill some of which produce brine, a fast-setting foamed cement com-
the perforations in each stage and have the remaining posed of calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate and Portland ce-
slurry fluid enough to be diverted to other perforations. ment is used as the lead cement. Initial set of this
Long thickening times, extended job times, and patience composition often occurs in less than 15 minutes and the
are required for a successful operation. slurry is often thixotropic, which prevents significant di-
A retrievable tool is commonly used and cement is lution or washing away before the set.
spotted below the packer before injection of the slurry for 2. Fill some of the existing voids or fractures with
each stage is started. Occasionally, a retainer is used. In cement before using a high fluid-loss composition which
this case, each stage of cement is circulated down to near can bridge the voids. A moderate (150 to 250 ccl30 min-
the bottom of the workstring. The workstring is then utes) fluid-loss cement is used to fill the fractures or vugs.
strung into the retainer and injection begins. This is followed by a cement containing sand, gilsonite,
For very long intervals (greater than 100 ft), ball sealers ground coal, or walnut hulls which will bridge the open-
may be used to divert flow into more perforations. A ings. The concentration of bridging materials is normally
running squeeze operation with a low fluid-loss cement between 5 and 15 lblsack of cement. Care must be exer-
is used to inject cement into perforations accepting fluid. cised to ensure that the fluid loss of the lead slurry is not
No ball sealers are used in the first portion of slurry. too low. Low fluid-loss cements can be effective fractur-
Ball sealers are used in the last one-half or one-third of ing fluids in these formations.
the cement volume as the cement is continuously in-
jected. As pressure increases, injection rate should be Recementing. Recementing operations are done to raise
reduced to prevent breakdown of perforations which may the cement top above that provided by the primary ce-
already be filled with cement. The hesitation technique ment job. Two common methods of conducting a rece-
may be used once the cement has cleared the bottom of menting job are (1) a casing plug may be used to displace
the workstring. the cement until it reaches the perforations, or (2) a
packer may be set above the top of the perforations.
Low-Pressure Zones. Low-pressure zones often re- In the casing plug technique, a low-pressure squeeze is
quire several operations to obtain a successfiil squeeze. required to keep cement within the existing void in the
Formations will often not support the hydrostatic pres- annulus. Mobilizing drilling fluid in the annulus is man-
sure exerted by a cement column. datory and can usually be accomplished with large vol-
A two-stage design is often employed to obtain a suc- umes of low viscosity, low surface tension flushes (1)
cessful squeeze in one operation. The cement is preceded when establishing injection and (2) ahead of the cement.
by a flush containing sodium silicate, which will react A low-viscosity, low fluid-loss cement is recommended
with calcium and magnesium ions in the cement or for- for this operation; standing squeeze pressure is not re-
mation fluid to produce a stiff gel. This gel provides quired. Casing collapse must be considered if pressure in
resistance to flow of the cement into the formation. A the annulus exceeds the collapse pressure of the string.
freshwater spacer between the cement and silicate flush Using the packer method, a drillable squeeze tool is set
is mandatory to prevent premature mixing of these fluids about 20 ft above the top perforation. A generous volume
in the workstring. of low-viscosity, low surface-tension flush is used ahead
A lightweight cement slurry containing bridging mate- of the cement. By this method, a positive retention of
rials such as sand, gilsonite, or ground coal is pumped cement below the packer occurs with a backpressure
behind the silicate flush. Bridging agents (5 to 15 lblsk) valve in the tool. The primary disadvantages are cost of
provide additional resistance to further cement penetra- the drillable tool and time spent on drillout if the produc-
tion. Any contact of the cement with unreacted sodium tive interval is below the tool.
silicate solution will produce a highly gelled cement and
will decrease the cement setting time. A higher-strength Water Production. Unwanted water production occur-
slurry is used to tail-in. ring through a channel in the primary cement sheath can
Foamed cement is also applicable for these operations be shut off using the techniques described for squeezing
since lightweight slurries can be prepared which will not a channel. Water produced through the vertical permea-
produce hydrostatic pressures that will break down the bility of a formation may be controlled with injection of
formation. Also, foamed cements can effectively fill voids true fluids such as sodium silicate gels or resin cements.
and can be accelerated to set rapidly after placement. If the water is produced through vertical fractures, some
This will provide resistance to penetration of the forma- success may be obtained, but it is difficult to get sufەc-
tion by a higher-strength tail cement. ient penetration away from the wellbore to fully correct
the problem. Unwanted water production occurring
Naturally Fractured or Vuggy Formations. The key through the horizontal permeability usually can not be
to obtaining successful squeeze results in these forma- controlled without restricting hydrocarbon production.
tions is effective bridging of solids in the vugs or frac- Squeezing the existing perforations and reperforating
t u r e ~ . ' "Cement
~~ slurry design plays an important part in above the oil/water contact or in another zone is the most
successfully squeezing these types of formations. A lead common solution to this type of problem.
cement which will readily dehydrate, set, or bridge in the
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REMEDIAL CEMENTING 1o1

Water Flows and Waterfloods. Washing away of ce- composition.
ment before setting is a primary cause of squeeze failure 6 . Low-pressure squeezes are preferred wherever it is
in these conditions. Fast-setting thixotropic cements are possible to apply them. Low-pressure squeezes allow bet-
often used. Diesel oil cements also have application in ter placement control of the cement in all existing voids
high-water environments. A success rate of 75% has been to be sealed.
reported when using diesel oil cements to shut off un- 7. Clean, solids-free workover fluids and flushes ahead
wanted of the cement are preferred for most squeeze cementing
Diesel oil cements develop high gel strengths upon operations and are important prerequisites for low-
contact with water. The gel strength develops more pressure squeeze operations. When drilling fluid pre-
quickly and to a higher value than that of most aqueous cedes cement, results are usually poor.
slurries. Also, diesel oil cements do not require retarders 8. High-pressure squeeze operations may be required
since hydration of the cement does not begin until the when no void exists behind the pipe or when solids-laden
cement becomes water-wet. Therefore, aqueous thixo- workover fluids will precede the cement.
tropic slurries present higher risk of premature set than 9. Temperature is the single most important factor gov-
diesel oil cements. erning hydration of cement. Accurate temperature infor-
A running squeeze technique is generally used with mation is needed to properly design the cementing
diesel oil cements. The slurry is preceded by a 10 to 20 composition for the operation.
bbl volume of diesel and followed by a diesel oil spacer to 1O. Well type/history and mechanical configuration of
separate the slurry from the displacing fluid. The reac- the operation affect temperatures during the squeeze. In-
tion of diesel oil slurries with water can be controlled by jection wells in waterfloods may be much cooler than
the surfactant used. A surfactant which slowly allows the producing wells at the same depth. If the well can not be
cement to become water-wet may be used to penetrate circulated at the injection point, the static temperature of
voids and fractures. This is followed by a slurry contain- the zone should be used for cement slurry design.
ing a fast-wetting surfactant that will gel up and keep the 11. Laboratory testing methods can not accurately sim-
cement in place until it sets. ulate the conditions of most squeeze cementing opera-
Diesel oil cements have been particularly effective in tions.
controlling water in producing and injection wells in
fractured, waterflooded formations. References
Foamed cements are also used to stop water flow. A 1. Abrams, A.: “Mud Design to Minimize Rock Impairment Due to
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

fast-setting blend of Portland cement and calcium sulfate Particle Invasion,” JPT (1977) 29, 586-592.
hemihydrate is commonly pumped into the zone. The 2. Dullien, F.A.L: “Porous Media -- Fluid Transport and Pore Struc-
ture,” Academic Press, New York (1979) 170.
slurry has thixotropic properties and usually sets in less 3. Perkins, T.K. and Kern, L.R.: “Widths of Hydraulic Fractures,”
than 30 minutes. Foamed sodium silicate washes are of- JPS(Sept. 1961) 937-49.
ten pumped ahead of this cement. A high-strength un- 4. Howard, G.C. and Fast, C.R.: “Hydraulic Fracturing,” SPE Mon-
foamed cement (or higher-density foamed cement) is ograph Vol. 2 (1970).
commonly pumped behind the fast-setting cement. This 5. Greene, W.R.: “Phase III Production Training -- Squeeze Cement-
ing,” Shell Oil Co. (1987).
procedure has been successful in shutting off brine flows 6. Smith, D.K.: “Cementing,” SPE Monograph Vol. 4 (1987).
in West Texas.z5 7. Bowden, C.B.: “Hesitation Squeeze Cementing Technique,” Oil &
GasJ. (July 1953).
6.13 Summary 8. Shryock, S.H. and Slagle, K.A.: “Problems Related to Squeeze
Cementing,” paper SPE 1993 presented at 1967 Annual California
Squeeze cementing technology and understanding of the Regional Meeting, Los Angeles, Oct. 26-27.
operation continues to increase. Sufficient technology 9. Patton, L. D.: “Squeeze Cementing Made Easy,” Pet. Eng. Int’l.
and understanding exists to considerably improve (Oct. 1987) 59, No. 10. 46, 48.
10. Carter, L.G., Harris, EN., Smith, D.K.: “Remedial Cementing of
squeeze cementing success if applied. Some misconcep- Plugged Perforations,” paper SPE 759 presented at the 1963 Cali-
tions linger which sometimes preclude application of fornia Regional Meeting, Santa Barbara, Oct. 23-25.
techniques, materials, or procedures which will increase 11. Harris, F. and Carter, G.: “To Squeeze Those Perforations: Use a
the possibility of success. Attention to detail during plan- Chemical Wash and a Low Fluid Loss Cement,” Drilling (Jan.
1964) 25, No. 3.
ning, preparation, and execution of the operation is re- 12. Hodges, J.W.: “Squeeze Cementing Methods and Materials,” Oil
quired for consistent successful operations. Well Cementing Practices in the United States, API, New York
The following have been concluded from a review of (1959) 149-159.
literature and field practices. 13. Goolsby, J.L.: “A Proven Squeeze Cementing Technique in a Do-
1. Squeeze cementing is primarily a placement prob- lomite Reservoir,” paper SPE 2473 presented at the 1969 Annual
Fall Meeting.
lem. 14. Boice, D.K. and Diller, J.E.: “Squeeze Cementing in Carbonate
2. Problem diagnosis and job planning are critical to Reservoirs,” paper presented at the 1970 Southwestern Petroleum
the success of any squeeze operation. Short Course, Lubbock (April, 1970), 1-6.
3. Each type of problem requiring a squeeze cementing 15. Spangle, L.B. and Calvert, D.G.: “Improved Primary and Reme-
operation has key variables which must be identified and dial Cementing with Thixotropic Cement Systems,” paper SPE
3833 presented at the 1972 Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting,
addressed or controlled for job success. Denver, April 10-12.
4. Filtration control is used in most cement composi- 16. Fry, W.C.D.: “Use of Expanding Cement for Squeezing Casing
tions for squeeze cementing and is important to the suc- Leaks,” paper presented at the 1974 Southwestern Petroleum
cess of low-pressure squeeze operations. Short Course, Lubbock (April, 1974), 5-6.
17. Beirute, R.M., Wilson, M.A. and Sabins, EL.: “Attenuation of
5. Low fluid-loss cement slurries can be efficient frac- Casing Cemented with Conventional and Expanding Cements
turing fluids. Formation permeability must be consid- Across Heavy Oil and Sandstone Formations,” paper SPE 18027
ered when selecting the amount of fluid loss for a cement presented at the 1988 Annual Technical Conference, Houston,

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- ~

102
A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 91 = 0732270 0558518 037 = CEMENTING

Oct. 2-5. presented at the 1986 California Regional Meeting, Oakland, April
18. “Specifications for Materials and Testing For Well Cements,” API 2-4.
(1986) 3rd Edition.
19. Tausch, G.H.: “Squeeze Cementing with Permanent-Type Com-
22. Bowman, G.R. and Shew, B.: “How to Run and Cement Liners -
pletions,” Oil Well Cementing Practices in the United States, API, - Part 8:’Wrld Oil (Dec. 1988) 71-74.
23. McLaughlin, C. and Hower, W.F.: “Diesel Oil Cement,” World
New York (1959) 161-175.
20. Murphy, W.C.: “Squeeze Cementing Requires Careful Execution
Oil (Dec. 1955) 153-154.
24. Howard, G.C. and Scott, P.P., Jr.: “Plugging Off Water in Frac-
for Proper Remedial Work,” Oil and GasJ. (Feb. 16, 1976) 74, No.
7, 87-88, 90, 93-94.
tured Formations,” Tins.AIME (1954) 201, 132-137.
25. Gamin, T.R. and Creel, P.: “Foamed Cement Restores Integrity in
21. Harrison, T.W. and Blount, C.G.: “Coiled Tubing Cement
Squeeze Technique at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska,” paper SPE 15104 Old Wells,” Oil and Gas J. (Aug. 1984) 124, 126-127.
--``,````,`,````,`,,```````,`,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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.............3 Reasons for Plug Failure ...........................6 Summary ...... A P I T I T L E WORLDWIDE 9 1 0732270 0558519 T73 Chapter 7 Down=holePlugging author Charles George INDEX SUBJECT PAGE 7.............1 Introduction .........................```````............. 111 7........................`................`.......`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale......................... 104 7.......`..... 104 Zonal Isolation ........... 109 The Two-Plug .`................`............ 104 Sidetracking (whipstock) ... 108 7.......... 109 The Balance Method ............ 104 7............... 104 Abandonment ......................................... 110 7.2 Reasons for Plugging ....................4 Plug Placement Procedure ..................................................`......................................................................-`-`....... 113 --``......````... 104 Lost Circulation Control ................````................ 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT ...5 Job Planning .............. 109 The Dump Bailer ..

possibly because of the greater expense divided into four general classifications. andor abandonment mary and liner. A common and highly effec- larger scale primary and liner cementing applications. be in place. Although there have been cases in which 3. plug cementing. desired location without contaminating the cement slurry. the con- verse has also been true..1 Introduction etc. tive method of sealing lost circulation zones involves Several problems have been identified as obstacles to plugging the interval of lost circulation with lightweight obtaining optimum plug-cement job results. Because of the frequency with which junk or a lost “fish. API. Diesel cement mixtures7 and of plug required -. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 = 0732290 0558520 795 Chapter 7 DownwholePlugging By: Charles George Charles George has 25 years experience in oil well cementing with Halliburton Services.and the conditions normally employed in this type application. it is strongly recommended that placed in lower-strength formations for this purpose. fers chiefly to four cementing practices. be performed (Fig 7.3). Sidetracking (whipstock). lost cir. ASTM. He earned a masters degree in chemistry from Oklahoma State University in 1965. Plugs are set in open hole formed. Placing a cement plug to seal below the casing seat.2 Reasons for Plugging strategic locations proceeding up the wellbore (Fig.356The reasons for setting cement plugs can be the literature. Setting a cement plug to isolate a potentially produc- important factors to consider for obtaining optimum tive interval of open hole to allow testing procedures to plug-cement job results. AC/. Generally. A review of the elements that influence plug ce.. In producing wells. eas require that cement plugs be set in depleted or non- commercial wells before abandonment.````. zonal isolation -. producing well) is dependent on the specific job dictate that lost circulation be considered as a separate elements which influence placement of cement in the topic of drillingkompletion problems. Plug cementing is too often given less attention than is often required by the governmental agencies (Table 7.. The requirement for a plug may be temporary (testing. noncementitious materials are sometimes culation. Governmental regulations in most ar- should be well established after setting. a high-strength cement is plug jobs are performed.. sions affecting job design and execution more aware of 1.) or permanent (abandonment).4). and may occur at any point in the life of the well. Obtaining quality cement plugs ment plugs can be an effective lost-circulation strategy. in fact. George is currently a research staff associate. Typically. Zonal isolation. which regulate drilling. despite its lack of (Fig.`--- conventional primary and liner cement jobs are per.`. 7. Nevertheless.-`-`.````.`.5Cement plugs are..`. and SPE. plugs are set and assumed by the operator to 2.```````. usually at several 7.`. Shutting off a water-producing formation. 7. Location and strength of plugs Abandonment. production.2). low-density. under a wide variety of well conditions (for instance in an the complexity and diversity of lost-circulation problems older. whipstock. 7. individual plugs are often set across Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.1) to provide a solid “kickoff’ point to change the glamour.for abandonment. and the larger scale on which most --``. usually involved. cement slurry. especially pri. and all plugs were 4. at the exact location at which they were placed.’. then drilling through the cement plug these problems are also usually associated with the type after it has set (Fig. or to detour around irretrievable well conditions. Although use of ce- found in each situation.” Ideally. He worked for 70 years in cementing research and for four years as field applications group leader. Other cementing applications.1) warranted. 7.`. have been treated far more extensively in of a well. is an essential operation performed under many angle of the wellbore. Protecting a low-pressure zone before squeezing. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . abandoned wells have been reopened. all concerned give the same consideration to planning and performance of plug-cement jobs that is given to Lost circulation control. serving as staff coordinator for Halliburton cementing services worldwide. This broadly named classification re- menting can make those responsible for the critical deci.. He is a member of the ACS.`.

`. 1961 Oct. of Mines and Minerals 1984 Rule Vlll-6-6 Rule 11-2-6 Dept.-`-`. 1983 Rule 8-15 and 8-29 Rule 8-8 and 6-9 California Sacramento 95814 Dept.180149 Minnesota' St. Connecticut Hartford 061 15 Consult State Geological Surveys - Delaware Dover 19903 Dept.09 16C-29. of Natural Resources 1980 Chap. of Oil and Gas 32204223 3228-3232 Colorado Denver 80203 Dept.040 1OCSR-50-2.`.O7 (inland wells) 4004-X-..05 16C-29. of Natural Resources 1983 Oct.2 Chap.026 2OAAC 25. of Oil and Gas 1:o20 1:060. 6. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . Chap. of Natural Resources 1975 Rules 391 through 393 Rules 391 through 393 and 13. of Natural Resources and 1983 Rule 36.22. B Indiana Indianapolis 46204 Dept. 2 Sec. Art.`.1306 R-299. City and State Zip Code Regulatory Body Date Casing Plugging Alabama University 35486 Oil and Gas Board of Alabama 1976 400-1-3-. XIX Maine" Augusta 04333 Consult State Geological Surveys Maryland' Annapolis 21401 Dept.22..22.1309 Oil and Gas Conservation Div. of Natural Resources 1972 2 2 J 33 Div.02 Alaska Anchorage 99501 State Oil and Gas Conservation Comm 1981 Art 1.S.`. of Natural Resources 1983 317-327-404 332 Oil and Gas Conservation Comm. A P I T I T L E W O R L D W I D E 91 m 0732290 0558523 b 2 1 m DOWN-HOLE PLUGGING 105 TABLE 7. 1982 Chap. of Natural Resources Massachusetts Boston 02108 Consult State Geological Surveys I Michigan Lansing 48909 Dept. 82-3-103 through 106 82-3-112 through 115 Kentucky Lexington 40586 Dept. Sec. 7.12 Idaho Springfield 62706 Dept. 906 Code 3412 Code 3-028 Nevada Carson City 89710 Dept.`. 30 Sec. Art. Sec.04 Water Resources Sec. of Oil and Gas Rule XI-5-A. V 29-6. 84 Kansas Topeka 67202 Corporation Cornm. - Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 1:O70 Louisiana Baton Rouge 70801 Dept. of Oil and Gas Iowa Des Moines 50319 Dept. 01-10 - Mississippi Jackson 39201 State Oil and Gas Board 1972 Rules 10-11-12 Rule 28 (Order 201-51) Missouri Rolla 65401 Missouri Oil and Gas Council 1982 Chap..10 and 13.`. Art.`--- Georgia Atlanta 30334 Dept. Florida Tallahassee 32301 Dept. 200-214 Sec. Paul 55155 Dept. 1983 Statute 57-905 Statute 57-905. of Conservation 1983 Publication PRC-OI Publication PRO-O1 Div.```````.````. of Conservation 1982 29-8. 300-308 New Hampshire'* Durham 03824 Consult State Geological Surveys . of Conservation and 1979 Rules Rules Natural Resources Part 2 Part 3 Sec. 1961 Oil and Gas Regulations R-299.````. (water wells) 156A.. of Mines and Minerals 1978 805 KRS 805 KRS Div. 1983 Conservation Rules Conservation Rules Oil and Gas Conservation Div.O3 400-1-3-. 105 2OACC 25. of Natural Resources 1971 Oil and Gas Regulations Oil and Gas Regulations and Environmental Control Sec.07 --``.1013 through 36.22..1-REGULATORY BODIES AND RULES CONTROLLING THE CEMENTING OF WELLS IN THE U.. 84 Chap. 16C27.105 Arizona Phoenix 85007 Oil and Gas Conservation Comrn.1001 Rule 36. 1 Chap.060 Montana Helena 59601 Dept.O4 to . of Natural Resources 1983 Oil and Gas Statute Oil and Gas Statute Oil and Gas Div. of Soil Conservation 1983 Code of Iowa Code of Iowa Mines and Minerals Div. 7. Nebraska Sidney 69162 Oil and Gas Conservation Div.1301 Conservation through 36. 2 Sec. 2 1OCSR-50-2. 1 R-12-7-11O and 111 R-12-7-126 and 127 Arkansas EI Dorado 71730 State Oil and Gas Comm.

10 Office of Oil and Gas Wisconsin Madison 53701 Dept.1 through 2.`. of Geology and Earth Resources W.`. and 1103 Oil and Conservation Div. City 73105 Corporation Comm. ~ ~ A P I TITLE W O R L D W I D E 91 0732290 0558522 5 6 8 106 CEMENTING ~~ ~ ~~ ~ TABLE 7.````.9 Conservation Div. of the Interior 1980 Federal Atlantic Reston US. of Geology 1982 Administrative Rules Administrative Rules and Mineral Industries 632-10-014 632-10-198 Pennsylvania Harrisburg 17120 Dept.. of Environmental Cons. of Texas 1983 Rule 13 Rule 14 Oil and Gas Div. of Natural Resources 1975 NR-112. Order 2 OCS.6 1.9 Conservation Div. Order 3 Mineral Management Service 3. 1982 Sec. of Labor and Industry 1983 Code of Virginia Code of Virginia Div.1 through 3.`. Mineral Resources 113-391-0007 113-391-0009 Oil and Gas Conservation N.Virginia Charleston 25316 Dept... Washington Olympia 98504 Dept.I through 2. Atlantic Outer Shelf Pacific Reston U.1-REGULATORY BODIES AND RULES CONTROLLING THE CEMENTING OF WELLS IN THE U. of the Interior 1980 OCS. 555 N. of the Interior 1980 OCS. D-2. 111 Sec. of Oil and Gas 1501:9-11-03 through O9 1501:9-11-03 through O9 and 1509.1 though 3.17 and 1509.6 1.. Dakota Bismarck 58505 North Dakota Industrial Comm.-`-`.21 Water Well Regulations Wyoming Cheyenne 82002 Oil and Gas Conservation Comm. of the Interior 1980 OCS.```````. and D-4 Conservation of Oil and Gas Vermont' * Montpelier 05602 Consult State Geological Surveys Virginia Richmond 23241 Dept.. of Mines 1983 22-4-5 through 8 22-4-9. Oil and Gas Conservation 52:02:03 52:02:04 Tennessee Nashville 37203 Dept. Dept.I through 2. of Oil and Gas Regulations Secs. of Mines and Quarries 45.`.12 79.1-341 through 348 Oil and Gas Conservation Comm.````. Mining.`.S. Trenton 08625 Consult State Geological Serveys - New Mexico Santa Fe 87501 Energy and Minerals Dept. 202..9 Conservaton Div. (CONTINUED) New Jersey'.`--- Mineral Management Service 3.and Mining 1982 Rule C-8 Rule D-I. of Environmental Resources 1983 General Provisions General Provisions Oil and Gas Conservation 79. Order 3 --``. Pacific Outer Shelf *No commercial oil or gas-rules apply to water wells.17 Oklahoma Okla. G.. Dept.1 through 3.. Dept. Utah Salt Lake City 84101 Board of Oil. '*No known rules in these states. 1982 Rule 107 and 108 Rule 201. Order 2 OCS. Gas.17 Rhode Island* Providence 02903 Consult State Geological Surveys - S. of Natural Resources 1982 WAC-344-12-087 WAC-344-12-131 and 133 Div. III 320 through 323 312 through 315 Federal Alaska Reston. Atlantic Outer Shelf Gulf of Mexico Reston US.`. 04/03/2008 09:19:44 MDT . 1972 NYCRR NYCRR Bur.1-334 through 340 45. 1983 NDCC 38-08-04 NDCC 38-08-04 Oil and Gas Div. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.S. 1983 General Rules General Rules Oil and Gas Conservation 3-206 3400 through 405 and 409 Oregon Portland 97201 Dept.6 1.S.Order 3 Mineral Management Service 3. Order 2 OCS.085 NR-112. 552 through 554 Sec. of Conservation 1972 State Order 2 State Order 2 State Oil and Gas Board 1040-2-7 1040-2-9 Texas Austin 78771 Railroad Comm. 43-02-03-21 43-02-03-34 Ohio Columbus 43224 Ohio Dept. Carolina Raleigh 2761 1-7687 Natural and Economic Resources 1976 G. Carolina" Columbia 2921 1 Consult State Geological Surveys S. New York Albany 12233 State Dept. VA 22090 U. Chap.Dakota Rapid City 57701 Board of Natural Resource Development 1974 Chap..S. of Natural Resources 1982 Ohio Statutes-Rules Ohio Statutes-Rules Div.S.Dept.

4-Abandonment.`.`.3-Zonal isolation.Open Hole Thief Zone - Fig.`.. 7. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API Licensee=Occidental Chemical Corp New sub account/5910419101 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.-`-`. Fig.`.`.```````