Attraction Magnetic Force Calculation of Axial Passive Magnetic Bearing

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Attraction Magnetic Force Calculation of Axial Passive Magnetic Bearing

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DOI: 10.5923/j.eee.20130302.03

Magnetic Bearing

Ana Vukovi1 , Slavoljub Aleksi1 , Saa Ili1, Alexander Tatarenko2 , Roman Petrov2,* , Mirza Bichurin2

1

Faculty of Electronic Engineering of Ni, University of Nis, Ni, 18000, Serbia

2

Institute of Electronic and Information Systems, Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod, 173003, Russia

Abstract The paper presents calculation of the force between two ring permanent magnets whose magnetization is

axial. Such configuration corresponds to a passive magnetic bearing. Magnets are made of the same material and

magnetized uniformly along their axes of symmetry, with the same intensity and same direct ion. The simp le and fast

analytical approach is used for this calculation based on magnetization charges and discretization technique. The results for

interaction magnetic fo rce obtained using proposed approach are compared with finite element method using FEMM 4.2

software. The proposed algorithm can be used for calculation of microwave devices based on magnetoelectric materials

with the use of permanent magnets.

Keywords Permanent Magnet, Interaction Magnetic Force, Magnetization Charges, Discretization Technique, Finite

Element Method (FEM)

1. Introduction m 1 = n M 1 and m 2 = n M 2 , (1)

Permanent magnets are used nowadays in many it is obvious that fictitious surface magnetization charges

exist only on the bottom and the top bases of each permanent

applications, and the general need for dimensioning and

magnet, because volu me magnetization charges for uniform

optimizing leads to the development of calculation methods.

Permanent magnets are commonly used in many electrical magnetization do not exist. n is the unit vector normal to

devices and their own quality depends on the magnet surface.

material, magnetization and dimensions. Most engineering

applications need several ring permanent magnets and the

determination of the magnetic force between them is thus

required. Magnetic bearings are contactless suspension

devices with various rotating and translational

applications[1]. Depending on the ring permanent magnet

magnetization direction, the devices work as axial or radial

bearings and thus control the position along an axis or the

centering of an axis. There are nu merous techniques for

analyzing permanent magnet devices and different

approaches for determining interaction forces between

them[2-5]. The authors generally use the Ampere's current

model[2,3] or the Co lu mbian approach[4].

Figure 1. Axial passive magnetic bearing

determination is to discretize each base of both permanent

Axial passive magnetic bearing[6] that is considered in the magnets into system of circular loops[7]. The interaction

paper is p resen ted in the Figu re1. Sin ce the bou ndary force between two magnetized circu lar loops will be

cond it ion fo r fict it ious su rface magn et izat ion ch arges calculated first. That will be perfo rmed by calculat ing the

magnetic field and magnetic flu x density generated by the

* Corresponding author:

arbitrary magnetized circu lar loop of the upper magnet first

initra@yandex.ru (Roman Petrov)

Published online at http://journal.sapub.org/eee and then the force that acts on the arbitrary loop of the lower

Copyright 2013 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved magnet (Figure 2). Using results for interaction magnetic

44 Ana Vukovi et al.: Attraction M agnetic Force Calculation of A xial Passive M agnetic Bearing

force between two circu lar loops, magnetic force of the axial Qm 1 1

magnetic bearing can be obtained by summing the dm = d ' , (3)

contribution of both magnet bases of lower and upper 8 2 R

permanent magnets by using uniform discretization and the resulting magnetic scalar potential generated by

technique. the upper circular loop at an arbitrary point P(r,,z) is

The goal of this approach is to determine the interaction Q m 1 2 1

magnetic force between two circular loops uniformly loaded m = 2 d ' , (4)

8 0 r 2 + r 2 + (z z )2 2r r cos( ')

with magnetization charges Qm 1 and Qm 2 . Dimensions 0 0 0

and positions of the loops are presented in the Figure 2. For Considering the existing symmetry, in = 0 plane,

determining the interaction force between two circular loops, magnetic scalar potential has the following form

magnetic scalar potential, magnetic field and magnetic flu x Qm 1 1

density generated by the upper loop will be calculated.

Elementary magnetic scalar potential generated by the

m ( r , z ) =

4 2

0 r 2 + r02 + (z z0 )2 2rr0 cos '

d '. (5)

elementary point magnetizat ion charge, d Qm 1 , is Substituting = 2 in Eq. (5), magnetic scalar

potential is obtained as:

d Qm 1 1

dm = . (2) 2

4 R Qm 1 1

m ( r , z ) =

2 2

0 (r + r0 )2 4rr0 sin 2 ( ) + (z z0 )2

d . (6)

can be given in the form:

K ,k

Qm 1 2 (7)

m (r , z ) =

2 2 (r + r0 ) + ( z z 0 )

2 2

2

1

where K , k = K =

2

0 1 k 2 sin 2 ( )

d ,

4rr0

k2 = .

(r + r0 ) + ( z z 0 ) 2

2

Figure 2. Axial T wo circular loops upper loop) at an arbitrary point can be determined as

H ext (r , z ) = grad m (r , z ) = H rext (r , z )r + H zext (r , z )z ,(8)

Qm 1 Q

Since d Qm 1 = Qm 1 d l = a d ' = m1 d ' , External magnetic flu x density is

2a 2 B ext (r , z ) = 0 H ext (r , z ) , (9)

elementary magnetic scalar potential has the following

form B (r , z ) = B (r , z )r + B (r , z )z .

ext ext

r

ext

z (10)

with co mponents

ext Q

( ) 2

r 2 r02 ( z z0 ) E , k

2

K , k

2

Br (r , z ) = 0 m12 + (11)

( 0 )

2 2r (r r )2 + ( z z )2 (r + r )2 + ( z z )2 2r (r + r0 ) 2 + (z z 0 )2

0 0 0

Q

( z z0 ) E , k

Bzext= 2

( r , z ) 0 m21 , (12)

2

( 0 0 )

( r r )2 + ( z z )2 ( r + r )2 + ( z z )2

0 0

2

where E , k = E = 1 k 2 sin 2 ( ) d ,

2 0

Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2013, 3(2): 43-48 45

4rr0

k2 = .

(r + r0 ) + ( z z 0 ) 2

2

The interaction magnetic force on elementary magnetization charge of lower circular loop

Qm 2 Q

d Qm 2 = Qm 2 d l = b d = m 2 d is d F = d Qm 2 B ext (rm , z m ) . (13)

2b 2

Finally, interaction magnetic force co mponents can be expressed as:

Q Q

( ) 2

rm2 r02 (z m z 0 ) E , k 0

K , k0

2

Fr (r , z ) = 0 m 1 2m 2 +

2 = 0 (14)

2 ( 2

)

2rm (rm r0 ) + (z m z 0 ) (rm + r0 ) + (z m z 0 )

2 2 2

2rm (rm + r0 ) + ( z m z 0 )

2 2

(z m z 0 )E , k 0

Q m 1Q m 2 2 Q Q

Fz ( r , z ) = 0 = 0 m 1 2m 2 Fz p (r0 , rm , z 0 , z m ) (15)

(

2 2

m 0 m 0 )

(r r ) 2 + (z z ) (r + r ) 2 + (z z )

2

m 0

2

m

2

0

2i 1

ri = c + (d c), i = 1, 2,, N 2 . (18)

2N2

Magnetization loop charges of lower permanent magnet

bases are

d c

Qm i = M 2 2ri , i = 1,2,..., N 2 . (19)

N2

Using results for interaction magnetic fo rce between two

circular loops, Eqs. (15), the attraction magnetic force

between two ring permanent magnets can be obtained. It can

be achieved by summing the contribution of both magnet

Figure 3. Discretizing model bases of lower and upper permanent magnets by using

uniform d iscretizat ion technique,

with elliptic integrals modulus

2 0 M 1 M 2 N1 N 2

k 02 =

4r0 rm

. Fz = (b a )(d c) rn ri

(rm + r0 ) 2 + ( z i z m ) 2 N1 N 2 n =1 i =1

The axial co mponent of the force (15) presents interaction

force between two magnetized circular loops. (

Fzp (rn , ri , h,0) Fzp (rn , ri , h, L2 )

The simplest procedure for attraction magnetic force

determination is to discretize each bases of permanent

Fzp (rn , ri , h + L1 ,0) + Fzp (rn , ri , h + L1 , L2 ) )(20)

magnets into system of circu lar loops, where N1 is the 2 0 M 1 M 2

number of d iscretized segments of each bases of upper Fz = (b a )(d c)

permanent magnet and N2 is the number of discretized N1 N 2

segments of each bases of lower permanent magnet.

By taking into account the ring geometry of permanent N N hE , k

1 2 2 1

magnets (Figure 3), the radius of each discretized segment of r r +

n i 2 2 2 2

both bases of upper magnet is n = 1i = 1 (ri rn ) + h (ri + rn ) + h

2n 1

rn = a + (b a ), n = 1, 2, , N 1 , (16)

2 N1 (L2 h )E , k 2

and magnetization loop charges of upper permanent

+ 2

magnet bases are

ba

((r r )

i n

2

+ (L 2 h )

2

) (ri + rn ) 2 + (L2 h )

2

N1 (L1 + h )E , k 3

For lo wer magnet bases the radius of each discretized 2

segments is ((r r )

i n

2

+ (L1 + h )

2

) (ri + rn ) 2 + (L1 + h )

2

46 Ana Vukovi et al.: Attraction M agnetic Force Calculation of A xial Passive M agnetic Bearing

(L2 L1 h)E , k 4

segments

2 Ntot Fznor Fznor (FEM)

((r r )

i n

2

+ (L2 L1 h )

2

) 2 2

(ri + rn ) + (L2 L1 h )

(21)

10 -0.304515

20 -0.304502

4rn ri 30 -0.304497

where k12 = 2 2

,

(ri + rn ) + h 50 -0.304494

-0.306003

4rn ri 100 -0.304493

k 22 = ,

(ri + rn )2 + (L2 h )2

200 -0.304492

300 -0.304492

4rn ri

k 32 = ,

(ri + rn )2 + (L1 + h )2 Co mpared results for normalized attraction magnetic force

4rn ri of two identical ring permanent magnets, obtained using

k 42 = . presented analytical approach and finite element method

(ri + rn ) 2

+ (L2 L1 h )2 (FEM) versus h/L2 , for parameters: a/L2 =1, b/L2 =2, c/L2 =3,

d/L2 =4 and L1 /L2 =1 are given in the Table 2. Co mparative

results for normalized interaction magnetic force of axial

passive magnetic bearing versus ratios a/L2 and b/L2 ,

obtained using presented approach and finite element

method (FEM), fo r parameters: c/L2 =3, d/L2 =4, L1 /L2 =1 and

h/L2 =1.5 are shown in the Table 3.

Table 2. Compared results for attraction magnetic force versus h/L2

0 0 0.0000755

0.1 -0.085505 -0.086280

0.2 -0.167360 -0.168159

0.3 -0.242216 -0.243078

0.4 -0.307290 -0.308201

Figure 4. Distribution of magnetic flux density for magnetic bearing 0.5 -0.360536 -0.361493

(FEMM 4.2 software) 0.6 -0.400740 -0.401757

0.7 -0.427527 -0.428568

0.9 -0.443143 -0.444323

Presumption is that both ring permanent magnets are made 1.0 -0.434627 -0.435849

of the same material and magnetized uniformly along their 1.1 -0.417663 -0.418920

axis of sy mmetry in the same direction, M1 = M2 = M. 1.2 -0.394286 -0.395669

Distribution of magnetic flu x density obtained using 1.3 -0.36648 -0.367846

FEMM 4.2 software[8] is presented in the Figure 4. The

1.4 -0.336043 -0.337446

values of the geometrical parameters used in the numerical

1.5 -0.304492 -0.306003

computation are: a/L2 =1, b/L2 =2, c/L2 =3, d/L2 =4, L1 /L2 =1,

h/L2 =1.5, L2 =1mm and M=900 kA/ m. Table 3. Compared results for interaction magnetic force versus a/L2 and

Convergence of the normalized attraction force, b/L2

Fz = 1.0 2.0 -0.304492 -0.306003

, 0 M 2 L22 1.5 2.5 -0.432860 -0.434672

obtained using presented approach is given in Table 1 for 2.0 3.0 -0.185029 -0.186999

magnetic bearing dimensions: a/L2 =1, b/L2 =2, c/L2 =3, 2.5 3.5 0.950759 0.948785

d/L2 =4, L1 /L2 =1, h/L2 =1.5. 3.0 4.0 1.89600 1.894140

In order to save the calculation time, the nu mber of 3.5 4.5 1.105990 1.103435

segments is limited on Ntot = N1 + N2 = 200 because it is not 4.0 5.0 -0.232132 -0.235702

necessary to take a greater number of segments to obtain a 4.5 5.5 -0.657816 -0.662357

desired accuracy. 5.0 6.0 -0.550606 -0.555822

Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2013, 3(2): 43-48 47

4. Microwave Devices Based on material in M E element one needs to create a permanent bias

Magnetoelectric Materials with the magnetic field. This field is created with the help of axial

Use of Permanent Magnets passive magnetic bearing.

Magnetoelectric (M E) co mposites that simultaneously

exhibit ferroelectricity and ferro magnetis m have been of 5. Conclusions

recent research interest due to their potential for applications

in mult ifunctional devices[9]. Determination of the attraction forces of axial passive

A main feature of M E devices consists in the application magnetic bearing is presented. It is preformed using

of special permanent magnets[10]. Fo r example, a design of magnetization charges and discretization technique.

ME micro wave phase shifter using the permanent magnets to Presumption was that both magnets are made of the same

create of the bias magnetic field is shown in Figure 5. material and magnetized uniformly along the magnet axis of

symmetry, with the same intensity, and same direction. The

H0 4

derived algorithm is easily imp lemented in any standard

2

computer environment and it enables rapid parametric

3

5 studies of the attraction force. The results of the presented

approach are successfully confirmed using FEMM 4.2

5 software. Table I shows that it is not necessary to take a great

1 number o f segments (not more then 200) to obtain a desired

4 accuracy so the computational time can be saved. Attraction

(a) (b) force calculat ion using presented approach for mentioned

parameters and Ntot =200 is performed with Intel Core 2 Duo

Figure 5. Cross-section (a) and top view (b) ME microwave phase

shifter. 1 - basis, 2 - substrate, 3 - microstrip line with a circuit-resonator, CPU at 2.4GHz and 4GB RAM memo ry and it took less than

4 - passive magnetic bearings, 5 - ME element two seconds of run time. Attraction force is also determined

on the same computer using FEMM 4.2 software and the

computation time was 14 minutes for about 1.8 million fin ite

elements. Therefore, the advantage of presented analytical

U0

approach is its accuracy, simp licity and time efficiency. The

proposed algorith m can be used for calculat ion of the devices

H0

based on ME materials with the use of permanent magnets.

H Our wo rk is supported by the grant of the Federal Target

Program Scientific and pedagogical staff of innovative

(a) (b) Russiaon 2009-2013 years.

Figure 6. ME sensor of alternating electromagnetic field, longitudinal

section (a), lateral view (b)

operates as follows. Microwave energy passes through the REFERENCES

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48 Ana Vukovi et al.: Attraction M agnetic Force Calculation of A xial Passive M agnetic Bearing

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Stiffness of Passive M agnetic Bearings Using Permanent Phys. 2008, Vol.103, pp.031101:1-031101:35.

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