You are on page 1of 6

Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2013, 3(2): 43-48

DOI: 10.5923/j.eee.20130302.03

Attraction Magnetic Force Calculation of Axial Passive


Magnetic Bearing
Ana Vukovi1 , Slavoljub Aleksi1 , Saa Ili1, Alexander Tatarenko2 , Roman Petrov2,* , Mirza Bichurin2

1
Faculty of Electronic Engineering of Ni, University of Nis, Ni, 18000, Serbia
2
Institute of Electronic and Information Systems, Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod, 173003, Russia

Abstract The paper presents calculation of the force between two ring permanent magnets whose magnetization is
axial. Such configuration corresponds to a passive magnetic bearing. Magnets are made of the same material and
magnetized uniformly along their axes of symmetry, with the same intensity and same direct ion. The simp le and fast
analytical approach is used for this calculation based on magnetization charges and discretization technique. The results for
interaction magnetic fo rce obtained using proposed approach are compared with finite element method using FEMM 4.2
software. The proposed algorithm can be used for calculation of microwave devices based on magnetoelectric materials
with the use of permanent magnets.
Keywords Permanent Magnet, Interaction Magnetic Force, Magnetization Charges, Discretization Technique, Finite
Element Method (FEM)

density has to be satisfied for both magnets,


1. Introduction m 1 = n M 1 and m 2 = n M 2 , (1)

Permanent magnets are used nowadays in many it is obvious that fictitious surface magnetization charges
exist only on the bottom and the top bases of each permanent
applications, and the general need for dimensioning and
magnet, because volu me magnetization charges for uniform
optimizing leads to the development of calculation methods.
Permanent magnets are commonly used in many electrical magnetization do not exist. n is the unit vector normal to
devices and their own quality depends on the magnet surface.
material, magnetization and dimensions. Most engineering
applications need several ring permanent magnets and the
determination of the magnetic force between them is thus
required. Magnetic bearings are contactless suspension
devices with various rotating and translational
applications[1]. Depending on the ring permanent magnet
magnetization direction, the devices work as axial or radial
bearings and thus control the position along an axis or the
centering of an axis. There are nu merous techniques for
analyzing permanent magnet devices and different
approaches for determining interaction forces between
them[2-5]. The authors generally use the Ampere's current
model[2,3] or the Co lu mbian approach[4].
Figure 1. Axial passive magnetic bearing

2. Theoretical Background The simplest procedure for interaction magnetic force


determination is to discretize each base of both permanent
Axial passive magnetic bearing[6] that is considered in the magnets into system of circular loops[7]. The interaction
paper is p resen ted in the Figu re1. Sin ce the bou ndary force between two magnetized circu lar loops will be
cond it ion fo r fict it ious su rface magn et izat ion ch arges calculated first. That will be perfo rmed by calculat ing the
magnetic field and magnetic flu x density generated by the
* Corresponding author:
arbitrary magnetized circu lar loop of the upper magnet first
initra@yandex.ru (Roman Petrov)
Published online at http://journal.sapub.org/eee and then the force that acts on the arbitrary loop of the lower
Copyright 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved magnet (Figure 2). Using results for interaction magnetic
44 Ana Vukovi et al.: Attraction M agnetic Force Calculation of A xial Passive M agnetic Bearing

force between two circu lar loops, magnetic force of the axial Qm 1 1
magnetic bearing can be obtained by summing the dm = d ' , (3)
contribution of both magnet bases of lower and upper 8 2 R
permanent magnets by using uniform discretization and the resulting magnetic scalar potential generated by
technique. the upper circular loop at an arbitrary point P(r,,z) is
The goal of this approach is to determine the interaction Q m 1 2 1
magnetic force between two circular loops uniformly loaded m = 2 d ' , (4)
8 0 r 2 + r 2 + (z z )2 2r r cos( ')
with magnetization charges Qm 1 and Qm 2 . Dimensions 0 0 0

and positions of the loops are presented in the Figure 2. For Considering the existing symmetry, in = 0 plane,
determining the interaction force between two circular loops, magnetic scalar potential has the following form

magnetic scalar potential, magnetic field and magnetic flu x Qm 1 1
density generated by the upper loop will be calculated.
Elementary magnetic scalar potential generated by the
m ( r , z ) =
4 2
0 r 2 + r02 + (z z0 )2 2rr0 cos '
d '. (5)

elementary point magnetizat ion charge, d Qm 1 , is Substituting = 2 in Eq. (5), magnetic scalar
potential is obtained as:
d Qm 1 1
dm = . (2) 2
4 R Qm 1 1
m ( r , z ) =
2 2
0 (r + r0 )2 4rr0 sin 2 ( ) + (z z0 )2
d . (6)

After some simple operations the magnetic scalar potential


can be given in the form:

K ,k
Qm 1 2 (7)
m (r , z ) =
2 2 (r + r0 ) + ( z z 0 )
2 2

2
1
where K , k = K =
2
0 1 k 2 sin 2 ( )
d ,

is comp lete ellipt ic integral of the first kind with modulus


4rr0
k2 = .
(r + r0 ) + ( z z 0 ) 2
2

External magnetic field (magnetic field generated by the


Figure 2. Axial T wo circular loops upper loop) at an arbitrary point can be determined as
H ext (r , z ) = grad m (r , z ) = H rext (r , z )r + H zext (r , z )z ,(8)
Qm 1 Q
Since d Qm 1 = Qm 1 d l = a d ' = m1 d ' , External magnetic flu x density is
2a 2 B ext (r , z ) = 0 H ext (r , z ) , (9)
elementary magnetic scalar potential has the following
form B (r , z ) = B (r , z )r + B (r , z )z .
ext ext
r
ext
z (10)
with co mponents

ext Q

( ) 2
r 2 r02 ( z z0 ) E , k
2

K , k
2



Br (r , z ) = 0 m12 + (11)


( 0 )
2 2r (r r )2 + ( z z )2 (r + r )2 + ( z z )2 2r (r + r0 ) 2 + (z z 0 )2
0 0 0




Q
( z z0 ) E , k
Bzext= 2
( r , z ) 0 m21 , (12)
2
( 0 0 )
( r r )2 + ( z z )2 ( r + r )2 + ( z z )2
0 0
2

where E , k = E = 1 k 2 sin 2 ( ) d ,
2 0
Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2013, 3(2): 43-48 45

is comp lete ellipt ic integral of the second kind with modulus


4rr0
k2 = .
(r + r0 ) + ( z z 0 ) 2
2

The interaction magnetic force on elementary magnetization charge of lower circular loop
Qm 2 Q
d Qm 2 = Qm 2 d l = b d = m 2 d is d F = d Qm 2 B ext (rm , z m ) . (13)
2b 2
Finally, interaction magnetic force co mponents can be expressed as:

Q Q

( ) 2
rm2 r02 (z m z 0 ) E , k 0

K , k0


2
Fr (r , z ) = 0 m 1 2m 2 +
2 = 0 (14)
2 ( 2
)
2rm (rm r0 ) + (z m z 0 ) (rm + r0 ) + (z m z 0 )
2 2 2
2rm (rm + r0 ) + ( z m z 0 )
2 2



(z m z 0 )E , k 0
Q m 1Q m 2 2 Q Q
Fz ( r , z ) = 0 = 0 m 1 2m 2 Fz p (r0 , rm , z 0 , z m ) (15)
(
2 2
m 0 m 0 )
(r r ) 2 + (z z ) (r + r ) 2 + (z z )
2
m 0
2
m
2
0

2i 1
ri = c + (d c), i = 1, 2,, N 2 . (18)
2N2
Magnetization loop charges of lower permanent magnet
bases are
d c
Qm i = M 2 2ri , i = 1,2,..., N 2 . (19)
N2
Using results for interaction magnetic fo rce between two
circular loops, Eqs. (15), the attraction magnetic force
between two ring permanent magnets can be obtained. It can
be achieved by summing the contribution of both magnet
Figure 3. Discretizing model bases of lower and upper permanent magnets by using
uniform d iscretizat ion technique,
with elliptic integrals modulus
2 0 M 1 M 2 N1 N 2
k 02 =
4r0 rm
. Fz = (b a )(d c) rn ri
(rm + r0 ) 2 + ( z i z m ) 2 N1 N 2 n =1 i =1
The axial co mponent of the force (15) presents interaction
force between two magnetized circular loops. (
Fzp (rn , ri , h,0) Fzp (rn , ri , h, L2 )
The simplest procedure for attraction magnetic force
determination is to discretize each bases of permanent
Fzp (rn , ri , h + L1 ,0) + Fzp (rn , ri , h + L1 , L2 ) )(20)
magnets into system of circu lar loops, where N1 is the 2 0 M 1 M 2
number of d iscretized segments of each bases of upper Fz = (b a )(d c)
permanent magnet and N2 is the number of discretized N1 N 2
segments of each bases of lower permanent magnet.
By taking into account the ring geometry of permanent N N hE , k
1 2 2 1
magnets (Figure 3), the radius of each discretized segment of r r +
n i 2 2 2 2
both bases of upper magnet is n = 1i = 1 (ri rn ) + h (ri + rn ) + h
2n 1
rn = a + (b a ), n = 1, 2, , N 1 , (16)
2 N1 (L2 h )E , k 2
and magnetization loop charges of upper permanent
+ 2
magnet bases are
ba
((r r )
i n
2
+ (L 2 h )
2
) (ri + rn ) 2 + (L2 h )
2

Q m n = M 1 2rn , n = 1,2,..., N 1 . (17)


N1 (L1 + h )E , k 3
For lo wer magnet bases the radius of each discretized 2
segments is ((r r )
i n
2
+ (L1 + h )
2
) (ri + rn ) 2 + (L1 + h )
2
46 Ana Vukovi et al.: Attraction M agnetic Force Calculation of A xial Passive M agnetic Bearing

Table 1. Convergence of attraction magnetic force versus number of


(L2 L1 h)E , k 4

segments
2 Ntot Fznor Fznor (FEM)

((r r )
i n
2
+ (L2 L1 h )
2
) 2 2
(ri + rn ) + (L2 L1 h )
(21)
10 -0.304515
20 -0.304502

4rn ri 30 -0.304497
where k12 = 2 2
,
(ri + rn ) + h 50 -0.304494
-0.306003
4rn ri 100 -0.304493
k 22 = ,
(ri + rn )2 + (L2 h )2
200 -0.304492

300 -0.304492
4rn ri
k 32 = ,
(ri + rn )2 + (L1 + h )2 Co mpared results for normalized attraction magnetic force
4rn ri of two identical ring permanent magnets, obtained using
k 42 = . presented analytical approach and finite element method
(ri + rn ) 2
+ (L2 L1 h )2 (FEM) versus h/L2 , for parameters: a/L2 =1, b/L2 =2, c/L2 =3,
d/L2 =4 and L1 /L2 =1 are given in the Table 2. Co mparative
results for normalized interaction magnetic force of axial
passive magnetic bearing versus ratios a/L2 and b/L2 ,
obtained using presented approach and finite element
method (FEM), fo r parameters: c/L2 =3, d/L2 =4, L1 /L2 =1 and
h/L2 =1.5 are shown in the Table 3.
Table 2. Compared results for attraction magnetic force versus h/L2

h/L2 Fznor Fznor (FEM)


0 0 0.0000755
0.1 -0.085505 -0.086280
0.2 -0.167360 -0.168159
0.3 -0.242216 -0.243078
0.4 -0.307290 -0.308201
Figure 4. Distribution of magnetic flux density for magnetic bearing 0.5 -0.360536 -0.361493
(FEMM 4.2 software) 0.6 -0.400740 -0.401757
0.7 -0.427527 -0.428568

3. Numerical Results 0.8 -0.441304 -0.442424


0.9 -0.443143 -0.444323
Presumption is that both ring permanent magnets are made 1.0 -0.434627 -0.435849
of the same material and magnetized uniformly along their 1.1 -0.417663 -0.418920
axis of sy mmetry in the same direction, M1 = M2 = M. 1.2 -0.394286 -0.395669
Distribution of magnetic flu x density obtained using 1.3 -0.36648 -0.367846
FEMM 4.2 software[8] is presented in the Figure 4. The
1.4 -0.336043 -0.337446
values of the geometrical parameters used in the numerical
1.5 -0.304492 -0.306003
computation are: a/L2 =1, b/L2 =2, c/L2 =3, d/L2 =4, L1 /L2 =1,
h/L2 =1.5, L2 =1mm and M=900 kA/ m. Table 3. Compared results for interaction magnetic force versus a/L2 and
Convergence of the normalized attraction force, b/L2

nor Fz a/L2 b/L2 Fznor Fznor (FEM)


Fz = 1.0 2.0 -0.304492 -0.306003
, 0 M 2 L22 1.5 2.5 -0.432860 -0.434672
obtained using presented approach is given in Table 1 for 2.0 3.0 -0.185029 -0.186999
magnetic bearing dimensions: a/L2 =1, b/L2 =2, c/L2 =3, 2.5 3.5 0.950759 0.948785
d/L2 =4, L1 /L2 =1, h/L2 =1.5. 3.0 4.0 1.89600 1.894140
In order to save the calculation time, the nu mber of 3.5 4.5 1.105990 1.103435
segments is limited on Ntot = N1 + N2 = 200 because it is not 4.0 5.0 -0.232132 -0.235702
necessary to take a greater number of segments to obtain a 4.5 5.5 -0.657816 -0.662357
desired accuracy. 5.0 6.0 -0.550606 -0.555822
Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2013, 3(2): 43-48 47

4. Microwave Devices Based on material in M E element one needs to create a permanent bias
Magnetoelectric Materials with the magnetic field. This field is created with the help of axial
Use of Permanent Magnets passive magnetic bearing.
Magnetoelectric (M E) co mposites that simultaneously
exhibit ferroelectricity and ferro magnetis m have been of 5. Conclusions
recent research interest due to their potential for applications
in mult ifunctional devices[9]. Determination of the attraction forces of axial passive
A main feature of M E devices consists in the application magnetic bearing is presented. It is preformed using
of special permanent magnets[10]. Fo r example, a design of magnetization charges and discretization technique.
ME micro wave phase shifter using the permanent magnets to Presumption was that both magnets are made of the same
create of the bias magnetic field is shown in Figure 5. material and magnetized uniformly along the magnet axis of
symmetry, with the same intensity, and same direction. The
H0 4
derived algorithm is easily imp lemented in any standard
2
computer environment and it enables rapid parametric
3
5 studies of the attraction force. The results of the presented
approach are successfully confirmed using FEMM 4.2
5 software. Table I shows that it is not necessary to take a great
1 number o f segments (not more then 200) to obtain a desired
4 accuracy so the computational time can be saved. Attraction
(a) (b) force calculat ion using presented approach for mentioned
parameters and Ntot =200 is performed with Intel Core 2 Duo
Figure 5. Cross-section (a) and top view (b) ME microwave phase
shifter. 1 - basis, 2 - substrate, 3 - microstrip line with a circuit-resonator, CPU at 2.4GHz and 4GB RAM memo ry and it took less than
4 - passive magnetic bearings, 5 - ME element two seconds of run time. Attraction force is also determined
on the same computer using FEMM 4.2 software and the
computation time was 14 minutes for about 1.8 million fin ite
elements. Therefore, the advantage of presented analytical
U0
approach is its accuracy, simp licity and time efficiency. The
proposed algorith m can be used for calculat ion of the devices
H0
based on ME materials with the use of permanent magnets.
H Our wo rk is supported by the grant of the Federal Target
Program Scientific and pedagogical staff of innovative
(a) (b) Russiaon 2009-2013 years.
Figure 6. ME sensor of alternating electromagnetic field, longitudinal
section (a), lateral view (b)

The ME phase shifter uses the inverse ME effect and


operates as follows. Microwave energy passes through the REFERENCES
microstrip line with a circuit -resonator. ME element is [1] V. Lemarquand, G. Lemarquand.: Passive Permanent
placed in the center of the substrate under the M agnet Bearings for Rotating Shaft: Analytical Calculation,
circuit -resonator. The axial passive magnetic bearing is used M agnetic Bearings, Theory and Applications, Sciyo
for the creation of a permanent bias magnetic field H0 and for Published book, pp. 85-116, October 2010.
assignment of operating point. Tuning of the device phase is [2] Furlani, E. P., S. Reznik, & A. Kroll. 1995. A
carried out through the set up of the DC voltage between the three-dimensional field solution for radially polarized
microstrip line and basis. Smooth change of control voltage cylinders. IEEE Trans. M agn., vol. 31, no.1, pp. 844851.
allo ws to smoothly adjust the phase of the output signal in
[3] M . Braneshi, O. Zavalani and A. Pijetri.: The Use of
the range from 0 to 360. Thus, the calculation of the fields Calculating Function for the Evaluation of A xial Force
created by the passive magnetic bearing necessary for between Two Coaxial Disk Coils, 3rd International PhD
accurate operation of the ME phase shifter. Seminar Computational Electromagnetics and Technical
Another device using the permanent bias magnets is ME Application, pp. 21-30, 28 August - 1 September, Banja Luka,
low-frequency electromagnetic field sensor[11]. The design Bosnia and Hertzegovina, 2006.
of this sensor is shown in Figure 6. [4] Rakotoarison, H. L., J.-P. Yonnet, & B. Delinchant.2007.
The operation principle of this device is based on the Using Coulombian Approach for M odeling Scalar Potential
direct M E effect. At placing a sensor in the alternating and M agnetic Field of a Permanent M agnet With Radial
magnetic field one obtaines the alternating electric potencial Polarization. IEEE Transactions on M agnetics, Vol. 43, No. 4,
pp. 1261-1264.
on the the output of the ME element due to direct M E effect.
In order to set the correct mode activ ity of magnetostriction [5] Ana N. Vukovi, Saa S. Ili & Slavoljub R. Aleksi:
48 Ana Vukovi et al.: Attraction M agnetic Force Calculation of A xial Passive M agnetic Bearing

Interaction M agnetic Force Calculation of Ring Permanent [8] M eeker, D. n.d. Software package FEM M 4.2. Available
M agnets Using Ampere's M icroscopic Surface Currents and on-line at http://www.femm.info/wiki.
Discretization Technique, Electromagnetics, 32:2, pp.
117-134, 2012. [9] Nan, C.W.; Bichurin, M .I.; Dong, S.X.; Viehland, D.;
Srinivasan, G. M ultiferroic magnetoelectic composites:
[6] R. Ravaud, G. Lemarquand, V. Lemarquand.: Force and Historical perspective, status, and future directions. J. Appl.
Stiffness of Passive M agnetic Bearings Using Permanent Phys. 2008, Vol.103, pp.031101:1-031101:35.
M agnets. Part 1: Axial M agnetization, IEEE Transactions on
M agnetics, Vol. 45, No. 7, pp. 2996-3002, July 2009. [10] Bichurin M .I., Petrov V.M ., Petrov R.V., Kapralov G.N.,
Kiliba Yu.V., Bukashev F.I., Smirnov A.Yu., Tatarenko A.S.
[7] Ili S.S, A. N. Vukovi & S. R. Aleksi. 2012. Interaction M agnetoelectric microwave devices // Ferroelectrics, 2002,
M agnetic Force Calculation of A xial Passive M agnetic Vol.280, pp. 211-218.
Bearing Using M agnetization Charges and Discretization
Technique. Proceedings of Abstracts of the 15th International [11] I.N. Soloviev, M .I. Bichurin, and R.V. Petrov
IGTE Symposium on Numerical Field Calculation in M agnetoelectric M agnetic Field Sensors // Progress In
Electrical Engineering, Graz, Austria, 17-19 September, pp. Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings,
63. M oscow, Russia, August 19 (23, 2012) pp. 1359-1362.