From Simple to Complex

Extended Techniques in Flute Literature; Incentive to
Integrate Cognitive and Kinesthetic Awareness in
University Programs

For the degree requirement for a
Doctor of Philosophy (Doktorin der Philosophie)
Dr. phil.

In Adherence to the Studies of the Department of Instrumental and Vocal

Written by
Mag. art. Jennifer Anne Borkowski
Matrikelnummer: S0273825

Institut 5- Musikpädagogik
Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz

Advisor: Univ.Prof. Dr.phil. Adina Mornell

Graz, October, 2008

The dissertation begins by surveying university flute students and their teachers
about their experiences with extended techniques. Differences in approach, from
Boulez to jazz, are correlated with the students’ partiality towards new music. The
lack of new music studied in university programs lies in the complexity and difficulty
of the repertoire. Complex works are seldom played.

The author identifies causes and finds solutions to this problem. Tools to
encourage greater involvement in new music are developed. Through a newly
graded repertoire list, flutists have access to modern works in every level of flute
study. Practical solutions for studying new scores are also given. Using extended
techniques to reframe and solve common technical problems offers new motivation
to learn contemporary repertoire.

Regarding extended techniques themselves, the author develops a study program
stemming from the teaching methods of Robert Dick and Carin Levine. This
program builds on the acoustical similarities of each technique to allow greater
continuity in teaching plans. The progression teaches body awareness by
emphasizing projection of sound through greater physical energy. The final section
highlights a shortcoming in the pedagogy thus far. In works of the extreme
complexity, demands of breath control are often excessive. Stamina building has
been a neglected topic. (t)air(e) (1980-83) for solo flute by Heinz Holliger is used
to illustrate such challenges. Using the methodology of periodization training for
athletes, the author provides a cogent solution for these deficits.

In conclusion, new teaching tools animate repertoire largely inaccessible in
traditional studios.


As I entered the world of new music in 1999, I began to notice that my teaching
experience had a place. As I studied further, I knew I had something to give. The
music world is changing quickly. As I write, the flute community is getting ready for
the first YouTube flute competition to be judged in part by Greg Pattillo, the beat
boxing flutist. Flutists are catching on to the excitement. Personally, after having
my ears opened to the new music here in Europe, I felt the initial thrill that I got as
a child. I knew I had found something I needed to step inside of.

What’s bothered me is that new music has seemed to me to be kept a secret. It
doesn’t need to be something for a few elite flutists anymore. There is a “way in”.
My goal is to create one.

The work of writing the dissertation has been fun, and I have to thank my former
music history professor Dr. Carl Schmidt for telling me that I could do a Ph.D. I also
have to thank my family, Andy and Julia, for putting up with me being busy writing,
or busy in my head. Thank you for the countless sacrifices you’ve both made
bringing me to the train. Thank you, Dr. Adina Mornell for your support and
guidance. Dr. Christian Utz, thank you for the incredibly thorough corrections
you’ve made. Thank you, Misha Nicolaichuk for the help with the notation software.

Julia, you gave me the perspective I needed to do this. Someday, when you’re
bigger, I’ll tell you how you changed my life! Silvia, thank you for being such a
good baby!

Table of Contents

I. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………11

II. Building a Bridge to Influence Learning………………………………………21
1. Understanding the Obstacles
a. Common Experiences: Observations from a Masterclass………………22
b. Moving into Modern Repertoire; the Need for a New Grading System..27
2. Building Motivation: Integrating Extended Techniques………………...34
into the Studio
a. Using Extended Techniques to Diagnose, Reframe and Solve Other…36
a1. Exercises:…………………………………………………………………41
b. Developing a New Mindset: A Higher Sense of Purpose……………....44
c. Professionalism: Looking for Love……………………………………….. 49
3. Goal Setting in Preparing New Works for Performance……..……........50
a. Preliminary Steps; Reading and Listening……………..………………..52
b. Understanding Notation…...…..……………………………….…..……..54

III. Teaching Extended Techniques: a Plan to Develop Continuity in………...65
1. Cognitive-Based Techniques……………………………………………..…..68
a. Improvisation…………………..……………………………………………..69
b. Microtonality………………………………...………………………………..73
c. Rhythm…….………………………………………………………..…………78
2. Kinesthetic Techniques: Building Body Awareness………………..….83
a. Borrowed Techniques………………………..……………………………..84
1) Flutter Tongue…………………………………………..……………… 85
2) Harmonics………………………………………………………………..95

3) Whistle Tones……………………………………………………..........100
4) Altered Fingerings………………………………………………………104
5) Timbral Trills…………………………………………………………….110
6) Tremolos…………………………………………………………………111
7) Multiphonics……………………………………………………………..112
7a) Flying Lessons Volume I for the development of multiphonics.116
8) Glissando………………………………………………………………..119
b. Vocal Techniques…………………………………………………………...123
1) Jet Whistle……………………………………………………………….125
2) Singing and Playing…………………………………………………….128
3) Speaking and Playing………………………………………………….130
c. Percussive Effects…………………………………………………………..134
1) Key Clicks………………………………………………………………..135
2) Tongue Ram…………………………………………………………….140
3) Pizzicato………………………………………………………………....142
d. New Uses of Air……………………………………………………………..147
1) Air Sounds……………………………………………………………….148
2) Inhaling While Playing………………………………………………….150
3) Circular Breathing………………………………………………..……..153
e. A Word about Trumpet Embouchure……………………………………..155
f. Endurance and Physical Conditioning: Periodization Training…………156
1) A Model from Sports Scientists………………………………………..160
2) Practical Application of Periodization for Flutists…………………….165
3) Application in Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e) for solo flute…………………169
4) A Periodized Daily Studies Program…………………………………..182

IV. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………...190

V. Recommendations for Further Research………………………………….....194

VI. Appendices
1. Fingering Chart……………………………………………….……………195
2. Graded Repertoire List…………………………………………………...197

VII: Bibliography……………………………………………………………………202
1. Literature for Further Reading
a) Resources on Extended Techniques for the Flute………………….213
b) Resources on Improvisation…………………………………………..216
c) Resources on Microtonality…………………………………………...217
d) Resources on Music Pedagogy………………………………………218
e) Resources on Periodization and Physical Conditioning……………219
f) Resources on the Philosophy and Theory of New Music………….221

VIII: Bibliography of Musical Examples……………………………………….223

List of Figures

1. Richard A. M A G I L L, Motor Learning and Control, Concepts and
Applications, (2004) McGraw Hill, page 253
2. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Exercises for Correcting Other Problems
3. Bernhard L A N G, Schrift I, measure 135
4. T_ru T A K E M I T S U, Voice, line 1
5. Salvatore S C I A R R I N O, L’opera per flauto, FRA I TESTI DEDICATI
ALLE NUBI, Performance notes
6. Salvatore S C I A R R I N O, L’opera per flauto, FRA I TESTI DEDICATI
ALLE NUBI, line 1
7. Robert D I C K, Flying Lessons Volume I, page 22
8. Bernhard L A N G, Schrift I, measure 6
9. Toshio H O S O K A W A, Vertical Song I, symbols
10. Beat F U R R E R, auf töneren füssen, page 3, line 2
11. Beat F U R R E R, auf töneren füssen, page 4, line 4
12. Pier Luigi M E N C A R E L L I, Metodo per Flauto, page 45
13. Robert D I C K, The Other Flute, page 63
14. Olivier M E S S I A E N, Le Merle Noir, page 1, line 5
15. Gerd N O A C K, Frühlingstimme op. 39, line 1
16. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, rhythm exercise 1
17. Richard S T R A U S S, Don Quixote, Variation VII
18. Shirish K O R D E, Tenderness of Cranes, page 1, line 4
19. Jacques I B E R T, Concerto for Flute, movement 3, cadenza
20. Shirish K O R D E, Tenderness of Cranes, page 3, line 6
21. Shirish K O R D E, Tenderness of Cranes, page 3, line 5
22. Olivier M E S S I A E N, Le Merle Noir, measure 9
23. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Flutter Tongue exercise 1
24. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Flutter Tongue exercise 2
25. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Flutter Tongue exercise 3

26. Luciano B E R I O, Sequenza per Flauto Solo, page 3, line 1
27. Salvatore S C I A R R I N O, L’opera per flauto/Hermes, page 3, line 1
28. Jeanne B A X T R E S S E R, Harmonics exercises transcribed by Jennifer
29. Robert D I C K, Tone Development Through Extended Techniques, page 22
30. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 3, line 8
31. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 5, line 2
32. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 3 line 8
33. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 5, line 1
34. Igor S T R A V I N S K Y, Firebird Suite, Ronde des princesses, rehearsal 14
35. Robert D I C K, Tone Development Through Extended Techniques, Bamboo
Scale, page 32
36. Robert D I C K, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 6, measures 13-14
37. Shirish K O R D E, Tenderness of Cranes, page 1, lines 9-10 to page 2, line 1
38. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 1, line 7
39. Carlo Pedini, Il Miracolo, Quarta Scena, measures 1-5
40. Klaus H U B E R, Ein Hauch von Unzeit, letter c to d
41. Shirish K O R D E, Tenderness of Cranes, page 1, line 2
42. Robert D I C K, Flying Lessons Volume I, page 4, measures 9-10
43. Robert D I C K, The Other Flute, page 89
44. Robert D I C K, The Other Flute, page 127
45. Robert D I C K, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 2, measures 1-2
46. Robert D I C K, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 2, measure 9
47. Robert D I C K, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 2, line 3
48. Shirish K O R D E, Tenderness of Cranes, page 3, line 5
49. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 6, line 1
50. Salvatore S C I A R R I N O, L’opera per flauto/COMO VENGONO PRODOTTI
51. Robert D I C K, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 2, measure 1
52. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e),page 6, lines 1-2
53. Beat F U R R E R, auf tönernen füssen, page 3, line 1
54. Beat F U R R E R auf tönernen füssen, page 4, line 3

55. Bernhard L A N G, Schrift I, measures 2-3
56. Harold M E L T Z E R, Trapset, measure 34
57. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e),page 5, line 2
58. Beat F U R R E R, auf tönernen füssen, page 3, line 1
59. Gerd N O A C K, Frühlingstimme op. 39, measure 80-82
60. Gerd N O A C K, Frühlingstimme op. 39, measure 34
61. Gerd N O A C K, Frühlingstimme op. 39, measure 34
62. Harold M E L T Z E R, Trapset, measure 25
63. Beat F U R R E R, auf tönernen füssen, page 1, line 1
64. Brian F E R N E Y H O U G H, Cassandra’s Dream Song, page 1, line 1
65. Toshio H O S O K A W A, Vertical Song I, Symbols
66. Toshio H O S O K A W A, Vertical Song I, measure 7-8
67. Bernhard L A N G, Schrift I, symbols
68. Bernhard L A N G, Schrift I, measure 8
69. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 3, line 7
70. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 6, line 1
71. Carin L E V I N E, Neue Spieltechniken für die Flöte, page19
72. Carin L E V I N E, Neue Spieltechniken für die Flöte, page19
73. Michelle P R O V O S T-C R A I G, Johnny J O H N S, Carl P O E, Debbie P I S-
O S, Eric L A W S O N, Novice, Junior, Senior, Cardiovascular Yearly Training
74. Mike R I C C I, Periodization Chart for Runners
75. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Ein Sommernachtstraum, Scherzo, letter P to the
76. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 1, line 3
77. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 1, line 4
78. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 6, lines 2-4
79. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), line 8
80. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), pages 4-5
81. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 6, line 1
82. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 1, line 4

83. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Exercise for Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e)
84. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 1, line 3
85. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 6
86. Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), page 5, line 2
87. Heinz H O L L I G E R (t)air(e), page 4, lines 6-7
88. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Periodization chart for Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e)
89. Tudor O. B O M P A, Ph.D. Periodization, Theory and Methodology of Training,
Fourth edition (1999) Human Kinetics, page 17
90. Periodization, 12 Week Periodization Chart, Retrieved February 25, 2008
91. Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Periodization Line Graph
91.Jennifer B O R K O W S K I, Daily Studies based on Periodization Principals
92. Modern Flute Fingering Chart,, Retrieved April 15, 2008
93. Carin L E V I N E, Examples of Standard Notation

I. Introduction

With the emphasis in music conservatories on orchestral playing, the resistance to
learning music composed since World War II remains high. Opinions expressing
resistance, dislike or simple ignorance abound. James Pappoutsakis, former
principal flutist of the Boston Symphony has remarked, “Contemporary music
should not distort the tone quality or degrade the player.”1 The composer Virgil
Thompson said, “The European effort toward writing atonal music not for noise-
making instruments but for those whose design has been perfected over centuries
for avoiding tonal obfuscation has been [....] a waste of effort, save possible for
proving it could be done.”2

Besides these opinions among mainstream musicians, academia has its own
biases. Robert P. Morgan, in his textbook Twentieth Century Music; A History of
Musical Style in Modern Europe and America, dedicates only two paragraphs to the
importance of IRCAM, Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique
(Institute for music/acoustic research and coordination), and makes only a brief
mention of the Darmstadt Ferienkurse.

The name is written only in passing, omitting any discussion of its philosophy or
current influence on composition.3

1 Nancy T O F F, The Flute Book, (1985) Oxford University Press, Oxford, P. 280
2 Virgil T H O M P S O N, A Virgil Thompson Reader (1981) Houghton Mifflin, Boston, P. 11

3 Both IRCAM and Darmstadt were profoundly influenced by Pierre Boulez as he wanted to move music in new directions
after World War II. Darmstadt was founded in 1946 by Wolfgang Steineke, and various composers who took part there were
Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, György Ligeti, Karlheinz Stockhausen, John Cage, Luciano Berio and many others. IRCAM, was
founded in 1969 by Pierre Boulez and was funded by the French Government and Georges Pompidou. Boulez served as
director of IRCAM from 1970 until 1992.

During the course of this study, a survey was done among randomly selected flutists
and their teachers at various American universities. Of the 187 flutists who agreed to
participate in an undefined survey, all returned the questionnaire. While all returned
the questionnaire, not all completed it. The following data proved noteworthy.

Extended Technique 85
No Experience 102
Age Range 18-39

All of the participating flutists are majoring in music. From these flutists, 85 had
studied at least one work with extended techniques. From those 85, the response
was, in contrast to what was stated above, overwhelmingly positive towards new
music in general. It is important to note what repertoire was studied. Most of the
pieces were either short, or rock/jazz based with two classical students even having
credited “Jethro Tull”4 with their exposure to new techniques. These 85 flutists had
performed various works with extended techniques, but most of the repertoire was at
an intermediate level. What was missing from 100% of the flutists was any advanced
work or work of the new complexity5. Also, appearing only once was the Luciano
Berio’s Sequenza I, (1958) and no one had played any work of Pierre Boulez.

Theodor W. Adorno, the noted music philosopher, criticized musical development
in his 1964 essay Difficulties by saying, “[…] the composers themselves, but now
with musical intent, make music as regressive as the people who hear it already
are.” He continues, “Nevertheless, it must want to reach people. For even in its
most inaccessible form, it is a social entity and is threatened with irrelevance as

4 Ian Anderson is a Scottish flutist who plays “rock flute” in the band “Jethro Tull.”
5 The new complexity is a compositional movement dating from approximately 1970. Compositions are known for using
dense notation incorporating poly-rhythms, extended techniques and microtonality thus making the scores highly demanding
and sometimes unplayable for the performer.

soon as that thread to the listener is broken off.”6 Although written prior to the
compositions played by many of these flutists, this comment is still applicable. In
the United States, there is a big movement to make contemporary music “fun” and
“accessible.” It has worked, to a point. The problem is moving students beyond the
fun pieces to include repertoire that represents various compositional movements
and styles.

This decidedly more complex repertoire asks musicians to play with extended
techniques for which there is abundant, though only preliminary, guidance. The
pedagogical materials in print are like dictionaries, defining the extended
techniques with a few hints as to how one puts them into practice. The teaching
manuals of Robert Dick7 are more like encyclopedias. The Other Flute (1975) First
Edition) is an invaluable reference book, written with the mind of a scientist,
categorizing thousands of new sound possibilities. His etudes, Flying Lessons
Volumes I (1987), prepare flutists to play his own works. However, they leave
students ill-equipped to tackle the music of composers such as Heinz Holliger,
Salvatore Sciarrino or Brian Ferneyhough. There is not a comparable approach
aimed at complex compositions.

Regarding the remaining 102 flutists who have not yet encountered any new
music, one must wonder what the reason is. When even those pursuing a career in
music have not played the music of our time, one notes the battle that composers
face. The editors of Source magazine, a magazine devoted to publishing new
scores, had the following comment:

“Since, by definition, the avant-garde is at the ‘growing edge’ of music, new scores
must be published and circulated while their concepts are fresh, not years after the
composition. [...] In this way, everyone gains true perspective, and music

6 Theodor W. A D O R N O, Essays on Music (2002) University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, P. 674
7 Robert Dick is known is a predominant forerunner in the development of teaching manuals for extended techniques. His
three books, The Other Flute, Tone Development through Extended Techniques and Circular Breathing for the Flutist are the
first and most complete books to date. His publisher is MMB Music in St. Louis, MO.

advances.”8 It is ironic that new music is still defined as compositions after 1945 or
1950. Some universities still define the modern component of an admissions test
as to include a work of the twentieth century. The education of new music has
fallen behind; there is a lot of catching up to do. The magazine’s commentary

While it is a fact is that not everyone-least of all professional
musicians and educators - wants to make an effort to gain ‘true
perspective,’ it is equally true that new music will advance and
eventually take over the most conservative citadels of learning-for
the simple reason that it always has, always does, and always will
do so.9

But, how do flutists tackle this work? Many students are left alone, lacking the
resources they have to learn traditional repertoire. Furthermore, psychological
barriers to performance of works using experimental techniques are much greater
in a traditional recital setting, whereas performances being held in the company of
like-minded professionals are much more readily understood and accepted. This
makes the integration of new music into the traditional conservatory studio that
much more difficult. Pierre Boulez’s comments hit the bull’s eye.

What is in fact taught at a conservatory? A certain number of
traditional rules, very limited dates and geographical
provenance; after which the student wanting to enter the
contemporary field must, as it were, jump with a miniature
parachute, taking his life in his hands. How many are brave
enough to make that jump? And how many feel strong

8 Gilbert C H A S E, Review: New Sources for New Music (1967), Anuario, Vol. 3, p. 80
9 Ibid. p. 80

10, Retrieved March 3, 2008
12 Harry P A R T C H, Original Preface to “Genesis of a Music”, (1947) University of Wisconsin Press,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

The vast majority of conservatories and universities fall short in assisting such a
jump. During the study mentioned above, some respondents were university
teachers who answered on behalf of their students. Some of those who do not
teach modern repertoire said that it was not needed for their students’ careers.
Others said that their students were not ready. One said that she does not see that
her students will need new music, as they are majoring in music education. Harry
Partch in his Genesis of a Music (1947) writes about this very idea, that of

It is not difficult for the alert student to acquire the traditional
techniques. Under the pressures of study these are
unconsciously and all too easily absorbed. The extent to which
an individual can resist being blindly led by tradition is a good
measure of his vitality.11

This same idea can also explain why there is comparatively little new music being
taught. Partch calls it unconscious. Music students spend hours practicing in small
practice rooms adjacent to one another. A common aesthetic penetrates the walls.
In an environment where new music is scarce, it makes it that much more difficult
to inject it into the thinking of the students. It is a nice idea to think that students
should resist being “blindly led by tradition.” However, they do need to succeed in
their careers. Without some institutional support, most will not know where to begin
and simply fail. Students will benefit from questioning tradition, but they will do
much better when teachers give them tools to do so.

Partch’s comments continue. To expound on what he is saying one might
substitute the word tradition with convention.

Traditions remain undisturbed when we say: let us improve
ourselves; let us become better pianists, teachers, conductors,

better composers. They remain undisturbed when we say: let us
increase the knowledge and appreciation of "good" music.
Traditions remain undisturbed, uninvestigated, and therefore a
culture of music based upon such palpably noble precepts is
already senile […] A phalanx of good pianists, good teachers,
good composers, and ‘good’ music no more creates a spirit of
investigation and a vital age in music than good grades in
school create a spirit of investigation and a body of thinking
citizens. […] Good grades in school are the result of a less
commendable ability, and no aspect of the musical scene could
be more depressing than the prospect that those with the ability
to get good grades in school, to copy others, to absorb and
apply traditions with facility, shall hold the fort of ‘good’ music.12

What can be abstracted from this quote is that it is not how well students are
taught to play, but how they are challenged beyond music. Students need to learn
to think critically. They need to look for their own solutions. This is vital in all fields
of music, especially in music education. When this isn’t developed, the pattern
repeats itself. Discussions with colleagues have led to some comments about the
“conspiracy” of education. This may or may not be true. What it does reflect is the
passion of those who immerse themselves in new music. It reflects the uphill battle
they feel and the lack of support they have.

Regardless of the student’s technical facility with the instrument, exposure to new
music, complex music and music’s current development is necessary to educate
the next generation. As was said before, questioning is the first step, but simply
requiring students to play new repertoire would be throwing them to the wolves.

The goal of this dissertation is to lay out a new teaching method. This will give
teachers and students the needed tools, enabling repertoire that is largely
inaccessible in traditional conservatories and universities. Teaching new music is
still done by an elite few, the “new music specialists.” Specialists will always be

12 Ibid.

needed, but the intention of the dissertation is to bring the rest of the flutists up to

Building a Bridge to Influence Learning:

The Student/Teacher Relationship:

Rather than merely assigning new music to students, the author advocates
developing a rapport with them by understanding their situation. There are two
groups of flutists for whom the dissertation is written: those who have not played
music with extended techniques, and those who have but at an intermediate level.
The first section of the dissertation seeks to connect these two groups of flutists
with an intensified interest in new music. A review of a masterclass gives flutists
something to relate to. This intends to show them that they are not alone in their

The dissertation continues by letting them know that despite the strong opinions,
the lack of new music being performed is not their “fault.” There is a basic problem
with dissemination of information that has made it difficult to succeed. The
mainstream repertoire lists are misleading. An amended list and a discussion of
repertoire follows. This list integrates repertoire into all phases of flute study, from
beginner to professional.


The next chapter presents uses of extended techniques in diagnosing other
problems. This will show that one need not wait until the end of one’s musical
education to learn new skills. This section gives the flutist a context in which
extended techniques can be positively used. The goal is to increase extrinsic

motivation, by offering tangible results, to those who have shied away from new
music because they felt they were “not ready.”

Moving into more difficult repertoire, the need for a new mindset encourages
flutists to approach new music with a sense of purpose. This is meant to inspire
students to move beyond their comfort zones by showing them a value to new
music that may have been unfamiliar. A short discussion about professionalism
follows. This chapter serves to influence intrinsic motivation.

Approaching New Works and Goal Setting:

The groundwork is then laid for getting down to business. Preliminary steps toward
approaching new scores are listed. A discussion of inconsistencies in notation is
followed by practical guidelines for understanding notation and interpreting new
scores. This section moves step by step to encourage realistic goal setting.
Overall, this first section seeks to lessen anxiety by providing motivational factors
along with practical applications.

Teaching the Techniques:

Moving into teaching the individual techniques, the author has developed a
scheme that distinguishes between cognitive and kinesthetic practice. Because
learning new music is like learning a new language, such categories can help the
student understand the task at hand. Presenting the techniques in this way intends
to focus practice by preparing students for the work of each technique.

Cognitive-Based Techniques:

The author defines cognitive-based techniques as those that require work before
they are practiced on the flute. Microtonality and rhythm are two complicated ideas
in new music. Students benefit from understanding them intellectually first. Some

of the practice with these techniques needs to be done with pen and paper,
mapping out the rhythms and intervals. However, by way of gentle introduction,
flutists read a short and fun introduction to improvisation. This is meant to stimulate
learning from the start by presenting a right-brained13 task. The cognitive-based
techniques – microtonality and rhythm – are then presented along with practice tips
and repertoire suggestions.

Kinesthetic Techniques: Extended Techniques to Build Body Awareness:

Kinesthetic techniques are those best learned by physically doing them. Later, the
flutist can refine the movement as they are practiced. The ordering of the
kinesthetic-based techniques in the next section builds body awareness as the
techniques increase in physical difficulty. The “standard” extended techniques are
taught in sections that gradually increase the awareness of projection and
resonance. These groupings are borrowed techniques, vocal techniques,
percussive effects and new uses of air. Each group gradually moves further away
from traditional playing regarding projection. Thus, each group requires
increasingly more energy and air. This approach lets students build on their own
experiences. Practice suggestions along with examples of literature enhance the
readers understanding of the execution of the techniques.

Building Endurance:

The last section of the dissertation addresses an often neglected topic in the new
music world, that of stamina.14 A lot has been written, the problem has been
discussed, but the solutions have only been on an individual basis. This section

13 Right-brained tasks are known as being intuitive or imaginitive. This is also called brain lateralization. Information can be
found from:Roger W. S P E R R Y, Nobel Lecture: Some Effects of Disconnecting the Cerebral Hemispheres. December 8,
1981. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
14 Stamina in this sense means the physical capability to play a specific piece of music without fatigue or a loss of skill.

adapts principals from sports science and provides a complete plan for stamina
which focuses on Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e) (1980-83) for solo flute.

Aim of the Dissertation:

Overall, the dissertation brings students step by step to repertoire that has been
seldom studied. Teachers are given the tools they need to accompany their
students in discovering this new language. Traditional playing will benefit with
increased tone colors and phrasing possibilities and new repertoire opens doors for
more varied expression.

II. Building a Bridge to Influence Learning

II.1. Understanding the Obstacles

In this first section, common obstacles to or within the study of new music are
discussed. The author begins by reviewing a masterclass she gave. The feeling in
this class echoes many of the answers given on the questionnaires. This section
pinpoints where the real work of extended techniques begins.

The next section deals with problems of repertoire lists. Many students are forging
their way alone, or with teachers who do not have wide knowledge and experience
in new music. The repertoire discussion helps them asses their current level and
then provides a road map to guide them from “A to Z.”

II.1.a. Common Experiences: Observations from a Masterclass

Reinforcing the findings from the questionnaires was the author’s experience giving
a masterclass. This illustration is included to go into further detail about how
extended techniques and new scores could be received by university level flutists.

On June 15th, 2007, the author was invited by Professor Herbert Weissberg to give
a masterclass in extended techniques for his students at the Oberschützen

Expositur of the Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz, Austria. After
instruction and time for experimentation with the extended techniques themselves,
the class moved on to Viktor Fortin’s No Problem, 14 Easy Duets with annotations
and commentaries by Arno Steinwider-Johannsen (2006).

These duets are meant for intermediate level students which made them easily
sight-readable at the university level. While working on the duets, the following
issues on the execution of extended techniques came up:

1. The issue of an appropriate speed of flutter tongue.
2. Coordination with key clicks.
3. Weak diaphragm movements in tongue ram.
4. Intonation while playing harmonics.
5. After the “fun” techniques were learned, the transition to “work” with
deciphering new scores was difficult.

1. Two flutists played “Kittens”, the duet in the collection that emphasis key clicks
and flutter tongue. Although the flutter tongue was easily produced, it did give them
something to work on. In the score it is described as a “cat’s purr.” One covers the
entire embouchure hole and flutters into the closed embouchure hole. Discussed
was an appropriate speed and pressure of the flutter tongue in this piece, as one
flutists’ production made the kitten sound a bit too angry, or not kitten-like at all.
Moving the tongue away from the teeth and further back into the mouth while
decreasing the amount of air blown gives the flutter tongue a lighter sound.
Actually, in this instance, one can use much less air than in normal flute playing as
the aim is not to produce any tone.

2. The key clicks also showed a typical temptation among flutists which is to put
the flute down while playing them. The flute must stay in playing position for the
correct pitch to sound. When it is moved away from the mouth, it sounds a minor

second higher. When it is moved in any way that covers the embouchure hole, it
sounds a major seventh lower. One flutist playing key clicks for the first time found
it difficult to coordinate them without blowing into the flute as she is used to. In
order to compensate, she put the flute down.

The duet is composed tonally and melodically with the key clicks and flutter tongue
adding humor. The reaction from both flutists at the end of the first reading was
laughter and high-fives.

3. The next duet played was the eighth in the collection, “The Tongue-Breaker.”
This short, one page duet emphasizes tongue-ram. The melody is meant to be
swung and is again tonal and melodic. The duet teaches the amount of diaphragm
movement needed in order to have the tongue ram sound at an appropriate
volume. The tongue ram is set against a low register flute melody that could be
played at its’ softest as mezzo piano. The dynamic isn’t marked in the score, but
with a swung Db major melody, the hushed feel if a piano or a pianissimo isn’t the
right character.

The tongue ram, however, sounds extremely soft in comparison with the normal
flute tone. In order for the opening quarter note to sound intentional and not like a
mistake, one must use an exaggerated contraction of the diaphragm. This insures
that enough air gets into the embouchure hole before it gets cut off by the tongue.
Because of the altered playing position, without a forceful thrust of air, the flute’s
tube will not resonate.

The flutists playing this duet found the tongue ram easy to execute when playing
alone. However, when it was added into the duet it was barely audible. The duet
shows the students that new playing techniques are much more physical and that
they need a higher energy level in their lessons. This experience alone can only be
beneficial when returning back to traditional repertoire.

4. The other duets played during this class were “Parrots’ Tete-a-tete” and “Hard
and Soft”. These duets use bisbigliando15 fingerings and harmonics. Noteworthy
was the discussion of intonation. Playing these effects in a tonal context made it
easy to hear the intonation difficulties. One flutist was tempted to turn the flute
inwards to produce the harmonics. Young flutists will sometimes turn the flute
inwards in order to reach the high register. This was probably on old habit that
reappeared in a more difficult context. Turning the flute in limits resonance and
makes the tones very flat. One must push the lips and jaw forward to keep a
constant color. Working on these duets would result in more control over intonation
in general. Harmonic fingerings and the altered fingerings of bisbigliandi force one
to listen outside of the flute’s usual scale. One must compensate for greater
intonation difficulties thus resulting in more embouchure flexibility.

5. As the masterclass continued, the predicted resistance was felt when the scores
became more complex. The problems were not with Fortin’s method, nor with the
techniques themselves. That was fun. The problem was moving into a modern
score. That was done with T_ru Takemitsu’s Voice (1971). The notation is much
more modern from that of Fortin. Advanced students are used to reading music at
sight and not giving any time to notation. In this particular class, they were
impatient during this process. The students were asked to try each technique. They
were reluctant to do so. The introduction of new notation was like hitting a brick
wall and the enthusiasm gained through the duets was lost.

One of the drawbacks of studying new music is that one must spend quite a bit of
time becoming familiar with the explanation of notation found in the beginning of
the score. During this class, several remarked that the difficulty is that one can not
imagine what the piece will sound like. Recordings are often not available. Robert
Dick has solved this problem by providing audio cassettes video recordings where
he teaches his own pieces. This is enormously helpful, but one can not expect to
find this for every piece in the repertoire. Students should know that this lack of

15 This is another term for timbral trills

help has real consequences. In a study done by Schoenfelder-Zohodi, the
following chart shows how difficult it was for students to perform a new task without
a visual model. The graphs represent the relationship of the hip and knee joints
while performing on a ski simulator. The first graph is that of from the person who
watched a skilled demonstration after one day of practice. The second graph is that
of someone who did not have demonstration model.

Figure 1.
Richard A. Magill, Motor Learning and Control

The graph is almost comical. It is no wonder that students feel lost without
someone to show them what to do.

Concluding Remarks:
It is not uncommon for students who have already reached a high level to be in a
learning plateau. Teachers looking to introduce new scores would benefit from this
insight. Mixing originality and fun with practical goal setting can help lessen the
resistance to move forward.16 Also, the need for a disproportionate amount of
cognitive work before one can begin to practice, let alone perform a piece, can be
overwhelming. Students would benefit from a structured repertoire list that first,
allows them to asses where they currently are and second, shows them a forward
moving path without radical jumps in difficulty.

II.1.b. Moving into Modern Repertoire; the Need for a New Grading

While there are repertoire lists that list difficulty of pieces with extended techniques,
none integrate the pieces with traditional repertoire. This makes it difficult for
students to accurately asses where they are order the steps they might take to
move forward. This can be both frustrating and misleading. There is not a lack of
repertoire, only a lack of order.

What has been learned from the questionnaires in the first section is that the
experience of those who have played contemporary music was immensely
16 See section II.3.b., “Understanding Notation” for more help.

positive. Looking at the repertoire that is studied, it is easy to understand why.
These students have focused on pieces which are intended to teach. Notation is
clear, and the techniques are accessible. Many pieces were “pop” or “rock” based
falls in the intermediate category.

The question is: how do students then move forward playing works of increasing
complexity? The repertoire guides currently in print can be misguiding as they
compile all pieces with extended techniques into the most difficult category. A well-
known catalogue17 lists all extended techniques as a level five, beyond the most
difficult concerti of Jacques Ibert and Carl Nielson. It is no wonder why some feel
that they are “not ready” for extended techniques.

The following is a discussion of repertoire and recommendations for each level of
flute study.18 As has been said earlier, extended techniques need not be relegated
to this last category. In fact, there is repertoire that can be integrated into every
level. The research done on this section showed a surprising amount of resources
especially for intermediate to early advanced students. Using an existing grading
scale, the suggestions have been added to better integrate extended techniques.

Existing Graded Repertoire List19 Author’s Suggested Changes
Easy - beginning, elementary, early junior Easy - Extended techniques are
high, rhythms to eighth notes, limited introduced playfully and without
range, less complex key signature accompanying technical challenges.

17 The Flute World Music Library uses a sheet music grading system found here, www.flute Retrieved June 23,
18 In the appendices is a representative list for each level. The list is crafted to eliminate radical jumps in difficulty or musical
19 Sheet Music Grading,, Retrieved March 3, 2008

Intermediate - junior high, early high Intermediate - Extended techniques fit
school; range generally to 2 1/2 octaves, into the technical challenges of this level.
more complex rhythms and musical Slow introduction of new meters such as
demands, easy ornamentation; e.g.: 5/8 and 7/8. Range stays within 2 _
Telemann ‘Sonatas’, ‘Melodious & octaves.
Progressive bk.I’

Moderately Difficult - high school, early Moderately Difficult - Repertoire includes
college; increased demands in solo pieces but avoids rapid microtonal
interpretation, rhythm, key, range, passages and highly complex rhythms.
technique; e.g.: J.S. Bach ‘Sonatas’, Pieces are based on familiar styles.
Mozart ‘Concerti’
Advanced - college, conservatory; Advanced - Repertoire includes most
extended range; technically and extended techniques and requires a highly
interpretively complex, but generally sophisticated sense of interpretation and
written within the confines of traditional presentation. Circular breathing and
notation and performance methods works of extreme complexity are omitted
from this category.

Extremely Difficult - Technically difficult; Extremely Difficult - Repertoire could
may make use of extended techniques or include quick microtonal passages,
nontraditional notation systems. circular breathing, complex poly-rhythms,
extended use of the 4th octave, high level
of stamina.

Repertoire Level Discussion:

The author has accumulated repertoire that can be inserted into the model in the
previous chart.

Level One Repertoire

Phyllis Avidan Louke has written two volumes for extended techniques suitable for
beginners even in their first year of study. The first is Extended Techniques-Double
the Fun (2003) written in a playful style with short duets lasting about one minute
each. Her second book of is Extended Techniques-Solos for Fun (2006) in which
the piano accompaniment can be substituted for a second flute part. A beginning
flutist could play the second flute part and gain exposure to extended techniques
while another student or teacher plays the upper line. The pieces are descriptive
and seek to involve the student’s creativity early. One piece called “Fright Night”
asks for experimentation making “spooky noises on the flute”.20 21 It also uses wind
noises and pitch bends which a beginner can have fun with. The idea of teaching
pitch bending to a beginner is also beneficial as it introduces intonation early on. In
her duet book, she writes “Chopsticks” and “Horse Trot” for two flutes using only
key clicks. The benefit of these books is not necessarily for the execution of
extended techniques, but rather for fostering the imagination of a developing young

Level Two Repertoire
In level two, Phyllis Louke’s methods could be continued. To add to them are Linda
Holland’s, Easing into Extended Techniques (2000) and No Problem (2006) by
Viktor Fortin. Linda Holland has written five volumes focusing on microtones,

20 Phyllis Avidan L O U K E, Extended Techniques,, Retrieved February 25, 2008
21 Incidentally, this piece could also be an introduction to T_ru Takemitsu’s Voice.

harmonics, multiphonics, bends and slides and singing while playing. She writes,
“The non-virtuosic nature of the music allows flutists of an intermediate level and
above to ease into these important 20th century sounds."22 Viktor Fortin’s book
also has one duet focusing on each technique. It is written in a range for an
intermediate flutist and can be played with either a teacher or a fellow student as
both duet parts are equally written. The flutists take turns with the techniques and
are given a break between them with traditional writing. The above methods can
also be used for much more advanced students who have not yet had any
experience with extended techniques. There is room for growth in them. A
beginning student might just find the new noises fun, but a more advanced student
could work on refining the effects for a more cohesive musical statement. Above
all, the works discussed here are enjoyable and creative.

Level Three Repertoire

By the time a student reaches high school, there are many pieces which can be
studied. Robert Dick’s works fit nicely into this category. He has written some jazz
and rock based pieces that serve to bridge a student into the world of modern
music without overwhelming them. He details the playing instructions meticulously
and the scores are very user-friendly. All of the alternate fingerings are notated

22 Larry K R A N T Z, Instructional Materials,, Retrieved March 3, 2008

right in the part. The print is large and the rhythms are simple. However, these
pieces can challenge students as they must re-orient themselves with new
fingerings and playing styles. His pieces require some improvisation and high
degree of interpretive involvement. From the questionnaire respondents, these
were the pieces most often played.

Lookout is a “rock” piece written for the National Flute Association’s 1989 High
School Soloist Competition. Flying Lessons Volume I (1987) and Flying Lessons
Volume II (1987) fit here as well. Other choices, depending on the preferences of
the player, are Techno Yaman (2001), a piece based on a traditional Indian Raga
played with a drum machine, and Or (1981), and introspective piece using small
interval multiphonics. Students who enjoyed Debussy’s Syrinx (1913) could
continue with works of Giacinto Scelsi or Kuzuo Fukushima. These pieces require
very little with extended techniques but introduce a style that is more in line with
classical playing. Scelsi wrote a solo flute piece, Pwyll (1954) and a solo alto flute
piece, Quays (1953) which can also be played on the C flute. Fukushima’s Mei
(1962) uses extended techniques sparsely and slowly. Where the pieces of Robert
Dick can help break a student out of the box, these pieces refine a more
sophisticated musical interpretation.

Level Four Repertoire

As said earlier, the questionnaires showed that the repertoire knowledge was very
limited at this level. Some pre-requisites should be considered before a student

furthers their study in this level. They would be: at least one work of Robert Dick,
Density 21.5 (1936) by Edgard Varèse and Le Merle Noir (1952) by Olivier
Messiaen. An advanced college student who has played these pieces should be
able to continue an even development into more difficult repertoire.

Aurèle Nicolet has compiled a selection of short pieces, Pro Musica Nova: Studium
zum Spielen Neuer Musik für Flöte, which are increasingly difficult but nonetheless
concise. This collection introduces students to works which are a good pre-cursor
to studying longer works. Ein Hauch von Unzeit (1972) by Klaus Huber and Lied
(1971) by Heinz Holliger are both pieces to be noted. Also in this category, a
seminal work not to be missed is T_ru Takemitsu’s Voice (1971) Shirish Korde’s
Tenderness of Cranes (1991) is longer solo piece using pictorial images of
Japanese cranes in flight.

Level Five Repertoire

These are the pieces that were not mentioned by any of the respondents from the
questionnaires. The pieces contain polyrhythms, virtuosic microtonal passages,
quick interplay of techniques, circular breathing, and dense notation. Pieces at this

level do appear on competition lists and flutists lacking experience in level four
would have a difficult time learning them.

Written for the 2004 Internationaler Musikwettbewerb der ARD München, Georg
Friedrich Haas’s Finale (2004) is virtuosically microtonal. The majority of the piece
is fast with large leaps between quarter-tone intervals. The range of microtonality
incorporates all three octaves of the flute. Bernhard Lang’s Schrift I (2003)
alternates between many techniques very quickly and within difficult rhythms.
Breathing is also prescribed in certain sections. Lang uses a “loop” or “techno” feel
in his compositions that, for the listener, mask the intensity of the writing. The 2005
Jean-Pierre Rampal Flute Competition required a few pieces which fit into this
repertoire level. Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e) (1980-83) is often performed in new music
circles. Salvatore Sciarrino’s, L’opera per flauto (1977) is a long but rewarding work
for the most ambitious flutists. The works of Brian Ferneyhough prove to be at the
end of the complexity spectrum and are learned by flutists who are already
immersed in new music. They are philosophical and the scores are extremely
dense. He layers techniques on top of one another and he himself has said that
there are sections that are unplayable.

II.2. Building Motivation: Integrating Extended Techniques into the

After giving students and teachers the tools they need to asses where they are,
motivation to study new music still needs to be built. Rather than prescribing new
music like a hard to swallow medicine, the author shows other uses for extended

techniques that can bridge the player into the modern repertoire. The author seeks
to influence extrinsic motivation by offering a further incentive to learn extended
techniques; by using them to diagnose and solve problems with traditional
techniques. This shows that this practice has tangible rewards. Also, the first
experience with these new sounds will be productive and positive. This is an
excellent way to counter the bias against new music seen among many university
level flutists. In the forthcoming chapters, emphasis will be on building technique so
that awareness of both the body and instrument are brought to a higher level.

Influencing intrinsic motivation is a bit more abstract. The author has been inspired
by the writings of composers about music, and thus a new mindset has proved
very helpful. Also, the professionalism learned from others has given the author a
higher sense of purpose while studying new scores. She adds these chapters to
inspire flutists to play for new reasons that extend beyond their university


Extrinsic Intrinsic

Using Extended Techniques to Diagnose and Developing a New Mindset
Reframe Other Problems


II.2.a. Using Extended Techniques to Diagnose, Reframe and
Solve Other Problems

Extended Techniques can be used as strengthening exercises in traditional
repertoire. They can reframe practice for student who has been fruitlessly trying
something over and over again. There is no limit as to when they can be begin.
While many techniques take more energy, not all require the refined embouchure
control of traditional playing.23 Once the student is taught how to produce a
particular sound, it generally comes more easily and more quickly than a normal
embouchure does. In fact, non-flutists could learn some of the techniques more
quickly than they could learn to play a classical flute tone. This section addresses
some of the questionnaire respondent’s answers as to why they didn’t play new

23 The exceptions here are whistle tones, multiphonics and harmonics

music. Several said that they were not ready and sited specific problems with
embouchure. The author was inspired to write exercises for them using extended
techniques to solve their problems. By using modern techniques in this way, the
student’s first experience with them will be positive.

The following problems will be discussed and solutions with extended techniques
will be offered:

1. Low Energy

Jet Whistle Tongue Ram

2. Weak Articulation


3. Tight Embouchure

Multiphonics Air Sounds

4. Tight Chest

Uvular Flutter Tongue

5. Upper Octave

Intonation Loud Playing

Harmonics Singing and Playing

1. Low Energy:

For students with a low energy level, work with the diaphragm can open them up
and eventually their sound as well. Jet whistle is the most accessible example.
Students can be taught to blow a lot of air without focusing on the resulting sound.
Done as a quick warm-up, jet whistle gets the diaphragm moving and wakes up the
body. The teacher can guide the student into using more and more air each time
until the diaphragm is pushing as hard as it can. From there, experimentation can
be done by adding fingers, rolling the head joint, changing the mouth position or
with consecutive jet whistles.

The second technique that can be used for an inactive diaphragm is tongue-ram.
The tongue ram will not sound at an acceptable volume level if the diaphragm does
not give a real punch. It can be practiced playing one at a time and then progress
to consecutive tones and finally a full scale.

2. Weak Articulation:

Tongue pizzicato can be taught to students who tongue poorly. Tongue pizzicato
requires a quick and explosive motion of the tongue that can show different
variances of pressure that the tongue can make. Another benefit to the teacher is
that both tongue pizzicato and tongue ram can be practiced without the flute,
making the tongue visible. A teacher can solve many problems by showing the
student differences with the speed of the tongue in a mirror.

3.Tight Embouchure:

For loosening a “tight” or “smiling” embouchure, multiphonics can help. Because
both tones can not be reached with a tight embouchure, the flutist must learn to
relax the lips making a taller embouchure that accommodates both tones.

Also useful in loosening up tight lips are air sounds. For a student with an
extremely tight or biting embouchure, experimenting with air sounds can challenge
the belief that the tone must be extremely focused in order to project. The problem
with a biting embouchure is that the tone does not have enough air to resonate in a
room. The flutist playing this way often does not believe this because from where
they stand, the tone sounds very focused and clear. A listener in the back of a
room will hear it differently. A tone with some air mixed in will resonate more. To
prove this point, the student could be given a piece with all air sounds. A recording
will show that everything was heard. The resonance of the flute tube along with the
resonance of an open mouth and chest are what make these tones audible.

4. Tight Chest

For opening up a tight chest, a uvular flutter tongue can be taught. The flutist can
begin the exercise by becoming aware of the chest cavity expanding, and the
flutter can be added. This technique doesn’t work at all when the chest is closed.
The student can practice without the flute and add in the low tones later. The

exercises moving in and out of tone found in section could be used to show the
student when the chest is too tight.

5. Upper Octave

For developing embouchure and intonation control, harmonics are invaluable.
Intonation is the most difficult in the upper octave. Practicing harmonic fingerings
and then adjusting the corresponding real pitch gives the embouchure a work-out
in flexibility. They also soften the lips for more control.

For more pitch control, singing while playing has obvious benefits. Beyond the
practice finding specific pitches, it helps develop a very quiet third octave. It is
impossible to use a lot of air while singing and playing, so flutists learns to control
the notes with the speed of the air, not volume of air. This strengthens the lips and
makes a pianissimo possible.

II.2.a.1. Exercises: Extended Techniques for Diagnosing and
Correcting Other Problems

Low energy, inactive diaphragm:

The jet whistles require all the air you have. Try to mimic this energy when
switching to the tongue rams. The diaphragm movement is highly exaggerated

Intonation in the third octave:

When harmonic fingerings aren’t given, use whichever you choose. However, try to
match the pitch of all the same sounding tone, regardless of fingering.

Loud third octave:

By singing the lower pitches, you are forced to play with minimal air. This requires
an exact embouchure position to reach the high notes. They will sound quiet when
they do sound.

Smiling or tight embouchure:

To reach both tones, finger the lower note and depress both trill keys. For both
tones to sound, make the embouchure vertical instead of horizontal.

Move in and out of air sounds, following the dynamic markings.

Weak tonguing:

For these pizzicato tones to sound, exaggerate the movement of the tongue. No air
is moving through the flute, so the force of the tongue has to make up for that.
Every attack should be all you can give.

In this second exercise, bring the energy into the normal tones in measure two.

Tight chest:

Any practice with a uvular flutter tongue opens up the chest. With a tight chest, it
simply does not sound. This can be done with or without the flute.
Place a hand on your chest and flutter as low down in the chest as you can with a
soft “ha”. To get it going, try beginning by inhaling. Switch to exhaling and finally,
add the flute on a long low G. Keep the register low and the tones quiet until the
technique becomes easy.
Figure 2.
Jennifer Borkowski, Exercises: Extended Techniques for Diagnosing and
Correcting Other Problems

Concluding Remarks:

Often, a student with a problem is not able to hear it. Putting it into a different
context can open up the ear. A student doesn’t need to exactly duplicate these
energies when returning to traditional repertoire. However, using new muscles, or
old muscles in new ways, opens up the body for greater resonance and variations
of tone color. Trust that these techniques open up new body awareness.

II.2.b. Developing a New Mindset: A Higher Sense of Purpose

The effort that is required to grasp new music is not one of
abstract knowledge, nor is it the acquaintance with some
system or other, with theorems, much less with mathematical
procedures. It is essentially imagination, what Kierkegaard
called the speculative ear.24

Kierkegaard’s reference to the speculative ear comes from the chapter “The
Immediate Stages of the Erotic or the Musical Erotic” in “Either/Or; A Fragment of
Life” where he discusses Don Giovanni. In Elvira’s first act aria “Ah! Chi mi dice
mai”, she is furious and outraged at Don Giovanni as he seduces her. Kierkegaard
suggests that this duality should not be outwardly portrayed, but “should be
concealed in Elvira’s essential passion.”25

Divergent forces in the modern sense may be more complex than love and
indignation. It also presumably goes beyond the simultaneous
listening/internalizing the music and the “how did they do that” of extended

24 Theodor A D O R N O, Essays in Music, P. 674
25 Ibid. P. 679

Adorno asserts that to grasp modern music what is needed is
essentially fantasy […] He points out the ways in which […]
subjective capacity that would enable individuals to grasp
modern music, i.e. the speculative ear and appropriate ways of
paying attention or concentrating, are made difficult by that
society's life conditions.26

Paying attention and concentration are challenged in new music in a way they are
not in, for example, a Sonata of Beethoven. Saying nothing of classical forms,
tonality alone provides structure and timing that classically trained musicians are
familiar with. One senses about how long the piece will be and senses when a
piece is surprisingly too short or to long. The first hearing of the repeated cadences
in the 4th movement of Beethoven’s 5 th Symphony might be humorous, or
annoying, but are recognizable as cadences. One can afford to lose track of a
development section because the recapitulation brings the listener back. The
listener can chose to focus on the nuances of tone, the stage presence, or on the
program notes, and can always jump back into the piece. In Chopin’ Piano Sonata
No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op. 35, one hears the final presto, after the intense funeral
march, as surprisingly too short. It is as if the mind unconsciously kept track of the
time and hears that the balance is off. We hear not only from the beginning to the
end, but from the past to the present. This creates tension between what we hear,
and what we expect.

Musicians are trained to hear form, but in music where the form is all fantasy, the
mind must remain present. The experience is analogous to listening to a foreign
language for which one has limited knowledge. The cognates used and context of
the conversation can give clues as to what the conversation is about. But the
listener can find out that those filled-in blanks were wrong, and listen again more
intently. When he or she gives up however, the chance of re-entering the
conversation is very slim. The language of each new music composer is new and

26 Jeremy J. S H A P I R O, Still Searching for Lost Time, Film-Philosophy (July 2005), International Salon-Journal (ISSN
1466-4615) Vol. 9, Number 39

often without tonal clues. The only choice is to remain present and follow the
development of each tone.

The speculative ear can hear dualities, process a new sound language and
appreciate the shadings of color by the performer. This type of concentration, or
thoughtful immersion, is also another type of hearing.

Helmut Lachenmann27 describes his experience with the sense of hearing as
Fourteen Years ago, 1971, at the Stuttgart Theory Congress, at
the time of the student riots, I titled my thesis, “Hearing is
worthless without thinking.” In 1978, seven years later, I refined
and augmented it, “Hearing is worthless without feeling,” and
through this description, I tried to make the terms hearing,
thinking and feeling more precise regarding their conditional
relationship to each other. Today, after seven more years, my
faith in the language is tarnished-often it is in the way-and so I
say now, hearing is worthless without hearing.28

Because this form of discerning hearing does not offer itself
impartially, first it must be laid open. To lay open means to clear
27 Helmut Lachenmann is a German composer, Darmstadt lecturer and appointed professor at Harvard University.
28 L A C H E N M A N N, Helmut,
““Hören ist wehrlos – ohne Hören”, Über Möglichkeiten und Schwierigkeiten” in Musik als
existentielle Erfahrung Schriften 1966-1995, edited by Josef Häusler (2004) Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden, p. 117 Original
German Text: Vor vierzehn Jahren, 1971, beim Stuttgart Theorienkongress, zur Zeit der Studentenunruhen, hieß ich meine

These: „Hören ist wehrlos ohen Denken.“ 1978, sieben Jarhe später, knüpfte ich daran und ergäntzte: Hören ist wehrlos
ohne Fühlen“ und versuchte durch diese Beschreibung der Bedingungen des Hörens Denken und Fühlen als einander
bedingend zu präzisieren. Heute, nach weiterern sieben Jahren, ist mein Vertrauen in die Sprache angeschlagen-auch sie
ist oft selbst im Weg, und so sage ich jetzt nur noch: „Hören ist wehrlos – öhne Hören.“
30 L A C H E N M A N N, Ibid. P. 117, Original Text: „Denn solche Form des wahrnehmenden Hörens bietet sich nicht
unbefangen an, sie must erst freigelegt werden. Freilegen aber heißt, Daschwischenliegendes wegräumen, jene in der
Gesellschaft vorgegebenen dominierenden Hörgewöhnheiten, Hörkategorien außer Kraft setzen, aussperren. Hören ist
schliesslich etwas anderes als verständnissinniges Zuhören, es meint: anders hören, in sich neue Antennen, neue
Sensorien, neue Sensibilitäten entdecken, heißt also auch, seine eigene Veränderbarkeit entdecken und sie der so erst
bewusst machen.“
31 Thomas S H E E H A N, Hermeneia and Apophansis, the early Heidegger on Aristotle (1988) Franco Volpi et al.,
Heidegger et idée de la phenomenologie, Dordrecht: Kluwer, P. 76
32 New York School, liner notes, 1992 Hat Hut Records

out that which lies in between; for everyone in the society to
unlock the preexisting dominant hearing practices and
categories of hearing except for composing energy. Finally,
hearing is something different than listening to understand
content. It is, hearing differently, to discover within oneself new
antennae, new sensory information and new sensibilities. It also
means to discover your own changeability.29

In preparing works for study and performance, attaining a new frequency for
creative work is key. To borrow a term from Arnold Gehlen “world openness” is an
essential element in creativity. Thomas Sheehen likens world-openness to pathos.
He calls it “the ability to have the world appear to one, as Heidegger puts it, to be
captured by the world.”30 This involves openness to the world of sound, and to the
complimentary arts, which “lend one another new energies”.31 This requires the
flutist to step out of the box. The ideals of beauty, refinement, and elegance from
the flute’s bel canto roots no longer apply.

Digressing into an analogy from the 1950’s theater of the absurd, Eugène
Ionesco’sThe Chairs, A Tragic Farse, clearly relates to the divergent elements
heard and seen by the speculative ear and eye. The play is simply an old man and
old woman setting up chairs while they wait for a great orator to come. When he
comes, he is deaf and mute and scribbles nonsense on a chalkboard. When the
actor does this, the audience is not judging his acting technique as faulty because
he does not speak. They get it. It is funny, or scary, but they get it. It is not really
him, and does not negatively reflect on his years of diction training. It is his part in a
play. The audience listening to a flutist may indeed wonder why the player cannot
produce a clear tone, or can’t seem to get a decent breath. They may think that the
performer was not skilled enough to pull it off. (They may be right!) Some pieces
will ask for sounds that are “crass” and embarrassing.

The feeling that what one is doing is important, or even urgent, must be tactile.

Schopenhauer’s aphorism on philosophy and poetry is an apt analogy:

The poet presents the imagination with images from life and
human characters and situations, sets them all in motion and
leaves it to the beholder to let these images take his thoughts as
far as his mental powers will permit. That is why he is able to
engage men of the most differing capabilities, indeed fools and
sages together. The philosopher, on the other hand, presents
not life itself but he finished thoughts which he has extracted
from it and then demands that the reader should think precisely
as far as, he himself thinks. That is why his public is so small.
The poet can thus be compared with one who presents flowers,
the philosopher with one who presents their essence.32

This is a creative challenge. Being captured by the world, not being able to rest
until this is nourished will carry one through.

Peter Röbke asks a poignant question serving to reframe the thinking of students
facing new music for the first time. He says,

The central pedagogical question is: What expressive areas are
opened to me by works of the twentieth century? […] because
when I clear these things in a piece, I strengthen myself; to the
degree that I deepen my understanding of a composition, I
deepen and distinguish my ability to be expressive.33

32 Arthur S C H O P E N H A U E R, Essays and Aphorisms, (1970) Penguin Books Ltd, London. P. 118
33 Peter R Ö B K E, Vom Handwerk zur Kunst, Didktische Grundlagen des Intrumentalunterrichts, (2000) Schott Musik
International, Mainz, P. 144, Original German Text:
“Die Zentrale Diddaktische Frage lautet im folgenden: Welche
Ausdrucksmöglichkeiten eröffnen mir werke des 20. Jahrhunderts? […] denn indem ich die Sache kläre, stärke ich mich
selbst; indem ich mich in die Kopositionen vertiefe, vertiefe und differenziere ich meine Ausdrucksfähigkeit.

II.2.c. Professionalism: Looking for Love

The lessons learned from Carin Levine about professionalism are worth a mention.
Throughout the dissertation, most of the pieces discussed are well composed with
full knowledge of the flute’s capabilities. When one works with composers,
however, it is common to find some who are still developing. Where this entire
dissertation seeks to fill a gap in the flute pedagogy, composers need such
information about all of the instruments. Carin Levine has taken an active role in
performing works of young composers. For composers to learn, musicians must be
willing to help. That means sometimes playing things that are not playable and
tactfully addressing technical concerns in private. She writes:

My work with young composers is one of the most important activities for
me at this time. After performing innumerable new works over the past
years, I believe that I can offer the young composers an immense
amount of information both on a practical and theoretical level.

It is extremely important that the young composers themselves
understand exactly what they have written. And understand too, the
ability of the instrumentalist to be able to interpret and perform their
composition as written.34

Regardless of the piece, the flutist engaged to perform it still has to step onto the
stage and play it. One questionnaire respondent said that playing works of student
composers can turn a student off to new music. Another respondent answered that

34 Carin L E V I N E, personal email, Dated March 3, 2008

he didn’t have all of his students perform new music because he wanted them to
only perform pieces that they really love. That is not realistic. Throughout the
author’s flute career, no other quote has proved more powerful than Carin Levine’s:
“When I play a piece, I fall in love with it.”35 She takes the time, and in doing so
values the composer’s time, by searching for meaning in the piece herself.

II.3. Goal Setting in Preparing New Works for Performance

Moving from a new mindset into concrete steps prepares students for success. A
new framework for practice needs to be set. Often, students will say they feel
frustrated with such repertoire because it is “a lot of work for little payback.” Some
questionnaire respondents were worried about what their audience would think.
One answered that she thought the audience was confused when she performed
Density 21.5. Flutists at this level have been playing difficult repertoire for years
and spend a lot of time refining pieces that they have already learned. The sight
reading level at this point is also very high. Going back to basic problems of note
reading and rhythmic understanding can frustrate an already very accomplished
flutist. Emphasize the growth opportunities that can be explored. There is room
here for personal development apart from flute technique.

These points should be spoken about between student and teacher before
beginning this new aspect of study. The student should understand that the
intellectual challenge will be the first hurdle, and that the musical and technical
work done on these pieces will enhance musicality and maturity.

Ordering the work by setting short term goals can help the flutist enter the modern
score with realistic expectations. Sometimes, the first exposure to a new score is
when there is a requirement for an exam or a competition on the horizon. This can

35 Ibid.

be very anxiety inducing. Break it down, take small steps, and the piece will
become attainable.

Short term goals can be ordered as follows:

Components of Preparation

Reading and Listening Understanding Notation

II.3.a. Preliminary Steps; Reading and Listening

Students at the university level often spend a lot of time refining orchestral excerpts
and other techniques. A learning plateau then naturally forms. In moving a student
out of a plateau it is important to avoid anxiety and provide new ways to practice.
Section II.1., “Using Extended Techniques to Diagnose, Reframe and Solve Other
Problems”, was one example of this. This section however “permits” students to
take some time away from the flute to do some preliminary groundwork.

Practical Application:

Because of the diversity of new works, the first step should be familiarizing oneself
with the composer’s language and style. Concrete listening assignments can
lessen the guilt about the time away from the practice room.36 Since there is
comparatively little coursework in new music, reading assignments are also
important. They need not be long, but a student should take the initiative to identify
the compositional school and corresponding philosophy that the composer belongs
to. Brian Ferneyhough’s Cassandra’s Dream Song (1974) is one strong example
of this.

36 For more about feeling guilty for „not working hard enough“, please section III.2.f. on physical conditioning and
periodization. The charts in particular explain the need for different components of a larger practice period.

When one begins reading, they may find surprising value in the worth of a piece.
For example, the article Cassandra’s Dream Song: a literary feminist perspective
can empower a flutist to tackle this piece whereas the notes on the page, and
perhaps recordings as well, might immediately dissuade. The abstract reads:

Brian Ferneyhough's solo flute music 'Cassandra's Dream
Song' can be interpreted in the light of Christa Wolf's book
'Cassandra.' The novel concerns the development of a
woman's whole character. Similarly, a musician can consider a
performance as an expression of individuality, in collaboration
with the composer. The flute music is thus seen as an attempt
by Cassandra to find her own voice in a man's world.37

Ellen Waterman took the time not only to read about Ferneyhough, but to read a
novel as well. From there, she created her own interpretation of the piece. Having
a purpose, beyond winning a competition, is invaluable in this case, as
Ferneyhough’s music borders on unplayable.

Concluding Thoughts:

Overall, the flutist taking the responsibility for this research will be better served
than the one given the information by the flute teacher. Part of the difficulty in the
making the “jump with a miniature parachute” that Boulez speaks about, is the lack
of “answers”. One can take these steps to become an autonomous interpreter of
new music.

37 Ellen W A T E R M A N, Cassandra’s Dream Song, A Literary Feminist Perspective (Summer, 1994) Perspectives of New
Music, Vol. 32, No. 2. P. 154

II.3.b. Understanding Notation

Often, a flutist hearing another flutist playing a modern piece will ask simply at the
end of the concert, “May I see the music?” It is often this first glance or the first
glance in a music store that a decision is made to play or not play a particular
piece. Modern notation can be very offsetting with its unfamiliar symbols,
handwritten scores, rhythms and unrecognizable time signatures. While composers
are often trying to experiment with sound via new notations, this complicates the
work of flutists trying to decipher it. Such experiments, while necessary in their own
rite for music to perpetuate itself forward, are left unheard. Ideally, there would be a
place for this in a new music course or artist’s colony where one has fewer time
constraints. But even in the setting of a new music course such as Darmstadt,
interpreters are pushed to learn many new pieces very quickly, and to perform
them within days of receiving the score.

Teachers must impart to their students the importance of understanding the
composer. Adherence to the text is the first step in learning any piece.
Misunderstanding or confusion is not the same as a creative license. One must be
diligent in interpreting exactly what is called for. While a student may hear
themselves as being “free,” an experienced teacher will simply hear lack of
rhythmic control. This aural development takes time, and one must remember this
when interpreting new music. The score is all the performer has.

To develop receptiveness to new notations, understanding the composer’s
viewpoint is a helpful. Ross Lee Finney states, composition “ […] has never been
quite satisfactory for the composer’s purposes and therefore the experiment
continues. Why is this process frowned upon? Musical notation is one of the most
amazing picture languages of the human animal. It didn’t come into being of a
moment but is the result of centuries of experimentation.”38

Interpreting notation is another skill area to be nurtured. As one develops the skill
of sight-reading, quickness and flexibility with new notations will be developed over
time. However, a flutist must adjust to the continual development of notation.

The common use and accessibility of composition software such as Sibelius and
Finale have helped composers use standard notation models. However, even
when composers adhere to these suggestions, many new effects have not been
replicated by either other composers or software, and need new symbols. The
following is a short discussion meant to illuminate some of the countless situations
interpreters face with various notation schemes. Perhaps these examples will raise
more questions than they answer. That is the point to be made. This is an element
of new music that performers must continually analyze and question, and this is the
part of the work of interpreting a score.

The examples chosen are as follows:
1. Fingering systems
2. Head Joint Position and Embouchure Position
3. Vibrato
4. Finding the Composers Scheme
5. Publishing Errors?

1. Fingering Systems

38 John C A G E, Notations, without page numbers, listed under Ross Lee Finney

The clearest fingering charts to read are Robert Dick’s, but lack practicality
because of their large size.

Bernhard Lang in Schrift I uses a numbering system of a pianist, with the fingers
numbered one through five beginning with the thumbs.

Figure 3.
Bernhard Lang, Schrift I, measure 135

T_ru Takemitsu in Voice uses a notation for fingerings without a key explanation
leaving one to experiment with different keys until the correct intervals sound.

Figure 4.
T_ru Takemitsu, Voice, line 1

The explanation for his fingering graph is as follows:

The holes of the flute are shown graphically as the left and right
hands. The auxiliary keys of the flute are numbered from top to
bottom. This means that the left hand thumb is an auxiliary key
and is number one. Two is the left hand pinky. Keys three, four
and five are, from left to right, the Bb lever and the two trill keys.
Six through nine are the pinky keys on the foot joint, beginning
with the Eb key, progressing down to C#, C natural, and low B.

Salvatore Scirarrino in Fra I Testi Dedicati Alle Nubi from L’opera per flauto uses
the same system. Providing the basic harmonic structure for the movement, 18
pitch sets numbered one through eighteen, and six diads lettered A through F. He
notes that in the pitch sets, which he calls “multiple artificial tones,” one should
balance the tone. When one tone appears larger than the other, it should be

Figure 5.
Salvatore Sciarrino, L’opera per flauto, FRA I TESTI DEDICATI ALLE NUBI,
Performance notes

In the score, one sees only this:

Figure 6.
Salvatore Sciarrino, L’opera per flauto, FRA I TESTI DEDICATI ALLE NUBI, line 1

As a pedagogical problem, one clearly sees that the lack of uniformity is the first
challenge. A flutist must first decipher the performance notes before a sight reading
is possible. Composers use various fingering systems which the flutist must
experiment with to see which tones are sounding. One cannot simply trust the
fingerings and follow them. Another solution is to simply omit or ignore them.
Georg Friedrich Haas has omitted fingerings in his Finale for solo flute. It is highly
microtonal and one must memorize, or pencil in, the fingerings that work. In
actuality, this isn’t any more work than solving the problems of the other systems
because they do not account for the variances among flutes. Closed holes, B feet

and split E keys will alter the pitches, and flutist must use a fingering guide from
either Carin Levine or Robert Dick39, along with a tuner to check the accuracy of
the intervals. Individual preferences regarding embouchure and head joint models
also play a large role in deciding on the fingering.

2. Head Joint Position and Embouchure Position

In Schrift I by Bernhard Lang, measure 6 uses a graphic symbol of Robert Dick
depicting an outwardly turned head joint. This symbol, while graphically easy to
read, causes confusion. Robert Dick intended this symbol to yield various pitches
with different head joint angels, as seen here:

Figure 7.
Robert Dick, Flying Lessons Volume I, page 22

39 Fingering guides can be found in either Dick’s The Other Flute or Levine’s Die Spieltechniken der Querflöte

In this example, the A and the B are not reachable with the same embouchure.
Turning the head joint outwards allows for the major second that one cannot reach
with a normal playing position. Bernhard Lang uses the same symbol, referencing
Robert Dick in the “Zeichenerklärungen” (Explanation of Symbols), but uses it for a
different function. Isolating each effect in measure six, one sees the following:

Figure 8.
Bernhard Lang, Schrift I, measure 6

The top line of the score shows a widening embouchure which would make the
tone breathier and less focused. This leaves one wondering what the difference is
between this airy sound and the aeolischer klang found in measures one through
five. The second line asks that head joint be turned outwards, but does not show
any change of pitch. This raises the question of whether there should be a rise in
pitch or not, and if not, if one is permitted to alter the pitch. The third line asks for
the diaphragm to be used, presumably to achieve the graphically notated vibrato in
line four, at a piano dynamic. All put together, in three beats at a speed of 184

beats per minute, produces the equivalent of an air sound with vibrato along with a
visual effect of the flute turning outwards.

Beat Furrer’s auf tönernen füssen asks for an embouchure that is opened to the
side, but does not specify which side.

Brad Garner, Professor of flute at the Juilliard School, teaches a release to the side
in order to taper notes without any extra air sound.40 Beat Furrer however asks for
the mouth to the opened to the side to presumably produce an air sound. The
score does not specifically call for that, but it is not notated ordinario as other
sections are and one is coming from a position of having the mouthpiece
completely covered. One must assume then that this is meant to produce a sound
in progression from a closed mouthpiece. Also, covering the mouthpiece lowers the
pitch of the flute by major 7th. Opening the mouth to the side would raise the
sounding pitch.

3. Vibrato
Notated vibrato is another area where one finds many variances. T_ru Takemitsu’s
Air (1996) uses “n.v.” as an abbreviation for non vibrato while Shirish Korde in
Tenderness of Cranes uses “n.v.” to stand for normal vibrato.

4. Finding the Composer’s Scheme

Toshio Hosokawa, in Vertical Song I (1997), devised notation to show three distinct
grades of breathiness (see Figure 49).

This corresponding graded system is also used in the piece to graphically show the
length of fermatas, with the square fermatas being the most extreme. This notation,
while requiring a visual adjustment, allows the flutist to follow a logical system of

40 This was learned by the author while attending the Lake Placid Institute for the Arts in 2001.

Figure 9.
Toshio Hosokawa, Vertical Song I, symbols

Bernhard Lang in Schrift I quotes Pierre-Yves Artaud in the use of “aeolischer
klang”, or air sounds.41 This symbol is difficult to read because it resembles a
percussive symbol similar to key clicks and pizzicato. The visual effect is not one
that portrays openness. One wouldn’t naturally think to keep the mouth relaxed and
open while looking at a downward pointing arrow. In this context however, this is
probably the best option. The flutist has enough of a logistical problem playing the
36 pages alone without the help of a page turner. Words above the tones would
never fit and a notation like Hosokawa’s would not solve the visual problem. The
piece is crowded and difficult to read not only because of the handwritten symbols,
but also because of the amount of information in every measure. It is essentially a
score for one player.

5. Publishing Errors:

Beat Furrer in auf tönernen füssen (2001) writes descending lines to depict a
glissando. This is accompanied by a change of vowel in the mouth that lowers or
raises the pitch.

41 Found in the „Zeichenerklärungen“ of Schrift I

Figure 10.
Beat Furrer, auf tönernen füssen, page 3, line 2

However, one finds the same descending line without a change of vowel and with
fingerings that would not allow a downward glissando, leaving one to guess
whether on this line, the publisher chose to print the line downwards in order to
avoid it running into the next phrase, or whether there is something else
compositionally wrong.

Figure 11.
Beat Furrer, auf tönernen füssen, page 5, line 2

Practical Application:

A solution to the challenges of notation is to treat it as an ongoing development of
sight reading that develops visual imagination and flexibility. The first step is for a
student to realize that this music will not be read at sight. In order to imagine the
piece and eventually decide whether it will be performed will take much longer than
traditional repertoire. They will not familiarize themselves with the intricacy of new
scores right away. One must teach patience and demonstrate calmly and
systematically how to approach the performance notes. By beginning the study of a
new piece, one can learn to begin in the performance notes, slowly, before moving
through piece.

The author devised the following rules for beginner and intermediate flute students
for sight reading practice:

1) Check the obvious
Title or any descriptive words
2) Check the left
Time signature, key signature, tempo markings

3) Scan through for the “hard parts”
Those are the most obvious to see. They usually “jump right off of the
4) Pick a tempo according to the hardest/fastest part

This same list, modified for students tackling new music would look like this:

1) Check the obvious
Title, descriptive words, date of publication.
2) Check the performance notes
Become familiar with each technique by trying it slowly and in several
different ways. One can experiment with different techniques before
turning to the first page of music. The explanations can be practiced
alone until they are familiar. The goal here is not to rush the student
into the piece too quickly. One can also begin without the flute,
familiarizing oneself with the notation first. Look for the notation
scheme. Try to understand why it has been written the way it has.
3) Scan through for an example of each extended technique in the
Experiment with short passages and look for layering of techniques.

4) Make a practice plan according to the difficulties found in the
previous practice.

Concluding Remarks:

The point to be stressed for teachers is to encourage students to discover new
notations, but not to allow the new score to overwhelm them. Going slowly and
developing a new work pattern can ease flutists into new music and set them up for

III. Teaching Extended Techniques: a Plan to Develop Continuity
in Teaching

Basic information about how one produces extended techniques is easily
accessible via the web by way of user-friendly tutorials. This section does not
intend to examine these, but rather the works that are considered the standard in
contemporary technique. The author adds to these reference works by developing
a unique lesson. This chapter is indebted to the reference works which are the
foundation of her method.


The most thorough books for flute are by Robert Dick. This American flutist began
his work as a student of Tom Nyfenger at Yale University. He wrote three landmark
handbooks: The Other Flute, (1986) (Second Edition), Tone Development though
Extended Techniques (1985) and Circular Breathing for the Flutist. (1987) This
section will review these books as the groundwork for the execution of each
technique, and augment the possibilities of execution with the work of others,
namely Carin Levine’s Die Spieltechnik der Flöte, (The Techniques of Flute

Playing) (2002). For flute teachers wishing to teach these techniques, materials
from both authors are necessary.

In the realm of experimentation, Robert Dick has exhausted the possibilities of the
flute more than anyone else to date. His goal when writing was to come up with as
many different sounds, effects and uses for the flute as he could. Steeped in jazz
tradition as well as classical, these books are written with the mind of both a
scientist and composer, categorizing the techniques by the strength of the
overtones present and systematically developing new fingerings. Dick’s
comprehensive collection was the first, and still is the most complete. Levine, on
the other hand, wrote her book with a different goal. Her approach to the
techniques is strictly as a performer; she leaves the experimentation to composers.
She has said that she insists on playing exactly what is written so that composers
learn to write exactly what they mean. This teaches them not to rely on the
performer to solve the compositional problems. In spite of that, she has refined
fingerings and described her approach to the techniques as she has experienced
them. She achieves a shrewd balance. She teaches the execution of the
techniques differently than Dick does primarily because every human body is
different. The techniques are still experimental, and while one individual can
perform them, many others are learning in different ways. A comparison, therefore,
of the two books is essential. The next chapters will highlight the differences
between the two books, providing a thorough reference for teachers and students
looking to solve problems with techniques in new music. The author adds
exercises and suggestions for teaching the techniques as well as examples of
examples of their practical application in the literature.

Continuity in Teaching:

Rather than introducing the techniques historically, the author has separated the
techniques into two groups: cognitive and kinesthetic. While these categories aren’t
mutually exclusive, they do offer a new chance for teachers to introduce extended

techniques with a cohesive lesson plan in mind. The cognitive techniques are
those that are more challenging for the mind while the kinesthetic techniques are
more challenging for the body. The kinesthetic techniques are meant to be
practiced by physically doing them, the cognitive techniques are meant to be first

The cognitive techniques are grouped as follows:

Cognitive Techniques

Improvisation Microtonality Rhythm

III.1. Cognitive-Based Techniques

Cognitive techniques are those where the idea of the technique must be dealt with
before the execution of it. Students can not simply try it and see how it sounds;
they need to be taught how to approach the technique first. Improvisation isn’t the
first obvious choice for this group, but as cognition is defined as, “That which
comes to be known, as through perception, reasoning, or intuition; knowledge“42, it
is included because of the mention of intuition and perception in the definition. It is
also included to offer a balance to the mind-work that is ahead. This stimulates
learning by offering complete freedom before demanding complete adherence to
detail. As was mentioned in the introduction the right-brain beginning offers a
balance to the left-brain cognitive techniques. The techniques then move to
microtonality and rhythm where the student must spend time either away from the
instrument, or with very slow, detailed practice before the techniques become more

42 Cognition,, Retrieved July 4, 2008.

III.1.a. Improvisation

There are a number of pieces in contemporary literature that require improvisation.
This component of new music studies is one that raises many questions as the skill
of improvising is often unfamiliar to classical flutists and their teachers. To reiterate
a point made earlier, facing a new technique for the first time in a piece of literature
causes unnecessary stress. A performance date looming over the head of a
student is not conducive in developing a comfort level with a new skill. The author
therefore recommends that improvisation be introduced in lessons apart from a
specific piece requiring it.

Practical Suggestions:

As there is not a “right” and “wrong” way to improvise, practice eliminating self-
consciousness and increasing concentration. This can be done through a number
of exercises either done in groups or individually. Since improvisation is often a
sensitive issue for many musicians, the teacher would be wise to let the creative
process gently develop by keeping criticisms out. Bruce Adolphe’s book, The Mind’
Ear (1991) has exercises for improving musical imagination which can be a
springboard into improvisation. Adolphe writes exercises for classical musicians
that mostly have to do with listening. The student with little experience performing
away from a printed page would benefit from beginning here. In his What to Listen
for in the World (1998), he begins with a series of questions. Some of these,

answered with pen and paper, can enlighten the work in the studio before any
notes are played.

Know your own music first.

Do you listen to your own voice?
Do you know the tempo of your actions?
Do you live by the beat or the phrase?
Do you rush your own thoughts?
Do you trust your intuition?
Do you enjoy your own dreams?
Do you tap your foot nervously?
Do you improvise your meals?
Do you listen to the pulse of your own heart?43

This poetic approach opens the mind to the thought of improvisation without
burdening the musicians with too much freedom. Other exercises involve reframing
what the musician already knows. For example, choosing a well known piece, the
student can begin an “improvisation-like” activity by altering the tempo, dynamics,
character, rhythm and finally the tones themselves. This helps creativity develop
and also sheds new light on those works. That can ultimately only help
musicianship. Adolphe writes in the preface of his book The Mind’s Ear

What prevents someone from participating in new music?
Usually the core of the problem is a lack of imagination. An
imaginative performer loves to try new things and is versatile by

His book continues with exercises that develop listening skills. These can be done
in groups or individually, with or without instruments.

Susan Allen45 has written about large group improvisation. She also begins with
what students already know and has developed exercises to help them overcome

43 Bruce, A D O L P H E, What to Listen for in the World, (1998) Second Limelight Edition, P. 24
44 Bruce, A D O L P H E, The Mind’s Ear, Exercises for improving the musical imagination for performers, listeners and
composers, (1991) MMB Music, St. Louis, Missouri, P. 7
45 Associate Dean of the California Institute of the Arts

their inhibitions.46 She works at helping students develop a palette of color, or
gestures that can be used in an improvisation. Her students begin by listing the
gestures available to them and include extended techniques or techniques
discovered by the individual. Her exercises involve verbal dialogues, dialogues
between two people speaking to each other in different languages and progress to
musical dialogues. She has students listen to each others endings, reacting only to
that, as a way to eliminate the overwhelming situation of needing to react to entire

A technique recommended by Robert Dick is to take a piece of music, or a single
phrase of music, and improvise something similar to it. This is perhaps more
intimidating for a student than beginning with a situation where musical style is
secondary. Improvising in the style of Mozart, for example, can be more
intimidating than freeing.

At the Lake Placid Institute for the Arts in 2001, Carol Wincenc led a workshop of
applause. One by one, the participants stood up and bowed while the others kept
applauding. Such an activity done after each person plays a short improvisation
can be very freeing. Several jazz musicians have also mentioned using this in jazz
improvisation classes. Sometimes students were asked to play their most difficult
passage and knowing that they would be applauded afterwards made it easier for
them. This set up a dynamic in the group that transferred well when students were
improvising for each other.

Other teachers have turned out the lights or faced chairs away from each other to
help eliminate the self-consciousness that comes fairly often with this work. Some
students comment on not even wanting to improvise at home when they are alone.

Concluding Remarks:

46 Susan A L L E N, Teaching Large Ensemble Music Improvisation (2002), Radical Pedagogy, Produced by ICAAP, ISSN
Number 1524-6345, 2002

Overall, the two things to remember about teaching or encouraging improvisation
are that there are a variety of resources to help gently develop the skill and that it
takes time to overcome resistance to it. After committing to a short daily period of
improvisation practice, students can focus on using that time to refresh themselves
from the demands of the rest of their studies. Through either Bruce Adolphe’s or
Susan Allen’s methods, the teacher can foster a sense of humor to take the stress
out of an uncomfortable situation. The goal of improvisation practice is not to do it
“well”, but just to do it. The musicality of the students will come through after the
inhibitions fade. By eliminating the feel of performing for an audience, once can
focus instead on communication. Musicians can then open new doors to personal

III.1.b. Microtonality

Microtonality is the first extended technique encompassing more than just the
development of the flute. New music is known for its use of microtonality;
specifically quarter-tones. With regard to complexity, there is a marked difference
in pieces requiring exact microtonal pitches and those that supply fingerings of
non-exact microtonal sequences. The former requires a highly developed ear for
proper tuning while the latter only requires a fingering adjustment.47


The use of alternate tunings in non-Western music is a discussion worthy of
another dissertation. However, looking only at Western music, the history of
microtonality is shockingly long. Before the invention of equal temperament, tuning
was often a hot and debated topic. After equal temperament came into the picture,
the next logical step was to divide the twelve step octave once more into 24 equal
parts, or quarter tones.

47 The questionnaire respondents had played mainly contemporary pieces, and from those, the vast majority had played
pieces that are written with microtonal components, not true quarter-tones.

Czech composer Alois Hába wrote his String Quartet, No. 2, Op. 7, (1920) using
quarter tones. He wrote, “The quarter-tone system appeared not as a new
language, but as an extension to the old one.”48

The development of microtonality on the flute begins with exactly this equally
measured quarter-tone scale, that is, tones that are 50 cents apart. What is notable
is the amount of time that this took. The first full quarter-tone scale for the flute
wasn’t developed until 1989. A historically informed Robert Dick founded two
quarter-tone scales for closed and open holed flutes. He also said, like Hába, that
this was a logical development of the chromatic scale.

Margo Schulter refers to what sounds like mistuning or random dissonance to
newer ears. “Such judgments would relegate not only self-consciously
experimental or avant-garde composed musics, but age-old musics of a vast range
of world traditions, to an ‘inferior’ (or at best ‘exotic’) status.”49 Robert Morgan sees
microtonality as an “assimilation of ethnic influences from other regions of the
world […] that sound fresh to Western ears and lend themselves to a variety of
new expressive possibilities.”50

Practical Application:

Moving back to the flute, microtonal work begins with Bruno Bartolozzi’s New
Sound for Woodwind which includes the Metodo per Flauto (1973) by Pier Luigi
Mencarelli. Although known among many composers, this method is hardly known
among flutists.51 In it, the first quarter tone fingerings and exercises for flute are
found. He writes exercises based on traditional intervals, beginning from a major
second, through a major seventh. This accomplishes the task of developing
48 Robert P. M O R G A N, Twentieth-Century Music, P. 265
49 Margo S C H U L T E R; What is Microtonality?, Retrieved June 23, 2008
50 Robert P. M O R G A N, Twentieth-Century Music, P. 440
51 The questionnaire respondents had not listed it as part of their studies and the author’s wider personal experience has
not shown any flutists who use it.

intonation. The flutist should tune the familiar interval while transposing it up a
quarter tone. He then writes short phrases presenting quarter tones in a more
modern and musical context.

Figure 12.
Pier Luigi Mencarelli, Metodo per Flauto, page 45

More accessible is Robert Dick’s The Other Flute where he has notated two
quarter-tone scales, one for both open and closed-hole flutes. The scales range
from D1 to E3. In addition to the scales, he also founded tones up to a sixteenth of
a tone. He decided on the fingerings, not for the intonation possibilities, but
because of the constancy of the tone color. In addition to that, he notated the
tendency of the tones under each fingering. That is, too high or low, loud or soft,
bright or edgy.

In certain microtonal segments one can use chromatic fingerings where one key is
left open and the others open or closed chromatically. For example, one would
finger E, then close the keys of the foot joint to reach five tones between E and Eb.

Figure 13.
Robert Dick, The Other Flute, page 63

In the complete microtonal scale there is not a true homogeneity of sound because
of the flute’s construction. Certain keys will always close together. For example, the
F# key will always close the F key. Looking for a solution, the Dutch flute maker
Eva Kingma built a full quarter-tone flute which is essentially a Boehm system flute
with extra keys that eliminate this problem. The drawback of these flutes is the
price. A flutist must be already convinced of the need for quarter-tone pieces in the
repertoire before buying an extra, more expensive flute. Most flutists are still
tackling microtonal challenges with the fingerings developed by of Robert Dick
although he himself has switched to a Kingma system flute.52

Microtonality is an extremely complex technique since it involves not only new
fingerings, but a new commitment to ear training. Tuning quarter-tones alone in the
practice room is a necessary beginning, but only a beginning. There are computer
based programs that will play microtonal intervals in an effort to develop the ear but
lack the color and overtone components of live musicians. What is important to
remember about tuning any interval is that pitch is dependant on the source.
Flutists probably have already intuited this. For example, many can not, and do
not, tune to the synthetic A sounded on a tuner. One notices quickly, that even if an
oboist, pianist or anyone else matches the tuner’s A exactly, when two musicians
play together, tuning will be automatically adjusted according to color. The

52 Further fingering resources are available via Andre Botos’s website, The Virtual Flute. It is an interactive website
documenting the acoustical properties of every tone with it’s corresponding fingering, conventional and unconventional. The
information is available here: Retrieved February 25, 2008.
Other sources are from Mats Möller:, and Herbert Lindholm,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

adjustment is very small, maybe one cent or two, but by doing so, intervals can
sound more in tune than if one concentrates on matching pitch solely with the

As with many wind instruments, flutes can not play microtonal intervals without a
huge difference in color. This makes hearing and tuning the intervals much more
difficult. Tuning and blending go hand in hand. To begin hearing quarter-tones,
charting the tendencies of each tone can be of enormous help. That is, the flutist
plays every tone in three possible dynamics and notates the tendency of the tone;
too high, too low, difficult to play loudly etc. From there, the short exercises of
Mencarelli and scales of Robert Dick can be practiced. One should note that
knowing the tendencies of the flute does not provide the “answer” about pitch when
working with other musicians. As stated before, pitch is dependent on the source.
Adding in vast differences in color between different instruments makes tuning
microtonal passages complicated. Developing this skill further requires that one
have access to other musicians adept in this area.

Concluding Remarks:

Schulter defines a term called paucitonality which means “scare-tonedness”. She
calls this a “musical and cultural myopia in which the use of intervals […] occurring
in many world musical traditions […] must be relegated to a special ‘microtonal

This is not meant to say that all musicians should play a certain type of music, nor
that one should not distinguish between microtonal music and the period in music
history where microtones are absent. But certainly all studying music should have
an awareness of other tuning systems. Not only should this open the ear, but more
importantly, the mind. For musicians to move forward in step with developing

53 Margo S C H U L T E R, What is Microtonality?

compositional trends, a historical discussion of microtonality and listening along
with practical experience is essential.

III.1.c. Rhythm

Rhythm in new music is known for its complexity. Looking back at how other
performers have handled the complexities can provide a bit of comfort. The
American composer Elliott Carter began writing ametrical music in the 1940’s. This
led to metric rubato and eventually metric modulation.54 In his Double Concerto for
Piano, Harpsichord and Two Chamber Orchestras (1961) some of the ratios in the
piece are as complex as 49:50. Translated, that is fifteen septuplets against
twenty-one quintuplets at metronome speeds of 24.5 and 25. Charles Rosen, who
played the piano for the premiere said, “The mood of the first performance was
close to panic.”55 The conductor Gustav Meier said, “I felt like more of a traffic cop
than a conductor. Would we get through the piece without breaking down? We
made it to the end. I had no clear idea of how the performance went.”56 In contrast,
Igor Stravinsky said about the same piece, “The score introduces no metrical
difficulties […] it is easy to conduct and I can imagine the orchestra players

54 Metric Modulation is when a common note value in one measure acts as pivot value in the second. From this, a new
tempo is calculated.
55 David S C H I F F, The Music of Elliott Carter, (1983) Da Capo Press, New York, P. 205
56 Ibid. P. 206.

complaining.”57 As often happens in new music, something is described as
unplayable until someone else figures it out.58

Where solo literature gives a little more room to cope with rhythmic difficulties, in
ensemble pieces this is often not true.

Practical Application:

Working with complex rhythms could begin as early as Olivier Messiaen’s Le Merle
Noir. His use of additive rhythm59 forces the flutist to count the subdivision rather
than the beat.

Figure 14.
Olivier Messiaen, Le Merle Noir, page 1, line 5

There are two measures with 11 sixteenth notes, followed by one measure with
seven sixteenths. The sixteenth notes must be exact as the flute plays in canon
with the piano. In addition to that, the phrase should have an effortless floating
character to it. Messiaen wrote with these rhythms to depict timelessness and they

57 Robert C R A F T, Igor S T R A V I N S K Y, Dialogues and a Diary (1963) Double Day and Co. Garden City, New York,
P. 49.
58 This causes friction between composer and performers. There are pieces that are playable in some circles and not in
others. If a composer is reading this, please be advised that if you are writing something that musicians can’t play, you
should be able to explain to them how they can play it. You should be able to count your own piece.
59 Messiaen used additive rhythm in that he would irregularly add or delete note values, dots or ties to break from traditional
time signatures.

should not sound “counted.” This piece could be called a pre-requisite to studying
works with more complex rhythms.

By working with a metronome, one can practice rhythmic exercises and simple
polyrhythms in Robert Starer’s Rhythmic Training.60 His exercises in polyrhythms
begin with two against three and three against four.

Developing rhythmic security can be taught be deducing rhythms to their most
simple form. Gerd Noack’s Frühlingstimme (2007) is a great piece for a rhythmic
The first line:

Figure 15.
Gerd Noack, Frühlingstimme op. 39, line 1

Could be practiced like this:

Figure 16.
Jennifer Borkowski, rhythm exercise 1

60 Robert S T A R E R, Rhythmic Training (1969) MCA Music Publishing, New York, NY

Other challenges in new music are some of the newly invented time signatures
used by Brian Ferneyhough. For example, in Superscripto (1981), he writes
measures in 1/10 time. In order to figure out the speed of the measure, one uses
the following calculation:

When the 8th note has a given value of 56 beats per minute, the 10th note
equals 70. To arrive at that, do the following:

When 8 = 56 and 10 = x, cross multiply and the equation is 8x = 560.

Then, 560 ÷ 8 = 70

To hear the length of the individual notes in a 1/10 measure; divide the
speed of the measure by the number of notes in the measure.

Using the same formula, a 3/12 measure equals 84. 8 = 56 and 12 = x.
Cross Multiply. 8X = 672. 672 ÷ 8 = 84

Learning the piece after these calculations are done is another challenge. One
must internalize the speed of each individual measure, either by charting all of the
corresponding speeds and practicing them together or by simple rote
memorization. Looking again at the change from 1/8 time to 1/10 time, notice that

reduced it is 1/4 changing to 1/5. Find a common value between 4 and 5 which is
20. This means one can put 20 tones in a measure of 4/4 and divide the measure
by 4 and 5 to get the number of sub-beats in the 1/8 and 1/10 bar. 20 ÷ 4 =5,
therefore a 1/8 bar can be practice with 5 sub-beats. 20 ÷ 5 =4, there a 1/10 bar
will have 4 sub beats. This 5:4 ratio can be practiced by playing quintuplets
followed by the first four tones of the quintuplet. One could go through the entire
piece with the sub-beats playing a self-made click track in order to internalize the
speed of the measures before adding in the rhythms.

Concluding Remarks:

To be noted in this discussion is that rhythm should not be rushed, but practiced as
a component away from the flute. Take time to do the calculations and work with a
metronome while clapping or saying rhythms before playing. This saves time and
develops rhythmic accuracy not only for the piece in question but for future pieces
as well.

III.2. Kinesthetic Techniques: Building Body Awareness

As opposed to the techniques in the previous sections, these can be experimented
with right away. The student often benefits from just diving right in and feeling how
the new technique works. This is “learning by doing” while experimenting with new
and often exaggerated movements. The organization here is meant to increase
awareness of the body and the instrument. The groupings are made so that
resonance is a main theme. By gradually increasing the difficulty with resonance,
body awareness becomes stronger. The flutist can use all the accumulative
acoustical tricks to get the more difficult techniques to sound. Using this approach,
the teacher can tailor the lesson plan to the students needs, or follow the order of
the author’s plan to maximize kinesthetic learning. The final chapter of this section
focuses on endurance, and often neglected topic among musicians. When the
previous elements are in place, the flutist has all the tools needed to project sound
in even the most challenging musical scores.


Borrowed Vocal Percussive New Uses Endurance
Techniques Techniques Techniques of Air

III.2.a. Borrowed Techniques

The flutist beginning the techniques in this section will benefit from the idea that
this work leads towards a broader palette of expressive colors. The techniques are
organized so that one begins with the most common and oldest technique, flutter
tongue. Harmonics are discussed next since their roots in music are also not new.
While their use in flute literature is a twentieth century phenomenon, they stem
from long history of use in stringed instruments. Harmonics are the first technique
discussed that use altered fingerings. Whistle tones are discussed as an offset of
harmonics since they are also based on the overtone series and the effect of a
whistle tone is aurally closer to the sound of harmonics played on a violin. The next
section then logically proceeds to discuss other uses of altered fingerings followed
by the altered fingerings needed for timbral trills and tremolos. Multiphonics follow
because of their altered fingerings and roots as double-stops in stringed

instruments. Glissando is also borrowed technique and is discussed at the end of
this section.

These categories can be referred to when teaching.

Extending Tone Color

Flutter Tongue Harmonics Glissando

Whistle Tones Altered Fingerings

Timbral Trills



III.2.a.1. Flutter Tongue

The oldest extended technique, now considered a classical technique, is flutter
tongue. All flutists pursuing a professional career in any degree will encounter this.
It is required of every flutist with a symphony orchestra position, as it appears in
orchestral literature early as Richard Strauss’ Don Quixote (1896-97)

Figure 17.
Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, Variation VII

Because of the dynamic and high register of this passage, no special flutter tongue
practice is needed. One must only roll the tongue and the tones will sound. There
isn’t any flutter “nuance” that needs to sound because of the thick orchestral

The two types of flutter tongue are the rolled tongue and the glottal or uvular
execution. They differ in speed and pressure, resulting in different dynamics and
expression. The rolled tongue is generally faster with more pressure, moving the
air faster through the flute. This makes it more suitable for the high register. The
glottal or uvular execution61 is therefore better for the lower register and quieter
tones. It is possible to use both types, even in one phrase, switching from one to
the other without a break. When moving through registers, this is a solution. In the
following passage, one would flutter in the throat for the first octave tones and
switch to a rolled “R” for the other tones. It is not written, but implied that the final G
of this passage would need a slower and less aggressive flutter because of the

Figure 18.

Shirish Korde, Tenderness of Cranes, (1991) page 1, line 4

61 Uvular or glottal flutter is produced by rolling an French R sound in the back of the throat, as opposed to the Italian R
done with the tip of the tongue.

A more common passage of an exposed flutter tongue is in the cadenza of the
Concerto of Jacques Ibert. (1934)

Figure 19.

Jacques Ibert, Concerto for Flute, movement 3, cadenza

The author has attended many master classes and participated in discussions of
how to execute this. The cadenza passage is exposed and one is meant to control
the tone to the low C at the bottom of the chromatic scale. The flutter tongue
causes the air to move faster than what the low tones require, thus making them
split into the high register. The common perception is that it doesn’t matter, the
tone may be less than pure, and one need only achieve the effect of a flutter. Of
course, when another flutist has been able to play a clear flutter in the correct
octave, they are praised for being able to do so, but few orchestral flutists have had
suggestions as to how to make this happen. Such a passage becomes the dread
of those who can’t sustain the tone throughout the low register, as the Ibert
Concerto is often a required piece for orchestral auditions.

Brad Garner has suggested dropping the jaw downwards which helps keep the
flutter in the first octave.62 This may help some. Moving the tongue further back on
the soft palette will reduce the air speed, and may be enough of an adjustment to
facilitate the production of the low tones. For others, a uvular flutter would work
better in this passage.

62 This information was taught at the 2001 Lake Placid Insitute for the Arts.

Robert Dick’s criticism of the use of flutter tongue among flutists is that it isn’t used
creatively. It is either turned on or off like a faucet, much like a beginners first
experiments with vibrato. One usually hears it played loudly, with the tongue
moving very quickly. The tone is usually distorted with a lot of excess air and the
pitch is usually sharp. Carin Levine agrees with this point, reiterating that it is
possible for flutter tongue to be played espressivo in every dynamic and register of
the flute. The markings of flutter tongue, however, do not ever specify any variation
of speed, but one can easily find flutter tongue written in extreme dynamics and in
the opposing registers of the flute.

Robert Dick has said that he always uses the glottal execution. He finds that it
works throughout the entire range of the flute as well as in every dynamic level.
Most flutists find the glottal execution in the upper register very difficult. The
tendency of playing in the upper register with the required increase of support, air
pressure and tightened embouchure seems counterintuitive to an open flutter in the
chest. Many flutists close the throat trying to get air to move quickly enough. This
makes the uvular flutter move up too high in the throat, and thus too fast. The
result is only a distorted tone not a true flutter effect. This may be only
psychological, but a challenge nonetheless. Many find that rolling the tongue
provides good results in a much shorter time.63

Robert Dick’s experimentation with glottal flutter tongue has lead to fascinating
results. He is able to achieve a flutter with minimal pressure so that multiphonics64
or whistle tones65 can also be fluttered. The air steam required for a multiphonic is
wider than that of normal tones. In the following passage, a throat flutter allows
both things to happen at once.

63 For a discussion of air stream and the high register, please see the chapter on harmonics. Exercises there can help a
flutist play quietly and with less air instead of simply blowing harder. These exercises could also be applied to learning a
uvular flutter in the upper octaves.
64 Multiphonics are covered in section III.2.a.7. They are two or more simultaneously sounding tones played with an altered
fingering and a lengthened air stream.
65 Whistle Tones are covered in section III.2.a.3. They are lightly blown over the embouchure hole resulting in fluctuating,
highly pitched tones based on the overtone series.

Figure 20.

Shirish Korde, Tenderness of Cranes, page 3, line 6

In addition to this, Dick is able to articulate with the tip of the tongue while fluttering.
To date, the author has not yet come across a piece requiring this skill. Dick uses
this effect primarily in jazz and rock based improvisation.66

Dick recommends rolling the tongue only when an audible, extraneous noise is
desired. A possible choice would be in Tenderness of Cranes by Shirish Korde.

Figure 21.

Shirish Korde, Tenderness of Cranes, page 3, line 5

67 Larry K R A N T Z, Extended Techniques Resource Page,, Retrieved March
3, 2008

Given the program of the piece, the slapping of a crane’s wings against the water
could be portrayed here. This would contrast to the slow motion sound of the bird
in flight.

Practical Application:

Uvular Flutter Tongue:

To develop a uvular flutter tongue, Robert Dick recommends gurgling practice. By
gurgling with water, one can feel the glottis active. One then works with less and
less water, until the mouth in empty. Gurgling without water is essentially what the
glottal flutter tongue is. Some flutists trouble shoot by accumulating saliva in the
mouth and gurgling it into the flute. This has many drawbacks, the main one being
excess saliva afterwards. There is often not sufficient time to gather it and
sustaining it through longer phrases in impossible. This beginning though, is along
the right path. It is also possible to trick the mind, gurgling without water, by holding
the head back as if water were there. Then one can bring the flute to the lips with
the head still back, until the muscles learn this movement in an upright position.

As previously discussed with the uvular flutter tongue, there is a tendency for the
larynx to come too high. When this happens, the flutter is too fast and what sounds
through the flute is simply an unclear tone. Solving this problem, one can use the
method of Carin Levine. Begin with a breath of air, as deep as possible in the chest
and with the throat as open as possible. By placing a hand on the chest, the
resonance of the air can be felt. The flutter should then remain under the larynx,
and although it feels extremely slow, it sounds very fast. When this method is not
working, it is helpful to begin the flutter by inhaling. This can then be easily
transferred to exhaling and then blowing into the flute. One should practice this
flutter on a very comfortable note on the flute such as low G. The process of
inhaling with an open chest produces a more relaxed flutter tongue in contrast to
the previous approach. Gurgling with water doesn’t prevent the flutter from coming
up too high and can even encourage it. Practicing with the head back is an

interesting psychological tool to help transition the flutter into the flute but flutists
may have to work again at keeping the throat and chest open.

Despite this, the gurgling practice method of Robert Dick has yielded a flutter
tongue that can decrease in speed. Using more or less pressure and more or less
speed, he achieves a flutter with varying expressive qualities. A decelerating flutter
mixed with a decrescendo, is another creative use of flutter tongue. One idea for
this use is below.

Figure 22.

Olivier Messiaen, Le Merle Noir, measure 9

Dieter Flury, principal flutist of the Vienna Philharmonic, is able to achieve this
same effect by using an extremely fast and light double tongue in place of the
flutter.67 This ability is rare.

Fluttering with the Tip of the Tongue:

To practice the rolled “R”, the student should place the tip of the tongue on the soft
palette of the mouth and relax the sides so that some air comes through. There is a
tendency to put too much pressure on the tip of the tongue, resulting in very short
flutter that cannot be sustained.


While working with students, one should be flexible in the approach. Some
students can flutter tongue well in the upper register, some only on the low. Some

67 Flury demonstrated this during the author’s post graduate studies in 2005.

have a very easy time rolling the tongue while others can not do it at all. This
comes from the difference in language exposure and different strengths with flute
playing all together. Exercises can be built based on tone studies so that the flutter
tongue can be expanded through the range of flute. Some students can flutter very
well, but can not sustain the flutter though a long passage. Apart from an urgent
performance, there is no need to rush the development of flutter tongue. Therefore,
work with their strengths. A student who can flutter short tones can begin as such:

Figure 23.

Jennifer Borkowski, Flutter Tongue Exercise 1.

and then work on extending the flutter throughout the range of the flute.

Those who can flutter longer can use regular tone exercises, beginning from a
point of comfort and working either upwards, downwards, or outwards.

Figure 24.

Jennifer Borkowski, Flutter Tongue Exercise 2

Beyond that, it would benefit all students to work on a flutter moving in and out of a
tone. This is an often challenging task because if its’ explosive nature. Flutists
often find that they need much more air to sustain the rolled tongue. Practicing this
way helps develop a lighter roll. The rolled “R” in the throat will not work without the
appropriate mouth position. If anything is too closed - mouth, throat or chest - it
won’t sound. Moving in and out of straight tones can pinpoint and help fix this

Figure 25.

Jennifer Borkowski, Flutter Tongue Exercise 3

Concluding Remarks:

These exercises provide the opportunity to work on flutter tongue while allowing
the muscles to naturally develop. This saves students from facing it for the first
time in a piece, or worse, in a piece that they are already scheduled to perform.
Often, one will notice impatience with modern techniques. Some students will give
up much more easily than they would with regular tone or scale studies. The point
here is that these techniques take time and can be taught. Whether or not a
student dives into the world of contemporary techniques, all will encounter flutter
tongue. All would benefit from short but daily exposure.68

68 See section III.2.f.4. for incorporation of flutter tongue into daily studies

III.2.a.2. Harmonics

Harmonics, sometimes called flageolets or overtones, are more familiar when
played by string players. A violinist will use flageolets regularly in classical
repertoire. For a flutist, he or she fingers a fundamental tone and over blows until a
note from the overtone spectrum sounds. In the normal flute fingering system,
overtones are the basis for the upper octaves. For the second octave one over
blows an octave without changing fingerings. For the third octave, one over blows
an octave and a fifth with modified fingerings to facilitate tuning.69 In new music,
the use of the overtone series and harmonics has grown considerably, asking
flutists to over blow two octaves or more, sometimes with a first octave fingering.

69 For a complete understanding of flute fingerings, please see the attached fingering charts in the appendix.

Luciano Berio in his Sequenza I wrote double harmonics.70 This is a precursor to
multiphonics which will appear in flute literature much more frequently. One plays a
fundamental then switches between the two neighbor tones in the overtone series.
By doing this, one can find an embouchure that is long enough to accommodate
both tones sounding at once.

Figure 26.

Luciano Berio, Sequenza I per Flauto Solo, page 3, line 1

In Salvatore Sciarrino’s series of pieces L’opera per flauto, one finds harmonics in
the fourth octave. It had been an experiment of Robert Dick’s to find how high the
flute could go into the fourth octave. He found that an acoustical limit was G in the
fourth octave, and most flutists find the fourth octave with normal fingering
extremely taxing on the lips. He recommends only short practice of the fourth
octave to avoid fatiguing the muscles. In this example, one sees that composers
can easily push flute techniques further than what flutists would normally think of
themselves. Reaching pitches in the fourth octave is difficult but adding a first
octave fingering makes them one of the most physically demanding elements in
flute literature. The length of the phrases and difficulty of the pitches makes this
work virtuosic beyond what had been previously imagined.

Such an extreme breath support is needed that some flutists count on an adrenalin
rush to achieve the pitches. The diaphragm is under such stress, pushing as hard

70 Double Harmonics are blown so that two overtones sound at once.

as possible over and over again, that the several flutists who performed the piece
said it made them nauseated.

Figure 27.

Salvatore Sciarrino, L’opera per flauto/Hermes, page 3, line 1

Practical Application:

Harmonics exercises teach one how to hold the lips, how much air pressure is
needed, and how much one needs to correct intonation. These exercises are
meant for orchestral flutists to develop a better sense of pitch, tonal control and
flexibility. They are, however, a perfect springboard for the harmonics that one
finds in new music. One must experiment with the room inside the mouth to control
the pitch. Most harmonic fingerings are very flat and orchestral flutists would
correct pitch while allowing the harmonic to sound with an airy tone quality. This
gives the lip muscles time to develop. Another reason for this is that the true
fingering is the one that will be performed. The practice of the harmonic is merely a
stretch of the lips beyond what they would be called to do in an orchestra. Many
composers of new music however write harmonics when they want a paler tone.
To do this without a loss of intonation is very difficult as correcting the intonation
often yields more air in the tone and a louder tone all together.

To practice harmonics, Jeanne Baxtresser 71 recommends the following exercises.

Figure 28.

Jeanne Baxtresser Harmonics Exercises, transcribed by Jennifer Borkowski

71 The Julliard School, Carnegie Mellon and New England Conservatory Faculty and former Principal flutist of the New York
Philharmonic. The author learned these exercises during private study in 1996.

Robert Dick also recommends harmonics practice for the development of the tone
and embouchure. Pitches with an optimal resonance have only one embouchure
position, and that is the same position of the mouth while playing a harmonic. The
position is a combination of the lips, jaw, throat and space inside of the mouth.
When one practices the harmonics, one should avoid turning the head joint
inwards, but should rather push the jaw forward. This teaches the correct breath
support for the tone. Otherwise, one achieves a pale color, most likely piano, but
without resonance and proper intonation.

One example of Robert Dick’s harmonic practice is the Partita in a minor BWV
1013 by J.S. Bach. One always uses the lowest fingering possible, and when the
wrong tone sounds, it shows that the embouchure wasn’t in the correct position.
Harmonics are problem solving in this way. The mistake becomes very obvious.
Teachers use tricks to have students hear this mistake. With traditional fingerings
one can play a G2, and then move to E2 without moving the embouchure at all.
The E will sound, but without the best resonance possible. Teachers will depress
the additional keys so that E will sound without the student knowing when. The
student can more clearly hear the lost resonance when the lips are unprepared for
the new note. When one uses harmonic fingerings without moving the
embouchure, a completely wrong note in the overtone series will sound. This trains
the ear and mouth to place each tone more precisely.

Figure 29.

Robert Dick, Tone Development through Extended Techniques, page 22

One can also practice scales with harmonic fingerings on every tone possible. The
difference in intonation is heard immediately in this context. Other ideas for
development of control are practicing harmonics with single and double tonguing,
and at various dynamic levels for variations of tone color and resonance.

Concluding Remarks:

Practicing harmonics helps strengthen the embouchure and refine the ear. They
also open up the ear to other color possibilities. This technique is the first to use
altered fingerings and comfortably bridges the classical and contemporary worlds.

III.2.a.3. Whistle Tones

Whistle tones, or whisper tones, are lightly blown over the embouchure hole,
resulting in lightly fluctuating tone in the very high register based on the harmonic
series.72 In sound, they are similar to the sound of harmonics played on a violin, an
extremely soft and whispery sound. On the flute in contrast, it is very difficult to
hold a whistle tone constant. When playing in the third octave, the use of normal
third octave fingerings helps to stabilize the tone. The overtones are no longer
heard. While fingering lower octaves, the harmonic series is heard like an

72 Carin L E V I N E, Die Spieltechnik der Flöte, p. 15

improvisation because of the delicateness of the airstream. Performing whistle
tones under stress requires still lips and quiet nerves. Breath support is not the
issue here, because the tones are played by blowing as lightly as possible.

The rule for whistle tones is that the longest fingerings result in the greatest
number of tones. That is, the low B (all keys depressed) results in 14 overtones.
The C# (all keys open) results in only 5 overtones.

Whistle tones are sometimes used as echo effects.

Figure 30.

Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 3, line 8

Anecdotally, Robert Dick described a competition between himself and Tom
Nyfenger while he was studying with him at Yale University. By way of competition,
Nyfenger challenged Dick to play the lowest whistle tone he could, and to Dick’s
surprise, Nyfenger was able to reach the lowest C on the flute. Unfortunately there
isn’t any recording documenting this. This supports the goal of Robert Dick’s work
however, which was to write everything that is possible for the flute. Robert Dick
continues to describe whistle tones played with vibrato and articulation. It should
be noted that in his first publication, The Other Flute in 1975, he hadn’t discovered

that yet. This idea first appears in Tone Development through Extended
Techniques written in 1986.

In the following example of Heinz Holliger, the notation suggests that each tone
should be heard as it is written. Reaching these tones slowly and individually is so
difficult. It leaves one wondering if it is even possible to reach them in the written
speed. Through questioning many flutists who have played the piece, the author
has not yet received an affirmative answer.

Figure 31.

Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 3, line 8

He also writes for both “trembly” and exact tones which are easily achievable.

Figure 32.

Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 5, line 2

Further in the piece, he asks for a high C# to be played with a low A fingering,
gradually moving into a “trembly” effect. This is also playable with practice.

Figure 33.

Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 3 line 8

Practical Application:

Robert Dick teaches the control of whistle tone pitch in the same way he teaches
control of harmonics. That is, the direction of the airstream dictates the pitch. The
jaw moves, with completely relaxed lips, to determine the pitch. It is also helpful to
use throat tuning73 and to practice by whistling the desired pitch to find the
appropriate throat position. The airstream must remain constant and in complete,
relaxed control. Too much air simply makes an airy tone.

Practicing whistle tones is often advocated for warm-up exercises when one can
not find a practice room. Theoretically, the embouchure is in the ideal location for
each pitch. In reality though, the lips are much more relaxed, and the embouchure

73 Throat tuning is when one sets the vocal chords to the desired pitch. Although the pitch will not be sung, the vocal chords
can help strengthen the resonance of a tone.

much more vertical than a normal playing position. Some flutists find disturbance in
their tone by practicing whistle tones.

Concluding Remarks:

Most students enjoy practicing whistle tones because of the ease of execution and
the break they provide. They are probably the most relaxing technique known on
the flute. Beginning with this mindset introduces them in the most positive way

III.2.a.4. Altered Fingerings

A logical consequence of harmonic fingerings is the use of alternative fingerings for
normal pitches as harmonic fingerings are already alternative fingerings. Orchestral
flutists and more often piccolo players will often use a harmonic fingering to flatten
the pitch of an unusually sharp note. For the alto and bass flutes, the third octave is

almost always played with a harmonic fingering. The normal fingerings are much
too sharp. For difficult entrances on the piccolo, a player will often vent the first trill
key so that the tone speaks more easily. A classic example of this is in the Firebird
Suite (1909) by Igor Stravinsky.

Figure 34.

Igor Stravinsky, Firebird Suite, Ronde des princesses, Rehearsal 14

Alternative fingerings also offer many more possibilities for dynamic contrasts. It is
normal for many orchestral flutists to call these fingerings “fake” fingerings. This
detracts from the development of the flute’s sonic capabilities. It is normal, for
instance, for an orchestral flutist to use both fingers 1 on 3 on the right hand for a
high F to facilitate tuning. Many flutists use alternative fingerings on the piccolo
regularly, adding the left hand pinky key to a high D, for example.74 Studying
alternative fingerings gives orchestral flutists many more possibilities for tonal
exploration as different overtones are highlighted.

In using alternative fingerings, a widened palette of tone color results. While
harmonic fingerings are often pale and flat, alternative fingerings, according to
Robert Dick, come in 5 categories:

74 Examples of the many possibilities of alternate fingerings can be found on the Larry Krantz website which includes five
different fingering charts for flute and piccolo. One of these charts alone has over 26,000 possible fingerings. The website
also lists fingerings for orchestral flutists at Other books are: A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the
Flute by, James J. Pellerite and Alternative Fingerings for the Flute by, Nestor Herszbaum.

Normal-pitches have very strong fundamentals, strong second
partials, and progressively weaker third and fourth, fifth, sixth,
seventh and eighth partials.

Diffuse-pitches have strong fundamentals, strong second
partials, fairly weak third and fourth partials, and extremely weak
fifth, sixth and seventh partials if they are at all present.

Muted-pitches have fairly strong fundamentals and weak
second and third partials. If any higher partials are present, they
are extremely weak.

Bright-pitches have strong fundamentals, very strong second
partials, strong third partials, and progressively weaker fourth,
fifth, and sixth partials. Higher partials may be present but are
extremely weak.

Edgy-pitches have fairly strong fundamentals and extremely
strong high partials. 75

In Tone Development through Extended Techniques, Robert Dick extends the
possibilities to include a scale with the tone color of a bamboo flute.

75 Robert, D I C K, The Other Flute, P. vii The information here about changes in tone color is also relevant in the
forthcoming chapter on microtonality. When one plays with other musicians, issues of color need to be considered along
with matching pitch.

Figure 35.

Robert Dick, Tone Development through Extended Techniques, Bamboo Scale,
page 32

A printed example of an alternative fingering is in Robert Dick’s Flying Lessons
Volume I, Number 6. The two F#’s are quieter than usual, allowing the flutist to use
a minimal amount of air, change the color and keep the intonation all at once.

Figure 36.

Robert Dick, Flying Lessons Volume I, Number 6, measures 13-14

Practical Application in Repertoire:

Some composers will notate alternative fingerings in the score but this does not
mean that one may not use them if they are not notated. In Tenderness of Cranes
by Shirish Korde, alternative fingerings can be used to create the breathy sounds
that the composer asks for. For example, the trill fingering for D is naturally airy
and perhaps more breathy than what one could do with embouchure alone. This
also saves air for the length of the phrase. This section asks for three distinct color
changes all on middle D so one could alternate between the trill fingering, a
harmonic fingering to achieve a dark overblown effect, and the regular fingering.

Figure 37.

Shirish Korde, Tenderness of Cranes, page 1, lines 9-10 to page 2, line 1

Other examples of alternative fingerings for troubleshooting are in Heinz Holliger’s
(t)air(e). The G at the end of this phrase is to be played with a harmonic which
requires a greater air speed than one should have at this point, as he asks for the
phrase to be played “with last of air”. By venting the ring key of the right hand
second finger, the G harmonic speaks more easily and the intonation is corrected
in this difficult ppp dynamic.

Figure 38.

Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 1, line 7

Concluding Remarks:

Practicing these new timbres open the ear for creative color changes in traditional
repertoire. One will hear degrees of piano that were not possible with normal
fingerings. The embouchure will have already adjusted with the new fingering,
which makes the dynamic range bigger just by having played them.

III.2.a.5. Timbral Trills

Timbral trills, which are a logical development of altered fingerings, are trills with a
change of color without a noted or perceptible change of pitch. They come directly
from altered fingerings as they simply change color. They are sometimes also
called finger vibrato. Beyond a fingering chart, special techniques are not needed.

Figure 39.

Carlo Pedini, Il Miracolo, (2002) Quarta Scena, measures 1-5

III.2.a.6. Tremolos

Tremolos are another technique found in new music that require little more than
the new fingering. The fingerings can be found in a variety of fingering charts by
either Dick or Levine. To differentiate between tremolos on a violin and a flute, a
violinist will rapidly repeat the same tone while a flutist will rapidly alternate
between two or more tones.

Tremolos are also found between groups of notes. Klaus Huber calls these
tremolos or piano trills.

Figure 40.

Klaus H U B E R, Ein Hauch von Unzeit, (1972) line 14, figures c and d

Occasionally, tremolos will appear that do not have alternate fingerings. In the
following passage, one can not use any trick fingerings at all. By setting the
embouchure for a tone between the F1 and F#2, say C2, the quick change from
the lower to middle octave is possible.

Figure 41.

Shirish Korde, Tenderness of Cranes, page 1, line 2

III.2.a.7 Multiphonics

Multiphonics are another technique in this group directly derived from string
techniques. They are related to double stops on a stringed instrument as well as
harmonics on the flute because of the way that they are blown. They use altered
fingerings plus an altered embouchure position. The roots of multiphonics for flute

extend well before the end of the Second World War. In the 19th century, the Dutch
flutist Georg Bayr experimented with mutilphonics. (His book Doublenotes for Flute
was published in Vienna without a date).76 His ideas are the forerunner for many of
the common multiphonics used today. In the 20th century, the Italian virtuoso
Serverino Gazzelloni experimented further. Other published materials include Pier
Luigi Mencarrelli’s New Sounds for Woodwind (1969), Thomas Howell’s The Avant
Garde Flute (1974) and Robert Dick’s The Other Flute. The total work left over
1000 multiphonic fingerings capable of intervals from a minor second to an octave
and a fifth.

The following three rules apply to multiphonics production:

• The larger intervals are reached more easily
• Most multiphonics can only be played softly
• Articulation reduces the response of the multiphonic77

Both Robert Dick and Carin Levine have created large tables which detail the
qualities of the intervals. They are complete with recommendations for composers
regarding the difficulty or ease of the interval, and in which dynamic they are

Every fingering on the flute yields at least one multiphonic. Multiphonics are based
on three types of fingerings: harmonic, chromatic and microtonal fingerings.

1. Multiphonics based on harmonic fingerings range form the flutes lowest B
to middle D. The intervals possible include the perfect fifth, perfect fourth,
major third, minor third, and major second.

76 Ibid. P. 83
77 Ibid. P. 84

Figure 42.

Robert Dick, Flying Lessons Volume I, page 4, measures 9-10

The intonation in these is not very accurate with fifths being too large and fourths
too small. Correcting intonation with multiphonics is extremely difficult as one can
only use the lips, and the lips are already stretched beyond a normal playing
position to reach the interval. A delicate change in the air stream could help
intonation with normal fingerings but would disrupt the production of both tones of a

2. Multiphonics based on chromatic fingerings number over 600. Almost
every interval is possible including microtonal intervals.

Figure 43.

Robert Dick, The Other Flute, page 89

3. Multiphonics based on microtonal fingerings (those venting half holes in
the keys) result in a parallel microtonal scale.

Figure 44.

Robert Dick, The Other Flute, page 127

Multiphonics are dependent on the type of flute one plays. A “B” foot joint, a split
“E” key, or open or closed keys will alter the fingering one must use.

Practical Application:

When one over blows, one can reach an octave by lengthening the embouchure to
accommodate both tones. To reach a multiphonic, the jaw and lower lip define the
lower pitch, and the upper lip finds the upper pitch. It is wrong to attempt to use two
different air streams. Only one is needed with an aperture large enough to produce
both tones. In reality, beginners do this all the time. While trying to find the middle
octave, they often play a ghost of the first octave at the same time. Even for
advanced flutists, this is the easiest way to start. For more difficult intervals, one
can oscillate between the two tones until the stability is found to hold them both
together. When one is beginning multiphonics, oscillating between the two pitches
is done almost like a change of tone color. The upper lip moves in slow motion and
one is forced to concentrate keeping the lower lip and jaw stationary. By doing this,
the lips become more flexible for changes in tone color in the standard literature.
Another method is setting the air stream for a non-played middle tone. For
example, for two F’s an octave apart, the embouchure can be set for a C or D in
between. One also becomes keenly conscious of the space inside the mouth, the
vowel one speaks, and the tuning of the throat.

A further use of throat tuning, the concept coined by Robert Dick, is applicable
here. This is when one sings a tone to set the vocal chords to the desired pitch. In
traditional music, one often does this often unconsciously in order to strengthen the
resonance. With multiphonics, one can use this technique by singing the weaker
pitch of the multiphonic so that it speaks more easily. One would then remove the
singing, leaving the throat set for the desired pitch.

III.2.a.7.a. Practical Application through repertoire: Flying Lessons
Volume I for the development of multiphonics

Because of the sheer number of multiphonic fingerings, over 1000, integrating
them into daily studies isn’t prudent. Working with repertoire directly will give better
results. Perhaps the most complete and user friendly introduction to multiphonics is
Flying Lessons Volume I by Robert Dick. He developed his own notation system so
that one can easily read the fingerings. He begins with multiphonics that are easy

as far as the embouchure is concerned. The music is also paced fairly slowly. The
second etude begins with a metronome mark of 48, and the first multiphonic is a

Figure 45.

Robert Dick, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 2, measures 1-2

He has carefully chosen the tempo, dynamics and fingerings so that one can
succeed in their execution. The first interval is one that plays itself. Simply using
the fingering and pianissimo dynamic will produce the multiphonic. The second
interval is a widened version of the first interval and is notated with a crescendo to
mf while one widens the interval, then moving to f to sustain the interval. It is as if
he wrote the musical effects directly to coincide with the change of embouchure
and dynamic needed to produce the sounds.

In faster passages, he has chosen fingerings that are quite easy.

Figure 46.

Robert Dick, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 2, measure 9

The pinky on the foot joint is the only finger that moves.

Further, in line three, he combines the dynamic change along with the position of
the head joint, from rolling inwards, to outwards, to straight. This is symbolized by
the rotating “U”s over the tones.

Figure 47.

Robert Dick, Flying Lessons Volume I, number 2, line 3

Concluding Remarks:

Robert Dick’s Flying Lessons Volume I help the flutist get used to holding the flute
in different ways, depressing keys that would not normally coincide. They also help
the student adjust the embouchure in a comfortable way. They are set up to be
self-teaching. The notation is large and visually very clear. Flutists can get used to
the new sonorities without being intimidated by handwritten scores that are difficult
to decipher or effects that are difficult to achieve. This is the benefit of a
flutist/composer who has written idiomatically for his instrument. Flying Lessons
Volume 1 is therefore highly recommended by the author as the way to learn this

III.2.a.8. Glissando

Glissando is the last technique in this section stemming from stringed instruments.
Glissandi are also found on many types of other flutes. In The Other Flute, Robert
Dick writes of the Boehm system, or modern, flute: “To my knowledge, the Boehm
flute is alone in the plethora of flutes played worldwide in its traditional inability to

make glissandi, and thus its adaptation to musical styles.”78 That inspired him to
develop a technique based on the fingerings used by Indian flutists.

Glissandi on the flute are divided into two categories, embouchure glissandos and
finger glissandos. Both provide a chance for new tone colors and both provide new
challenges in their execution.

Embouchure Glissando:

Embouchure glissandi are played by changing the tension in the lips. The
maximum interval that can be played by relaxing the lower lip is a quarter step
lower. Another possibility is to turn the head joint either inwards or outwards, thus
making the tones sound lower or higher respectively. Again, the interval that can
be achieved is small, maximal a half step downwards and a quarter step upwards.
Rotating the head joint also produces a change of tone color and resonance.
Turning inwards will darken the sound making the tone smaller and quieter, and
turning outwards will make the sound airy, though not necessarily louder.
Glissandi can, therefore, not be substituted in works adapted from violin, for
example. One can achieve the glissando effect, but the loss of resonance suggests
that they are best played in a contemporary setting where composers can write
them idiomatically.

Finger Glissando:

The possibilities of finger glissandos depend on the type of flute. The closed holed
flute is at a great disadvantage. The flutist must gently depress the keys with a
highly refined sense of touch. There will be a sudden change of pitch and tone
color when the key is finally closed all the way. The difficulty of playing this way is

78 Ibid. P. 76

that there isn’t any buffer zone as there is on an open holed flute. Faster
glissandos are much more challenging because of the delicate pressure on the

Robert Dick and jazz flutist Steve Kujala79 have mastered a closed-hole glissando
technique by using a new sense of touch. Another reference to this possibility is
the “Victorian glide” or “rush.”80 Flutists in the Victorian era were playing closed-
hole flutes and were able to glide upwards over two-octaves. What should be noted
in the two examples here is that jazz flutists can control how and when they play a
glissando. A Victorian glide was played on a closed hole flute, but with only eight
keys. Flutists facing new scores can best approach this by developing a technique
for a glissando effect.

Open holed flutes, while easier for some glissandi, still have drawbacks. One slides
the fingers on or off the holes in the keys first then lifts the outer ring of the key.

Glissandi are possible in four tone groups:
C#1 to B2, C#2 to B3, A2 to F# and D3 to A#3. From these four groups, shorter
glissandi can be used.

At the Darmstadt International Summer Course for New Music in 2004, Carin
Levine held a long discussion with both flutists and composers. The composers

79 Steve Kujala is a jazz flutist who was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1989 with Chick Corea.
81Larry K R A N T Z, Frequently Asked Questions,, Retrieved March 3, 2008

were, in general, under the impression that the flute, when played by a more skilled
player, was able to play long smooth glissandi similar to a clarinet or saxophone.
Carin Levine said that this is simply not so. A flutist can imitate a glissando effect,
but a clean glissando, without holes or bumps in the tone, isn’t possible. During a
lecture/demonstration, composers asked many questions and offered many faulty
and sometimes comical suggestions were offered as to how flutists might better
prepare themselves.

Some composers had asked whether a flutist could play a glissando by combining
an embouchure glissando with the fingers. As described earlier, one can play an
embouchure glissando to a maximum of a quarter-tone higher and a half tone
lower. This half step is reachable when the flute tube is the shortest, in the range of
C#, C and B. However, those keys are not ring keys and a fingered glissando isn’t
possible. The closed keys also prohibit the glissandi between F and F#, Bb and B
and B and C. If one begins with a fingered glissando and plays as far as the
fingering allows, say descending from A to Ab, the tone could then be extended to
a lower Ab, but not a G.

Practical Application in Repertoire:

There are many examples in the literature where a glissando effect is the only
option. It is necessary that the flutists find solutions for themselves. In Tenderness
of Cranes by Shirish Korde, one must repeat glissandi that aren’t a part of the
proven range. The composer has written glissandi between Eb2 and C2,
ascending and descending. In this case, one can execute an effect of a quarter
tone. When this is done, the resonance of the tone is lost. Perhaps this doesn’t
matter. Imagine cranes in flight, with their wings moving in graceful slow motion
then suddenly slapping into the water. The glissandi can be begun slowly, as a
long motion of the bird’s wings, interrupted by the splashing sound of a flutter

Figure 48.

Shirish Korde, Tenderness of Cranes, page 3, line 5

Another possibility would be to use a harmonic fingering, from C1 to Eb1. The ring
keys can be vented while staying on a low C fingering, making a complete
glissando. The compromise here is tone color. The change in sound from an
overblown C1 to a vented fingering sounding Eb2 is immense. The harmonic
sound of the C is more dense and focused than normal, and the vented fingering
for the Eb is more airy than normal. Dynamic possibilities are also limited. One
could experiment with this, keeping the title of the piece in mind, to find the most
musical solution. In fact, this is the work of studying a contemporary score. One
must decide what colors and imagery work in a given situation, finding a well
thought-out solution, balancing the technical work with the interpretation of the
piece as a whole.

Glissandi on the piccolo, alto flute and bass flute are a bit more complicated. They
don’t have ring keys that can be slowly vented. One must learn a new technique
combining an embouchure glissando, a tone color change, vibrato and a new touch
on the keys.

The fingering change can be hidden behind vibrato or masked by the speed that
the glissando is played. For example, the beginning of the glissando is easiest and
can therefore be played very slowly. The listener will hear the glissando begin.

When the fingers must be lifted, vibrato can be increased and the glissando can
speed up, hiding the bump in the sound.

In Various Responses (2004) by Kun-Hee Youk, one must play a glissando on the
piccolo over an octave. The difficulty is the constancy of the ascending line. There
is a possibility on the piccolo of venting the front side of the keys with the fingertips.
This is because the keys are so tiny. When one uses an embouchure glissando on
the piccolo, the tone disappears very quickly. If a piece called for an airy effect,
one could use it. But because this is a chamber music piece, there needs to find a
more acceptable solution. One must listen to the other instruments and hide the
breaks in the sound when possible. This means simply playing very quietly during
the loudest fingering changes.

Concluding Remarks:

Despite the complications with playing many glissandi, there are valuable lessons
to be learned. The first is, playing this glissando forces flutists to think about re-
developing their sense of touch. Second, it is chance to experiment. This is chance
for flutists to think critically about the limitations of the technique and apply it in the
most musical way.

III.2.b. Vocal Techniques

The following three techniques, jet whistle, singing and playing and speaking and
playing, ask for radical variations in the shape of the inside of the mouth. By
changing the vowel sound shaped by the mouth in jet whistle, both pitch and color
can be altered. These techniques highlight this possibility of flute playing. Related

to singing is throat tuning. Throat tuning was previously discussed in the chapter
on multiphonics but in this section, this possibility is exponentially greater.
Practicing this helps the student be more conscious of the shape of the inside of
the mouth when returning to traditional tones. Where the vast variance in pitch
does not exist with traditionally blown notes, resonance does. Therefore, teaching
these techniques is tandem with lessons on throat tuning and resonance is

Vocal Techniques

Jet Whistle Singing and Playing Speaking and Playing

III.2.b.1. Jet Whistle

A jet whistle is a strong air attack that mimics the starting of a jet engine. The
embouchure hole is completely covered, and the flutist forces air through the tube
with a strong air stream and diaphragm impulse. The same principal applies for jet
whistles as for whistle tones, the longer the tube, the richer in overtones the sound

will be. That means, when a richer tone with more resonance is needed, a lower
fingering should be used. Often, fingerings are not notated.

Jet whistle is the first technique in this new group that uses vocal sounds, or vowel
sounds to alter pitch or tone color. From a historical viewpoint, composers have
been long experimenting with the voice as a new development of tone color. Much
later, composers like Beat Furrer and Bernhard Lang81 experiment with altering the
shape of oral cavity. In traditional playing, flutists learn that the syllable with the
most resonance for articulation is the French “tu”. For a more open resonance in
legato passages, flutists use an “ahh” sound. These ideas have been expanded
upon with the techniques in this next group.

Practical Application:

While playing a jet whistle, one can alter the pitch by altering the vowel sound
formed by the mouth. Moving from an “ooo” to an “eee” sound, the tone will ascend
an octave. Moving from an “eee” to an “ooo”, the tone can descend an entire
octave. In addition to that, one can raise the pitch by turning the head joint
outwards. The flutist plays the jet whistle with the entire mouthpiece inside the
mouth, completely covered. Moving it back behind the teeth, there is still room to
rotate the head joint so that the keys remain flat, not rolled inwards. Doing so will
raise the pitch and increase the amount of overtones. Likewise, rolling the keys
inward will lower the pitch. One can also alter the pitch by using an ascending
scale pattern. This lessens the overtone component, which may not be enough
noise for a jet whistle. In the following example, the jet whistle is notated by the
large upwards arrow.

81 See forthcoming musical examples in section III.2.b.3. of Beat Furrer and Bernhard Lang for realizations of this idea.

Figure 49.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 6, line 1

This example shows how quickly the jet whistle is normally played. One can not
play them over much more time, because of the massive quantity of air that they
require. Playing this example, a flutist will expel all of the available air, in one quick
impulse. Therefore, jet whistle wins the honor of being the first extended technique
presenting flutists with issues of stamina.82 The next example is one of many
others showing the demands made by living composers.

Figure 50.
Salvatore Sciarrino, L’opera per flauto/COMO VENGONO PRODOTTI, page 3,
line 6

Repeated jet whistles at this speed need all of the acoustic tricks mentioned above.
One simply does not have time to expel all of one’s air, over and over again. There
is also not time to take a breath in between them. One can experiment with rolling
the head joint at that speed to create more noise. The use of vowel sounds at that
speed is certainly possible. The issue is again, stamina. The diaphragm must move
much more strongly then in traditional playing, and much more quickly.

82 Please see section III.2.f. for more solutions for stamina problems.

III.2.b.2. Singing and Playing

Singing and playing is a technique that is exactly as it sounds. One vocalizes while
blowing air across the embouchure hole. The difficulty is not in the execution itself
but in its complexity. Normally, a vocal line will be notated beneath the flute line
and the two will be played simultaneously. This technique is probably the most
telling about a flutist’s inner hearing skills. As flutists play single line melodies,

hearing polyphonic lines is often an underdeveloped skill. Finding the correct
pitches is the first challenge.

Making flutists more physically aware of what their vocal chords are doing while
playing is a good step in learning more about projection. Related to singing and
playing is throat tuning. By singing internally, the vocal chords are set for the
corresponding pitches. This strengthens inner hearing, and according to some,
produces tones with an optimal resonance. One can test throat tuning by randomly
singing the pitches aloud to see if they match the pitch being played.

With singing and playing, there are a few facts that must be accepted.

• First, the voice will greatly distort the tone. One can not expect a clean
sounding polyphonic interplay.
• Second, because of this distortion, difference tones are very prominent.
• Third, intonation, again because of the distortion, will be much more
difficult than either singing or playing alone.
• Finally, text will be difficult to understand.

Singing and playing is therefore often written to produce a new color. One seldom
sees is used as true polyphony or harmony.

Practical Application:

Preliminary exercises are found in Robert Dick’s Flying Lessons Volume I where
one holds a simple “ooh” sound while over blowing through the harmonic series.
The point here is to develop control and not let the voice follow along with the
pitches of the flute.

Figure 51.
Robert Dick, Flying Lessons Volume I, Number 2, measure 1

Another more challenging is in Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e):

Figure 52.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e),page 6, lines 1-2

III.2.b.3. Speaking and Playing

The discussion of the use of the voice can not go further without also introducing
the practice of speaking and playing. A flutist will speak either directly into the flute
tube or across the embouchure hole. Both methods will produce words that are
somewhat distorted.

Practical Application in Repertoire:

The most essential and accessible work for developing these skills is Voice (1971)
by T_ru Takemitsu. The piece is only three pages which contain only 17 lines of
music. Besides some spoken text, Takemitsu gives absolute vocal freedom. For
example, item C9 in the playing instructions says, “with voice, humming shouting,
singing, etc…”83 There are not any other indications except for dynamic markings.
One has free choice of pitch, vowel and/or consonant and the color of the voice.
Other instructions are to speak into the instrument with the lips almost entirely
covering the mouthpiece and to speak normally. Although this is a classical
composition, one should be aware that Takemitsu also wrote many film scores
including the score to the film Ran (1985). Beginning here can give the student an
idea of the theater and mood of his work.

Moving into the score of Voice, marking all of the vocal tones with colored pencil
would help outline the architecture. The difference between having a performance
simply full of original noises and one that is well designed is the difference in
understanding the form of the piece. Then, the vocals can be consciously chosen
within a larger framework. The pretext for Takemitsu’s Voice is that during the
piece, the flutist encounters a ghost. The interpretation follows from here. One can
decided to do this with any range of emotions; fear, anger, sadness, humor. There
is a danger in getting caught up in effects while losing sight of the larger intention.

A good step to learning this piece is to think of the possibilities of the voice on
general. One could begin by listening to pieces that explore the use of the voice.
Cathy Berbarian certainly exposes the possibilities of the voice, but as the
questionnaire showed, bias against such music is strong. This “craziness” found in
her work might be more threatening than encouraging. More accessible to students

83 T_ru T A K E M I T S U, Voice for Flute Solo, Salabert Editions, Paris 1971

might be the work of Erin Gee.84 Her Mouthpiece cycle (2000-2005) has a
somewhat pop feel while she uses her own voice in an innovative way. Gee was a
student of Beat Furrer who explores the use of the voice to produce new
instrumental timbres. Relevant to this interplay of voice and instrument is his auf
tönernen füssen which was recorded by Carin Levine.85 Although this piece post-
dates Voice, it can be used in the studio to open the ears to vocal possibilities.
Further work experimenting with vocal sounds can be done via the International
Phonetic Alphabet. This system categorizes all the sounds in the known
languages.86 87

Although the following pieces do not give the freedom as Takemitsu’s Voice does,
they can certainly be used in exploring the resonance of the flute with various vocal
sounds. Beat Furrer and Bernhard Lang have both used extensive vocals
integrated into their compositions.

Furrer’s auf tönernen füssen (2001) is a piece for amplified flute and spoken voice.
During the piece, the two parts should fuse together to make one sound. Furrer
uses the vowel sounds to not only change color but also pitch.

84 More information including sound files can be found here: , Retrieved February
25, 2008
85 Information about her CD can be found here:, Retrieved
February 25, 2008
86 , February 25, 2008
This website consists of a tutorial with sound files.
87 Erin Gee has written a dissertation using the international phonetic alphabet to describe extended vocal techniques. The
Relationship of Non-Semantic Vocal Music to the International Phonetic Alphabet and Research in the Phonetic Sciences:
Brian Ferneyhough, Georges Aperghis and Dieter Schnebel is not yet published but available in the library of the Universität
für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz.

Figure 53.
Beat Furrer, auf tönernen füssen, page 3, line 1

The flute offers a supporting role to the poem, coloring some of the words as

Figure 54.
Beat Furrer, auf tönernen füssen, page 4, line 3

Bernhard Lang in Schrift I (2003) for solo flute writes the desired syllables exactly
in the score. For example, one speaks a “te, ke, ti, to” which alters the color of the

88 Pizzicato is a percussive effect on the flute played with a strongly articulated attack that stops short of a normal stream of
air through the flute tube. It will be discussed in section III.2.c.3.

Figure 55.
Bernhard Lang, Schrift I, measures 2-3

Concluding Remarks:

Where some might find this work fun; experience shows that most flutists find it
difficult. Flutists work on developing beautiful, bel canto sounds and immerse
themselves in learning established traditions. When one is learning a performance
practice, the individual “voice” is often stifled. It is no wonder that some might feel
lost with such freedom. In the studio, the first obstacle to overcome is shyness.
These techniques offer flutists the widest creative freedom since their beginning of
the instrument. This can be threatening. Where teachers previously have guided
the students into what type of sound they are looking for, now it would be wise to
let all that go and give them a chance to explore their own voice. Begin this work

by reminding them of what such a challenge can accomplish. To paraphrase Peter
Röbke, the central pedagogical question of new music is, “what does this music
bring out in me that other music does not?”89 90

III.2.c. Percussive Effects

Percussive effects, key clicks, tongue ram and pizzicato, are as they sound, effects
borrowed from percussion instruments. They do not use a normally blown air
stream and are therefore placed late in the discussion of extended techniques.
They require greater diaphragm push and much stronger articulation. Since air

89 For more ideas on non-threatening ways to encourage creativity please see the chapter on improvisation. There are
many exercises there that have been developed to overcome shyness and develop individual expression.
90 Peter R Ö B K E, Vom Handwerk zur Kunst, Didaktische Grundlagen des Intrumentalunterrichts, (2000) Schott Musik
International, Mainz, P. 144

does not move through the flute tube, a student must first understand how to
create resonance of the inside of the mouth before undertaking them. Therefore,
they follow the section on vocal techniques. The techniques are discussed in order
of difficulty, beginning with key clicks, then tongue ram and finally pizzicato.

Percussive Effects

Key Clicks Tongue Ram Pizzicato

III.2.c.1. Key Clicks

Key clicks are played without any blown air at all. One simply makes a percussive
noise with the keys.

Harold Meltzer’s Trapset (1999) is written primarily for key clicks. In this piece he
notates them as normal tones; most likely because there are so many. The
instruction to perform the key clicks is only found in the performance instructions.
The tones written as X’s, which are the conventional notation for key clicks, are
tongue rams.

Figure 56.
Harold Meltzer, Trapset, measure 34

There are also examples of key clicks adding a percussive noise without disturbing
the blown pitches.

Figure 57.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e),page 5, line 2

Here the left hand is busy with the A to B trill and the right hand adds the key clicks
by pressing all three right hand keys, then clicking the fingers in the written rhythm.
This doesn’t disturb the sounding pitch.

Another example is from Beat Furrer’s auf tönernen füssen. He writes key clicks
and gives the flutist free choice of what keys to use. The only instructions are to
alternate the right hand and left hand in the given rhythm. The pitches and
fingerings are left to the performer.

Figure 58.
Beat Furrer, auf tönernen füssen, page 3, line 1

Practical Application:

The first application is that the flute must stay in its regular playing position. The
written pitch will resonate through a widely opened mouth. Moving the flute off of
the lip raises the pitch by a minor second. Normally, because there isn’t an air

stream to create overtones, key clicks are written in the first octave. One can
certainly find examples that prove otherwise, and in these cases the solution lies
with the performer. Usually, one fingers the written pitch and forcefully “smacks” or
“clonks” the G key with the left hand third finger. For notes above G, this doesn’t
work. One must slap the key for the written pitch.

Another consideration not immediately apparent is intonation. In Gerd Noack’s
Frühlingstimme op. 39 (2007), he notates key clicks as “claps” that then progress
into a normally blown tone. One must compensate for the sharp pitch of the key
clicks with the blown low C. The low C will be much flatter in comparison. This can
be done by rolling the head joint in during the key clicks, then rolling back for the C.

Figure 59.
Gerd Noack, Frühlingstimme op. 39, measure 80-82

Another small detail here is that the blown C does not have a click written above it.
It can be tempting to continue them as before, but the blown C should be glided
into without any extra noise.

Key clicks are the first technique requiring resonance without air. To amplify the
sound, the flutist opens the mouth as widely as possible to amplify the sound. This
technique challenges, and enlightens students about the possibilities of resonance
by altering the mouth position.

III.2.c.2. Tongue Ram

A tongue ram is a percussive effect that gets its name from ramming the tongue
into embouchure hole. The dictionary states that to ram is to “cram or stuff”.91

91 Ram,, February 25, 2008

Because the embouchure hole is covered, a tongue ram will make the flute sound
a major 7th lower. An alto flute and bass flute will sound a minor 7th lower and the
piccolo a minor 9th lower. These facts are to keep in mind when transposing works
between the different flutes. Both pitches are most often notated, the top one
being the fingered pitch, the bottom the sounding pitch.

Figure 60.
Gerd Noack, Frühlingstimme op. 39, measure 34

Practical Application:

The word “ram” is often used when describing car crashes as in “she just rammed
right into me!”92 That about describes the energy it takes to play a tongue ram.
The flutist should blow with a “hoot” sound, ending with the tongue either inside the
embouchure hole or inside the mouth behind the teeth. This feels like playing the
flute backwards as flutists usually use a “tooh” to articulate. The resonance comes
from very forceful diaphragm movements. One can experiment by varying the end
position of the tongue, ending through the lips or by staying in the mouth. The trick
when pushing the tongue into the embouchure hole is to keep it somewhat covered
with the bottom lip. Keep the flute in a normal playing position then roll it inwards.
If the bottom lip is below the back edge of the tone hole, the tongue ram won’t
sound. Another possibility is to start from a normal playing position, roll in, and then

93 Ibid.

inhale the tongue back into the mouth ending on the roof of the mouth. The key
here in getting this to sound is energy. The tongue ram needs a fast and forceful
motion. A score will not specify how it is to be played. Factors regarding speed and
dynamic should inform this choice. Tongue ram is often played without a
microphone, and this should also inform the player as to how much diaphragm
motion is needed to get an acceptable volume level.

A common mistake is trying to re-tongue after the tongue ram is finished. This
backlash93 can be remedied by practicing the tongue ram in a mirror without the
flute. One can watch that the tongue stays between the lips when it is finished.
Simply forcefully stick the tongue out and stay there watching it in the mirror.

III.2.c.3. Pizzicato

Pizzicato is a percussive effect for the flute that leaves much room for
interpretation. There isn’t a rule as to how pizzicatos should be played. Carin
Levine has divided them into tongue pizzicatos and lip pizzicatos. To play

93 Carin Levine pointed out this common error, terming it backlash, in during a masterclass in Darmstadt, Germany in 2004.
Since then, the author has noticed how prevalent this error is.

pizzicato, one holds the flute in playing position and uses a much more explosive
attack that stops short of a normal stream of air across the embouchure hole. The
volume is much less than a normally blown note. After one has mastered the
execution of pizzicato, there is a lot of room for experimentation. Often, composers
won’t notate whether a pizzicato should be done with the lips or with the tongue.

Other times, descriptions are such that one can only infer that what is meant is a
pizzicato. For example, Gerd Noack in his Frühlingstimme op.39, asks for a “slap”.
It only says that it should be played with tone. There aren’t any indications as to
how much. One can only guess that it should something similar to slap tongue
played on a clarinet or saxophone. A clarinetist will suck on the reed making a
vacuum that results in a “pop” sound when it is released. Because flutes don’t have
reeds, this doesn’t work. The nearest effect is a pizzicato because of its short
percussive nature.

Figure 61.
Gerd Noack, Frühlingstimme op. 39, measure 34

Practical Application for Tongue Pizzicato:

A tongue pizzicato is played by holding the tongue tightly against the roof of the
mouth, holding a pocket of air behind it. When it is forcefully released, a percussive
sound is heard resonating across the embouchure hole. There are as many

variances with the sound as there are variances in the shape of the mouth. Since
the air doesn’t run through the length of the flute tube, the shape of the mouth has
a huge impact in the quality of the sound. An open sound such as an “ahhh or an
“ohhh” will create much more resonance. The mouth itself will resonate sound
since the air has not moved very far from it.

In addition to this, one can also vary the consonant articulated by the tongue. Any
consonant involving the tongue is possible. T and K are the most natural as they
are used in normal articulations. The can be softened to D or G sound, or one can
experiment with a Ch or J sounds as well.

Pizzicatos with more resonance use a softer consonant. For less
resonance and a sharper attack, use a harder consonant.

When the tongue is tight against the roof of the mouth, the effect will be shorter
and more percussive. However, it doesn’t expel much air forward. Using a looser
tongue can move some air forward but without the “pop” that comes from the
intense pressure of the former example. One must decide what each individual
piece of music needs.

In Harold Meltzer’s Trapset (the tongue pizzicato, marked “TP”, follows a long
series of other percussive effects. The entire piece is percussive without any
normally blown tones. It is played with a microphone and would be best served
with the crispest sound available. That would be done with a very strong and quick
motion of the tongue allowing the microphone to compensate for the volume.

Figure 62.

Harold Meltzer, Trapset, measure 25

Another example is Beat Furrer’s auf tönernen füssen. He begins the piece with a
pizzicato, specifying that it should be done with a “k” sound. Since the piece is
played with a microphone, a short “k” with almost no air is possible. This doesn’t
mean that other variances aren’t allowed. One could use a “ka”, “ke” “ki” “ko” or
“ku” as for the end position of the mouth. The vowel would not be spoken, or even
blown, but the flute would resonate differently. Furrer also writes for the
microphone to be placed on the head joint itself and any small variance in the
shape of the mouth would be heard.

Figure 63.
Beat Furrer, auf tönernen füssen, page 1, line 1

Practical Application for Lip Pizzicato:

Another pizzicato is done with the lips. Again, this is often not specified in a score.
To do this, the flutist holds air inside the mouth then explodes the lips with a strong
“pa” sound. The same principle applies as for tongue pizzicatos.

Looser lips give more resonance; tighter lips make a crisp attack.

Cassandra’s Dream Song by Brian Ferneyhough begins with a lip pizzicato. The
piece is not amplified and one can not play it too softly or else the audience may
not hear it. They may not even know if the piece has begun.

Figure 64.
Brian Ferneyhough, Cassandra’s Dream Song, page 1, line 1

It would be wise here to use a pizzicato the produces the most resonance in the
room where it is played.

Another factor influencing the choice of pizzicato is the speed of the passage. A lip
pizzicato is very slow and can not be repeated very quickly. Tongue pizzicatos are
faster but need more preparation than normal tonguing does. Normally the tongue
bounces off of an existent air stream. Here, one needs to regroup between each
one so that the right amount of pressure on the roof of the mouth can be created.
Pizzicatos with double tonguing are certainly possible but the resonance would be
greatly diminished.

Concluding Remarks about Percussive Techniques:

Percussive techniques, key clicks, tongue ram and pizzicato offer a fun mode of
expression for flutists but also teach a valuable lesson about resonance. Achieving
resonance without air running though the length of the flute is a challenge for many
flutists. By highly exaggerating the movements of the diaphragm and tongue, one
can achieve the desired effect. This work offers the chance to build strength and
use more energy. Diaphragm push and articulation strength are enhanced by
practicing these techniques. The ideas learned about resonating with the mouth
will continue to enhance understanding about their ability to project.

III.2.d. New Uses of Air

Capitalizing on what has been gained in the previous sections, the flutist coming to
this section will understand the need for more energy in playing contemporary

techniques. Thinking about how the flute projects and resonates will come into use
with these techniques. After having gained this knowledge from singing and
playing, the flutist can transfer the feeling of an open oral cavity to aid in projection
while playing air sounds.

New uses of air also challenge the concept of breathing and create physical
discomfort for the flutist learning the various techniques. This is not meant to
discourage, but rather to illuminate the challenges that need to be faced. The
space inside the mouth is even wider than it normally is. The flutist felt these
differences with percussive techniques, but here the difference are coupled with
breathing challenges. The author has grouped the techniques according to pure
physical difficulty. Following the plan below helps breathing develop in the most
logical way.

New Uses of Air

Air Sounds Inhaling While Playing Circular Breathing

III.2.d.1. Air Sounds

Air sounds are perhaps the most taxing development on a flutists psyche. As
flutists spend countless hours refining their sounds to eliminate excess air, it can
be discouraging to be asked to put the air back in. The challenge is to convince the

listener that this is done consciously, and is not resulting from nerves or a poorly
developed embouchure.

Air sounds are played exactly as the term describes. One relaxes, or un-focuses,
the embouchure so that the tone is mixed with air. The flute already requires a lot
of air. Playing with even more “wasted” air demands much more breath capacity
and stamina.

Practical Application:

The next consideration is how much air to use. Often this is not specified. Toshio
Hosokawa’s definitions in Vertical Song I can help. He writes for air sounds in a
very specific way. He defines the air sounds as follows:

Figure 65.
Toshio Hosokawa, Vertical Song I, Symbols

Within a phrase, the flutist must have great facility and a clear idea of how to
change the embouchure.

Figure 66.
Toshio Hosokawa, Vertical Song I, measure 7-8

This can be practiced by developing the three distinct permutations of air sounds
seen here, or by practicing air sounds as part of a continuum. For example, begin
with a pure sound then gradually mix in air, aiming for 80% tone, 20% air. Move
then to 50/50, and then to 80% air and 20% tone. End with 100% air. A teacher
can guide this by rotating the hand from palm down to palm up and back again.
The palm down would be a pure tone, sideways is 50/50, and the palm facing up is
pure air. It is then easy to judge when one has given too much air too soon. The
teacher can also work on facility with this by surprising the student with the
direction. This can be practiced in a compact way, say on the three G’s of the flute,
so that the three registers are practiced.94

Immediately noticeable is the amount of air this takes. It isn’t important during the
exercise where the student breathes. Breathing should be done in a relaxed way
and whenever needed. Another factor that needs attention is the shape of the
embouchure. The sides of the mouth and cheeks should gradually become more
relaxed as more air comes into the tone. Some might have difficulty finding the
tone after playing air sounds. This takes time.

III.2.d.2. Inhaling While Playing

A fairly common trend in new music is inhaling through the flute. This is another
technique requiring a much higher stamina level. In order to get enough
resonance, one must inhale a great volume of air and often very quickly. The

94 This exercise is a direct adaption from Jeanne Baxtresser’s vibrato exercise. She uses the hand motion to signify vibrato
speed and asks that the students do this on three G’s, as they represent a complete but compact practice session. The
author learned of this during private study in 1996.

difficulty lies with the fact that there is a loss of control over the phrase. When a
composer writes in the inhalation, it is generally not allowed to take a normal and
relaxed breath to get back on track. Another problem is having too much air
through repeated inhalations. This leads to a build-up of carbon dioxide in the
lungs which causes a rise in heart rate.

Practical Application in Repertoire:

Bernhard Lang’s Schrift I presents such dilemmas. The following symbol:

Figure 67.
Bernhard Lang, Schrift I, symbols

means inhaling through the mouth, presumably audible enough for the audience to
hear. With a quarter note equaling 184, he writes the following:

Figure 68.
Bernhard Lang, Schrift I,measure 8

This means ten actions over four beats at 184 beats per minutes. Notable is that
the inhalations are marked f while the air sounds are only mf. The inhalations must
be louder than the played notes. One can imagine the difficulty of doing this.

Another possibility is inhaling with written tones. Heinz Holliger writes for inhaling
while double tonguing. The inhalation is marked by the upwards arrow.

Figure 69.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 3, line 7

He also writes for inhaling with vibrating lips.

Figure 70.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 6, line 1


This technique will be discussed much further in section III.2.f., physical
conditioning. At this point, simply notice that the flutist loses control over the
breath and that this technique is a huge impetus for developing stamina.

III.2.d.3. Circular Breathing

The comprehensive book on circular breathing is Circular Breathing for the Flutist
by Robert Dick. Without simply reiterating what he has said, the intention of this
chapter is to strongly recommend his method. He systematically describes each
phase of circular breathing. Circular breathing involves squeezing air out of the
mouth with the cheek muscles while simultaneously inhaling through the nose. The
biggest challenge is maintaining a clear tone with the “mouth only” air. This
involves strengthening the cheek muscles and refining the sides of the
embouchure to sustain the tone. This also ties into the ideas of resonance that
have been gradually built upon in the previous sections. When one circular
breathes well, it is not possible to tell when it occurred. During the few seconds
when the flutist inhales, the air is coming only from the mouth. The connection to
the chest and lungs is cut off, causing one to rethink the ideas about a flute tone
needing an open throat and chest. This is not meant to encourage closing the
throat and chest, but rather to highlight how much resonance is possible when one
uses the shape of the inside of the mouth to its maximum.

Circular breathing enables the flutist to play extended phrases which can be used
in modern or traditional repertoire. An added benefit of learning circular breathing is
an increased ability to play convincing diminuendos and pianissimo passages
because of the strengthened cheek muscles.

Robert Dick asserts that with daily practice, circular breathing can be learned in
two months. The author recommends at least double that time.

Concluding Remarks about New Uses of Air:

New uses of air in modern music often take away a flutist’s control. The body is
pushed physically. Mental and perhaps psychological challenges about sound and
resonance force the musician to think about and use the body in a new way. The
benefit for the rest of a player’s flute playing is invaluable. The more ideas about

resonance one has, the more expressive one can be. When breathing is no longer
limited, the more creative the phrasing can be.

III.2.e. A Word about Trumpet Embouchure

Trumpet embouchure is quite a scandal in the flute world. Some hate it, saying it
should never be written or played, others seem fine with it. To play this, one
buzzes the lips into the tone hole of the head joint or directly into the flute tube with
the head joint removed. Achieving different pitches comes from varying lip tension
and shape of the mouth.

The pressure on the lips is intense because of the small size of the tone hole. It is
much smaller than a trumpet or even a french horn mouthpiece. Anyone who has
tried it will say that it disturbs the embouchure. The lips tingle or itch and can feel
slightly swollen. This makes it difficult to play a clear tone immediately following.
The key in practicing trumpet embouchure is to do it consistently and for very short
periods of time.95 Examples range from short bursts of sound,

Figure 71.
Carin Levine, Neue Spieltechniken für die Flöte, page 19

to virtuosic passages,

Figure 72.
Carin Levine, Neue Spieltechniken für die Flöte, page 19

95 See chapter on periodization, section III.2.f., regarding muscle building and a practice plan.

III.2.f. Endurance and Physical Conditioning: Periodization

In much music with extreme complexity, physical demands are out of reach for
most flutists. One might simply ask, why play it? The reason is: there are flutists
who have already figured out, without the help of a specific method, how to do so.
This means that composers are continuing to write more and more complicated
things, not because the masses of flutists can play it, but because some can. As a
consequent, some of this repertoire makes in way onto competition lists as
required repertoire because of the challenges that it showcases. As said in the
introduction, new music will advance and take over the most conservative
institutions because it always has and always will.

While this is true, there are certain things that one may be willing to play, but can
not responsibly teach. The physical intensity in much new music is beyond what
many flutists are prepared for. Flutists have traded stories of becoming nauseated
while performing the Hermes movement from L’opera per flauto by Salvatore
Sciarrino. This comes from the intense push of the diaphragm. They have also said
that they require an adrenalin boost to hit all of the fourth octave harmonics.
Referring back to jet whistle (figure 49) and harmonics (figure 26), notice not only
the amount of difficulty, but the amount of repeats.

With the involvement of such tiny finger and lip muscles in flute playing, an
adrenalin rush is something to avoid. In sports, there is an optimal level of arousal
for an optimal performance for each athlete. This is known as the “Inverted-U
Hypothesis.”96 Sports requiring the highest level of arousal are those requiring
gross motor skills such as football and weightlifting. Sports requiring the lowest
levels of arousal are those requiring fine muscle control such as bowling or figure
skating. Flute playing requires a degree of fine muscle control beyond any sport.
96 This is also referred to as Yerkes Dodson Law, Yaniv H A N O C H, When Less is More ,
“ ”
Theory & Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2004, P 427

The mechanics of the embouchure and fingers require steel nerves, and it is highly
probable that any adrenalin rush would disturb one or both of those systems.
Adrenalin runs through the entire body, and one cannot regulate it to just the
breathing, keeping the fingers and lips adrenalin free. As said by Frank R. Wilson,
Flooding these [smaller] muscles with adrenalin is like urging a mouse with a cattle
prod: the result is spasm and collapse.”97

Looking further into the psychological effects of adrenalin in the body, the author
found numerous studies about adrenalin injections causing feelings of fear. While
these studies were inconclusive, one study did find […] a positive correlation […]
between the intensity of emotional arousal, whatever its quality, and […]
adrenalin.98 One can clearly see the disadvantage this presents for musicians
striving to stay calm an “in control” during a performance. Musicians have busied
themselves with stress relieving techniques99 to minimize the exact symptoms that
this repertoire seems to require. The most typical symptoms of performance
anxiety are a racing heart and shaking,100 and playing a piece with extreme
breathing requirements causes the heart rate to increase. This does not mean that
one will necessarily feel “afraid” during the piece, what it does mean is that the
physical demands aren’t ones we are conditioned for.

It has been surprising to find a deficit of literature about physical conditioning for
musicians. Athletes have known how to train themselves for years. Why don’t
musicians? The body can be trained to do just about anything. Thinking of a flutists
needs, what comes to mind is the athleticism of gymnasts on a balance beam or
figure skaters jumping and landing on a thin blade. They explode with energy yet
maintain control. They’ve simply trained themselves to be at the appropriate level

97 Adina M O R N E L L, Lampenfieber und Angst bei ausübenden Musikern, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 2002, P. 37
98 LENNART LEVI M.D., The Urinary Output of Adrenalin and Noradrenalin During Pleasant and Unpleasant Emotional
States, Psychosomatic Medicine 27:80-85 (1965), P. 80
99 Adina Mornell in, Lampenfieber und Angst bei ausuebenden Musikern cites twenty-six various therapies aimed at
reducing performance anxiety (pp. 70-71). These therapies are not only practiced by many musicians, but her table shows
multiple studies done on each form of therapy. In addition to this, her book cites hundreds of articles dealing with this theme.
100 Adina M O R N E L L, Ob Cit. P. 36

of arousal at the right time. What is missing for musicians is a plan. Flutists can
benefit from sport science regarding both muscle building and endurance training.
The missing link to teaching such complex repertoire is by developing physical

Periodization Training: A Possible Answer

Periodization training, in its simplest explanation, is alternating periods of work and
rest so that the physical arousal is optimal at the right moment. The goal of
periodizing an exercise program is to optimize training during short as well as long
periods of time. Periodized cycles can be created for periods as short as a practice
session or as long as an entire year. The origins go back to Hans Selye’s model,
known as the General Adaptation Syndrome101, which has been used since the
late 1950s. General Adaptation Syndrome says that after an initial stage of alarm,
a person will adapt to the stress which is called the stage of resistance. When a
specific stress doesn’t alleviate itself, or when the body can no longer adapt, the
third stage enters which he calls the stage of exhaustion. In Selye’s medical work,
this is what causes death, or the lack of ability to adapt to life. In sports science,
this means that the ability to cope will be less than it previously was. Periodization
is a development of this theory. By increasing stress and alternating it with rest,
one is able to do more.

Periodization gives a good lesson in preparedness. It eliminates the last minute
"panic practice," since at that point, the work is done. The motto in sports right
before a competition would be, "trust your training." Many musicians are still
learning notes and working on technique at the last minute.

The percussionist Steven Schick writes about the muddied waters between
learning and performing a piece often found among musicians:

101 Hans S E L Y E, The Story of the Adaptation Syndrome (1952) Acata, Inc. Medical Publishers, Montreal, P. 34

So often, out of the pressure to learn music increasingly quickly,
these two distinct states of mind become confused. The learning
of a piece becomes a necessary expedient of performance, but
is rarely savored for its own unique qualities.102 103

He wrote this in an article about learning a work of Brian Ferneyhough, which
makes this comment even more applicable to this discussion.

The next section looks into a model from sports scientists into detail to describe
these ideas more thoroughly.

III.2.f.1. A Model from Sports Science

102 Steven S C H I C K, Developing an Interpretive Context: Learning Brain Ferneyhough’s Bone Alphabet, (Winter 1994)
Perspectives of New Music, Volume 31, Number 1, P. 132
104 He wrote this in an article about learning a work of Brian Ferneyhough, which makes this comment even more
applicable to this discussion.

Looking into a model for sports enlightens the concept of periodization further. A
sport that is analogous to flute playing is figure skating, because of its fine muscle
control. The level of arousal is needed is at the lower end of the inverted U
mentioned earlier. A team of sports scientists at the University of Delaware Ice
Skating Science Development Center have developed a periodization schedule for
the most elite skaters.104 In addition to numerous articles and studies done there,
the team has published the following chart that can be analyzed and applied to

105 The director of this center, Ron Ludington, has used the research to benefit his students and has coached students in
the previous nine Olympics and thirty-six world championships., Retrieved
April 10, 2008

Figure 73.
Michelle Provost-Craig, Johnny Johns, Carl Poe, Debbie Pisos, Eric Lawson,
Novice, Junior, Senior, Cardiovascular Yearly Training Cycle

Analysis and Suggested Application for Musicians:

There are several noticeable components of the chart which are often missing from
a musician’s idea of practice. These new areas of exploration are

1) transition
2) the concept of tapering work and
3) multi-lateral training.


The periodized season begins with transition or active rest. This means a time of
each year set aside for recovery. Athletes might participate in recreational sports
during this time. They might also take a vacation. Musicians, especially
professional ones, often do not have this luxury. The year is not so neatly
organized where one can plan a few weeks every spring for recovery. Nor are the
most taxing points of any season so easily defined. When, however, a piece of
extreme physical difficulty or complexity will be performed, most musicians could
find a time to rest in the before beginning a new work as well as after the
performance, even if “rest” means playing concerts with traditional repertoire. This
plan could also be applied to a specific competition or to a concerto performance.
In preparing for such a performance, the flutist could use these concepts and
schedule in rest or active rest to begin the preparation phase for a performance.
This time is perfect for learning the notation and doing readings and listening talked
about previously.


The second eye catching term in the chart is the word taper. Not only is this a
concept that is often missing for musicians, but the placement of it in the chart is
worth noting. While writing this chapter, the author talked to several musicians who
said that they do taper off their work before a performance, adding that they
practice very little the day before a performance. This is not what is seen in this

chart. Athletes are tapering off their training up to two weeks before their
competition. When athletes transition into the in-season phase of training, they
report feel guilty for not being exhausted at the end of the day. The point of this
phase is that one can not practice at a maximum level all day, or the days and
weeks before, and expect to be at a peak level for the performance. During this in-
season time, the training that had been previously done will not be lost. One will
actually feel at a higher level of fitness since the body will recover some lost

Comparing the chart in figure 73 to a smaller one used by runners 74, notice the
same recommendations; less work three to five weeks before the race. The timing
of this chart shows more flexibility in the time frame for which it is applied. The
minimum amount of time here is twenty-three weeks. The shortest period of long
term training could be done in as little as twelve weeks.

Phase How Frequency Duration Intensity Volume
Prep 4-8 High Short-Medium Very little Low
Base 12-24 High Medium- High Moderate Moderate
weeks to High
Build 4-8 Moderate-High High Heavy Moderate
Peak/Race 3-5 Moderate Short Heavy Low

Figure 74.
Mike Ricci, Periodization Chart for Runners

In the frequency category of this chart, notice that it is at it’s highest in the
beginning and tapers off towards the race. The intensity of the work steadily
increases until the race. What this chart shows is that the most intense work will be
balanced with a moderate frequency of work done for short durations of time.

This same development is seen in the skater’s chart as they eliminate aerobic
training and run competitions programs back to back. The intensity of that work is
higher but the time period much shorter. The longest program a skater does is four
minutes. Programs ran back to back makes eight minutes. Earlier, they had been
doing aerobic session for twenty to thirty minutes.

Multi-lateral training:

A third component seen in this chart that is most often missing from a musicians
practice is that of multi-lateral training. Look at the amount of off-ice training time
and notice aerobic sessions, anaerobic sessions which consist of intense work
such as plyometrics105 106
and interval training which includes weight training. In
plyometric training, the skaters will simulate jumps and landings by jumping over
boxes and on and off of boxes. This develops the explosiveness in the muscles
without taxing the body or mind with the specific technique. This also minimizes
injury since there are fewer falls on the floor or mat than there are on the ice. This
helps build confidence since the strength is developed apart from a testing
atmosphere of an on-ice session.

105 Plyometrics was originally known as “jump training” and has expanded to include numerous exercises that link strength
with speed in order to produce power.
106 Donald A. C H U, Ph.D. Jumping Into Plyometrics, (1998) Second Edition, Human Kinetics Publishers, P. 1

III.2.f.2. Practical Application of Periodization for Flutists

For a teacher guiding a student through this process, a new schedule needs to be
developed. In the early off-season, the athletes learn new elements and increase
overall fitness. As said in the discussion of introducing new works, a lot of the
preliminary work should be done without the flute. This eliminates stress while
allowing the student the time to adjust to new notations and rhythms. Any new
techniques can be charted and experimented with. This is also the time for
mapping out the physical difficulties of the piece that need attention. These areas
can be divided into the following components:

1) preliminary work
2) fingerings and traditional playing techniques
3) extended techniques requiring a higher degree of embouchure strength
4) sections of the piece requiring a higher degree of breath control and

Once those work areas have been defined, one can further apply periodization to
the development of physical conditioning. Those needs are embouchure strength
and stamina with breath control.

Embouchure Strength:

Where flutists spend years doing very gentle stretching exercises to refine the
embouchure, facing a piece with a new embouchure requirement needs to be done
much more quickly, without disturbing the normal embouchure. This needs to be
done with minimal strain and fatigue so that the flutist can continue playing
normally. There is not any mention in the teaching methods of how one builds
muscle. Trumpet embouchure and third and fourth octave harmonics require

muscle strength in the lips that would be very strenuous for most flutists. The
arguments against trumpet embouchure exist for this reason. If it could be taught
without disturbing the normal embouchure, it wouldn’t be the hot topic that it is.


Another problem is that flutist’s ideas on stamina building are faulty. The current
philosophy is that if the player can play the entire program though twice, then the
recital will be easy. This does not account for the fatigue that the very practice of
playing a program twice through causes. Nor does it acknowledge any type of time
frame so that there is adequate recovery between these marathon practice
sessions and the performance itself. A marathon runner would never think of
running a practice marathon the day before the real race. Nor would he or she run
the marathon six months in advance and hope that the conditioning remained at a
high level.

Regarding stamina with breath capacity, challenges already exist in the traditional
repertoire. Dr. Brad Garner recommends playing the second movement of the J. S.
Bach’s Sonata in C Major twice through, with all repeats, to build stamina. The
movement consists of long phrases with only one chance to take a breath lasting
one full beat. The flutist must practice taking short catch breaths between the
beats. Playing the movement twice through highlights the problem where one
cannot take in enough air during a catch breath. Each phrase would then have less
and less air making the movement very uncomfortable. The process of playing the
movement twice through teaches the flutist how to maximize the amount of air one
takes in during a catch breath.

The notorious passage of Mendelssohn’s Scherzo from a Midsummer Night’s
Dream frequently appears on orchestral audition lists in order to showcase the
player’s breath control in this same regard. Before the last phrase, one must

breathe between two 16th notes in 6/8 time at speeds between 80 and 92 beats per

Figure 75.
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Ein Sommernachstraum, Scherzo, letter P

Practice alone develops the skill of acquiring enough air to make the final phrase.
Dr. Garner recommends playing this phrase twice through, without a pause, to
ensure that the breath will be sufficient under the stress of an audition or
performance. This idea is fine. What is missing is when and how often it should be
done. There is also not any mention of what happens psychologically when it is not

While studying breath control in traditional repertoire, flutists learn that all of the
breaths within a piece should be planned well in advance of a performance. This
minimizes the risk of running out of air in the middle of a phrase. In order to cope
with performance stress, flutists often mark optional breaths in parentheses for
those phrases where they might feel stretched beyond what is comfortable.
Therefore, during the performance, the probability of not having enough air is
minimized. The flutist who does not have enough air, or who does not exhale
before the air gets stale, will feel a real physical emergency. The heart will race.
How does one cope with a situation that requires breath holding? Breathing was
something previously under a performer’s control. Flutists have been taught to use
air in the most musical way, playing phrases and lines independent of the breath
marks. “ […] the music must be the priority in how we play. Creating wonderful
music may mean that some people cannot get through certain phrases in one

107 Alexa S T I L L, Breathing,, Retrieved March 3, 2008

III.2.f.3. Practical Application in Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e)

Breathing Challenges:

What is one to do when a composer takes away the flutists control over breathing?
Heinz Holliger’s (t)aire(e) for solo flute, is such a piece. It is organized as a series
alternating inhalations and exhalations with breath holding in between. The player
is asked to empty the lungs and then hold the breath as long as possible, inhaling
only when it becomes absolutely necessary. Then he or she is asked to hold the
breath while filled with air, exhaling only when necessary. This causes a build up of
carbon dioxide in the lungs. Carbon dioxide in the lungs causes an increased heart
rate and stresses the vascular system which causes pressure in the head and
ears. When runners run the 100 meter dash, they compete so intensely for such a
short time that they use more oxygen than they have for those nine or ten
seconds. Their bodies allow them to compete with the depletion because it knows
that it will simply take in more oxygen after the race. The tiredness that flutist would
feel later in the piece has to do with just that. The breath holding is the sprint. The
more that this is trained, the faster the recovery will be.

Looking into the score, the first phrase ends with, “with the last of your air”108 which
is followed by the instruction “do not breathe”.109 The next inhalation comes in line
two, notated by the upward arrow. This inhalation is not a normal one. The player
uses the written syllables and inhales with the lips covering the embouchure hole,
through the flute tube. Then the player waits for seven seconds without breathing.
With all of the air gained in the previous phrase, the air stays in the lungs and waits
for the explosive relief in the last measure of line two. The end of line three offers a
small rest when the flutist can “breathe in unnoticeably.”110

108 Heinz H O L L I G E R, (t)air(e), (1988) B. Scott’s Söhne, Mainz, Page 1
109 Ibid, Page 1
110 Ibid. Page 1

Figure 76.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 1, line 3

Line four starts the cycle again, alternating inhalations, exhalations and not
breathing. Holliger adds another symbol here, an upwards arrow, which means a
“short noisy taking of breath”.111

Figure 77.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 1, line 4

This does not give the flutist complete control over how much air to take in. The
first real break comes on page four, line twelve with the fermata standing alone.
That is the first chance for the flutist to take a relaxed and controlled breath. The
rest of the piece continues without other breathing challenges until a short reprise
of ideas on page six, lines two, three and four.

111 Ibid. Explanation of Symbols

Figure 78.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 6, lines 2-4

When the teacher plans the work period for this piece, the breathing work should
come early on. What can be learned from the athlete’s multi-lateral approach is
that practice can start without the instrument. Using a metronome and visually
scanning through the piece, the flutist can practice all of breaths alone. A technique
that is very valuable is to “play” the piece through a normal drinking straw.112 The
flutist can articulate through the straw and listen to the air by itself. This shows how
much air is being used. The benefit of this is to focus solely on breathing so that
muscles develop and the body is conditioned with minimal stress. Isolating the
breathing in this way allows the flutist to work harder on breathing than he or she
normally would since other factors aren’t in the way. The first work area
recommended is from the beginning until the end of line three, where there is a
short break. To begin, the flutist can also leave out the written syllables in line two
and focus solely on breathing. By doing do, the breathing practice is initiated with
as little tension as possible. The next work area is considerably longer, ending with
a short break in line eight.

112 This technique was learned at the 2001 Lake Placid Institute of the Arts with Linda Cheis, Mahanttan School of Music
Faculty member.

Figure 79.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), line 8

This could be divided in half until the individual sections feel under control. At that
point, the flutist would combine them together. This practice continues until the end
of the section, page four, line three.

During this phase of practice, fingerings, rhythms and other techniques should be
practiced without the breathing requirements. The flutist should breathe whenever
necessary. As was seen in the figure 72, hard work was always balanced out.
When isolating the breathing work, the flutist will feel tired. In time the body will
adjust. Looking at figure 71, this work falls into the off season; learning new
elements. To increase confidence with the breathing sections, the player could
practice sections back to back, without a pause in between. This is helpful but one
needs to remember that this is done in advance, at the latest, in what would be the
pre-season phase. At this time, the player should also have developed enough
control over technical passages that they can be played with the flute.

Breathing Work through Multi-Lateral Training:

Another possibility is to cross training and building overall endurance. What
happens in this piece is similar to anaerobic conditioning. The word anaerobic
means “without air, or without oxygen”.113 Anaerobic exercises are short and

113 Anaerobic exercise: Energy without oxygen, University of Iowa Healthcare,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

intense, not lasting longer than a few minutes. Athletes use these to train for when
they do not have enough oxygen. For example, a runner will add short sprints into
a jog in order to build endurance. The exercises would begin for short intervals of
time, between thirty seconds and one minute, with about the same time of rest in
between. This would be increased to two minutes with thirty seconds rest. Short
explosive exercises like jumping rope or sprinting accomplish this. The high-
intensity phase should be long and strenuous enough that a person is out of breath
and recovery periods should not last long enough for their pulse to return to its
resting rate. “Coaches advise that, ideally, people should not do interval work on
consecutive days. More than 24 hours between such taxing sessions will allow the
body to recover and help them avoid burnout.”114 A word of caution, the point is not
to jump around and then try to play the piece. That only adds stress. One puts the
body through a similar stress so that it adapts. Simulate the situation, but certainly
not with the flute in hand. While this is a direct route to conditioning oneself for the
fastest recovery time possible, it can not be recommended for all flutists. This is an
extension of exercise for those who are already aerobically fit.

One could also work with a breath builder. These small, portable machines work
with a resistance knob on the end so that one breaths in and our through the
mouthpiece with an increase in resistance. Breath builders115 have been used by
patients recovering from various lung illnesses as well as by elite athletes. They
increase lung capacity. By increasing lung capacity anaerobic endurance is
greater. Adding exercise or work with a breath builder can not be recommended
without caution by the author. When one has been exercising, one could certainly
add to the intensity of the routine. When a breath builder is already being used,

106 Peter J A R E T, A Healthy Mix of Rest and Motions, New York Times,
ref=slogin, Retrieved April 15, 2008

one could increase resistance. Starting from scratch with such methods over a
short time period could add unnecessary stress. These examples are therefore
meant as an example of what is possible regarding multi-lateral training.

Building Embouchure Muscles:

The next area of work in (t)air(e) is building new embouchure muscles. One needs
control until the end of the piece. The pppp found at the end with harmonic
fingerings needs extreme embouchure control. One can not risk fatiguing the
muscles earlier in the performance. On the last line of page four and first line of
page five, there is a fourth octave passage.

Figure 80.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), pages 4-5

On the first line of page six, Holliger writes the following:

Figure 81.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 6, line 1

In the explanation of symbols, the upwards arrow means inhale. The symbol on the
third tone in this measure means to vibrate the lips while inhaling. Using principals
of overload,116 the flutist can begin with short burst of sound and gradually increase
the number of times this is done in a practice session. At first, five attempts would
fatigue the lip muscles. Immediately after, relaxed first octave passages should be
practiced. Once the sound is achieved, the flutist can practice lengthening it until
the required four seconds is reached. The difficulty with this limited amount of
allowable practice is that there is limited time to refine the embouchure and
experiment with the most economical way to produce the sound. This can be
thought of in advance of an attempt so that a) the muscles relax in between
attempts, and b) there aren’t any wasted attempts. As with all intense exercises,
this should not be done every day. Practicing every other day gives the lips
adequate time to recover.

Fingerings and Other Techniques:

To learn the traditional aspects of the piece, one would read through as if none of
the extended techniques are there. For example, instead of practicing the notated
toneless passage on page one, line four:

Figure 82.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 1, line 4

116 Overload traditionally means doing more today than you did yesterday. When one can do this, “training“ has
“ ”


One would simply practice the tones as such:

Figure 83.
Jennifer Borkowski, Exercise for Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e)

Other work that needs to be done in the piece includes tuning the quarter-tone
passages including page one, line three:

Figure 84.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 1, line 3

and the extended passage on page six:

Figure 85.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 6

Another technical challenge one must allow sufficient time for is the fast passage
on page five. The pppp passages can be practiced slowly with singing to help set
the lip position for the extreme dynamic. The sff tones can be lengthened just
enough to produce more sound but without changing the rhythm. The real
challenge in this section comes in lines six and seven, as the thirty-second notes
should remain thirty-second notes. The chromatic patterns in the beginning of this
section are much easier than the last phrase with leaps occurring sometimes over
two octaves.

Other areas of developing lip control include the whistle tones on page five, line

Figure 86.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e),page 5, line 2

And the standard whistling moving into whistle tone on page four, lines six and

Figure 87.
Heinz Holliger, (t)air(e), page 4, lines 6-7

This is a fingered D whistle tone moving into a sounded D. The transition should be
seamless. A lot of embouchure work coupled with singing and playing make this
possible. This is a wonderful piece to strengthen the embouchure overall. The
whistle tone passages are not fatiguing like the fourth octave and trumpet
embouchure are. The lips are more relaxed than usual and this can be practice in
any given session without worry of a training schedule.

The time table allows more than enough time for the fingerings to be learned while
breath support and stamina are being developed.

An example of a practice plan for learning this piece is found below in figure 84.
Please compare it to figure 70 as figure 84 is an adaptation of figure 70.

Figure 88.
Jennifer Borkowski, Periodization Model for Heinz Holliger’s (t)air(e)

Concluding Remarks:

All of the recommendations above are guidelines and this does not mean that any
one individual must follow it exactly. What has been described is the theory, and
this theory can be put into practice in a number of ways. Foremost, the time frame
can be lengthened up to as long as six months. One must follow the proportions
and adjust their personal calendar. Also, if someone does not find trumpet
embouchure fatiguing, there is not a reason to practice it in a limited way. Some
flutists will come to this piece with plenty of experience in the fourth octave and not
find it difficult. Others need to begin from the ground up. The guidelines are there
so that the majority of flutists can be reassured that their muscle fatigue is normal.
They also have a plan for working through the problem. What multi-lateral training
does is set the work area away from the music. When one only works with the
instrument, the repertoire itself becomes a test. Periodization eliminates this aspect
of practice. Looking back at figure 73, weeks before the competition the
conditioning is done. It does not mean that the performance will be perfect. The
periodization theory seeks to eliminate fatigue, injury, testing and competition in
practice sessions and ultimately, stress. It thoroughly answers questions and gives
flute teachers tools they need to introduce such challenging works into their

III.2.f.4. A Periodized Daily Studies Program

Many flutists who specialize in modern music have commented that they do not
use extended techniques in daily studies. They probably get enough of a work-out
since they are playing repertoire using them very often. This is not true of most
flute students or professionals who do not play much new music. Learning the
techniques only when they need to be performed causes unnecessary stress on
the body and mind. Assimilation in daily studies is a must. This program does not
use microtonality, multi-phonics or circular breathing, all of which should be
practiced. The techniques here are those which require greater physical stamina
than traditional playing and therefore fit into a “training” program. The exceptions in
the chart below are those techniques used for recovery periods.

The author has assigned the following techniques a value based on the physical
energy level they require. The values are as follows:

Flutter tongue: 4
Harmonics: 5
Jet whistle: 10
Polyrhythm: 2
Pizzicato: 7
Tongue Ram: 6
Air sounds: 5
Whistle tones: 1

These levels are based on a scale of 1 to 10, with traditional playing lying between 3
and 5. This is variable for any individual however the author has designed a periodized
daily studies program that maximizes energy expenditure and recovery periods.
Eventually, some of the levels will even out as the techniques become better trained.
Flutter tongue and harmonics will become second nature as the muscles learn to play
more efficiently. Constants in this list are jet whistle, tongue ram, pizzicato and whistle
tones. Regarding improvisation; it is strategically placed after the jet whistle so that the

flutist brings this energy into the improvisation. There aren’t any guidelines as to how
long or how much should be played. Jet whistle, being an “anti-flute” technique, is
meant to free up the performer not only with fresh breathing, but also from other
confining thoughts.

In the program, improvisation is meant to lay anywhere between level 10 and level
2. The sequence relaxes itself at this point and the player can chose how much
energy to spend during the improvisation.

Periodization charts of work and recovery follow this type of pattern. The difference
between these wave-like charts and the plan developed by Michelle Provost-Craig
(Figure 70) is that the first is geared toward maximizing rest and recovery and the
other is geared toward “peaking” for an optimal performance. Both systems,
however, follow a wave-like pattern. The latter simply finishes the wave in a
downwards turn so that the body is recovering lost energy for the peak phase.

Tudor O. Bompa shows the wave patterns in the following two charts. Notice that in
the second chart, performance suffers because of the constant stimuli.

Figure 89.

Tudor O. Bompa, Periodization Theory and Methodology of Training, P. 17

In another chart, the wave patterns occur in a time period over 12 weeks. Bompa
asserts that all models follow this same wave pattern, whether occurring within any
given “workout” or over an extended period of time.

Figure 90.

12 Week Periodization Chart

The practice plan devised by the author assimilates the levels above and also
follows wave-like patterns. These exercises end purposely on a down-turn since
this is only one component of a flutist’s daily work. The flutist can decide how to
structure the rest of the practice session based on periodization concepts.

Figure 91.
Jennifer Borkowski, Periodization Line Graph



Try to be as expressive as you would normally be. Just as the three high G#’s would
all have a different tone color, give them a different permutation of air sound.

The high tones should be whistle tones, played with the third octave fingering.

Figure 92.

Jennifer Borkowski, Periodized Daily Studies Program

IV. Conclusion

Throughout the dissertation, answers from the questionnaire respondents have
been highlighted to show the prevalence of new music in universities as well as
prevailing attitudes about new music. From their answers, she found that complex
repertoire is seldom played. The author took the answers from the respondents
and addressed their concerns. This, coupled with practical teaching experience,
provided the target group for which the program was developed. Causes for this
were defined and the solution is divided into two main parts: The first section builds
a bridge to influence learning. Connecting with students by first understanding their
obstacles, motivation is influenced and practice strategies are defined. The second
section teaches each extended technique by explaining the cognitive techniques
and then developing the kinesthetic techniques by building acoustical and body
awareness. Students learn how to resonate through their bodies and gradually
increase the physical energy they use.

Section One:

First, the common barriers are understood by reviewing a masterclass. The
successes with techniques and the difficulties with notation were discussed. New
scores require a new approach, and problems of dissemination of information have
not helped flutists. Misleading repertoire lists were addressed by creating a new
grading scale which is followed by recommendations for study. This is not only
informative about what repertoire could be played when, but makes more works
accessible to younger students. Remember that the questionnaire respondents
experience with the intermediate level repertoire has been immensely positive. It
does not benefit the player to wait until the rest of the literature has been mastered.
Those who were still waiting had mostly negative feelings about new music.

Offering new motivations for studying contemporary repertoire, the author provided
alternate uses for the techniques to augment efficiency in teaching studios. By
using new techniques to reframe old problems, the author proposed that students’
first experience to them will be positive, thus opening receptivity. It is imperative
that students begin with a new mindset towards this intense study. Beginning with
this fresh perspective about the importance of the work, students will be better
prepared to see the process through to its end.

Moving onto the printed page, examples from repertoire were chosen to show the
importance of involvement in interpreting a new score. Practical steps give flutists a
framework for practice and assist in defining short-term goals. Lighting a path to
follow lessens anxiety and consequent resistance. Despite the guidance given, the
broader aim of this section was to introduce students to the concept that all
answers will not be clear, and that diving into a new score ultimately means a
deeper connection with that score and the composer who wrote it. As was said in
this section, through this work I strengthen myself.

Section Two:

In the second section, the literature teaching extended techniques has been
expanded by adding practical suggestions for their application along with a
discussion of their use in repertoire. The manuals of Robert Dick and Carin Levine
were thoroughly discussed along with practical experiences from the author and
others in the contemporary music field. The author categorized the techniques in a
new and logical way allowing for continuity in teaching studios. Flutists will benefit
from this approach as it focuses on physical and acoustical similarities in each
grouping. In addition to this, this approach neatly crosses over into traditional
playing since the flutist is asked to think about resonance, both within the flute itself
and with an individual body.

Beginning with borrowed techniques, flutists follow the progression from flutter
tongue, techniques based on harmonics, multi-phonics and glissando. Vocal
techniques follow opening the oral cavity and beginning the first ideas about
greater resonance and projection. Percussive techniques follow so that the student
can apply what was learned through vocal techniques. Eliminating air moving
through the flute causes projection challenges. Changing the vowel position of the
inside of the mouth, percussive techniques have greater resonance. Flutists also
need stronger diaphragm muscles and more explosive articulations. Air sounds are
then taught since the added challenge of breathing is added to the acoustical
lessons from before.

The final section gave the most complete discussion of how one prepares
physically for the demands of many pieces of new music. The focus is on preparing
(t)air(e) for solo flute by Heinz Holliger because of the physical demands in makes
on the player regarding breath control. The author was inspired through her
knowledge of periodization training for athletes. She took this knowledge and
looked for a way to adapt the theory to preparing for a musical performance. The
concept of periodization involves preparing the body in ways that musicians
traditionally neglect. The concept of tapering off work before a performance is
something novel to many musicians. Stamina building has been only guessed at to
this point. The solutions here are solid as they are based on a tried and proven
theory in sports science. Musicians will also benefit from the ideas of multi-lateral
training, or cross training. Introducing these concepts gives musicians clear ways
to physically prepare without adding to their stress level. Periodization seeks to
minimize injury and allow the body to peak at the right moments. The theory, when
well applied, will lessen worry about preparedness and allow for more creativity
and enjoyment during performances.

There are many examples of new music turning into something analogous to an
extreme sport. However, in spite of the high physical demands, there are many
pieces that are musically worthwhile. They are often neglected because of the lack

of information about how to approach them. Now, flutists can use this system to
more confidently prepare themselves. This cross-over idea is completely new and
has potential to be explored in greater detail for all musicians.

Overall, the dissertation makes complex repertoire more accessible to flutists. The
program seeks to first understand the students and then address their common
situation both emotionally and technically. Teachers are also empowered to use
extended techniques in their studios by implementing a concrete plan. Introducing
extended techniques in new ways makes way for the younger generation of flutists
to approach new music positively. The hope is to lessen competitiveness and
stress and allow the often neglected complex repertoire to have its rightful place in
both study programs and concert halls.

V. Recommendations for Further Research

Throughout the research phase of the dissertation, the author spoke with several
physicians about the possibility of measuring the heart rate, blood pressure and the
amount of residual carbon dioxide in the lungs when playing a piece such as
(t)air(e) as opposed to something traditional such as a Bach Sonata. Several knew
of a ways to do this but were unable to assist any further because of the high cost
involved, especially with the machine that measures CO2. The author hopes that
this research can be continued at some point in the future.

One could also measure the resting and active heart rates of musicians, as well as
the vital capacity of the lungs of musicians who used multi-lateral training versus
those who did not. By focusing on specific breath building techniques, the
effectiveness of this training could be quantified. In a study done by the University
of Zurich117, a lung resistance trainer was evaluated in a study that included COPD
(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) patients as well as elite athletes. These
two studies were very small and insufficient. The author hopes that these training
devices can be tested on wider body of musicians since their benefit seems

117 B O U T E L L I E R, B U C H E L, K U N D E R T, S P E N G L E R, Research Studies for Athletes and COPD patients,, Retrieved May 13, 2008

VI. Appendices
VI.1. Fingering Chart

Figure 93.
Fingering chart

VI.2. Graded Repertoire List

Level 1

Louke, Phyllis, Extended Techniques-Solos for Fun, published by ALRY, 2006

Louke, Phyllis, Extended Techniques-Double the Fun, published by ALRY, 2003

Level 2

Erb, Donald, Music for Mother Bear for Solo Alto Flute, published Merion Music,
Inc., 1970 (Can be played on the flute as well)

Folio, Cynthia, Flute Fantasy, Published by the composer, 1976
Etudes and short concert pieces

Fortin, Viktor, No Problem, 14 easy duets with annotations and commentaries by
Arno Steinwider-Johannsen, Published by Döblinger, 2006

Gasser, Ulrich, Papierblüten (Paper Blossoms) Published by Riccordi, 1982-84

Heiss, John, Etudes for Solo Flute, Op. 20, published by JBE and Son Music, 1986

Holland, Linda, Easing into Extended Techniques, published by Con Brio, 2000

Lorrain,Denis, Du jour, la nuit, published by Lemoine, 1995

Louke, Phyllis, Extended Techniques-Solos for Fun, Published by ALRY, 2006

Louke, Phyllis, Extended Techniques-Double the Fun, Published by ALRY, 2003

Offermans, Wil, Für den jungen Flötisten (For the Young Flutist),
published by Zimmerman, 1995

Offermans, Will, Für den Zeitgenössischen Flötistin (For the Contemporary Flutist)
published by Zimmerman, 1992, 12 Etudes, each focusing on one technique

Stahmer, Klaus Hinrich, Aristofaniada for flute solo, published by Zimmerman,

Van Buren, John, Incandescence, published by Edition Modern

Veilhan, Francois, Sonorité et techniques contemporaines (Sound and
Contemporary Techniques for the flute), published by Lemoine, 2006
Nine Etudes with exercises

Wye, Trevor, A Very Easy 20th Century Album, published by Novello, 1990

Level 3

Aitken, Robert, Plainsong, published by Universal Edition, 1977

Aitken, Robert, Icicle, published by Éditions Musicales Transatlantiques, 1977

Ayers, Lydia, Time’s Graffiti, Lucky Calligraphy, available from the NFA Library,

Bennet, Richard Rodney, Six Tunes for the Instruction of Singing Birds
Published by Novello, 1962

Brown, Elizabeth, Trillium, published by Queztal, 1999

Colquhoun, Michael, Charanga, available from the NFA Library, 1993

Corbett, Sid, Cactus Flower, published by Moeck, 1988

Dick, Robert, Flying Lessons, Volume I, published by MMB Music, 1987

Dick, Robert, Flying Lessons, Volume II, published by MMB Music, 1987

Dick, Robert, Lookout, published by MMB Music, 1989

Dick, Robert, Tone Development Through Extended Techniques, published by
MMB Music, 1985

Dick, Robert, Fish are Jumping, published by MMB Music, 1999

Dick, Robert, Or, published by MMB Music, 1984

Folio, Cynthia, Acra Sacra, published by Hildegarde publishing, 1997

Fonvile, John, Venus Noodles, available from the NFA Library, 1996

Fukushima, Kuzuo, Mei, published by Zerboni, 1962

Granados, Marco, Le Bella y…and el Terco, available from the NFA Library, 2007

Heiss, John, Fantasia Appasionata, Episode IV, available from the NFA Library,

Higdon, Jennifer, Song for Solo Flute, available from the NFA Library, 1995

Huber, Nicolaus A. - First Play Mozart, published by Breitkopf & Härtel, 1993

Kidde, Geoffrey, Night Flight, available from the NFA Library, 2002

La Berge, Ann, Revamper, published by Frog Peak Music, 1992

Martino, Donald, Quodlibets I, published by Dantalian, 1962

Martino, Donald, Quodlibets II, published by Dantalian, 1980

Messiaen, Olivier, Le Merle, Noir, published by Alphonse Leduc, 1951

Miserell-Mitchell, Janice, Sometimes the City Is Silent, available from the NFA
Library, 2003

Payne, Maggie, Reflections, available from the NFA Library, 2004

Schocker, Gary, Short Stories for Flute Alone, published by Theodor Presser, 1999

Scelsi, Giacinto, Quays, published by Bärenreiter, 1953

Scelsi, Giacinto, Pwyll, published by Bärenreiter, 1954

Solum, John, The American Flute, published by MMB Music, 1994, A collection of
short concert pieces

Yun, Isang, Sori, published by Bote and Bock, 1988

Ziegler, Matthias, Morceau de Concours, published by Mathias Ziegler, 2004

Level 4

Berio, Luciano, Sequenza I, published by Universal Editions, 1958

Carter, Elliot, Scrivo in Vento, published by Boosey and Hawkes, 1991

Furrer, Beat, auf töneren füssen, published by Bärenreiter, 2001

Furrer, Beat, Presto, published by Bärenreiter, 1997

Holliger, Heinz, Sonate (in)solit(air)e, published by Scott, 1988

Holliger, Heinz, Lied, published by Breitkopf and Härtl, 1971

Hosokawa, Toshio, Atem Lied, published by Scott Japan, 1997

Hosokawa, Toshio, Vertical Song I, published by Scott Japan, 1997

Korde, Shirish, Tenderness of Cranes, published by Neuma Publishing, 1991

Nicolet, Aurèle, Pro Musica Nova / Studies for Playing Avant-Garde Music
published by Breitkopf and Härtel, 1974

Offermans, Will, Nesting Cranes, published by Zimmermann, 1999

Stockhausen, Karl-Heinz, In Freundschaft, published by Stockhausen Verlag, 1977

Takemitsu, T_ru, Itinerant, published by Schott, 1989

Takemitsu, T_ru, Voice, published by Schott, 1971

Zender, Hans, Lo-Shu II, published by Bote and Bock, 1978

Level 5

Boulez, Pierre, Sonatine for Flute and Piano, published by amphion, 1946

Dick, Robert, Afterlight, published by MMB Music, 1973

Dillon James, Sgothan, published by C.F. Peters, 1984

Ferneyhough, Brian, Cassandra’s Dream Song published by Peters, 1970

Ferneyhough, Brian, Superscripto for Piccolo, published by Peters, 1981

Ferneyhough, Brian, Unity Capsule for Bass Flute published by Peters, 1975-76

Haas, Georg Friedrich, Finale, published by Universal Edition, 2005

Holliger, Heinz, (t)air(e), published by European American, 1980-83

Kawashima, Motoharu , Manic Psychosis, published by Japan Composers Society,

Lang, Bernhard, Schrift I, published by Zeitvertreib Wien Berlin, 2003

Sciarrino, Salvatore, L’opera per flauto, published by Riccordi, 1977

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cadential diesis, and neo-Gothic tunings, http://www.medieval .org, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

S C W A R Z E N B A C H, Peter, and B R Y N E R – K R O N J Ä G E R, Brigitte,
Üben ist doof, Gedanken und Anregungen für den Instrumentalunterricht, (2005) 7.
Auflage, Waldgut Verlag, Frauenfeld

S C H W I N D T-G R O S S, Nicole, Musikwissenschaftliches Arbeiten, Hilfsmittle,
Techniken, Aufgaben, 5. Auflage, (2003) Bärenreiter-Verlag Karl Vötterle GmbH“&
Co. KG, Kassel

Self-Testing, Periodization,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

S E Y L E, Hans, General Adaptiation Syndrome, Annual Review of Medicine
Vol. 2, (February 1951), pp. 327-342

S E Y L E, Hans, The Story of the Adaptation Syndrome (1952) Acata, Inc. Medical
Publishers, Montreal

S H A P I R O, Jeremy J., Still Searching for Lost Time, Film-Philosophy (July 2005),
International Salon-Journal (ISSN 1466-4615) Vol. 9, Number 39

S H E E H A N, Thomas, Hermeneia and Apophansis, the early Heidegger on
Aristotle (1998) Heidegger et idée de la phénoménologie, Dordrecht: Kluwer pp.67-

S H E R R Y, Fred, Never Standing Still (March 2002) Contemporary Music
Review, Volume 21, Number 1, Routledge Press

Short-Term Yoga Training Expands Breathing And Lung Capacity Even Among
Healthy Young Adults, The American Physiological Society, April 2006,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

S M I T H, Stuart Saunders, To Suffer Music (Winter 1996)
Perspectives of New Music, Volume 34, Number 1, pp. 106-114

S O U S T E R, Tim, The Second Viennese School, Pierre Boulez talks to Tim
Souster (May 1969) The Musical Times, Volume 110, Number 1515, pp. 473-474

S T A N I S L A V S K I, Constantin, An Actor Prepares, (1984) Theatre Arts Books,
New York

S T A R E R, Robert, Rhythmic Training (1969) MCA Publishing, New York

S T I F F, Ph.D., Mel C., Periodization Breakdown?
_82_A_PageName_E_ArticleSiffPeriodization, Retrieved February 25, 2008

S T R U N K, JR., William, JR., W H I T E, E.B., The Elements of Style, Fourth
Edition, Allyn & Bacon, Needhman Heights, MASS, 2000

There are few musicians who are truly revolutionary,
displayYear=2002&&eventId=32, Retrieved December 16, 2004

T H O M P S O N, Virgil, A Virgil Thompson Reader (1981) Houghton Mifflin,

T O F F, Nancy, The Flute Book, (1985) Oxford University Press, Oxford

T O O P, Richard, Prima le Parole...(On the Sketches for Ferneyhough's Carceri
D'invenzione I-III) (Winter 1994) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 32, Number 1
pp. 154-175

V O I T, Johannes, Literaturhinweisezu den Themen "Neue Musik" und "Neue
Musik vermitteln”,,
Retrieved, February 25, 2008

W A G N E R, Andreas, Zeitgenossische Musik an Hochschulen
(Januray/February 2004)Neue Zeitschrift für Musik pp. 16-17

W A T E R M A N, Ellen, Cassandra’s Dream Song, A Literary Feminist
Perspective (Summer, 1994) Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 32, No. 2. pp. 154-

W E S S E L, H. U., Transposition of the great arteries, post-operative evaluation
by breath-by-breath analysis of ventilation and pulmonary gas exchange during
exercise, (2001) European Heart Journal, Volume 22, pp. 987-989,

What is Attention?,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

W H I T T A L L, Arnold, Holliger at 60, Keeping the Faith (Summer 1999)The
Musical Times, pp. 38-48

W O L F, Daniel, Renewable Music,
garde.html, Retrieved February 25, 2008

W O L F E, Joe, Flute Acoustics, The University New South Wales,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

W R I G H T, Preston, Harry Partch’s World (February 2003) American Public
Retrieved February 25, 2008

W R I G H T, Preston, Just Intonation, (February 2003) American Public Media,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

Z E N D E R, Hans, Die Sinne Denken, Texte zur Musik 1975-2003, edited by Jörn
Peter Hiekel, (2004) Breitkopf and Härtl, Wiesbaden

VII1. Literature for Further Reading

VII.1.a. Resources about the Flute

A R T A U D, Pierre-Yves, Die Flöte (1991) Musikverlag Zimmerman, Frankfurt am

B A R T A, Antonio G., Sources of Information on Woodwind Multiphonics: An
Annotated Bibliography (Winter 1998) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 26,
Number 1, pp. 246-256

B L E D S O E, Helen,, Retrieved April 16, 2008

B O T R O S, Andrew, The Virtual Flute (2001-2005), Retrieved February 25,

B R U D E R H AN S, Zdenek, Music, the Tectonics of Flute Playing (1997) Florian
Noetzel GmbH, Wilhemlshaven

D I C K, Robert, Circular Breathing for the Flutist (1987) MMB Music Inc. St. Louis,

D I C K, Robert, The Other Flute (1989) MMB Music Company, St. Louis, MO.

D I C K, Robert, Tone Development Through Extended Techniques (1986) MMB,
St. Louis, MO. Music Publishing

F O N V I L L E, John, Review, Flûte et Créations: Une approche de la flute
contemporaine basée sur des oeuvres écrites spécialement pour cet ouvrage par
15 compositeurs représentant diverses esthétiques musicales actuelles by Pierre-
André Valade (September 1993) Persepctives of New Music, Volume 50, Number
1, pp.393-395

H E I S S, John, The Flute: New Sounds (Spring 1972) Perspectives of New
Music, Volume 10, Number. 2, pp. 153-158

H E I S S, John C., Some Multiple-Sonorities for Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, and
Bassoon (Autumn 1968) Perspectives of New Music, Volume. 7, Number. 1, pp.

Kingma System Flutes, Retrieved
November 15, 2004

K R A N T Z, Larry, Extended Techniques Resource Page,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

K R A N T Z, Larry, Flute, Frequently Asked Questions,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

L E V I N E, Carin, Die Spieltechnik der Flöte, (2002) Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel

L O U K E, Phyllis Avidan, Extended Techniques,,
Retrieved February 25, 2008

M E N C A R E L L I, Pier Luigi, Metodo per Flauto, Traduzione Inglese di Reginald
Smith Brindle. Bruno Bartolozzi-Nuova Tecnica per Strumento a Fiato di Legno
(1973) Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, Milano

N I C O L E T, Aurèle, Pro Musica Nova, Studien zum Spielen Neuer Musik (1973)
Breitkopf and Härtl, Wiesbaden

O F F E R MA N S, Wil, For the Contemporary Flutist, Twelve Studies for the Flute
with explanations in the supplement (1992) Musikverlag Zimmerman, Frankfurt am

P E L L E R I T E, James J., A Modern Guide to Fingerings for the Flute (June 1,
1998) Alfred Publishing Co.

P E R LO V E, Nina, Transmission, Interpretation, Collaboration-A Performer’s
Perspective on the Language of New Music: An Interview with Sophie Cherrier
(Winter 1998) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 36, Number 1, pp. 43-58

R O C K S T R O, Georgina M., A Treatise on the Flute, (1976) Longwood Press,
Porttlland ME

S C H E C K, Gustav, Die Flöte und Ihre Musik, (1981) VEB Deutscher Verlag für
Musik, Leipzig

T O F F, Nancy, The Flute Book, (1985) Oxford University Press, Oxford

W A T E R M A N, Ellen, Cassandra’s Dream Song, A Literary Feminist
Perspective (Summer, 1994) Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 32, No. 2. pp. 154-

W O L F E, Joe, Flute Acoustics, The University New South Wales,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

VII.1.b. Resources on Improvisation

A D O L P H E, Bruce, The Mind’s Ear, Exercises for Improving the Musical
Imagination of Performers, Listeners and Composers (1991) MMB Music, Inc., St.
Louis, MO.

A D O L P H E, Bruce, What to Listen for in the World (1998) Second Limelight

A L L E N, Susan, Teaching Large Ensemble Music Improvisation (2002), Radical
Pedagogy, Produced by ICAAP

P R I C E, Tim, A Private Lesson with Mark Adler,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

What is Attention?,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

VII.1.c. Resources on Microtonality

C H R I S T E N S E N, Thomas, The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory
(2002) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 193-222

D A V I E S, Hugh, Microtonality, Grove Music Online,
Retrieved November 28, 2004

F O N V I L L E, John, Ben Johnston's Extended Just Intonation: A Guide for
Interpreters (1991) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 29, Number 2, pp. 106-137

H E A T H E W A I T E, Andrew, Andrew's Microtonal Listening List, a list of
microtonal sounds on the web,, Retrieved February 25,

L I N D H O L M, Herbert , Micro Intervals,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

M C L A R E N, Brian, A Brief History of Microtonality in the Twentieth
Century, (Spring 1998) Xenharmonikon, Volume17, pp. 57-110

M E N C A R E L L I, Pier Luigi, Metodo per Flauto, Traduzione Inglese di Reginald
Smith Brindle. Bruno Bartolozzi-Nuova Tecnica per Strumento a Fiato di Legno
(1973) Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, Milano

“Mikrotonale Musik“ (2002) Österreichisches Musiklexikon, Kommission für
Musikforschung Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften,, Retrieved February 28,

M Ö L L E N D O R F, Willi, Musik mit Vierteltönen (1917) http://sonic-, Retrieved February 25, 2008

S C H U L T E R, Margo, What is Microtonality?
crotonality.html, Retrieved February 25, 2008

S C H U L T E R , Margo, Xenharmonic Excursion to Padua, 1318: Marchettus, the
cadential diesis, and neo-Gothic tunings, http://www.medieval .org, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

W R I G H T, Preston, Just Intonation, (February 2003) American Public Media,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

VII.1.d. Resources on Music Pedagogy

A D O L P H E, Bruce, The Mind’s Ear, Exercises for Improving the Musical
Imagination of Performers, Listeners and Composers (1991) MMB Music, Inc., St.
Louis, MO.

L E H R E R, Paul M., A Review of the Approaches to the Management of Tension
and Stage Fright in Music Performance, Journal of Research in Music Education,
Vol. 35, No. 3 (Autumn, 1987), pp. 143-153

M O R N E L L, Adina, Lampenfieber und Angst bei ausübenden Musikern:
Kritische Übersicht über die Forschung. Band 14, (2002)„Schriften zur
Musikpsychologie und Musikästhetik“, Hrsg. Prof. Dr. Helga de la Motte-Haber.
Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt a. M.

P O L I S I, Joseph W., The Artist as Citizen, (2005) Amadeus Press, LLC,
Pompton Plains, NJ

R Ö B K E, Peter, Der Intrumentalschüler als Interpret, Musikalische Spielräume im
Intrumentalunterrich (1990) B. Schott’s Söhne, Mainz

R Ö B K E, Peter, Vom Handwerk zur Kunst, Didktische Grundlagen des
Intrumentalunterrichts, (2000) Schott Musik International, Mainz

S A L M O N, Paul G., and M E Y E R, Robert G., Notes from the Green Room,
Coping with Stress and Anxiety in Musical Performance (1992) Lexington Books,
New York

S C H I C K, Steven, Developing an Interpretive Context: Learning Brain
Ferneyhough’s Bone Alphabet, (Winter 1994) Perspectives of New Music, Volume
31, Number 1, pp. 132-153

S C W A R Z E N B A C H, Peter, and B R Y N E R – K R O N J Ä G E R, Brigitte,
Üben ist doof, Gedanken und Anregungen für den Instrumentalunterricht (2005) 7.
Auflage, Waldgut Verlag, Frauenfeld

S T A R E R, Robert, Rhythmic Training (1969) MCA Publishing, New York

VII.1.e. Resources on Periodization and Physical Conditioning

Anaerobic exercise: Energy without oxygen, University of Iowa Healthcare,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

B O M P A, Ph.D., Tudor O., Periodization, Theory and Methodology of Training,
Fourth edition (1999) Human Kinetics,
PA1&sig=1j3u1bFh49hfVJHKjM5p8_kayV8&dq=periodization#PPP1,M1, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

B O U T E L L I E R U., B U C H E L R., K U N D E R T A., S P E N G L E R C.,
Research Studies for Athletes and COPD Patients, Department of Physiology,
University of Zurich, http://www.expand-a, Retrieved February 25, 2008

C H U, Ph.D., Donald A. Jumping Into Plyometrics, (1998) Second Edition, Human
Kinetics Publishers

PSA Coaches Manual, Professional Skater’s Association, (1998) Rochester, MN

Conditioning Aerobic and Anaerobic, U.S. Figure Skating,
Nov%20Jun%20Snr.pdf. Retrieved February 25, 2008

Expand A Lung Breathing Resistance Trainer, -,
Retrieved March 12, 2008

F R A N K E L, Christopher C., and K R A V I T Z Ph.D., Len Ph.D., Periodization:
Latest Studies and Practical Applications,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

Interval Training, The American Council on Exercise (2001), Retrieved February 25,

J A R E T, Peter, A Healthy Mix of Rest and Motion (May 3, 2007) The New York
x+of+rest+and+motion&st=nyt&oref=slogin, Retrieved April 16, 2008

Periodization, Year at a Glance,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

The Physiology of Plyometrics,, Retrieved February 25, 2008

Plyometric Training Section,,
Retrieved February 25, 2008

P O E, Carl, L A W S O N, Erik, P R O V O S T-C R A I G, Michelle, P I S T O S,
Debbie, Novice, Junoir Senior, Off-Ice Strenght&Jump/Plyometric Yearly Training
Schedule, U.S. Figure Skating, Retrieved February
25, 2008

Pulmonary Health, Exercise and Care,,
Retrieved February 25, 2008

M A C, Brian, Leg Plyometrics,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

R I C C I, Mike, What Does Periodization Mean and How Does it Work?
and-how-does-it-work-000625.php, Retrieved February 25, 2008

Sample One-Year Periodization Training Schedule, U.S. Figure Skating,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

Self-Testing, Periodization,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

W E S S E L , H. U., Transposition of the great arteries, post-operative evaluation
by breath-by-breath analysis of ventilation and pulmonary gas exchange during
exercise, (2001) European Heart Journal, Volume 22, pp. 987-989,

VII.1.f Resources on the Philosophy and Theory of New Music

A D O R N O, Theodor W., Essays on Music (2002) University of California Press,
Berkeley and Los Angeles

B O R O S, James, Why Complexity? (Part Two) (Winter 1994) Perspectives of
New Music, Volume 32, Number 1, pp. 90-101

C A G E, John, Silence (1961) Wesleyan University Press, Middletown CT.

C H R I S T E N S E N, Thomas, The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory
(2002), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

D E S C H ê N E S, Bruno, Toward an Anthropology of Music Listening (December
1998) International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, Volume 29,
Number 2, pp. 135-153

F E R NE Y H O U G H, Brian, Form-Figure-Style: An intermediate assessment
(Winter 1993) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 31, Number 1, pp.33.34

F E R NE Y H O U G H, Brian, Composing a Viable (If Transatory) Self (Winter
1994) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 32, Number 1, pp. 32-40

F E R N E Y H O U G H, Brian, B O R O S, James, Shattering the Vessels of
Received Wisdom (Summer 1990) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 28,
Number 2, pp. 6-50

F E R N E Y H O U G H, Brian, The Tactility of Time (Darmstadt Lecture 1988),
(Winter 1993) Perspectives of New Music Volume. 31, Number. 1, pp. 20-30

G I L M O R E, Bob, Reconstructing Harry, some current issues in Partch
biography, part 1,, Retrieved February 25,

G U C K, Marion , A Flow of Energy: Density 21.5, Autumn 1984,
Perspectives of New Music, Volume 23, Number 1, pp. 334-347

L A C H E N M A N N, Helmut, Musik als existentielle Erfahrung 1966-1995, edited
by Josef Häusler (2004) Breitkopf und Härtel, Wiesbaden, pp. 114-130

M A S O N, Moya K., An Introduction to Theodor Adorno's Theory of Music and its
Social Implications,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

M O R G A N, Robert P., Twentieth-Century Music (1991) W.W. Norton &
Company, Inc., New Haven, CT.

M U L L E R, Theo, 'Music Is Not a Solitary Act': Conversation with Luciano Berio
(January 1997) Tempo, Number 199, pp. 16-20

P A L M E R, Peter, Heinz Holliger at 60 (April 1999) Tempo, New Series, Number
208, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 29-32

P A R T C H, Harry, Original Preface to “Genesis of a Music”, 1947, University of
Wisconsin Press,, Retrieved
February 25, 2008

S C H I C K, Steven, Developing an Interpretive Context: Learning Brain
Ferneyhough’s Bone Alphabet, (Winter 1994) Perspectives of New Music, Volume
31, Number 1, pp. 132-153

S C H I F F, David, The Music of Elliott Carter, (1983) Da Capo Press, New York
Stuart Saunders S M I T H, To Suffer Music (Winter 1996)
Perspectives of New Music, Volume 34, Number 1, pp. 106-114

S O U S T E R, Tim, The Second Viennese School, Pierre Boulez talks to Tim
Souster (May 1969) The Musical Times, Volume 110, Number 1515, pp. 473-474

T H O M P S O N, Virgil, A Virgil Thompson Reader (1981) Houghton Mifflin,

T O O P, Richard, Prima le Parole...(On the Sketches for Ferneyhough's Carceri
D'invenzione I-III) (Winter 1994) Perspectives of New Music, Volume 32, Number 1
pp. 154-175

V O I T, Johannes, Literaturhinweisezu den Themen "Neue Musik" und "Neue
Musik vermitteln”,,
Retrieved, February 25, 2008

W H I T T A L L, Arnold, Holliger at 60, Keeping the Faith (Summer 1999)The
Musical Times, pp. 38-48

W R I G H T, Preston, Harry Partch’s World (February 2003) American Public
Retrieved February 25, 2008

Z E N D E R, Hans, Die Sinne Denken, Texte zur Musik 1975-2003, edited by Jörn
Peter Hiekel, (2004) Breitkopf and Härtl, Wiesbaden

VIII. Bibliography of Musical Examples

B E R I O, Luciano, Sequenza I Per Flauto Solo, Edizione Suvini Zerboni, Milano,

D I C K, Robert, Circular Breathing for the Flutist, MMB Music, St. Louis, MO, 1985

D I C K, Robert, Flying Lessons Volume I, MMB Music, St. Louis, MO, 1987

D I C K, Robert, The Other Flute, MMB Music, St. Louis, MO, 1986

D I C K, Robert, Tone Development Through Extended Techniques, MMB Music,
St. Louis, MO, 1985

F E R N E Y H O U G H, Brian, Cassandra’s Dream Song, Hinrichsen Edition,
Peters Edition, Ltd., London, 1975

F U R R E R, Beat, auf töneren füssen, page 3, line 1, Bärenreiter, Kassel, 2001

H O L L I G E R, Heinz, (t)air(e), Ars Viva Verlag, Mainz, 1988

H O S O K A W A, Toshio, Vertical Song I, Schott Japan, 1997

H U B E R, Klaus, Ein Hauch von Unzeit, Breitkopf &Härtel, Wiesbadem 1980

I B E R T, Jacques, Concerto for Flute, Alphonse Leduc, 1934

K O R D E, Shirish, Tenderness of Cranes, Neuma Publications, Acton, MASS,

L A N G, Bernhard, Schrift I, Zeitvertreib Verlag, Wien/Berlin, 2003

L E V I N E, Carin, Die Spieltechnik der Flöte, Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel 2002

M E N C A R E L L I, Pier Luigi, Metodo per Flauto, Traduzione Inglese di Reginald
Smith Brindle, Bruno Bartolozzi, Nuova Tecnica per Strumento a Fiato di Legno
Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, Milano, 1973

M E N D E L S S O H N – B A R T H O L D Y, Felix, Ein Sommerachtstraum,
Scherzo in Orchester Probespiel Flöte/Piccolo, edited by Christoph Dürichen and
Siegfried Kratsch, Edition Peters, Frankfurt

M E S S I A E N, Olivier, Le Merle Noir, Alphonse Leduc, Paris, 1952

N O A C K, Gerd, Frühlingsstimme op. 39, Gerd Noack, 2007

P E D I N I, Carlo, Il Miracolo, Manuscript, 2003

S C I A R R I N O, Salvatore, L’opera per flauto, Riccordi, Milano, 1977

S T R A U S S, Richard, Don Quixote in The Modern Flutist, Andraud, Cincinnati,
OH, 1941

S T R A V I N S K Y, Igor, Firebird Suite, Edward F. Kalmus & CO., INC., 1989