SECTION 02315 - HORIZONTAL BORING

PART 1 -- GENERAL

1.1 WORK OF THIS SECTION

A. General: The CONTRACTOR shall perform horizontal boring in accordance with the provisions of
this Section. Horizontal boring is defined as trenchless construction techniques that do not involve
personnel entry into the bored excavation for the carrier pipe and casing pipes. The CONTRACTOR
shall determine the best method to employ for horizontal boring. The following factors shall be
considered by the CONTRACTOR in selection of the horizontal boring method:

1. Types of soils anticipated including the percentages of gravels, cobbles, and boulders.
2. Presence of groundwater.
3. Length of the bore.
3. Proximity of existing utilities.
4. Possible impacts on traffic.
5. Space availability for operation of equipment and staging.
6. Required grade and alignment accuracy.
7. Environment conditions and the impact of the method selected on those conditions.
8. Possibility or probability of obstacles in the planned alignment.
9. The type and size of the carrier pipe or casing to be installed.

1.2 DEFINITIONS

A. Auger Method: A variation of pipe jacking in which torque transmission to a cutting head and spoil
removal is accomplished by a continuous flight auger. Piping is jacked into the bore behind the
cutting face.

B. Microtunneling: A variation of pipe jacking in which a remotely operated microtunnel boring machine
(MTBM) performs the excavation of the bore hole. The MTBM is articulated, laser guided and
maintains full cutting face control. Piping is continuously jacked behind the MTBM and accurate
grade and alignment are achieved.

C. Horizontal Directional Drilling: A steerable drilling method using pressurized drilling fluid to operate
drill bits via a motor at the head of a drill string. The position of the drill is monitored to excavate the
path of a pilot hole which is subsequently reamed to large diameters for the final process pipe which
is typically pulled into the bore hole.

D. Compaction/Pipe Ramming: Pipe installation methods that use pneumatically-operated moles to
punch through the soil to create a bore hole, or ramming the pipe or casing through the soil for direct
placement.

E. Full Face Control: Complete mechanical support of the excavated face at all times.

F. Earth Pressure Balance: Pressure applied to the cutting face equals the pressure of the earth against
the cutting face.

G. Drill String: A series of joined individual pipes which is used to advance the excavation equipment.

08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING
PAGE 02315-1

J.4 REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS. I. ANSI/AWWA C200 Steel Water Pipe 6 Inches and Larger 3. ASTM C 150 Specification for Portland Cement 5. 1. CONTRACTOR shall comply with the requirements of the California Administrative Code. Section 02650 Steel Pipe. 1.3 RELATED SECTIONS A. Section 02200 Earthwork 3. B. the CONTRACTOR shall comply with the latest adopted edition of the Standard Specifications for Public Works Construction (SSPWC). shall also apply to the extent required for proper performance of this Work. Section 02140 Dewatering 2. the current editions of the following commercial standards apply to the Work of this Section: 1. ASTM D 1556 Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-2 . H. ASTM A 283 Specification for Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates 4. Except as otherwise indicated in this Section. Annular Space: The void between the outside diameter of the installed casing pipe and the outer limits of the bore being excavated for the casing pipe. Except as otherwise indicated. Lined and Coated 5. ANSI/AWS D1. Section 02340 Boring and Jacking 4. Pullback: Method of installing piping by pulling it back through a borehole. Hydraulic Fracturing: Fractures produced by pressurized drilling fluids or grout in weak or unconsolidated areas of the soil matrix resulting in excessive fluid loss or upwelling of fluid to the surface. The Work of the following Sections applies to the Work of this Section.1 Structural Welding Code 2. C. not referenced below. usually following a drill string and a reamer to open the bore to a sufficient diameter to accept the pipe. ASTM D 422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils 7. Section 02666 Water Pipeline Testing and Disinfection 1. CODES AND STANDARDS A. Other Sections. The annular space also refers to the space between the casing pipe and the smaller diameter carrier pipe installed within the casing. ASTM C 869 Specification for Foaming Agents Used in Making Preformed Foam for Cellular Concrete 6.

ASTM D 4643 Test Methods for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Microwave Oven Method 18. ASTM D 4944 Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide. ASTM D 3080 Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions 16. AWWA C 213 Fusion-Bonded Epoxy Coating for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-3 . 8. ASTM D 4564 Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Sleeve Method 17. ASTM D 5195 Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock In-Place at Depths Below the Surface by Nuclear Methods 23. ASTM D 5220 Test Method for Water Content of Soil and Rock In-Place by the Neutron depth Probe Method 24. ASTM D 1586 Test Method for Penetration Test and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils 9. ASTM D 2216 Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture Content of Soil and Rock) 11. ASTM D 2434 Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) 12. ASTM D 4767 Test Method for Consolidated-Underground Triaxial Compression Test of Cohesive Soils 19. Gas Pressure Test Method 21. ASTM D 4829 Test Method for Expansion Index of Soils 20. ASTM D 4959 Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by Direct Heating Method 22. ASTM D 2166 Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil 10. ASTM D 2487 Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System) 13. ASTM D 2937 Test Method for Density of Soil In-Place by the Drive- Cylinder Method 14. ASTM D 3017 Test Method for Water Content of Soil and Rock in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth) 15.

Qualifications: Horizontal boring shall be performed by a qualified Contractor. Approval of the following submittals shall be obtained before ordering pipe materials or starting operations: 1. bracing the shaft and thrust block design. including references. 2. as applicable: 1. Manufacturers’data sheets and specifications describing in detail the system to be used. wall thickness. grouting. shoring. The Contractor shall have successfully completed at least 5 previous horizontal boring operations of similar length and diameter. Submittals for Microtunneling and Auger Boring: The CONTRACTOR shall submit the following items. and shoring plans and sections for boring and receiving shafts. including other materials encountered in the construction and maintenance of shafts. and pipe class. dimensions. Locations. Submittals shall include the following. B. F. Evidence of the insurance coverage shall be submitted to the CITY. Data on lubricants proposed for installation. D. E. Spoil disposal method. 3.1. Permits: The CONTRACTOR shall obtain necessary permits from governing agencies having jurisdiction and furnish two copies to the CITY’s designated representative before the start of the Work.5 CONTRACTOR SUBMITTALS A. Carrier pipe and casing materials. 4. The CONTRACTOR shall provide descriptions of similar projects. backfill. specifications. Layout plans. Methods to control and dispose of groundwater. including physical and chemical properties of all steel. Installation schedules for excavation. Insurance: The CONTRACTOR shall obtain additional insurance that may be required by permits. 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-4 . where contractor responsible for horizontal boring has successfully used the proposed horizontal boring system. All expenses incurred in making samples for certification of tests shall be borne by the CONTRACTOR. 3. C. General: The CONTRACTOR shall submit shop drawings in accordance with the project requirements and the following. Maximum anticipated jacking loads and supporting calculations. Certifications: The CONTRACTOR shall furnish a certified affidavit of compliance for all pipe and other products or materials furnished under this Section. 5. including the method of excavating. 2. relevant data. pipe installation. including the diameter. 6. and related horizontal boring operations.

Plans for monitoring ground surface movement (settlement or heave) due to construction. Procedures to meet all applicable OSHA requirements. c. b. roadways. At a minimum. Protection against soil instability and groundwater inflow. Damage to pipeline structural integrity and repair. and falling objects. g. At minimum. i. Annular space grouting plan. Lubrication and/or grouting system. or as required by the CITY. parking lots. The plan shall address the method and frequency of survey measurement. e. stairs. Protection of shaft. Monitoring for hazardous gases. These procedures shall be submitted for a record purposes only and will not be subject to approval by the CITY. G. c. 9. the plan shall measure the ground movement of all structures. Ventilation and lighting. Safety for shaft access and exit. Loss and return to line and grade. Protection against mechanical and hydraulic equipment operations. Approval of the following submittals shall be obtained before ordering pipe materials or starting operations: 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-5 . and any other areas of concern within 25 feet on both sides of all microtunneling pipelines at a maximum spacing of 100 feet along the pipeline route. Submittals for Directional Drilling: The CONTRACTOR shall submit the following items. and hoists. and for lifting and hoisting equipment and material. Contingency plans for correction of the following potential conditions: a. Protection against flooding and means for emergency evacuation. Loss of ground. f. accidental or unauthorized entry. 6. Grade and alignment control systems. 8. Emergency protection equipment. Intermediate jacking station locations and design. walkways. 10. CONTRACTOR shall provide the following: a. 5. h. 7. b. including ladders. Safety supervising responsibilities. 4. d. including traffic barriers.

Manufacturers’data sheets and specifications describing in detail the directional drilling system to be used. b. 5. Inability to complete the pilot hole. CONTRACTOR shall provide the following: a. Contingency plans for correction of the following potential conditions: a. bracing. 4. These procedures shall be submitted for a record purpose only and will not be subject to approval by the CITY. Description of method to remove and dispose of spoil. Maximum anticipated pulling loads and supporting calculations. H. b. 2. 6. c. surface construction profile. Shaft dimensions. 1. Description of methods to control and dispose of groundwater and other materials encountered in the construction and maintenance of shafts. Maximum anticipated jacking loads or impact forces and supporting calculations. 2. Lubrication and/or grouting system. Submittals for Compaction/Pipe Ramming: The CONTRACTOR shall submit the following items. Grade and alignment control systems. Approval of the following submittals shall be obtained before ordering pipe materials or starting operations: 1. and for lifting and hoisting equipment and material. method of excavating. 6. and thrust block design. Safety supervising responsibilities. Include design calculations to account for bending and pulling stresses expected during construction. 8. 7. shoring. 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-6 . Procedures to meet all applicable OSHA requirements. 3. 5. 4. Description of similar projects with references on which the proposed system had been successfully used by contractor/operator. Pipe design data and specifications. Excessive fluid loss or hydraulic fracturing. Emergency protection equipment. Protection against mechanical and hydraulic equipment operations. locations. Description of method to contain drilling fluids and to separate and dispose of spoils. c. Grade and alignment control equipment. Inability to pull the pipe. 3. At a minimum. depth.

Contingency plans for correction of the following potential conditions:. but not necessarily limited to. and falling objects. d. roadways. 7. i. Notification: The CONTRACTOR shall provide a minimum of 3 days advance notice before the start of excavation or boring operations. These procedures shall be submitted for a record purpose only and will not be subject to approval by the CITY. CONTRACTOR shall provide the following: a. Protection of shaft. c. Protection against flooding and means for emergency evacuation. The plan shall address the method and frequency of survey measurement. stairs. Excessive heave or settlement. and hoists. 1. including ladders. Welding procedures shall be required for. accidental or unauthorized entry. longitudinal and girth or special welds for pipe cylinders. casing joint welds. g. At minimum. Safety supervising responsibilities.1. Protection against mechanical and hydraulic equipment operations. the plan shall measure the ground movement of all structures. a. Plan for monitoring ground surface movement (settlement or heave) due to the pipe jacking operation. 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-7 . Safety for shaft access and exit. 9. e. including traffic barriers. or as required by the CITY. Monitoring for hazardous gases. Welding Requirements: All welding procedures used to fabricate steel casings shall be prequalified under the provisions of ANSI/AWS D1. b. Ventilation and lighting. and for lifting and hoisting equipment and material. c. Emergency protection equipment. b. parking lots. 10. walkways. Procedures to meet all applicable OSHA requirements. Damage to pipeline structural integrity and repair of the pipe. At a minimum. Line and grade outside of tolerance limits. and any other areas of concern within 25 feet on both sides of the pipeline alignment at a maximum spacing of 100 feet along the pipeline route. B. 8. No work shall be performed without prior approval from the CITY. h. f.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE A. Protection against soil instability and groundwater inflow. Annular space grouting plan.

B. Apparent or unconfined soil cohesion.7 SAFETY A. Nature of fill material 16. D 5220. Tunnel Safety Orders. D 5195. Subsurface Conditions: The CITY will make available to the CONTRACTOR existing subsurface information. (ASTM D 4767) 10. D 4944) 9. Unconfined compressive strength (ASTM D 2166) 11. Water (moisture) content (ASTM D 4959. C. The superintendent shall be onsite throughout the operations and shall have directed work on at least two previous equivalent installations. C. 1. Density (ASTM D 1556.8 EXISTING CONDITIONS A. of 30-inch diameter or larger casing pipe must be classified as to their potential of encountering explosive or flammable gases. and tackers who have had adequate experience in the type of materials to be used. D 2216. Liquid limits (ASTM D 4318) 5. in the State of California. 1. Safety: The CONTRACTOR’s attention is directed to the safety requirements in the California Administration Code. D 4643. Title 8. Subsurface Data: The following subsurface information will affect equipment selection and the progress and practicality of trenchless excavation. Water table depth 15. Nature of pollutants 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-8 . Subchapter 20. D 2937. Welders shall be qualified under the provisions of ANSI/AWS D1. D 4564) 8. Additional subsurface investigations deemed necessary by the CONTRACTOR to complete horizontal boring work shall be conducted at no additional cost to the CITY. 13. Copies of all additional subsurface reports obtained by the CONTRACTOR shall be provided to the CITY. Standard penetration test (ASTM D 1586) 14. welding operators. Tunnel Classification: Proposed tunnels and bores. approved testing agency not more than 6 months before starting work on the casing or pipeline. Expansion index (ASTM D 4829) 7. B. Superintendent: The CONTRACTOR shall also provide an experienced onsite superintendent to direct the Work. The CONTRACTOR shall obtain a preliminary underground classification permit from the Mine Safety Training Unit of Cal OSHA. reinforcing plates and grout coupling connections. Machines and electrodes similar to those used in the Work shall be used in qualification tests. Chapter 4. The actual test data required will vary depending upon the scope of the project soil conditions encountered and trenchless method proposed. Shear strength: Direct (ASTM D 3080) and Triaxial. Permeability (ASTM D 2434) 12. Particle-size analysis (ASTM D 422) 2. D 3017.1 by an independent local. Plasticity index (ASTM D 4318) 6. Information regarding the classification requirement may be obtained from the Mine Safety Training Unit. Testing may include but not be limited to the following: 1. Furnish all material and bear the expense of qualifying welders. Plastic limit (ASTM D 4318) 4.U. Soil Classification (ASTM D 2487) 3. All welding shall be done by skilled welders.

The CONTRACTOR shall take all necessary precautions to prevent damage to existing utilities which could result from trenchless excavation activities. The minimum casing inside diameter shall be at least 4-inches larger than maximum outside diameter of the carrier pipe. and with flush-jointed outer surfaces. Steel Casing: The steel casing pipe shall be in accordance with ASTM A 283. 17. replace.Steel Pipe. Rock quality designation (RQD) 20. or compensate the respective owners for any damage to permanent facilities due to negligence or lack of adequate protection. Utility location and depth shall be positively verified by potholing. Subsurface Test Samples: The CONTRACTOR shall collect subsurface test samples within 20 feet horizontally of the centerline of the proposed conduit location when practicable. The coating thickness shall be 12-15 mils. water and sand shall conform to the applicable requirements of SSPWC. The casing wall thickness shall be designed to accommodate the maximum jacking load allowed. The pipe wall thickness and joints shall be designed to withstand jacking or pulling forces during installation as well as internal and external forces expected once in service. B. The ends of the pipe shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pipe with a maximum deviation of no more than 1/16-inch per foot of pipe diameter. Steel Carrier Pipe: Except as otherwise specified. Casing section joints shall be of the interlocking type or butt welded. The CONTRACTOR shall give special consideration to gas lines or electric cables by submitting a report acknowledging the proximity of these utilities and actions to be taken to avoid damage to them. Test samples shall be collected at a maximum of 300 feet intervals. Each end of the casing shall be prepared by providing 1/4-inch by 45-degree chamfer on the outside edges for butt welding. Portland cement. with a maximum of 1/4-inch. as well as expected earth and live loads. D. The CONTRACTOR shall repair. C. except that sand to be used shall be of such fineness that 100% will pass a 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-9 . or welded using butt straps in the field. C. PART 2 -. Rock type and color 18. Carrier pipe for directional drilling shall be lined and coated with fusion-bonded epoxy in accordance with the requirements of AWWA C213. steel pipe shall conform to the requirements of Section 02650 . shrubs and other permanent objects. Subsurface samples shall be collected to a minimum depth of one pipe diameter below the proposed conduit invert elevation. Core recovery. Lined and Coated. unless indicated otherwise. all grout mixtures shall contain 2% of bentonite by weight of the cement. three parts sand and the minimum amount of water necessary to obtain the desired consistency.PRODUCTS 2. These facilities include utilities. TCR. Grout shall consist of one part portland cement. structures. Fracture index 19.1 GENERAL A. Thickness shall be no less than 3/8-inch and the CONTRACTOR shall be fully responsible for the sufficiency of the casing provided. Grout: Grout shall be used to completely fill any annular space between the bore and installed casing pipe. smooth. and. lap welded. Grade C. Utilities: The CONTRACTOR shall conduct an investigation to identify and locate all underground utilities within 20 feet of each side of centerline of the proposed conduit alignment. The pipe shall be round. Pipe ends shall be square and smooth so that jacking loads are evenly distributed against the pipe end faces without point loads when the pipe is jacked. trees.

Advance Products & Systems Inc. etc. 40 sieve. by weight. C. 8 sieve and at least 45%. The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain instrumentation to monitor the borehole position at all times and shall maintain a record of the installation process. Wyoming type. Lubricants: Water shall be used as a lubricant for jacking operations and may contain clay based and/or polymer additives to reduce the skin friction of the installed pipe. Boring and Receiving Pits: The CONTRACTOR shall comply with the provisions of Sub-Part P. Cellular Concrete Backfill: Concrete backfill shall have minimum 7.EXECUTION 3. Settlement: The CONTRACTOR shall prevent settlement of overlying structures or other damage due to the boring operations. Line and Grade: The CONTRACTOR shall maintain the specified line and grade of the pipe.652 of the OSHA Safety and Health Standards for Construction for the protection of employees in excavations. public agencies. Cellular concrete shall use type 2 low alkali cement conforming to ASTM C150 with water free of organic materials or other impurities that might reduce the strength durability or other qualities of the concrete. 1. Backfill between the Casing and Carrier Pipe: Backfill between the casing and carrier pipe shall be either cellular concrete or sand. Bentonite shall be a commercial-processed powdered bentonite. Countermeasures: Appropriate equipment shall be provided to counter conditions which can cause delay such as groundwater. or W. D. Section 1926. 30 sieve. The CITY may specify a larger or smaller zone if circumstances warrant. The CONTRACTOR shall develop and 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-10 . Casing End Seals: Seals shall be standard wrap around end seals. made of synthetic rubber.. F.and 28-day compressive strengths of 300 and 500 psi. respectively. Foaming agents shall meet the requirements of ASTM C869. Annular Sand Backfill: Sand shall be clean and 100% shall pass a Standard No. D. Black Hills. C. B. PART 3 -. Standard No. The CITY shall have access to the instrumentation and records at all times. General Requirements: The CONTRACTOR shall comply with the lawful requirements of affected railway companies. public utilities. or the CONTRACTOR shall maintain a minimum of one lane of traffic in each direction. E. 2. Traffic Control: Excavation within the public right-of-way shall be limited to one traffic lane. or equal. running sand. or equal. Trenches. boulders. E. with self- curing rubber sealing strips and provided with Type 316 stainless steel bands and clamps.1 GENERAL A. End seals shall be manufactured by Pipeline Seal and Insulator Inc. will pass a Standard No. Model(s) S. F. California Department of Transportation. shafts or pits in public streets shall not be open for extended periods of time. Model(s) AC or AW. such as Imacco-gel. and other entities.

If concrete thrust block or treated soil is used as the jacking restraint. Construction Safety Orders. Earthwork”. and bracing for boring and receiving shafts shall conform to the requirements of Section 02200 . G. 3. B.Water Pipeline Testing and Disinfection. 22i Drilling fluids and cuttings shall be recovered. 3. Shafts shall have adequate shoring to prevent wall collapse or ground movement in the vicinity of the shaft. C. waterproof sheet piles or a dewatering system shall be employed to keep the shaft dry at all times. submit an acceptable contingency plan to address such conditions. Sheeting.Earthwork. Shafts shall also be equipped with barriers at grade to provide fall protection. “Excavations. D. the process shall be halted until actions are taken to control the losses. 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-11 . bracing and rubbish shall be removed from the job site. separated and the drilling fluid reused. The following requirements apply to the use of drilling fluids and their additives. shoring. shoring. Trenches. Bearing blocks of timber or structural steel shall also be used to distribute jacking forces evenly around the perimeter of installed piping or casings. Foundation: Boring pits shall have a foundation of crushed stone or equal to provide a base for support and alignment of the boring equipment. The CONTRACTOR shall be alert at all times to abnormalities in the installation process. Safety Measures: All shafts shall conform to Title 8. Chapter 4. Dewatering shall conform to the requirements of Section 02140 .2 BORING AND RECEIVING SHAFTS A. Section 1542. Backfilling Shafts: All shafts shall be backfilled upon completion of operations in accordance with the requirements of Section 02200 . California Administrative Code. The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the disposal of excavated material as well as excess drilling fluid. the pipe shall be field tested and disinfected in accordance with Section 02660 .Dewatering. Jacking forces shall be distributed evenly over the thrust blocks. Subchapter 4. 21i Drilling fluid pressures shall be limited to those necessary and shall be controlled to avoid or minimize hydraulic fracturing or over excavation. Field Testing and Disinfection: Upon completion of the installation. Article 6. Thrust blocks shall be perpendicular to the proposed bore alignment and be designed to support the maximum jacking pressure of the proposed jacking system. Dewatering: When installed below the water table. Measures shall be taken to prevent surface runoff from entering the shaft. water. Personnel shall not be in receiving pits when entry of the boring device is expected. Permits: The CONTRACTOR shall abide by all permit conditions. Shoring and Bracing: Shafts shall be constructed to accommodate boring equipment and provide safe working space around the equipment as recommended by the equipment manufacturer. no jacking shall be performed until the required strength has been attained. The CITY shall be notified immediately if anomalies are encountered. H. All equipment.Earthwork. Direct disposal of drilling fluids may be permitted with approval from the CITY.3 DRILLING FLUIDS AND SLURRIES A. Shafts. If hydraulic fracturing or excessive loss of fluid is discovered. Sheeting. E.

E. Cleanup of any inadvertent returns shall be performed in a timely manner. and advance rate. The maximum allowed thrust force of the installed pipe shall not be exceeded. and crushed stone or equivalent shall be used as a minimum. When thrust reaction blocks are used. Support Bedding and Reaction Blocks: An adequately designed and constructed foundation and thrust reaction structure shall be provided.5 to 3 times the outside diameter of the pipe or casing being installed. Operations shall be stopped when they result in pipe damage or surface disruption. These parameters shall be recorded and available at all times for review by the CITY. trash. the CONTRACTOR shall obtain a written approval from the CITY. Line and grade shall be continuously monitored by referencing the casing to a design reference. Cutter Head: The cutter face shall be selected based on the soil conditions expected and shall be capable of supporting the full excavation face. The casing shall be equipped to prevent or correct rolling. Containment barriers shall be used to prevent drilling fluid runoff from the construction site and frequent inspections along the bore path for upwelling drilling fluid shall be conducted. If continuous referencing is not possible due to equipment design limitations. Additives may be employed to condition the spoils for transport. and waste. Intermediate Shafts: If an intermediate shaft is requested. the auger system shall be capable of adjustments required to maintain face stability and prevent loss of soil or uncontrolled groundwater inflow. D. The intermediate shaft shall not be located in areas prohibited and as 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-12 . Auger Boring Machine: The auger boring machine selected shall be sized with torque and thrust capacities compatible with the size of pipe or casing to be installed and expected soil and geotechnical conditions. Settlement or Heave: Settlement or heave at the ground surface during and after construction along the centerline of the conduit installed shall not exceed 1/2. F.inch unless otherwise specified. line and grade shall be verified by other suitable means at every 50-feet of advancement. care shall be taken to ensure they are perpendicular with the required line and grade. unless otherwise specified. A concrete slab shall be used in unstable conditions. Control equipment shall integrate excavation spoil removal and installation of pipe. The cutter face shall be capable of slight steering adjustments to maintain line and grade of the installed pipe.4 AUGER METHOD A. I. Monitoring Equipment: Equipment shall be provided to continuously monitor auger thrust and torque. Separate thrust jacks shall be used for advancing the cutter face and advancing the installed pipe. 3. pipe jacking thrust. When operating below the groundwater level . B. The rate of return to line and grade shall not exceed 1:1500 unless otherwise specified. Depth of Cover: The minimum depth of cover to the top of the installed pipe or casing shall be 1. Special attention shall be given to the shaft foundation to ensure it is secure. C. The line and grade tolerances of pipe installed shall be ±2-inches on grade and ±3-inches on line between shafts. Excavation Controls: All machine operations shall be monitored and controlled from a central point either in the shaft at the auger boring machine or remotely from the surface. G. The auger shall be sized to transmit the required torque and thrust to the cutting face and transport spoils back to the bore shaft for removal. H. Casing and Auger: The auger casing diameter shall be sized in conjunction with the cutter face such that the annular space between the installed pipe and bored shaft does not exceed 1-inch.

minimize public inconvenience and minimize impacting existing facilities. The maximum radial annular space shall not exceed 1-inch. The MTBM cutter face shall at all times be capable of supporting the full excavated area without the use of ground stabilization and have the capability of measuring the earth pressure at the face a setting a calculated earth balancing pressure.inch unless otherwise specified. Settlement: Settlement or heave at the ground surface during and after construction along the centerline of the conduit installed shall not exceed 1/2. Repair or Replacement of Damaged Pipe: Damaged pipe shall be jacked through to the reception shaft and removed. Intermediate jacking stations may be used for long drives where frictional forces would cause exceedance of the maximum allowable jacking force. Jacking forces at the intermediate jacking station shall be continuously monitored during jacking operations. The measuring and balancing of earth and groundwater pressure shall be achieved by use of a slurry or cased auger system. pressure-injected grout shall fill voids outside the limits of the excavation created by caving or collapse of earth cover over the excavation. The system shall be capable of incremental adjustments to maintain face stability for the soil conditions encountered. The pipe shall be designed to take full account of all temporary installation loads. Excavation Controls: The control equipment shall integrate the method of excavation and removal of soil and its simultaneous replacement by a pipe. Annular Space Grouting. K. The MTBM shall be capable of controlling shield rotation by means of a bi-directional drive on the cutter head or by use of mechanical fins or grippers. The maximum jacking capacity used shall not exceed the allowable jacking capacity of the pipe that has a minimum factor of safety of 2. C. whichever is greater. General: Unless otherwise indicated. B. The intermediate jacking station shall employ a steel jacket or other suitable means to prevent soil intrusion into the conduit. Piping: The pipe manufacturer’s design jacking loads shall not be exceeded during the installation process. J. unless otherwise specified. The minimum depth of cover may be reduced with permission from the CITY.5. the control 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-13 . The MTBM shall control groundwater during excavation without the use of external dewatering equipment. L.5 MICROTUNNELING A. D. The CONTRACTOR’s request shall include all necessary permits and approvals. E. The MTBM shall be mechanically articulated to enable remotely controlled steering of the shield. When grouting is specified. The MTBM shall be moved forward by the jacks advancing a successive string of connected pipes toward a receiving shaft. Grout shall be injected at a pressure that will not distort or imperil any portion of the work or existing installations or structures. unless otherwise specified. Other methods of repairing the damaged conduit may be used as recommended by the manufacturer and approved by the CITY. Jacking Equipment: The main jacks shall be mounted in a jacking frame and located in the jacking shaft. Equipment: The MTBM shall be capable of installing the pipe while being compatible with the anticipated soil and geotechnical conditions. directed by the CITY. The grouting operation shall not damage adjacent utilities or other properties. As each pipe section is jacked forward.5 times the outside diameter of the pipe or casing being installed or 6-feet. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish and operate suitable equipment for any required grouting operations depending on the condition of the application. the minimum depth of cover to the top of the installed pipe or casing shall be 1. 3. The annular space created by the overcut of the auger face in excess of 3/4- inch shall be filled with an approved material.

installed length. A slurry bypass method shall be included to allow for a change in direction of flow to be made and/or isolated. Guidance/Monitoring Equipment: The MTBM display equipment shall continuously show and automatically record the position of the shield with respect to the project design line and grade. The automated recording system shall include real time information such as earth and ground pressure. a. l. The CONTRACTOR shall propose immediate action for review and approval by the CITY to remedy the problem at no additional cost. H. roll. The steering information shall be monitored and transmitted to the operation console. installed length. b. rate of advance. inclination. The 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-14 . The actual position of the MTBM shall be continuously related to a design reference (e. and cutter head torque. slurry flow. The composition of the slurry shall be monitored to maintain the slurry density and viscosity limits as approved in the submittals. The system shall be capable of adjustments required to maintain face stability for the particular soil condition to be encountered to prevent loss of soil or uncontrolled groundwater inflow. stability of the soils. the soil type being excavated.g. roll.. cutter head torque. Separate the spoil from the slurry so that slurry may be returned to the cutting face for reuse. Operations shall be stopped when they result in pipe damage or any surface disruption. j. Automated Spoils Transportation: The MTBM shall include one of the following: 23i Slurry System: The system shall be capable of measuring earth and groundwater pressure and making the adjustments required to counter-balance the earth and groundwater pressure to prevent loss of slurry or uncontrolled soil and groundwater inflow. Line and grade adjustments of the MTBM shall be controlled by an operator or by an automated guidance system at the discretion of the CONTRACTOR. A separation process shall be provided. and the workspace available at each area. and slurry valve positions. The slurry pressure at the excavation face shall be controlled by use of slurry pumps. The system shall maintain the pressure at the excavation face by controlling the volume of spoil removal with respect to the advance rate. The system shall monitor the speed of the rotation of the auger and the amount of water added. attitude. k. 24 Cased Auger System: The cased auger system shall monitor and continuously balance the soil and groundwater pressure. m. and the significance of the groundwater present. slurry pressure. excavation. The minimum steering information available to the operator on the control console shall include the position of the shield relative to the design reference. jacking loads. G. thrust force. properly sized for the tunnel being constructed. rate of advance. pitch. The CONTRACTOR shall submit an evaluation of equipment’s ability to balance earth and water pressure at the face. system shall synchronize spoils removal. F. attitude. by a laser beam transmitted from the jacking shaft along the line of the pipe to a target mounted in the shield). and jacking speeds. Active Steering Controls: A remotely controlled steering mechanism shall be provided that allows for the operation of the system without the need for personnel to enter the microtunnel.

C. and pulling forces shall be continuously monitored during operations. B. J. When grouting is specified. K. A swivel connection shall be used between the reaming device and 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-15 . The rate of return to line and grade shall not exceed 1:3000. Uncontrolled jetting (where fluid force is the primary means for creation of the final bore hold diameter) is prohibited. Intermediate Shafts: If an intermediate shaft is requested. unless otherwise specified. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish and operate suitable equipment for any required grouting operations depending on the condition of the application. unless otherwise specified or approved by the CITY. The equipment shall be capable of using mechanical and/or hydraulic means to change the boring course. minimize public inconvenience and minimize impacting existing facilities. Piping: The pipe manufacturer’s design jacking loads shall not be exceeded during the installation process. Drilling/Pulling Equipment: The equipment used to drill the pilot hole.5-inches in line between shafts. Field Testing: Two hydrostatic tests shall be performed: on at the surface after pipeline fabrication. The minimum pressure and flow of drilling fluids practicable shall be used during drilling operations. 3. pressures. The maximum allowable tensile load of the product pipe shall not be exceeded during pullback operations or when pre-reaming and pullback are performed simultaneously. Damaged pipe shall be jacked through to the reception shaft and be removed. and the other after the pipe has been placed in its final position. Ream and Pull Back: The number of reaming passes to expand the pilot hole for product pipe installation is left to the discretion of the CONTRACTOR. Pilot Hole: The CONTRACTOR shall drill the pilot hole along the path shown in the Contract Drawings to within the tolerance limits specified. The pipe shall be designed to take full account of all temporary installation loads. Direct disposal of contained drilling fluids may be permitted with prior approval of the CITY. Equipment shall also be used to recover and separate drilling fluids and soil cuttings and subsequent reuse of drilling fluids. The grouting operation shall not damage adjacent utilities or other properties. Drilling must be accomplished with fluid assisted mechanical cutting. the CONTRACTOR shall provide an as-built survey consisting of a three dimensional coordinate tabulation accurately referencing the pilot hole to the drilled entry point. as recommended by the manufacturer and approved by the CITY. line and grade tolerances of pipe installed shall be 1-inch on grade and 1. back ream and pull the product pipe in place shall be adequately sized and compatible to the expected ground conditions. Grout shall be injected at a pressure that will not distort or imperil any portion of the work or existing installations or structures.6 DIRECTIONAL DRILLING A. Other methods of repairing the damaged conduit may be used. The intermediate shaft shall not be located in areas prohibited or as directed by the CITY. At the completion of the pilot hole. Annular Space Grouting: The annular space created by the overcut of the MTBM in excess of 3/4- inch shall be filled with an approved material. unless otherwise specified. I. Steering information of the drill string. pressure-injected grout shall fill voids outside the limits of the excavation created by caving or collapse of earth cover over the excavation. The exit point of the drill string shall also meet specified tolerance limits. L. The CONTRACTOR’s request shall include all necessary permits and approvals. It shall be equipped with instrumentation to accurately located the alignment and grade of the pilot hole to monitor drilling fluid flow and pressure and measure pulling force applied to the product pipe. the CONTRACTOR shall obtain a written approval from the CITY.

B. The pulled pipe shall be supported in such a fashion that it moves freely during pullback with no damage done to any corrosion coatings or linings. D. Line and grade shall be verified at the completion of installation and shall be within ±3-inches on grade and ±5- inches on line. E.7 COMPACTION/PIPE RAMMING A. The pipe shall be collared to the embankment to maintain alignment during installation. The pipe shall be cleaned after soil removal by flushing or using pressure driven cleanout plugs. Pneumatic tools shall be adequately sized to prevent damage to the pipe from excessive impact forces. Lubrication: Water or bentonite slurry may be applied to the pipe for lubrication at the CONTRACTOR’s option. All welds shall be radiographically inspected. 3. If flushing is employed. the CONTRACTOR shall monitor the soil surface above the pipe alignment for settlement during the installation. When staging area is limited. The pipe installed shall be tested in accordance with Section 02660 . In either case. The pipe shall be pulled back such that at lest one joint at the lead end completely clears the bore so that piping and joint can be inspected. C. The pipe shall be driven in one segment when working space is available. the product pipe to minimize torsional stress on the pulled pipe. Clean-Up: The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the removal and disposal of excavated material and excess drilling fluid in accordance with all local. Spoil: Spoil shall be removed from the installed pipe by reaming. Operations shall be stopped when they result in any pipe damage or surface disruption. Driving Pipe: Pipes shall be driven with an open face. The overcut shall not exceed 1-inch from the outer surface of the pipe. the slurry shall be contained and properly disposed of by the CONTRACTOR. The maximum allowable jacking forces shall not be exceeded.1. 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-16 . Loss of Fluid: At installations below bodies of water. state and federal regulations. Settlement Monitoring: When the pipeline is in sandy or cohesionless soils. Welding: Welding of steel pipe used for pullback shall be in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1. The CONTRACTOR shall propose immediate action for review and approval by the CITY to resolve the problem. E. the driving force shall be evenly transmitted using pressure plates or other types of adapters. shorter lengths of pipe may be stockpiled then connected and pulled in segments. The pipe shall be supported and positioned by adjustable bearing stands to achieve proper line and grade alignment. Remedial action shall be at no additional expense to the CITY. or water flushing. Driving Operations: Driving force to install the carrier pipe may be delivered through a conventional hydraulic jacking system or pneumatically powered percussion tools. F. The leading edge shall be equipped with a cutting band for reinforcement and to open a slightly larger path through the soil to reduce the skin friction of the following pipe. Settlement shall not exceed 1-inch or as specified. the CONTRACTOR shall be diligent to detect drilling fluid losses below the water surface. D.Water Pipeline Testing and Disinfection. Jacking forces shall be continuously monitored and recorded during installation. augering. Lubricant slurries shall be contained on site and excesses shall be properly disposed of by the CONTRACTOR.

G. Intermediate shafts shall not be located in areas prohibited or as directed by the CITY. it shall be grouted in accordance with the provisions in this Section for grouting of microtunnels. the CONTRACTOR shall obtain a written approval from the CITY. shall minimize public inconvenience. and shall minimize impacts on existing facilities. Intermediate Shafts: If intermediate shafts are requested. ** END OF SECTION ** 08/08/99 HORIZONTAL BORING PAGE 02315-17 . F. The CONTRACTOR’s request shall include all necessary permits and approvals. Grouting: If the annular space between the casing pipe and outside soil or rock is in excess of 3/4-inch is created by the cutting band.