Safety & Health of Welders

Covers hazards related to electric shock, arc radiation, air contamination,
fire & explosion, compressed gases, weld cleaning, and more.

Safety and
Health of
Written by
the Staff of Hobart Institute
of Welding Technology

Edited by
August F. Manz

The Hobart Institute of Welding Technology presents this
information as a guideline for good safety and health
practices. It is information available at the time of produc-
tion of this publication. Relevant standards may have been
updated and should be reviewed together with this book
for accuracy. It is not intended to be the only source of
arc welding safety information. Federal or other laws and
standards may govern different operations and facilities.
Additional sources for arc welding safety are given in the

This document should be read and understood by all
persons involved with welding and cutting. This includes
welders, supervisors, management, contractors, educa-
tors, and others.

Additional copies can be obtained from:
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
400 Trade Square East
Troy, Ohio 45373
(937) 332-5433

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology disclaims liability for any injury to persons
or to property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect,
consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication,
use of, or reliance on this book. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology makes no
guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published

© 2009. Hobart Institute of Welding Techology, 400 Trade Square East, Troy, Ohio, U.S.A.
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.

................................. Arc Radiation Hazard . Page 12 Particulate Matter Gases Confined or Enclosed Areas Ventilation 5...................... Safety for Specific Welding Processes and Occupations .............................................. Page 17 Work Area Fuel Gases Apparatus Hot Work Permits Welding on Containers Hot Tapping 6......................................... Weld Cleaning & Other Hazards ..................... Web Sites .................................................... Page 21 Underwater Welding Robotic and Automated Welding Brazing & Soldering Resistance Welding Arc Air Cutting Electron Beam Welding Thermal Spraying Laser Welding Alllied Processes 9................................................... Page 9 Eye Protection Contact Lenses Transparent Welding Curtains Other Factors 4................. Compressed Gases ................... Table of Contents 1................................................................. Air Contamination Hazard.............................................................. References ........................................................ Personal Protection and Safety Rules .............. Page 8 Installation Use Maintenance 3.......................... Page 20 Radioactive Hot Areas Noise Other Hazards 8..................................................................... Page 19 Treatment of Gas Cylinders Cylinder Storage Oxygen Fuel Gases Shielding Gases 7..................................... Page 1 Welding Workplace Safety Material Safety Data Sheets Heat Exposure Protective Clothing Safety Rules Safety Precautions for Arc Welding Safety Precautions for Oxyacetylene Welding & Cutting 2..... Fire & Explosion Hazard ........................ Electric Shock Hazard ......................................... Page 23 iii . Page 22 10........................

Safe Way To Weld Containers That Held Combustibles 21. Insulating Devices on Terminals of a Welding Machine 9. Local Exhaust Ventilation Using Movable Hood Design 19. Illustrations 1. Welding Booths With Mechanical Ventilation 15. Precautionary Information for Arc Processes and Equipment 2. Local Exhaust Ventilation Using Movable Hood 16. Precautionary Information for Brazing Filler Metals Containing Cadmium. Welding Station Using Transparent Welding Screen 12. Page 2 of Typical Material Safety Data Sheet 4. Welding Helmet 10. Page 3 of Typical Material Safety Data Sheet 5. Precautionary Information for Oxyfuel Gas Processes 8. Worker Wearing Suitable Ear Protection for Noisy Work iv . Welder Dressed for Heavy Duty Welding 7. Eye Protection Filter Shade Selector 11. Precautionary Information for Fluxes That Contain Fluorides 13. 14. Local Exhaust Ventilation Comparison With and Without Exhaust 18. Welder Dressed for Light Duty Welding 6. Hot Work Permit 20. Local Exhaust Ventilation Using Welding Gun Exhaust Nozzle 17. Page 1 of Typical Material Safety Data Sheet 3.

(5) Information must be provided for all substances taken and even under water.Precautionary Information for Arc Welding important welding standard is the American National Standard Processes and Equipment “ANSI Z49. These are accidents resulting from falling. Train personnel to utilize this these hazards where applicable by the use of adequate precau. etc.1. Employees must be trained on the information in Material welding processes or welding on particular metals can present Safety Data Sheets and labels. Personal Protection and PROTECT yourself and others. and sometimes noise. The use of specific 1985. insure the safety of workers. an obligation to learn safe practices. such as the proper fire extinguishers. is shown in Figure 1. which is recommended. 732 North Capitol Street NW. metal working occupations. safety regulations and the publication of safety information to Government Printing Office.Cutting. gaged in production and construction are continually exposed to • Before use. provide more data for intelligent interpretation of this information. and themselves from them. and body protection. published by the American Welding Society. (3) This standard states that welding and cutting operations pose potential hazards from fumes. Particular points of interest are highlighted to are followed. The purpose of the MSDSs is to explain the hazards involved in handling/using Electrical shock Compressed gases products such as welding consumables and the precautionary Arc radiation Welding cleaning measures which must be put in place for safe welding.S. pation.S. Safety Rules ARC RAYS can injure eyes and burn skin. is no more hazardous or injurious to the health than other • Wear correct eye.1: Safety in Welding. high above the ground. Your safety and health is extremely important. Cutting. When correct precautionary measures are followed. ELECTRIC SHOCK can KILL. gases. potential health risks. Material Safety Data potential hazards. Many of the com- The welding management and supervisors are responsible for ponents are included in the listing by the American Conference of assuring the workers are trained in the safe conduct of their day Governmental Industrial Hygienists with threshold limit values. The training and use safe practices and to obey safety rules and regulations. OSHA Safety and Health Standards are published by the U. Department indoors. and for every potential carcinogen (cancer Welding Workplace Safety inciting or producing) comprising 0. in open areas. gases.(7) Hazardous communication programs and welding safety training Combustible materials must not be allowed to collect in or near programs must be ongoing. processes and equipment. radiation and heat. being hit by moving objects. W. 3. in confined spaces. Adequate safety devices should be provided 1 . FL 33126. Governments have become increasingly active concerning the • See American national Standard ANSI Z49. maintenance personnel. and allied processes. In the United States. or both. DC 20401. It is the safety data sheet for a tubular arc welding electrode is shown in responsibility of supervisors to assure safety rules and regulations Figures 2. Normal precautions are required with regard to ard communication program to inform employees about hazardous these hazards as well. program must cover not only welders. working around moving machinery. exhaust at the arc. ear. All workers en. and others. life saving and support tion. to keep fumes and gases from safe occupation. problems associated with welding. Provisions to safeguard employees are included in Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) as prescribed Welders work under a variety of conditions including outdoors. welding is a • Use enough ventilation. Washington. the provisions DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)(2) are the law. 550 N. which will be covered later. FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous to your health.(6) to day activities. of Labor. gases. They utilize a large number of welding and into the workplace except foods. and safety in general. heat radia. It makes many national consensus standards enforceable. however most of these have in common the products used for personal consumption. Read and understand this information. WARNING: 1. Only approved equipment should be used and tionary labeling. fluxes. equipment properly. • Keep your head out of the fumes. and 4. drugs. They have welding area such as service personnel. Additional infor- mation is available in the American Welding Society publications Each Material Safety Data Sheet for welding products includes listed in the references section of this book. exposure OSHA requires that employers must have a comprehensive haz- to hot metal. Miami. Employees must be informed and trained so Material Safety Data Sheets are required to be provided au- that they are able to detect when hazards are present and protect tomatically by the suppliers of welding electrodes. They should be kept on file in the personnel or welding The welders and other employees have an obligation to learn departments and be readily available in the workplace. and so on. Health officials state that welding. The minimum precautionary label for arc welding it must be properly installed and maintained in good working order. There are a number of potential safety and health Sheets (MSDSs) and your employer’s safety practices. cutting. but others working in the They are responsible for the proper use of equipment. A typical material regulations and are expected to work in a safe manner. Safety in Welding. There are other hazards which apply to all metal working Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) occupations. The use of these data exposure to fumes.(l) • Do not touch live electrical parts. All personnel shall be warned against equipment. as an occu. The most Figure 1 . Good housekeeping practices should always be employed. to obey safety rules and regular visitors to the welding shop. information about every hazardous component comprising 1% or more of the contents. and Allied Processes”. first aid kits.1% or more. electric shock. and Allied safety and health of workers and have enacted laws prescribing Processes. LeJeune Road. your breathing zone and the general area. Hazards that relate to welding are: substances that might be used in the workplace. read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions. the welding workplace. Welders may be sheets in all manufacturing workplaces has been mandated since exposed to a number of factors simultaneously. cosmetics or tobacco cutting processes. The em- Air contamination Other hazards related to ployer must maintain continuous training concerning such materi- Fire and explosion specific occupations als. by the Hazard Communication Standard of the U.

1 (Dust&Fume) 0. 10 I* Limit.5 R*(Soluble Compounds) {A3} CALCIUM CARBONATE <2 <2(7) — — 1317-65-3 5 R* 10 u u u u u 5 (as CaO) 2 (as CaO) American ALUMINUM### <2 <5(6) <3(6) — 7429-90-5 5 R* (Dust) 10 (Dust) Conference 2 (soluble salts.5 (as F) {A4} E x p o s u r e MOLYBDENUM <1 — <2 <2 7439-98-7 5 R* 3 R*. The fumes and gases produced during welding formation. Hazards in SECTION 1 – IDENTIFICATION the filler Manufacturer/Supplier Name: ABC COMPANY Telephone No: (000) 000-0000 m e t a l o r Address: MAIN STREET.02 {A3} CERIUM OXIDE —- —- <2(11) — 1306-38-3 15 (Dust) 10 (Dust) 5 R* (Dust) 3 R* (Dust) (1) Present only in Group B Product Types (2) Present only in Group A and Group C Product Types (3) Present only in Group C Product Types (4) Present only in Group B Product Types (5) Present only in Group A Product Types (6) Present in All Group B Product Types (7) Present only in Group C Product Types (8) Present only in Group B Product Types (9) Present only in Group C Product Types (10) Present only in Group C Product Types (11) Present only in Group C Product Types * - Respirable Fraction I* - Inhalable Fraction ** - Ceiling Limit *** - Short Term Exposure Limit. + - As a nuisance particulate covered under “Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated” by OSHA or “Particulates Not Otherwise Classified” by ACGIH.05 (Cr VI Soluble Compounds) {A1} 0.5 (as F) {A4} STRONTIUM FLUORIDE — <2(8) — — 7783-48-4 2. IMPORTANT . and the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values should be consulted to determine the specific fume constituents present and their respective exposure limits.1 I* (Soluble Compounds) {A4} hold Limit 1 (Insoluble Compounds) 0.5 (as Ba) {A4} Hygienists NICKEL# — — <4 <1 7440-02-0 1 (Metal) 1.5 I* (Elemental) {A5} Thresh.HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS (safety in. SECTION 2 . defined in OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR Part 1910. An Industrial Hygienist. as Al) of Govern. u u 0.1200).05 mg/m3 is proposed for Cu R* of soluble compounds in 2006 by ACGIH uuu - TLV withdrawn in 2006 uuuuu - Intention to withdraw TLV in 2006 per ACGIH The exposure limit for welding fume has been established at 5 mg/m3 with OSHA’s PEL and ACGIH’s TLV.S. ### - Reportable material under Section 313 of SARA as dust or fume. Time.5 <2 <4 <2 7439-96-5 5 CL** (Fume) 0. 0.2 1.1 mg/m3 is proposed for Cu I* and 0. MANGANESE# <4. The individual complex compounds within the fume may have lower exposure limits than the general welding fume PEL/TLV. u - Listed under Notice of Intended Changes in 2006 per ACGIH uu - Limit of 0. The term “hazardous” in this section should be interpreted as a term required and immediate. ++ - Crystalline silica is bound within the product as it exists in the package. research indicates silica is present in welding fume in the amorphous #- Reportable material under Section 313 of SARA.2 I* (Insoluble Compounds) Value (mg/ {A1} m3).1 R* 0. However. total particulate) 10 I* {A4} Industrial BARIUM FLOURIDE# — 5-15(1) 5-15(3) — 7787-32-8 0.2 (Fume)u. 1200 and Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 Public Law 99-499. ANY CITY. Manufactured or Distributed Welding Consumables and Related Products.025 R* {A2} (Amorphous Silica Fume) 69012-64-2 0.5 (Metal) {A4} w e i g h t e d 0.5 (Cr III Compounds) {A4} average. ly available by tele. METAL CORED AND COMPOSITE SUBMERGED ARC WELDING “GROUP A”: Product Type: Gas Shielded Carbon and Low Alloy Steel“GROUP B”: Product Type: Self-Shielded Carbon Steel “GROUP C”: Product Type: Carbon and Low Alloy Steel “GROUP D”: Product Type: Corrosion Resisting Steel Metal Cored Chemical Abstracts Service No.01 (Cr VI Insoluble Compounds) {A1} COPPER# <1(2) — <2(2) — 7440-50-8 1 (Dust) 1 (Dust and Mists)u.8 3 R* u u u LITHIUM FLUORIDE — <2(9) <2(9) — 7789-24-4 2. 1 (Soluble Compounds) 0. IRON OXIDE — — <2 — 1309-37-1 10 (Oxide Fume) 5 R*(Oxide {A4} medics). 29 CFR 1910. MAGNESIUM+ — <3 — — 7439-95-4 5 R* 3 R* m e n t a l MAGNESIUM OXIDE — <3 — — 1309-48-4 15 (Fume. ZIPCODE. the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits For Air Contaminants (29 CFR 1910.5 (as Ba) 0. Figure 2 .This section covers the hazardous materials from which this product is manufactured.1 (Fume) 0.Page 1 of 3 of Typical Material Safety Data Sheet 2 . HAZARDOUS% WEIGHT EXPOSURE LIMIT (mg/m3) p h o n e t o INGREDIENTS Group A Group B Group C Group D CAS NO. OSHA PEL ACGIH TLV physicians IRON+ 75-98 75-95 75-95 75-95 7439-89-6 5 R* 3 R* and para. May be used to comply with OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard. 3 STEL*** (Fume) (As inorganic Compounds of Mn) TITANIUM DIOXIDE <10 <4(4) <10 <2 13463-67-7 15 (Dust) 10 {A4} PEL= SILICON+ <4 <2(4) <4 <2 7440-21-3 5 R* 3 R* u u u Permissible FLUORSPAR <5(5) 1-10 <5 —- 7789-75-5 2. Standard must be consulted for specific requirements.5 (Cr II & Cr III Compounds) 0.1000).5 (as F) {A4} COBALT —- —- <1(10) —- 7440-48-4 0.005 (Cr VI Compounds) 0. u u TITANIUM+ — — <2 <2 7440-32-6 5 R* 3 R* SILICA++ <2 — <2 — 14808-60-7 0. CHROMIUM# —- — <3 5 - 20 7440-47-3 1 (Metal) 0. MSDS NO: TR-TW REVISED: (date) TW 2885 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET For U. 0. with normal use of this product are also addressed in Section 5.5 (as F) 2.5 (as F) 2. USA Emergency No: (000) 000-0000 flux itself Products For: TUBULAR ARC WELDING ELECTRODES FOR FLUX CORED. mg/ (Elemental and Insoluble) m3.5 (as F) 2. {A1} - Confirmed Human Carcinogen per ACGIH {A2} - Suspected Human Carcinogen per ACGIH {A3} - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans per ACGIH {A4} - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen per ACGIH {A5} - Not Suspected as a Human Carcinogen per ACGIH (noncrystalline) form.

FLUORIDES - Serious bone erosion (Osteoporosis) and mottling of teeth. and D may also contain molybdenum. Miami. they may cause gastrointestinal disorders. lung damage and asthma-like symptoms. See Section 7. frontal headache. FLUORIDES - Fluoride compounds evolved may cause skin and eye burns. MAGNESIUM.3 “Evaluating Contaminants in the Welding Environment - A Sampling Strategy Guide”. vomiting and diarrhea. the process. plus those from the base metal and coating. pulmonary edema and bronchitis. IRON OXIDE - None are known. Symptoms may be similar to Parkinson’s Disease and can include slowness. fever. MAGNESIUM OXIDE - Overexposure to the oxide may cause metal fume fever characterized by metallic taste. Groups C and D may also contain chromium and nickel. upset stomach. Gases Gaseous reaction products may include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. BARIUM - Aching eyes. manganese. loss of muscle coordination. Ozone and nitrogen oxides may be formed by the radiation from the arc. throat or eyes.. which gives additional advice on sampling. Eyes may be burned by chromium (VI) compounds. FL 33135. Treat as nuisance dust or fume. COBALT – Pulmonary irritation. or torch. The composition and quantity of both are dependent upon the metal being welded. Group B may also contain magnesium. Groups A. Groups A. tightness of chest and fever. NICKEL COMPOUNDS - Metallic taste. Box actual fumes. MANGANESE - Long-term overexposure to manganese compounds may affect the central nervous system. COPPER - Metal fume fever characterized by metallic taste. Allergic reactions may occur in some people. the quality and amount of ventilation.REACTIVITY DATA . NICKEL.O.1 referenced in Section 7.PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS Welding consumables applicable to this sheet are solid and nonvolatile as shipped. nonexplosive and essentially nonhazardous until welded. ALUMINUM OXIDE - Irritation of the respiratory system. SHORT-TERM (ACUTE) OVEREXPOSURE EFFECTS: WELDING FUMES - May result in discomfort such as dizziness. dermatitis and pneumonia. Also. wheezing. the position of the welder’s head with respect to the fume plume. lithium and strontium. chromium and nickel compounds. cough. muscle spasms and cramps and less commonly. 351040.HEALTH HAZARD DATA Note effects of EFFECTS OF OVEREXPOSURE: overexposure. skin and eyes. tightness in chest. vomiting. MOLYBDENUM. plating or galvanizing). CERIUM OXIDE - Irritation of the eyes. allergic reaction. B. calcium oxide. the fume and gas decomposition products generated are different in percent and form from the ingredients listed in Section 2. available from the “American Welding Society”. dermatitis. reaction or oxidation of the materials shown in Section 2. rhinitis. Groups B and C may also contain barium. How to sample One recommended way to determine the composition and quantity of fumes and gases to which workers are exposed is to take an air sample inside the welder’s helmet if worn or in the worker’s breathing zone. LITHIUM COMPOUNDS - Overexposure may cause tremor and nausea. tightness of chest and fever. STRONTIUM COMPOUNDS - Strontium salts are generally non-toxic and are normally present in the human body. silicon and titanium.” IRON. SILICA (AMORPHOUS) - Dust and fumes may cause irritation of the respiratory system. SECTION 5 . Symptoms may last 24 to 48 hours following overexposure. Dust on skin can form ulcers. copper. manganese.1. MANGANESE - Metal fume fever characterized by chills. CHROMIUM - Inhalation of fume with chromium (VI) compounds can cause irritation of the respiratory tract. contain calcium oxides. Reasonably expected constituents of the fume would include: Complex oxides of iron. PRIMARY ROUTES OF ENTRY are the respiratory system. nausea or dryness or irritation of nose. P. Group B may also contain magnesium. weight loss. Groups A. IRON.FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA Welding consumables applicable to this sheet as shipped are nonreactive. Noncrystalline forms of silica (amorphous silica) are considered to have little fibrotic potential. Monitor for the materials identified in Section 2. difficulty in breathing and anemia. MOLYBDENUM - Prolonged overexposure may result in loss of appetite.HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS Hazards created Welding fumes and gases cannot be classified simply. Lungs will clear in time when exposure to iron and its compounds ceases. and C may also contain aluminum. See American National Standard Z49. the number of welders and the volume of the work area. irritation of the throat and aching of body. weight loss. laryngeal spasms.] SECTION 6 . tremor and behavioral changes. nausea. Other conditions which also influence the composition and quantity of the fumes and gases to which workers may be exposed include: coatings on the metal being welded (such as paint. nose and throat. Decomposition products of normal operation include those originating from the volatilization. metal fume fever. as noted above.Page 2 of 3 of Typical Material Safety Data Sheet (see previous page) 3 . eyes and/or skin. and amorphous silica fume whose exposure limits are lower than the 5 mg/m3 PEL/TLV for general welding fume. TITANIUM DIOXIDE - Pulmonary irritation and slight fibrosis. Iron and magnetite (Fe3O4) are not regarded as fibrogenic materials. C. pneumoconiosis or “siderosis. Electric arc welding may create one or more of the following health hazards: ARC RAYS can injure eyes and burn skin. skin and eyes. fluorides. When the electrode is consumed. by the welding arc procedures and electrodes used. LONG-TERM (CHRONIC) OVEREXPOSURE EFFECTS: WELDING FUMES - Excess levels may cause bronchial asthma. [See ANSI/AWS F1. as well as the presence of contaminants in the atmosphere (such as chlorinated hydrocarbon vapors from cleaning and degreasing activities). IRON OXIDE FUMES - Can cause siderosis (deposits of iron in lungs) which some researchers believe may affect pulmonary function. Recovery is generally complete within 48 hours of the overexposure. changes in handwriting. Groups A and B may also Typical fumes. SECTION 3 . In large oral doses. Swallowing chromium (VI) salts can cause severe injury or death. from AWS is F1. Symptoms may last 24 to 48 hours following overexposure. Fumes from the use of this product may contain barium. salivation or anorexia. Welding arcs and sparks can ignite combustibles and flammable products. nonflammable. SECTION 4 . CALCIUM OXIDE - Dust or fumes may cause irritation of the respiratory system. TITANIUM DIOXIDE - Irritation of respiratory system. ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. Most fume ingredients are present as complex oxides and compounds and not as pure metals. CALCIUM OXIDE - Prolonged overexposure may cause ulceration of the skin and perforation of the nasal septum. B and C may have fluorides present. FUMES AND GASES can be dangerous to your health. Long term overexposure may cause pneumoconiosis. Figure 3 . etc. lung fibrosis. SILICA (AMORPHOUS) - Research indicates that silica is present in welding fume in the amorphous form. gait impairment. Groups A and C may also contain copper. Employees who are overexposed to manganese compounds should be seen by a physician for early detection of neurologic problems.

local exhaust at the arc or both to keep the fumes and gases below PEL/TLVs in the worker’s breathing zone and the general area. CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65: For Group C and D products: WARNING: This product contains or produces a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects (or other reproductive harm).1. Beware! Carcino. sponsibility. Employ first aid techniques recommended by the American Red Cross. shock. Wear helmet. Government Printing Office. your use of this material does not create exposures which exceed PEL/TLVs. shoulder sharp edges. Miami. Washington. missible exposure SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS (IMPORTANT): Maintain exposure below the PEL/TLVs. cancer. Good practice requires the reduction of employee exposure to chromium (III) and (VI) compounds. LITHIUM COMPOUNDS - May be considered as potentially teratogenic.1200).5 et seq. consult a physician.O. (California Health & Safety Code Section 25249. Department of Labor. sparks and electrical shock.S. NICKEL COMPOUNDS - Lung fibrosis or pneumoconiosis. Safety in Welding and Cutting published by the American Welding Society. MAGNESIUM. Provide protective screens and flash goggles.O. U. COPPER - Copper poisoning has been reported in the literature from exposure to high levels of copper. DC 20210. cannot make any expressed or implied warranty as to this information. CHROMIUM - Ulceration and perforation of nasal septum. Miami.Page 3 of 3 of Typical Material Safety Data Sheet (see previous page) 4 . See American National Standard Z49. P. Welding fumes must be considered as possible carcinogens under OSHA (29 CFR 1910. in an environmentally acceptable manner. in full compliance with Federal. Washington. residue. As a rule of thumb begin with Shade Number 14. High levels of copper may cause anemia and jaundice.5 et seq. selecting the next lighter and/or darker shade number. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES: Call for medical aid. aprons.) SECTION 7 . Nickel compounds are classified as IARC Group 1 and NTP Group 2 carcinogens.) For Group A and B products: WARNING: This product. to shield others. Refer to the following sources for important additional information: ANSI Z49. points. in some cases. ABC Company disclaims any re. High levels of copper may cause central nervous system damage characterized by nerve fiber separation and cerebral degeneration. Adjust if needed by Protect from radia.PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING & USE/APPLICABLE CONTROL MEASURES Ventilate weld area. VENTILATION: Use enough ventilation. disposable container or liner Never exceed per. filter RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: Use NIOSH approved or equivalent fume respirator or air supplied respirator when welding in confined lens. Eyes & Skin: If irritation or flash burns develop after exposure. tion. Chromium VI and nickel compounds must be considered as carcinogens under OSHA (29 CFR 1910. Studies of nickel refinery workers indicated a higher incidence of lung and nasal cancers. DC 20402 for more detail on any of the following. Chromium (VI) compounds are more readily absorbed through the skin than chromium (III) compounds. Train the welder to keep his head out of the fumes. when necessary. Box 351040. BARIUM - Long term overexposure to soluble barium compounds may cause nervous disorders and may have deleterious effects on the heart. Respiratory irritation may occur with symptoms resembling asthma. State and Local regulations. (California Health & Safety Code Section 25249. FL 33135 and OSHA (29 CFR Protect yourself. Major signs of chronic toxicity. COBALT – Repeated overexposure to cobalt compounds can produce reduced pulmonary function. FL 33135 and OSHA Publication 2206 (29 CFR Use respirator 1910).S. Studies have shown that chromate production workers exposed to hexavalent chromium compounds have an excess of lung cancers. hats. have been labeled as “strontium rickets”. circulatory system and musculature. PROCEDURE FOR CLEANUP OF SPILLS OR LEAKS: Not applicable WASTE DISPOSAL: Prevent waste from contaminating surrounding environment. diffuse nodular fibrosis of lungs and respiratory hypersensitivity. Figure 4 . Use industrial hygiene monitoring to ensure that limits. Liver damage can occur due to copper accumulating in the liver characterized by cell destruction and cirrhosis. The manufacturer ABC Company believes this data to be accurate and to reflect qualified expert opinion regarding current research. sparks electric PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Wear hand. MEDICAL CONDITIONS AGGRAVATED BY EXPOSURE: Persons with pre-existing impaired lung functions (asthma-like conditions). which involve the skeleton. ALUMINUM OXIDE - Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. falls. Read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions and the precautionary label on the product. EYE PROTECTION: Wear helmet or use face shield with filter lens. See ANSI Z49. when used for welding or cutting. Apply First Aid. IARC considers cobalt compounds as possibly carcinogenic to humans (GROUP 2B). At a minimum this includes welder’s gloves and a protective face shield. MAGNESIUM OXIDE - No adverse long term health effects have been reported in the literature. P. Chromium VI compounds are classified as IARC Group 1 and NTP Group 1 carcinogens.1200). space or where local exhaust or ventilation does not keep exposure below PEL/TLVs. pinch protection as well as dark nonsynthetic clothing. NICKEL. genic means it may CARCINOGENICITY: produce cancer. However.1. produces fumes or gases which contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause birth defects and. 1910) from the U.1 from the American Welding Society. Train the welder not to touch live electrical parts and to insulate himself from work and ground. if necessary. and may include arm protectors. Discard any product. hot metal. head and body protection which help to prevent injury from radiation. Always use exhaust ventilation. Box 351040. STRONTIUM COMPOUNDS - Strontium at high doses is known to concentrate in bone.

They should be supplied with sufficient cool air and spats. 5 . High top safety experts and just plain common sense is required in these shoes with safety toes are recommended. Consultation with always be kept dry. welders are sometimes as quickly. and filter glasses should be replaced if damaged. Clothing should helps insulate the welder from excessive heat.Heat Exposure In addition to working in hot climates. or inside. When welding in the vertical and overhead position be taken and special procedures must be adopted to protect the this type of clothing is required. People working close to arc welding should also for cracks. Special precautions must molten metal. In all cases a headcap should be welder from the heat. Welding helmets should be checked burns” will result. These signs of protection can be reduced. with the hot metal. Figure 6 shows a welder dressed for heavy-duty welding high and the welder must be protected from coming into contact work wearing leather gauntlet gloves. Check safety equipment regularly for damage.Welder dressed for heavy duty welding. normally 200 amperes or lower. The preheat work. a leather cape. wear protective clothing. preheated weldments. the level tions that must be taken by employees and visitors. Figure 5 shows a welder dressed should be in agreement with Z535 standards(8). Protective clothing must be Welders should wear work or shop clothes without openings or kept in good repair. The welding area for light-duty work. If the arc rays Replace faulty clothing and equipment. Flame-retardant clothing should be worn. The leather clothes situations. For heavy-duty work.Welder dressed for light duty welding Figure 6 . Gloves should be clean. Protective clothing should be worn which used. should be of the chrome-tanned type or its equivalent. contact the skin for a period of time painful “sunburns” or “arc without holes or tears. should also post signs alerting people with heart pace-makers that ton since it will not disintegrate from arc radiation or catch on fire they should not enter and to check with their clinician. and this applies to gloves as well. which give additional protection against sparks and to avoid breathing excessively hot air. Figure 5 . Signs should be posted in the welding area pointing out precau- For light-duty welding. Cloth or soft leather gloves can be used for light-duty required to weld on. leather bib. Woolen clothing is more satisfactory than cot. gaps to prevent the arc rays from injuring the skin. and dry. Leather gloves should not be used to pick up hot items since this will cause Protective Clothing the leather to become stiff and crack. more thorough protective clothing is temperatures required for welding special materials can be quite required.

When compressed gas cylinders are empty close the valve or cylinders.” from high places are more likely to cause serious injury or 4. The increased pres- gases and possible fires and explosions. This will ter. This 11. This will minimize the chance of fuel gas 6. Dispose of electrode stubs in proper container since stubs The following. This will prevent eye injuries and “arc flash. sure can lead to an explosion. use safety belt or lifeline. Safety Precautions for Oxyacetylene Welding and Cutting 5. An energized holder threaded fittings in the oxyacetylene or oxyfuel system. This will help prevent injuries and burns. tion from entering the cylinder. Always practice “confined space” safety. Good housekeeping will help prevent sure that all connections are tight before lighting the torch. This will prevent the accumulation of leaking welding can cause gases to expand. hang it on brackets provided. Use soap solution to detect leaks. 3) ropriate torches and only for the purpose intended. Always wear protective clothing suitable for the welding to 19. This will prevent stray arcs between the bare 10. Never let it touch a compressed gas cylinder. the arc. Use mechanical exhaust at the point of welding when welding empty. Do not allow flame cut sparks to hit hoses. The heat of welding can ignite cause cylinder rupture or valve failure. or explosive materials are in or is installed properly and is in good working condition. When it is necessary to weld in a damp or wet area. 17. cracked. Arc rays can in- and grounded and is in good working condition. Do not weld on sealed containers or compartments without ventilation. not use a flame to inspect for tight joints. is clean and safe for welding. This will minimize the chance of sustained backfires and flash-backs. or bare spots in the insulation. Falls from elevated positions can 3. Damaged cylinders can rupture with explosive violence. Store compressed gas cylinders in a safe place with good 11. Make sure that all gas apparatus shows UL or FM approval. Ultraviolet arc rays can cause “arc flash” to the eyes of Safety Precautions for Arc Welding and Cutting nearby people. The impact of a fall 3. can cause cylinder rupture or valve failure. Shield others from the light rays produced by your welding arc. manganese. Damaged cylinders Poor ventilation can lead to asphyxiation. 7. wear rubber boots and stand on a dry insulated platform. Keep your work area clean and free of hazards. Make sure that compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall or to other structural supports. (Refer to ref. regulators. With horizontal acety- residual gases and cause an explosion. 14. Make sure your arc welding equipment is installed properly 18. Accumulation of can rupture with explosive violence. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above death. Oil can arc to a grounded cylinder and cause an explosion. close the valve and mark the cylinder “empty”. acetone will be mixed in with the delivered the release of hazardous fumes. or galvanized steel. be done. Use oxygen and acetylene or other fuel gases with the ap- Ventilation will prevent overexposure. Falls tection. The high pressure can cause acetylene to detonate spontaneously. This will prevent illness due to overexposure to hazardous materials in the fume plume. 7. or work surface is solid. Do accidents. The heat can cause lene cyllinders. Do not weld near degreasing operations. 15. 2. When the electrode holder is not in use. when welding. Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. Always wear protective clothing suitable for welding or flame cutting. Never use acetylene at a pressure in excess of 15 psi (103. Keep work area clean and free from hazardous materials. Hot stubs can ignite fires and “Safety Precautions for Oxyacetylene Welding and Cutting” or can cause trips and falls. that no flammable. brass. Make sure that all compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall or to other structural supports. Some of these gases can kill.4k cable and the ground. Higher pressure can cause an explosion. Always wear proper eye protection. Always assure a container gas. Never use oil. When working above ground make sure that scaffold. and when welding in a confined space. Keep acetylene 10. 20. cadmium. Pa). will prevent contamination from entering the cylinder. zinc.7 m). This will prevent contamina- explosions. 5. bronze. ladder. 2. 9. Acetylene cylinders and oxygen cylinders should providing vents and taking special precautions. hazardous gases. cutting. 6. Do not use cables with frayed. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above will minimize the chance of electric shocks. and helpers. chromium. Keep caps on when not in use. Make near the work area. cutters. should be read and understood by all welders. 8. “Safety Precautions for Arc Welding and Cutting” on the floor are a safety hazard.Safety Practices 16. Make sure 1. Keep cylinder caps on when not in use. It will prevent electric shocks. volatile. When flame cutting sparks can travel up to 35 feet (10. 8. leaks. These “low allowable-limit materials” cancause serious injury. This will prevent illness due to overexposure to hazardous materials in the fume plume. The impact of a fall can out taking special precautions. This 9. the flame. 6 . flammable gases can explode. The heat of be kept apart. This lead. Do not look at the arc without proper eye pro. This will prevent injuries and burns. cause injury or even death. and grease in contact with oxygen may cause spontaneous combustion.act with fumes of some cleaning agents and produce help prevent fatal electric shocks. 13. or grinding. 4. Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. Do not weld on containers that have held combustibles with cylinders in the vertical position. Do not weld in a confined space without special precautions. Gas leaks can cause fires and explosions. grease or any material on any apparatus or will help prevent damage to the holder. When welding in high places. 1. When compressed gas cylinders or fuel gas cylinders are 12. Good housekeeping will help prevent fires and and mark the cylinder “empty”.

then closing).1. make out a hot tion. the welder is as safe as any other industrial worker. materials present. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). 20. If you must weld or flame cut with combustible or volatile special precautions. This will prevent damage and re-verse sions and. The safety rules should be reissued annually and they must be completely understood and enforced. Always follow the torch manufacturer’s instructions when The heat of the flame can cause gases to expand. cause serious injury. FL 33126. or cautionary label for oxy-fuel gas processes.S. gas flows in the hoses. (Refer to Ref. Only trained persons 15. These “low allowable-limit materials” can in Figure 7. Washington. LeJeune Rd. The Safety in Welding and Cutting standard also provides a pre- cadmium. crack gas cylinder valve before 18. bronze. • See American National Standard ANSI Z49. Safety In Welding. etc. in some cases. exhaust at the flame. or both. There must be continual vigilance over safety conditions and safety hazards. This blows out any accumu.. Ventilation will prevent overexposure (Refer to Ref. Do not weld or flame cut into a sealed container or compart- ing of the cylinder valve. read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions. Miami. and body protection. 3) If the hazards mentioned in this chapter are properly and ade- quately handled. • Keep your head out of the fumes.Precautionary Information for Oxyfuel Gas Processes and Equipment 7 . asphyxiation. 550 N. Safety meetings should be held regularly. Read and understand this information. Always as- clean and tight. FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous to your health. HEAT RAYS (INFRARED RADIATION) from flame or hot metal can injure eyes. Always follow the torch manufacturer’s instructions when should repair hoses. to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and the general area. regulators to explode. of excess gases. flame can ignite residual gases and cause an explosion. and provide for a lookout. and Allied Processes. Do not weld or flame cut in a confined space without taking 17. Use mechanical exhaust when welding or cutting lead.) 13. zinc. chromium. OSHA Safety and Health Standards are published by the U. ear. DC 20401. • Use enough ventilation. The impact of foreign material can mcause sure a container is clean and safe for welding or cutting. • Wear correct eye. Cutting. when they are pressurized upon open. Make sure that all threaded fittings are heat can cause the release of hazardous fumes. ment without providing vents and taking special precautions. Always practice work permit.12. 732 North Capitol Street NW. • Before use. published by the American Welding Society. and your employer’s safety practices. This label is shown galvanized steel.W. take extra precautions. 19. Do not weld or flame cut on containers that have held com- attaching regulators (cracking means opening the valve on a bustibles without taking special precautions. Do not repair damaged hoses with tape. brass. manganese. the chance of fires. Gas leaks can cause fires and explo- shutting down a torch. WARNING: PROTECT yourself and others. 14. The heat of the cylinder slightly. The lated foreign material. This will prevent damage and the release increased pressure can lead to an explosion. Accumulation of fuel gas can explode. Poor ventilation can lead to asphyxia. 25. When assembling apparatus. DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION Figure 7 . Government Printing Office. The lighting the torch. 16. This will minimize “confined space” safety.

literature and is shown on the nameplate of the welding machine. case. Semiautomatic welding guns for con. Motor polarity.1 for further tinuous wire processes should utilize low voltage control circuits information.(10) In certain parts of the U. many welding machines connected to the metal structure. observed. it is possible to connect the work terminal to (CSA) is required for certain types of welding machines and this a grounded enclosure when ANSI Z49. Terminal Terminal protection protection open closed Figure 8 . It is extremely important when paralleling transformer welding In order to comply with the OSHA requirements.(9) This is mentioned in the manufacturer’s former rectifier machines must be grounded to earth. This fied. Parallel machines must be on the same phase and “in phase” includes methods to protect the output terminals with insulating with one another. When welders are working on one structure sufficiently close to each Installation other. so that high voltage is not brought into the hands of the welder.. A typical method is shown in Figure 8. This can be checked by measuring the voltage between generator welding machines feature com-plete separation of the the electrode holders of the different machines mentioned above. manufacturers machines that the phases of the power line be accurately identi- have made changes to improve the safety of the machines. and someone is likely to touch the exposed parts of more All electric arc welding machines must be installed in accordance than one electrode holder simultaneously. and for certain applications. This insulation standards.(11) The NEMA specification provides classes of so that they can be disconnected from the main lines for mainte- welding machines. the Underwriters Laboratory (UL) ap. the primary and secondary transformer windings are Use only welding machines that meet recognized national electrically isolated from each other by insulation. Corrections must shielded metal arc welding. It is extremely important that the procedures(37). They have also changed the cases of the welding machines it means that either the primary or secondary connections are so that “tools” are required to open the case where high voltage reversed. duty cycle requirements. and all types of However. done with care. open circuit voltage it means that the machines are connected to Only insulated type welding electrode holders should be used for different phases of the three phase power line. the work terminal of the welding machine should not be grounded In Canada. Refer to ANSI Z49. It is relatively easy to check this by connecting devices. This the generator is mechanically connected to the electric motor. maximum requirements. electric hand tools.1 Section II. Manufacturers the work leads together and measuring the voltage between the have also made the ventilation slots smaller so that the fingers of electrode holders of the two machines. The metal frames and cases of transformers and trans- tric welding apparatus. Normally. Electrical Shock Hazard A shock hazard is associated with all electrical equipment. and no load voltage nance and to prevent electrical shocks. In When large weldments. machines must be with the National Electrical Code(12) and all local codes. includes extension lights. primary input power and the welding circuit output power since The situation can also occur with respect to direct current power 8 . Most industrial welding machines meet the National may become defective if proper maintenance practices are not Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards for elec. However. this must be instructions are included in the manufacturer’s manual that accom. it is normal to have the work terminal of inaccessible to the operator during normal operation. buildings. the metal frame and case of the motor generator must electrically powered machinery. and according to the teach- panies the welding machine. machines. Disconnect switches should be employed with all power sources proval is required.Insulating devices on terminals of a welding machine 2. This voltage should be the welder cannot come in contact with high voltage inside the practically zero. In transformer and transformer rectifier type the output voltage of a conventional arc welding machine. are followed.S. The manual also gives the size of power cable that machines be connected to the proper phase and have the same should be used to connect the machine to the main line.1 Section II requirements is also indicated on the nameplate. like ships. be made before welding begins. However. approval by the Canadian Standards Association to earth. follow lockout/tagout ings of ANSI Z49. but are structures are involved. by a qualified person. If applicable. Welding equipment operators be grounded since the high voltage input from the main lines should note that ordinary household voltage (115 v) is higher than come into the case. Installation connected to minimize the shock hazard. or other metal fully automatic equipment higher voltages are permitted. If the voltage is approximately 1-1/2 times the normal is exposed. If it is double the normal open circuit voltage.

Supervisors and maintenance personnel should it from weld spatter. welding cables. Arc Radiation Hazard one for reverse polarity electrode positive. conductivity. The liq- gun or foot switch or programmer closes the contactors which uid crystals employed have the special properties so that when energize the welding circuit. ingestion. This means Several new types of filter lens for welding helmets have been that the electrode wire or torch is electrically “cold” except while introduced.(13) Use Heat is radiated from the arc in the form of infrared radiation. should be painted with paints not in use. The brightness and exact spectrum of a welding arc depend on Simultaneous welding with AC and DC welding machines must the welding process. the welding machines. the work area must be kept dry. the arc atmosphere. must be insulated to achieve the mechanical strength. Welders should report defective equip. normally utilize switch-controlled power contactors. during the grinding of the thoriated tungsten electrodes. The filter glass must be tempered so that it will not break ment or problems to their supervisors. There shall a less bright arc since the smoke acts as a filter. and arc voltage the more intense the light from the arc. also use magnifier lenses behind the filter plate to provide clearer guns. The welding machine must be kept dry and if it should become wet it should Eye Protection be properly dried by competent electrical maintenance personnel. Some welding helmets can be machines. A cover procedures. Welders must use protective welding helmets with special filter In addition. lines so that there is no possibility of anyone coming in contact Figure 10 shows the suggested filter shades according to the with the high input voltage. an electrical signal is placed across them they will change their ous as ordinary household voltage. come in contact in any way with the welding cables. arcs do not emit x-radiation. ultra- the electrode holders will be double the normal open circuit volt.2 Lens Shade Selector. filter out a portion of the arc rays. of the same polarity when connected to a common weldment. The larger filter glasses are 4 1/2 x 5-1/4 in. It is absolutely essential that power cables or primary that absorb ultraviolet radiation. (50 x 108 mm). It creates adequate ventilation and that ventilating ports are so located that the potential hazard of internal radiation exposure by inhalation or they cannot be obstructed. Wire feeding semiautomatic equipment has been treated for impact resistance. Electrode holders should not be hung where they can people working nearby are shielded from the arc. Splices or connectors. the metals in the arc. wire feeders. The paint finish should have a low power coming to a welding machine should not be intermixed or reflectivity to ultraviolet radiation. Welding helmets have lens holders for inserting the cover glass etc. nor should they ever be coiled around the screens should be placed around the welding area so that the welder. In some helmets. and water tightness of the original cable. Exposure of the skin electrode holder. Arc voltage is normally not as hazard. Welders should accidentally come in contact with the other side of the circuit. If applicable. However.sources when they are connected to a common structure. designed for gas tungsten arc welding. Welding machines and auxiliary equipment must be periodically The filter glasses or plates come in various optical densities to inspected and maintained by competent electricians.1 Section II are followed. That is why it is necessary to control the dust. The higher the current ANSI Z49. qual- of claims by some people. ability to transmit light. Fiberglass should be instructed not to use tools to open cases of welding or light weight is recommended. The infrared radiation is harmless provided that the proper eye Electrode leads and work leads should not be coiled around protection and clothing are worn. When electrically changed. it is important to locate welding machines where they have tive dust is created. Screens and surround- Electrodes should be removed from holders whenever they are ing areas. welding guns. the shade number. should manufacturer. It is necessary that welders and others close age. follow lockout/tagout American Welding Society F2. welders should not make in Figure 9 is preferred because it helps reduce the amount of weld- repairs on welding machines or associated equipment. Welders should never plates or filter glasses. especially welding booths. if used in work or electrode and eyes to the arc is the same as exposure to the sun. on electrode holders. In spite leads. Welders ing fumes that come to the welder’s breathing zone. Precautions should be taken to see that all machines are to the welding arc wear suitable protection from the arc radiation. The standard size filter plate is 2 x 4-1/4 of maintenance problems or potential hazards so that qualified in. The welding helmets should be in good work in water or damp areas since this reduces the resistance to repair since openings or cracks can allow arc light to get through the welder and increases potential electrical hazard.37 Maintenance records should be kept on welding plate should be placed on the outside of the filter glass to protect power supplies. Helmets which accommodate larger-size filter lenses are also available. attempt to screen all people from their arc. The spectrum of be no splices in the electrode cable within 10 feet (3 meters) of the the welding arc is similar to that of the sun. the equipment must be disconnected from main power used is based on the welding process and the welding current. Filter glasses must be marked showing the worn or missing insulators. Maintenance (115 x 133 mm) and are more expensive. One type of filter glass utilizes a thin layer of liquid welding unless the switch is operated. During main. They should be instructed not to perform maintenance attached to safety hard hats for industrial and construction work.(14). and infrared. Instead they should be advised to notify their supervisors and filter glass or plate. The trigger on the welding crystals sandwiched between two pieces of clear glass. the not be permitted on the same weldment unless the teachings of length of the arc. and create discomfort. and worn and frayed cables. Some welders make routine inspection of welding cables and electrode holders. To minimize light radiation. and work clamps. and the welding current. If one machine is connected for straight polarity electrode negative and 3. vision. flip upwards. liquid crys- tals produce a screen with the same approximate density as the 9 . The curved front welding helmet as shown Unless they are trained and qualified. Electrode holders with if hit by flying objects. the lens holders will open or maintenance personnel can make needed repairs. The shade of the filter glass tenance. The thoria is slightly radioactive. violet. radioac- Finally. ity. The welding electrode holders must be connected to machines Those processes that produce smoke surrounding the arc have with flexible cables designed for welding application. the voltage between The electric arc is a very powerful source of light–visible. Arc light ra- diation like all radiation decreases with the square of the distance. and letter “H” indicating that it be repaired or replaced. Plastic or glass plates are used. and specialty equipment.

Eye experts Fortunately. state that the normal eye protection required by OSHA for welding.1 “Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices” standard. It was further noted that the radiation from a use trichloloethylene or other chlorinated hydrocarbons which welding arc or flash is not intense enough to affect the materials will decompose to poisonous phosgene gas when exposed to from which contact lenses are made. Tem- porary relief can be obtained by using eyedrops and eye washes. and it is concluded that these curtains provide protection in the ultraviolet range. For a period of approximately 24 hours the welder will have the painful sensation of sand in the eyes. propriate safety goggles over their contact lenses. Poisonous phosgene gas can build up may be exposed to a welding flash or arc must always wear ap. A photosensor on the helmet is triggered by the light from the arc.Welding station using transparent welding screen. green. and is technically called photokeratitis. In some applications it may be an improvement over provide eye protection in the industrial sense. This can result in what is known as arc burn. or welding flash. Chemical-degreasing tanks may safety equipment. The material is relatively tough. They eliminate the need for opening and closing or repositioning the welding helmet by a rapid head nod. Contact lenses themselves do not welders. Contact Lenses Courtesy of Wilson Industries. People working around welders should also wear tinted safety glasses with side shields. they should be Welding operations should be isolated from metal-degreasing allowed to wear their lenses but only with the addition of normal or solvent-cleaning operations. American Welding Society. Tinted safety glasses with side shields are recommended. roneous and recurring rumors. Inc. People who receive an arc flash may not be aware of it at the time. It is very similar to a sunburn of the eye. The condition is normally of temporary duration and should not last over 48 hours. The first indication of an arc burn may occur 6 to 12 hours later. brazing and soldering is the same with or without contacts. On occasion. and comes in blue. gray and yellow. It is intended to protect may be worn in hazardous environments but only with appropri. In no case can this curtain material Association adopted a policy statement saying that contact lenses be substituted for filter glass in helmets. Safety glasses should always be worn in an active work area underneath the welding helmet. and the Welding Journal. opaque curtains or shields. Various authorities. These are required since the helmet is usually lifted when slag is chipped or welds are ground. the odor of phosgene gas is quickly recognized (it unanimously agree that it is impossible for an electric arc to weld smells like new mown hay) and if it is detected. If the painful sensation lasts beyond one day. welders and others will have their eyes exposed to the arc for a short period of time. to dangerous concentrations which will be potentially harmful. available in large sheets. the area should contact lenses to the eye. if an employee habitually wears contact lenses. The American Optometric The material is flame resistant. a doctor should be consulted for treatment. 10 . says that reports of this hazard are based on rumor and have been thoroughly discredited. Figure 11 shows an application of these screens. As a general rule. Figure 9 . Another type of filter becomes darker when exposed to the bright light of the arc.Curve type helmet offers best protection. Transparent Welding Curtains Transparent welding curtains or screens made of plastic film are sometimes used for screening welding operations. The American Optometric Association be evacuated and ventilated. These filters are becoming more popular. the Contact Lens Associa- tion of Ophthalmologists. including the Figure 11 . welding filter glass. National Society to Prevent Blindness. and others. Within a fraction of a second this signal is transmitted through the liquid crystals which change the density of the filter glass. Safety glasses should meet all the requirements of ANSI Z87. Tests have been performed by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health(l5). nearby workers from arc flash and improve communication with ate normal safety eye wear. The wearing of contact lenses by welders is the subject of er. Welders or anyone who arc (ultraviolet) radiation. arc flash.

Figure 10 .Eye protection filter shade selector 11 .

The smaller diameter particulates can only be seen else mechanical ventilation must be provided. copper. flash. This must metal being welded. This method is ting” published by the American Welding Society”. coating to volatilize and produce smoke containing lead. starting in 1979 The base material is another source of particulate matter. and vanadium. matter produced by different welding processes.particulate matter and gases. manganese. and several other studies indicate borne contaminants. It is portion of iron oxide and small amounts of calcium oxide. welding with mild steel a pungent characteristic smell. ozone. provided for oxyfuel gas materials. MSDSs may also include the composition of particulate matter 4. Care should be taken when weld. labels is to remind welders and others of the potential hazards. or from an open fire. Chromium and nickel compounds are found that there is no significant health difference between welders and in the fume when stainless steels are arc welded. The smoke or plume appears similar to smoke rising from a wood The flux cored arc welding process can produce a great deal of fire. should be used so that ozone concentration will be below the When welding with stainless steel electrodes. • The concentration at the welder’s breathing zone. The American Welding Society’s study entitled base metal. cadmium. It also depends on the compositionof the base pipe is often coated with a plastic protective material. In every case. 2B)(40). of Welding on Health”(4) mentioned previously. The coatings must be removed from the welding area or 100 microns. silver. nickel welding fumes are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group tion: Welding may produce fumes and gases hazardous to health. Air Contamination Hazard produced as these electrodes are consumed in the arc. human eye. to ozone will cause a burning sensation in the throat. publication “The Welding Environment”(16) mentioned previously. can vary over a wide range. measurements can be made to determine oxy-fuel gas processes is shown in Figure 7. Much data is presented in the document “Fumes and Gases in Ultraviolet rays from the arc. matter is different than that of the coating.1 Safety in Welding and Cut. and oil can also generate contamina- ing dust. The fumes contain two types weld metal deposited. react with the oxygen in the atmosphere generated by arc welding is given by the document “Characteriza- to produce ozone. Particulate Matter Airborne contaminants are produced when welding or cutting on coated materials. The purpose of these contamination. All welding smoke is not the same and the concentration or respiratory protection for the welder must be employed. smog. cutting. and on any coating on the base metal near be removed from the arc area. Agency for Research on Cancer has determined chromium and A precautionary label which was introduced in 1967 stated “Cau. lower but there are now oxides of chromium and nickel as well as Warning signs should be posted in welding areas advising visitors fluorides. Exposure oxide. grind- as paint. Use adequate ventilation. the welding location. Base metal coated with any of the above Particulate matter is extremely small solids suspended in the metals must be treated with caution and mechanical ventilation air. Smoke is an example of particulate matter. Certain metals identified as “low allowable-limit materials” in That way adequate steps can be taken to protect personnel from ANSI Z49. However. A similar precautionary label for using this technique.(18) In general. lead.(19) By passing and is shown in Figure 1. New wind and so on. Ozone is an active form of oxygen which has tion of Arc Welding Fume”. coughing or The fumes produced when welding with low hydrogen type chest pains or wheezing in the chest during breathing. is similar. Electrode manufacturers supply Material Safety Data not to look at the arc since arc flash may injure eyes. Ventilation electrodes contain the oxides mentioned above and fluorides. Arc welding should not be done on any of these materials unless mechanical ventilation • The length of time of exposure to these fumes and gases. plastic. The American Welding Society has developed a stan- Avoid breathing these fumes and gases. These low allowable- fumes and gases depends upon many factors including: limit materials are antimony. for a similar amount of welding. powders. or smoke. when melted by an arc. while the larger ones can be seen with the can be encountered when old steel work is flame cut or welded. produce air contamination. may volatilize and produce air- “The Welding Environment”(16). • The chemical composition of the particular matter. Particulates Generated by Welding and Allied Processes”. cobalt. If this is not possible composition of fumes generated.1 micron to over tion. titanium relatively unstable and quickly changes back to oxygen. fluxes or flux cores. A serious problem with the microscope. particularly the high-intensity gas the Welding Environment”. is employed or unless the welder uses respiratory protection. The potential harm from exhaust systems or respiratory protection. beryllium. Normal ventilation practice reduces the hazards of smoke from particulate matter. Similar information is This is seen as smoke rising above the welding or flame operation. the type of welding electrode or filler metal. varnish. The parts and was based on using different welding and allied processes. Particulate matter or respiratory protection must be provided. Other coatings such includes common house dust. the iron oxide is threshold limit values. This is presented in the AWS adequate ventilation is required. Due to the high temperature of the arc. It is sometimes evident after a electrodes on clean steel produces fumes containing a high pro- lightening strike or in the generating room of a power house. selenium. the composition of the particulate Arc and flame. atmospheric conditions. adequate ventilation the arc. which show the composition of the coating on electrodes. the welding lead bearing paint.(17) Some research to determine fume tungsten arc on aluminum. This includes a series of reports entitled “Effects and plasma arc welding processes. mercury. The type of particulate matter depends on the welding Often older structural steel may be covered with many coats of process. the particulate matter of SMAW and FCAW of air contamination . outlined by the AWS document “Methods for Sampling Airborne This precautionary label has been revised to be more encom. chromium. The International nonwelders when proper ventilation is used. barium. As a protective measure. must be thoroughly dry before welding. The heat of the arc or flame will cause the current employed. Sheets (MSDSs) for each container of filler metal. These range in size from less than 0. 12 . pollen. nickel. The and continuing. arsenic. degreasing operations should be at Many investigations and tests have been made to determine the least 200 ft away from welding operations. ing parts that have been cleaned with these solvents. dardized method for measuring and determining the particulate See American National Standard Z49. etc. welding and cutting. The gas metal arc welding process produces much The welding industry sponsored research to investigate the less particulate matter. The submerged arc process produces a welding atmosphere and to recommend precautions to avoid very small amount of particulate matter as do the gas tungsten potential hazards. and amorphous silica.1(3) should not be welded without the use of mechanical concentrations that might be harmful.

CAN BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED. cough. or fever develop after use. obtain medical help immediately. person. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and your employer’s safety practices. exhaust at the arc.1 Safety 550 N. • Keep children away when using. information. • Before use. DANGER: CONTAINS CADMIUM WARNING: CONTAINS FLUORIDES: Protect yourself and others. Ozone changes back to normal oxygen a short heating or melting. and the general area. Safety • Keep children away when using. HEALTH. These products produce po. Government Printing Office. Packages of filler metals also carry Ozone is sometimes produced by the ultraviolet light emitted a precautionary label. Washington. Capitol Street NW. Read and understand this Protect yourself and others. FL 33126. by the arc. the material contained in the core of a flux cored electrode wire. and your employer’s safety practices. Miami. Government Printing Office. LeJeune Road.W. Gases are produced as products of combustion with electrode wires. in Welding. Ozone is a form of oxygen with a chemical formula Fluxes used for gas welding and brazing. being produced in the arc. distance from the arc. are published published by the American Welding Society. FL 33126.Precautionary information for brazing and weld. but active gases tentially harmful fumes and gases and proper ventilation should or mixtures of active and inert gases are used for gas metal arc be employed.S. Figure 13 . There is a possibility of carbon monoxide.Gases Carbon dioxide is the most common gas produced by the Gases are produced or may be involved in many of the processes disintegration of electrode coatings or materials in flux cored using flames. read and understnd the manufacturer’s instructions. read and understand the manufac. Gas is produced by some of the constitu. use air • Do not take internally. or both. to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone • Avoid contact of flux with eyes and skin.1. Carbon monoxide is rarely found of the consumable filler metal to produce gases to help shield the beyond a short distance away from the arc area. If this cannot be done. turer’s Instructions. OSHA Safety and Health Standards are published by the U.S. readily recombines with available oxygen in the heated These coatings and contained materials are designed as a part atmosphere to produce CO2 gas. arc area from the atmosphere. supplied respirators. induce vom- iting. concentrations should be avoided. • Use enough ventilation. • See American National Standard ANSI Z49. In Welding. and Allied Processes. mosphere.Precautionary information for brazing filler met- ing fluxes containing fluorides als containing cadmium 13 . Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious • First Aid: If chest pain. DC 20401. and the general area. If swallowed. OSHA Safety and Health Standards. • See American National Standard ANSI Z49. Adequate ventilation is required to remove these gases from the welders breathing zone. shortness of breath.W. Carbon monoxide. Cutting. a very ents of the coating on the shielded metal arc welding electrode or hazardous gas. 732 North First Aid: If contact in eyes. however. DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION Figure 12 . and flux cored arc welding. and Allied Processes. Packages containing these types of fluxes are labeled The gas shielded welding processes use various gases to shield as shown in Figure 12. Read and understand this information. Even brief exposure to high • Keep your head out of the fume. upon fluxes or coatings. Ozone is more welding and electroslag welding will also produce gases. LeJeune Road. to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone • Use enough ventilation. published by the American Welding Society. Washington. Brazing often produced in the arc welding processes that do not employ and gas welding fluxes sometimes contain fluoride which. tungsten arc welding and for plasma arc welding. Miami. flush immediately with clean Capitol Street NW. Inert gases are used for gas are labeled as shown in Figure 13. by the U. or both. • Before use. Call a physician. water for at least 15 minutes. the atmosphere. BURNS EYES AND SKIN ON CONTACT. and for submerged arc of 03 and is over 1 1/2 times as dense as oxygen. FUMES AND GASES CAN BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR FUMES ARE POISONOUS AND CAN KILL. produces small amounts of fluorine in the at. Brazing filler metals containing cadmium the arc area from the atmosphere. exhaust at the arc. The CO2 is used to help protect the arc area from the fuel gas processes. Cutting. • Do not breathe fumes. 732 North 550 N. DC 20401. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs).

It may also have shielding gas atmosphere and there will be a deficiency of oxygen. coal or charcoal for heat. balconies. The upper more. The potential hazards range from deficiency of oxygen. Location of welders’ and other persons’ breathing zones in Prior to entering enclosed areas. closed area. Portable explosimeters are available for sampling the atmosphere 3. Volume and configuration of the space where welding occurs. or management. cutting. area that cannot be adequately mechanically ventilated. must be supplemented when welding on hazardous materials. your company’s safety department or your local fire department Everyone knows the risk of remaining in a closed garage with an or State Industrial Commission representative. flame cutting or allied processes should never be tors must be used. supervision. When welding or cutting in any much oxygen. or even an explosive mixture. also called a confined the weight of air and will displace it. Without proper ventilation. or fuel gas could leak into the compartment. to those in the enclosed area. Natural air flow and general atmospheric conditions where be employed. and other combustible items would burn exhaust fans. or oxygen deficiency. displace the air so that the vat. when heavier than air gases can accumulate. 1. burning of these fuels will produce carbon monoxide and carbon Adequate ventilation depends on many factors including the fol- dioxide which must be exhausted to the outside. If ft. The atmosphere 2. too systems should be employed. and to prevent 14 . in time. lifelines with harnesses should 4. This could occur if an acetylene torch is left inside either singly or in combination: the compartment. Natural ventilation or products of decomposition were enclosed. Welding. pressure vessel. General mechanical ventilation is recommended to cating oxygen concentration are available and should be used to maintain a low level of airborne contaminants. When using the gas shielded metal arc process. (5 meters). Even a large room or enclosure without If the oxygen content in the breathing zone is reduced by 5% or proper ventilation can be considered a confined space. ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation to determine if an explosive mixture is present. When in doubt. In enclosed areas. positive as well as the accumulation of dense smoke or particulate mat. 5. or other structural barriers that obstruct cross suitable for breathing.Confined or Enclosed Areas sample the atmosphere before entering an enclosed compartment. ficient ventilation so that hazardous concentrations of airborne The same problem can occur when preheating weldments us. or special breathing apparatus. even large rooms. oily cloths. area. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gas hazardous for people brazing and related operations. Ventilation chine if not exhausted to the outside can produce a build-up of Adequate ventilation must be provided for all welding. an engine driven welding ma. The exhaust gas given by a qualified person. balconies. The or the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH). Allowable levels of specific toxic or flammable contaminants be assigned to a team of welders working in a specific enclosed being generated. One lookout or attendant should 3. Adequate ventilation means suf- working within the room. Explosive concentrations of gases sometimes build up in an en. but only if the welding oxygen enriched atmospheres. (284 cu meters). Another problem relating to confined or enclosed areas involves Natural ventilation can occur indoors. These types of areas Mechanical ventilation must be used for ventilating enclosed pose problems not only for welders. Only work in such If you have questions concerning monitoring atmospheres or areas after they have been declared safe for work by supervision monitoring instruments. wall Clothes. poisonous gases. or similar air movers must be used if the space per with an almost explosive violence. Oxygen enriched atmospheres can shop is sufficiently large. pressure. contact or management. Preferably both air exhaust systems and fresh air supply them. ally watch the welders and other workers. Adequate ventilation can be obtained by using the following. is a relatively small or restricted space such as a tank. An open pit can be a confined space be monitored with a portable oxygen indicator. (284 cu. combustible gases the two most popular shielding gases are both heavier than air. be removed through manholes with ease. contaminants are below the allowable levels specified by OSHA ing the combustion of fuel gases. or air line respira- ter. Natural ventilation would support rapid combustion. flammable or explosive gases. This means a space of 10. (5 meters). the used shielding gas will. be taken to determine the atmosphere within the enclosed area. 1. special precautions should relation to the contamination. an enclosed area. corner of a room can even be a confined space when lighter than Whenever there is doubt. General mechanical ventilation within the enclosed area must be tested prior to entering the area. off by the engine should always be channeled to the outside. to prevent the accumulation of toxic materials. ft. small room. and have voice contact 2. Both argon and carbon dioxide weigh approximately 1-1/2 times Generally speaking. It should never be used in place of compressed air tions. This can also be a potential problem in a confined or enclosed area unless it has been declared safe with an engine driven welding machine. meters) per welder. restricted entry and exit. but for anyone working inside areas. Natural ventilation occurs when the welding is done out of doors. Never ever work automobile engine running. Number and type of operations generating contaminants. General mechanical ventilation using roof exhaust fans. space. boiler. or other the oxygen would increase 5% or more. result from a leak in the oxygen line of an oxy flame cutting torch. or sources. started without taking special precautions. All arc and flame operations and associated operations.000 cu. serious damage or death can be the result to the worker. compartment. Oxygen from a compressed welder is less than 10. with a ceiling height of more than 16 Normally the atmosphere contains approximately 21% oxygen. self contained breathing apparatus. carried Oxygen deficiency can be another potential hazard for workers in out in confined or restricted spaces must be adequately ventilated an enclosed area. tunnel or atmosphere at the welder’s breathing zone will become rich in the any enclosure which may have poor ventilation. or if the ceiling gas cylinder should never be used to help ventilate an enclosed height is less than 16 ft. Striking an arc or starting a flame could be extremely hazardous. and does not contain partitions. lowing: A “lookout” or watcher or attendant must be assigned to continu. Lifelines should be attached so that workers can work is being done. portable instruments indi.000 cu ft. the enriched atmosphere structural barriers that obstruct ventilaton. or if the shop includes parti- compartment. contaminants. the atmosphere in an enclosed area must air gases can accumulate. In some hazardous cases.

Local exhaust ventilation requires the use of fixed or movable 3. A smoke exhaust nozzle is built into the welding gun such requirements. surrounding the welder with a sufficient rate of air flow. then local exhaust ventilation or local forced 2. shown in figure 15. Use of freely movable hoods. placed near the general background level of airborne contaminants below the the arc.Welding booths with mechanical ventilation Photo courtesy of Kemper America.Moveable hood for local exhaust Figure 16 . If general mechanical ventilation is not sufficient to maintain 1.OXO APX® Air-cooled MIG welding gun showing smoke exhaust nozzle 15 . Similar suction devices are available for covered electrode welding. General mechanical Local exhaust ventilation can be obtained by the following ventilation is used for individual welding booths as shown in Figure methods: 14. Inc.accumulation of explosive gas mixtures. A fixed enclosure with a top and not less than two sides ventilation is required. as shown in Figure 16. exhaust hoods placed as near as practical to the work and able to capture sufficient contaminants to keep the level below the 4. Photo courtesy of Bernard Welding Equipment Figure 15 . recommended limits. Tables with down draft ventilation. Figure 14 .

as well as the analytical methods to determine atmosphere samples are collected for a specific time period. tions found in the welder’s breathing zone should be below these There is one foolproof method to determine if proper ventila. The use of movable hoods for local exhaust systems is further illustrated in Figure 18. For open areas where 5/32 1000 welding fume can rise away 3/16 1500 OR from the breathing zone: cfm required = 800 x lb/hour 1/4 3500 rod used 3/8 4500 B. This reduces the need for massive air make-up units to provide heated or cooled air to replace the air exhausted. In all cases where local exhaust ventilation is used. Higher velocities than 100 fpm can disturb the arc Total Fume Emission of Welding and Allied Processes. This smoke exhaust gun system is based on collecting the fumes as close as possible to the point of generation or at the arc.(22) By fol- shielding. This system has proven economical since much less air is exhausted. lb/hour rod used. A Sampling Strategy Guide(21). Down-draft welding work tables are popular in Europe Hygienists.93 DucT VP FlAngE OR cOnE EnTRy lOSS = 0. and be maintained making these types of investigations—Evaluating Contaminants for a distance of approximately 2 ft. Be careful of how the air is directed. thus it is easy to check the efficiency of local forced tablished by the American conference of governmental Industrial ventilation. DIAM cFM / WElDER A.Smoke exhaust gun on and off. The operation of this exhausting system is shown in Figure 17.Moveable hood for local exhaust 16 . For enclosed areas or positions where fume does For toxic materials.”(6) The determina- or other parts of the world.12 1335 1000 FAcE VElOcITy = 1500 FPM DucT VElOcITy = 3000 FPM MInIMuM PlAIn DucT EnTRy lOSS = 0. which provides some details concerning the nozzle pick-up design.) welder’s breathing zone.6 meters) directly across the in the Welding Environment. A people who are familiar with welding operations. lowing the teachings of these documents.(20) local forced ventilation means a local air moving system such as Figure 17 . testing and sam- special pick-up device is mounted inside the welding helmet and pling techniques. It should produce a velocity of approxi. and work area. This is done by collecting samples of the Analytical work of this type must only be done by highly qualified atmosphere at the welder’s breathing zone under the helmet. OSHA publishes permissible exposure limits (PEls). This is based on the Industrial Ventilation: Manual of Recommended Practice. The the amounts of contaminants found in the air samples taken from samples are then chemically analyzed in calibrated instruments the welder’s breathing zone. Keep it away from Laboratory Method for Measuring Fume Generation Rates and the arc zone. PORTABlE ExHAuST PlAIn DucT FlAngE OR cOnE x IncHES cFM cFM up to 6 335 250 6-9 755 560 9 . Figure 18 . per minute (30 meters per minute). WHERE lOcAl ExHAuST cAnnOT BE uSED: ROD. Two American Welding Society documents provide guidance in mately 100 ft. particularly when using flux cored welding electrodes. higher airflows are not readily escape breathing necessary and operator may require zone: cfm required = 1600 x respiratory protection equipment. (TLV® is a registered trademark of which determine the value of all elements that are found in the the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. It shows typical volumetric air flow veloci- ties to meet exhaust requirements. This will result in a defective weld. tion is being provided. the exhaust air should be filtered before it is discharged into the atmosphere or returned to the welding shop. “Threshold limit Values for chemical Substances and but have not been used to a very large degree in the united States Physical Agents in the Work Room Environment. TlV® limits. The Air velocity is relatively easy to measure using a velometer or air threshold limit values (TlV®) of most hazardous materials are es- flow meter. This method of fume exhaust works well with semi automatic and robotic welding.25 DucT VP gEnERAl VEnTIlATIOn. it can be determined if the sample meets or exceeds the prescribed exposure limits. which shows the smoke exhaust gun on and off. (. a fan placed so that it moves the air at right angles to the welder across the welder’s face.

The heat is from the torch flame. All insulating organic Apparatus foams whether indicated fire retarded or not.(23) All acetylene cylinders are the use of a fire watcher or person trained in fire safety procedures. These the welding and cutting departments. This will avoid the accumulation of and Other Hot Work. these are 17 . Management and supervision trained and qualified people. branches. maintained properly. Your casualty insurance company may have similar per- closed. International standards use different types of fires should be available and identified for the type of fires colors. as well as fires and explosions. meters). or leaks at the connections. A wet glove. welding regu- Safe Work Areas lators. these flame cutting. the regulators and torches. wet heavy cloth. Floors. In a fire situation there are special precautions that should mits. connection. Many als. Acetylene generators must permits must be used when welding or flame cutting is done where be installed properly. is used for oxygen. “hot work permits”. welding permits or. An acetylene generator uses carbide and water To prevent fires and explosions. Anything that proaching the cylinder. the valve stem. and welding.. Cutting. Immediately move the cylinder out-of-doors Hot pieces of metal may come in contact with combustible where the leak may be fixed. All too often apparatus is allowed to deteriorate and welding with portable equipment in all other areas. The work area must be kept clean and leaks. The evacuate all people from the area.5. try to put it out as quickly as possible. worn Fuel Gases places. should all be carefully inspected periodically and maintained at the first sign of deterio- A workplace can be designed for safe welding and cutting ration. and globules of oxidized molten metal which can travel up to 35 ft. or other small openings in floors and partitions and start fires in other areas. It is best to allow the gas to of these fires have been caused by sparks and spatter. The escaping acetylene A large number of the fires are caused by cutting and welding in may be ignited and will burn with a roaring sound. are also used. Thoroughly caused when this heat is transmitted through walls to flammable wetting the gloves and clothing will help protect the person ap- atmospheres or to combustibles on the other side. Immediately areas not specifically designated or approved for such work. welding torches. When using portable equipment. Welding gauges. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)(25) Publi- in a specified well-ventilated area or outdoors away from oxygen cation 51B. either filled or empty. a fire. but propane. Management must assure that supervisors and gases and oxygen and left-handed for fuel gases. The nuts on fuel workers are trained in safe work practices. it cool and to keep all other acetylene cylinders in the area cool. or materials and start fires. welding tips. walls. Fire and Explosion Hazard boiling point of water (212°F or 100°C). to feed fires and cause explosions. Remember. mix with air. and operated only by fires and explosions may occur. etc. Hot Work Permits lene generator. for welding and cutting. In the United States the color green Fire-fighting equipment must be installed in the welding work. Avoid getting in line with the fuse plug is combustible or flammable is susceptible to ignition by cutting which might melt at any time. The best action is to spray water on the cylinder to keep ent in most welding operations.. Oil or grease should never be used on any gas welding operations. These are burn rather than to allow acetylene to escape. must be constructed of or cutting apparatus. or the fuse plug. These and the following steps will prevent noncombustible materials. They must be kept in good There are a number of different fuel gases used for welding and repair and should be no longer than necessary. from flammable or hazardous materi- in air but may be enriched by oxygen used with the fuel gas. Their sample permit form is shown in caps on and cylinders. free of combustible and flammable materials. gas hoses are identified by a groove machined in the center of the nuts. methylacetylene-propadiene stabilized. before maintenance is performed. etc. Fires and explosions have also been mud slapped on the flame will frequently extinguish it. pipe holes. Sparks may also fall through cracks. or from combustible buildings. It is difficult to put out such three elements of the fire triangle. If the fire on a cylinder is a small flame around the hose That is why you should always be alert to fires in hidden areas. equipped with one or more safety relief devices constructed with Supervision must assure hot work permits and firewatchers are a low melting point metal. as they are to produce acetylene which is then piped through the plant to sometimes called. This fusible metal melts at about the used when required. gas. recognized independent testing laboratory. natural steps will help prevent leaks. Attempt to remove the burning cylinder from close proximity to or from combustibles in the welding area. All cylinders in storage should have their not designated for hot work. If fire occurs on or near an acetylene cylinder the fuse plug will melt. The thread connections on hoses are right-handed for inert that might occur. The types of extinguishers for the possible different inert gas and compressed air. the arc or from hot metal. etc. should be considered Gas welding or cutting apparatus must be listed with a nationally combustible and handled accordingly. etc. One source of sample hot work permits is the National Safety Acetylene cylinders and other fuel gas cylinders should be stored Council. Hoses should be periodically inspected for burns. must be installed in accordance with Only approved gas hoses should be used with oxy-fuel gas specifications and codes. Welding arcs or writers Laboratory (UL) or Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation oxy fuel gas flames rarely cause fires when used in areas designed (FM) or equivalent seal of approval. Welding or cutting on metal which is in contact with foam insulation is especially hazardous. All fuel gas lines. and in the vertical position. and oxygen are pres. When ordering gas Cutting and welding fires can be prevented by eliminating or welding or cutting apparatus specify that it must carry the Under- protecting all combustibles in the welding area. are often required. The fuel is from the fuel gas employed. (11 possibly violently explode. red for the acetylene or fuel gas and black for shop areas. ceilings. Carbide must be stored properly and must assure workers are trained to recognize the need for hot never exposed to moisture or water which creates more acetylene work permits. The oxygen is present other acetylene cylinders.” requires the use of hot work permits in areas explosive gas mixtures. Acetylene is sometimes produced on the premises by an acety. heat. The size of hose should be matched to the connectors. The most familiar is acetylene. manifolds. fires and explosions. equipment. fuel. Fire and explosion hazards should be Gas apparatus must be properly maintained and repaired by considered from two points of view: welding in designated areas qualified people. The National Fire Protection Association also recommends be taken for acetylene cylinders. should have the valve Figure 19.. “Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding.

They shall Supervision must be alert for conditions where smoldering fires have fire extinguishing equipment readily available and be trained can occur. Otherwise. More than one firewatcher may be needed hazards of the work site and the hot work. This Hot Work Permit is required for any operation involving open flame or producing heat and/or sparks. and extinguishers are in service and operable.  Hot work equipment is in good working condition in accordance with manufacturer’s specfications. or curtains. hose streams.Hot work permit 18 .1. alarm in the event of a fire. ceilings.  Pressurized vessels. where practical. Make sure an appropriate fire extinguisher is readily available.  Fire watch can be required in adjoining areas.” capacity of the extinguishers. Fires are known to have occurred many hours after in its use. and vented.  Other combustible storage material removed or covered with listed or approved materials (welding pads. and oily deposits removed.  Special permission obtained to conduct hot work on metal vessels or piping lined with rubber or plastic.  Fire watch is provided with suitable extinguishers and. piping. isolated. after hot work. ceilings. a charged small hose. They must watch for fires in exposed HOT WORK PERMIT Seek an alternative/safer method if possible! Before initiating hot work. metal shields. dust. above and below. © 2008 National Fire Protection Association® NFPA 51B Figure 19 . or shut down.  Floors swept clean and trash removed. blankets. welding.  Combustible floors wet down or covered with damp sand or fire-resistive/noncombustible materials or equivalent. cutting. Requirements for hot work fire watch and fire monitoring  Fire watch is provided during and for a minimum of 30 min.  Personnel protected from electrical shock when floors are wet.invaluable and can avoid the headlines stating that the fire was areas and try to extinguish them only if it is obviously within the caused by “a welder’s torch. conditions are safe during the hot work.  Fire watch is trained in use of equipment and in sounding alarm. and they must have the It may be necessary to extend the firewatch period at times. soldering. Requirements within 35 ft (11 m) of hot work  Flammable liquid. or roofs is moved away. including any break activity. Requirements for hot work on enclosed equipment  Enclosed equipment is cleaned of all combustibles. they must sound the Firewatchers are persons trained to understand the inherent alarm immediately.  Yes  No Per the PAI/fire watch. Time started Time completed Name (print) and signature of permit-authorizing individual (PAI) THIS PERMIT IS GOOD FOR ONE DAY ONLY  Available sprinklers. grinding. or noncombustible materials.  Ducts and conveyors that might carry sparks to distant combustible material covered. authority to stop the work if unsafe conditions develop. thawing pipe. torch-applied roofing. Date Hot work by  employee  contractor Location/Building and floor Name (print) and signature of person doing hot work Work to be done I verify that the above location has been examined. monitoring of hot work area has been extended beyond the 30 min. fire-resisteive tarpaulins). the precautions marked on the checklist below have been taken. They must be familiar with procedures for sounding an the hot work has ceased. or chemical welding. ensure precautions are in place as required by NFPA 51B and ANSI Z49. They must assure when hidden hazards or multiple hazardous areas are present. or roofs  Construction is noncombustible and without combustible coverints or insulation. and permission is granted for this work. lint. Requirements for hot work on walls.  Explosive atmosphere in area eliminated. protected. This work includes.  All wall and floor openings covered. brazing.  Combustible material on other side of walls.  Containers are purged of flammable liquid/vapor. and equipment removed from service. but is not limited to.

Cleaning should be done major hazards is the possibility of sudden release of the gas by by experienced personnel familiar with the characteristics of the removal or breaking off of the valve. For additional information. and dated. or fire protection cylinders. Nitrogen or carbon dioxide is normally used. Cleaning should be done outdoors. Always vent containers before welding or cutting. Even after tanks have Treatment of Gas Cylinders been made safe they can be filled with water as an added precau- Gases used for welding. No container shall be presumed to be clean or safe. Cylinders in the container and match the cleaning method to the material meeting the CGA requirements will rapidly release all of their gas previously contained. that it is thoroughly cleaned. The heat from The inert gas concentration must be maintained during the entire welding can cause trapped gas to expand. If this is impractical. tion before welding or cutting. The Compressed Gas As- contents. No cleaning method is perfect. Cracks and special equipment with proper precautions.S. welders sometimes do hot tapping. They should 19 . release can cause a whistling sound and possibly spin the cylinder and after cleaning. When cylinders are empty they should be marked “Empty” and the valves must be closed to prevent contamination from entering. The concentra- welding. Therefore. can contain hazardous materials. inert gas. such as those for propane. butane. even though mable and nonexplosive if mixed with a sufficient amount of inert it may contain only air. Flammable gases and vapors will be rendered nonflam- partment in a weldment. Cylinders should be stored vertically and secured to prevent falling. In pipe lines. as well as hidden joints. have held hazardous materials. sociation (CGA) (Pamphlet V-1)has established a 0. a regulator is attached and the cylinder should be secured by means of chains or clamps. refer to American Welding Society’s Safety and Health Fact Sheet No. Petroleum Institute (API) publication. When the gas cylinders are in use. There is no international uniform color coding for identification purposes. Refer to the American crevices. Cylinders for portable apparatus Figure 20 . “Cylinders: Safe Storage. Identify the material that was the propulsion effect in case the valve is severed. which is normally made of metal. is neces. One of the sary in all cases before welding or cutting. oxygen. liquids.62 the inside work area should be well ventilated so that hazardous mm) maximum valve inlet diameter as a requirement to minimize vapors will be quickly carried away.Welding on Containers As an alternate to the water-filling method fill the container with an Any container or hollow body such as a can. or shielding gases. The temperature of the cylinder should never be allowed to exceed 125°F (52°C). Only a qualified person should designate which could be a health and/or a flammability concern. Compressed Gases Cleaning the container. fuel gases. Department of Transportation (DOT). Cylinders should be handled with respect. maintaining. Handling. and gases. drill or pierce a path into the hollow space to provide pressure relief. In most countries there are laws and regulations concerning manufacturing. however some countries have standardized color mark- ing systems.(26) No container should be considered clean or safe until proven so by tests. well-ventilated areas.(28) Always inspect cylinders for any damage and report this damage to your gas supplier. The valve protec- tion caps must be in place. vapors. bility. may cause the cylinder to take off and become airborne. Safe Hot Tapping Practices Containers can be made safe for welding or cutting by following in the Petroleum and Petro-chemical Industries. Make sure that the space of the U. All compressed gas cylinders must be legibly marked to identify the Vent gases contained by either the chemical or the trade name of the gas. Store cylinders in cool. Larger valve openings. 6.300 inch (7. The gas and manage the cleaning process. When it is determined that the container is safe the container should be so marked. This must be done only by experienced people using or toxic solids.Safe way to weld a container should be securely mounted in specially designed cylinder that held combustibles trucks. Hot work or welding permits should create dangerously high pressure so that the part or container be utilized for all welding or cutting operations on containers that may explode. the container should be inspected to determine uncontrollably. and periodic inspection of portable cylinders for the storage and shipment of compressed gases. and Use”. Place the container so that it can are normally delivered in cylinders which are manufactured and be kept filled with water to within a few inches of the point where maintained by the gas supplier in accordance with the regulations welding and cutting are to be done. Board of Transport Commissioners for Canada has this responsi- as shown in Figure 20. signed. tank. must be given special attention before gas. This is the welding of a special fitting to a line carrying a combustible liquid Explosions and fires may result if welding or cutting is done on or gas and then cutting a hole in the pipe after the fitting has been empty containers that are not entirely free of combustible reactive welded to it. tion of flammable gases and vapors must be checked by testing. Water Cylinder Storage Oxygen cylinders should be stored separately from fuel gas cyl- inders and separate from combustible materials. or hollow area in a casting. The expansion can welding and cutting operation. Hollow areas may also contain gases that are extremely danger- Hot Tapping ous when heated or exposed to an arc or flame. All compressed gas cylinders are potential hazards. hollow com. Refer to the American Welding Society’s Safe Practices for the Preparation of Containers and Piping for Welding and Cutting. but containers can be made safe for hot work. In Canada the above the water level is vented so that the heated air can escape.(27) prescribed steps. 30. dust.

In any case. Oxygen Radioactive Hot Areas Oxygen is one of the most common gases carried in portable Welders may be required to work in radioactive “hot” areas. an obstruction of the gas flow or by an overheated or damaged noise levels may be excessive. Noise measurement instruments are flashbacks. Some causes of flashback include improper pressures. An and power tools are employed and the materials removed are arc strike on a cylinder will damage the cylinder causing possible propelled through the air to become potential projectile or fire fracture. They should never be moved The slag that often covers the deposited weld metal must usu- by electromagnetic cranes. Oxygen does not burn. tives. It should always be labelled “oxygen”. They should never be in an electric ally be removed. Excessive noise can damage hearing and Fuel Gases cause other injury. Only qualified personnel with knowledge of or grease in the presence of oxygen may spontaneously ignite and working in and around radioactive areas should be permitted to violently burn or explode. but will support time may be extremely short and welders may be used to set up and vigorously accelerate combustion of oil and grease and other automated welding devices and then leave the hot area to operate flammable materials. Nitrogen. Noise levels are reduced fairly rapidly as the worker moves regulator. time of exposure. Plasma arc cutting with high current also creates excessive noise and ear When welding or cutting with oxygen and fuel gases the welder protection is required. Some equipment manufacturers recommend closing the fuel gas valve first. They should never be used as rollers. In extinguishing the oxygen fuel gas flame one recommended sequence is to first close the torch oxygen valve and then the torch acetylene or fuel gas valve. this occurs. If this occurs the equipment should be shut down immediately monitored by means of specialized instruments. Normal arc weld is usually signaled by a popping sound. Figure 21 shows a worker wearing suitable should be particularly alert to backfires. In starting a torch. potentially causing a flashback or sustained backfire. after which the flame may operations do not exceed noise level requirements as specified either extinguish or reignite at the end of the tip.Worker wearing suitable ear protection for noisy work. You can request help from your company’s safety sound. In combination with other noise producing machinery. Safety glasses with side shields should be worn under out of service. Hammers or wrenches should not be used to open cylinder valves 7. precautions as oxygen cylinders. Shielding Gases Shielding gases are either inert or active. Typical inert gases are argon and helium and are stored in high-pressure cylinders. A backfire is a a momentary recession of the flame into available and should be used to check noise in the work area the torch. produces high noise levels and ear protection is required. The active gas normally used for weld shielding is carbon dioxide (CO2). damaged seats and kinked hoses. Noise exposure can cause either temporary There are a number of fuel gases. The exposure oily hands or oily gloves. with a spark lighter. it is usually recommended to first open the fuel gas valve slilghtly and. sustained backfires. causing them to burn with great intensity. A sustained backfire is the recession Welding Society’s Arc Welding and Cutting Noise (AWN)(29) should of the flame into the torch body with continued burning character- be consulted. understand and follow the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer. the equipment should be shut down immediately and corrective action should be taken. It is necessary that trained personnel be used to ized by an initial popping sound followed by a squealing or hissing measure noise. OSHA regulations prescribe allow- and hydrogen. power plants. Weld chipping and weld peening produce excessive noise and should be controlled. Washington. and can create a fire or explosion hazard. Oil the devices remotely. Oxygen cylinders or oxygen apparatus should not be handled with radiation protection. regulators. Carbon arc gouging at high currents be treated with respect. potentially burning through the torch body. This is caused by by OSHA. Combustibles should be kept away from oxygen. A flashback department or from the State Industrial Commission representa- is the recession of the flame through the torch and into the hose. Welds are often chipped and ground. distorted or loose tips. When further away from the source of the noise. 20 . Hand circuit so that the welding current could pass through them. Figure 21 . considered inert in some cases. and all other factors involved. These cylinders must be treated with the same Courtesy of Occupational Safety and Health Administration. clogged or damaged tips. Weld Cleaning and Other Hazards that are fitted with hand wheels. DC. Escaping oxygen can enrich the work area. valves. is also stored in high pressure cylinders. It so that precautionary measures can be taken. potentially causing an explosion. follow the procedure recommended by the torch manufacturer. All are compounds of carbon or permanent hearing loss. is due to repair and maintenance operations necessary in nuclear never “air”. light the torch followed by opening the oxygen torch valve. This high-pressure cylinders. the welding helmet. tools or for any of the purposes where compressed air is normally Noise used. All fuel gases are potentially hazardous and should able noise exposure levels. must be taken to determine the radiation levels. extra special care and precaution including the cylinder. Always read. and protection for noisy work. Noise levels can be measured and tip. and hose apparatus. The American and corrective action taken. and requiring the cylinder to be condemned and taken hazards. and/or cylinder.not be dropped or struck. In such cases. especially en- closed areas. Oxygen should never be used in any air make judgments of this type.

These are largely involved with motion since it is present with re- sistance welding equipment.2).3) and “Recommended Practices fo Plasma Arc Cutting and The following is an overview of some safety situations. Operators should wear face shields. 21 . x-rays are generated as atmosphere pressure. They involve unanticipated motion. Also refer as rollers when stepped on at the wrong angle. However fluxes and filler metals em. Electrode stubs to the “Soldering Handbook” (46) (SHB).3. For further reference. Other hazards such as falling from high places. Large amounts of particulate matter are produced. people work in close proximity to the robot’s classes of lasers generate radiation which can produce eye dam- welding torch and are thus exposed to potential hazards. In atmosphere which is under pressure that is greater than sea level the high-voltage electron beam systems. age. Safety precautions require the use of special glasses and other protective materials. Ear protection welding and allied processes since electricity. 8. Robotic and automated welding are becoming more popular. Processes and Occupations For further reference. More complete information concerning aspects of Welding. structural shops. “Risk As- Drilling. For some safety information. The American Welding Society has several documents related to Helpful information can be found in American Welding Society’s robotic welding. Higher operating pressures create special electron beam strikes the work piece. The equipment must definitely be installed in programming robots or maintaining equipment.” (42) and D16. or toxic gases. Resistance welding operations involve some potential hazards. Welding electrode stubs act Safely” (44) (BRS) and the “Brazing Handbook 45 (BRH). see American Robot welding combines the potential hazards of welding with Welding Society’s “Thermal Spray Manual. may start unexpectedly.”(51) (C7. Theory and Application. Hard hats should be worn in con. of practices recommended in this book will help provide a safe workplace. when metal treatment. consult the “Resistance Welding Manual.” (43) Allied Processes Automated brazing and soldering involves moving equipment with the associated hazards.1. Refer to American Welding Society’s “Recom- flames. should be placed in containers and not thrown on the floor or working surface where others can step on them. Guards on motion devices must be plants. underwater welding are provided in the U. Adequate shielding must be hazards. ployed may give off noxious fumes when heated. refer to D 16.”(53) (TSS). underwater.”(54) (C7. Common sense and the adoption heated to temperatures normally above operating temperatures. heated metals or fumes are usually involved. Gouging. “Speci- “Recommended Practices for Laser Beam Welding. and working around heated metals are similar The American Welding Society has many documents related to to the hazards encountered by all employees in plants. Robots oper- Spraying Practice. (C5. Refer to American with the water or in a habitat are very complex and are only briefly Welding Society’s “Recommended Practices for Electron Beam mentioned here. Robots are normally safe since operators work are used not only for welding but also for cutting and surface outside the operating envelope of the robot. which can create problems. and so on. Continued attention to safe practice is required for all welding. These involve ing. For safety information. Specific pro- mended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. should be worn. The other welding C1. sessment Guide for Robotic Arc Welding. refer to “Braze shops. In addition. 8.”(52) (TSM) and “Thermal the hazards of moving metal working machinery. or troubleshooting accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.2). ate outside their machine base area. especially when cutting and allied processes. Lasers rates of speed. However. forging brazing and soldering.”(47) The previous sections dealt primarily with arc welding and oxy.”(48) fuel gas welding. This also relates to reflected laser light.” (41) the use of powders or wires which are atomized and sprayed on the workpiece.1).”(49) cess applications or welding occupations involve other hazards.S. The hazards of underwater welding in the wet in contact provided to protect the operator from x-rays. working properly designed and always in place.1. Safety for Specific Welding safety glasses or goggles to protect the face and eyes from flying sparks that may be ejected from the weld area. In most cases a vacuum is involved working depth. (RWM) and “Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding. Dual palm buttons are normally used to provide operator safety. Welding in the dry. is welding in an with the welding chamber and normal precautions are required. and operate at relatively high Laser welding is usually an automated operation. compressed gases. available from the American Welding Society. Underwater welding is one of the most hazardous welding Electron beam welding is an automated process but the mo- occupations.6M “Specification for Underwater Weld. Cutting.(38) Also refer to American Thermal spraying involves potential hazards in addition to those Welding Society’s D3. The potential hazards mentioned previously apply to most currents creates noise of a level that may be harmful. and fication for Robotic Arc Welding Safety. Certain welding problems.Other Hazards Adequate mechanical ventilation should be provided for all au- tomated brazing and soldering operations to remove explosive Falling items create hazards. involved with arc welding and oxy-fuel gas welding.”(50) (C5. with heavy objects. large quantities of liquid heated flux or nection with welding helmets on construction sites and in some filler metal creates hazards. Navy’s “Underwater Cutting and Welding” technical manual. and allied processes can be hazardous if safety precautions are Arc air cutting and gouging and plasma arc cutting at high ignored. cutting and torch brazing. Underwater work of any type is hazardous at any tion is normally enclosed.

National Department of Labor.Part 1910.” RP 2201. “Guide for Estimating Welding Emissions for EPA and Venti- 16. “Safety Signs and Colors. FL.” SHF.” standards series ANSI Z535 27. Welding in the World. 2. MA. FL. FL. Illinois.” F1. 14.2. 4. Stephens. Canadian Stan. Welding Journal. 5. “Transparent Welding Curtains” by Sliney. 30 “Safety and Health Fact Sheets. 79A. by Howard B. 9. Miami. American Welding Society. Compressed Gas Association.5. Office.1. IL.S. OH. published by Pearson Prentice Hall.2. of Labor. MA. Florida. 13. FL. American Welding Society. Washington. Rosslyn.” F1. Florida. 20.3. NFPA 70.” F1. lation Permit Reporting. “Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the Petroleum and Petro- America National Standards Institute. 29 “Arc Welding and Cutting Noise. “Specification for Use and Performance of Transparent Weld- Welding Society. Underwriters Laboratories. VA. 8. Upper Saddle River.” AWN. Miami. FL. Wilson. Miami.. “Using Transparent Welding Curtains” by Dean R. “Electric Arc Welding Power Sources”. Miami. 33. American Welding 11. F1.” F1.” Safety and Health Fact Sheet No. Bulletin No. FL.” by Hallock Campbell. 1986. 10. the Welding Environment. 3 and 4. dards Association. Miami. American Welding Society.S. Cincinnati. Washington. American 23.” series 60974.6. FL. Association. SB-4. Washington. FL. (Continued on next page) 22 . 18. and Allied Processes. Safety Council. Dept. “Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and 25. Miami. Florida. chemical Industries.” E-60974 Series. “Characterization of Arc Welding Fume”. “Report on a Danish Investigation into the Health and Work. American Petroleum Insti- tute.1.A Manual of Recommended Practice”. DC. 32. Cincinnati. Cary and Scott C. Cutting. “Methods for Sampling and Analyzing Gases from Welding and Alllied Processes. 6.” F2. Quincy. “Safe Practices for the Preparation of Containers and 7. OH. Other references cited include: 1.” F4.1200. NY. American 35.” Z49. “Lens Shade Selector. American Welding Society. FL. National Electri- cal Manufacturers Association. CAWF. Society. NJ.” F2. Society. DC. DC. 15. American Welding Sheet No. ami. National Fire Protection Associa- Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 28. 30. FL 19. and Use. 22. Hot Work Permits (Flame or Sparks) Data Sheet 522. Welding Society.” F2. Quincy. “Handling Acetylene Cylinders in Fire Situations”.” NFPA 51B. “Lens Shade Selector. “Thoriated Tungsten Electrodes. 10. Miami. “Safety Standards for Arc Welding Equipment. American Welding Society. New York. Miami. 17.” EWH series. American Welding Society. “A Sampling Strategy Guide for Evaluating Contaminants in Regulations Title 29 . American Welding Soci- Sheet No. able from the Superintendent of Documents. ety. NY.3. Avail. Miller & Miami. Printing Miami.2. Miami. Moss. Handling. “Industrial Ventilation . 9. 1972. American Welding Society. York. Northbrook. References The primary reference for this book is Modern Welding Technology. Sept. FL. Helzer. “Welding Workplace Safety. American Welding Society. “The Welding Environment. Miami. Nos. Florida. Miami. FL. Chicago.S. ing Curtains and Screens. Safety Welding Society. EW-1. Welding Journal. 31. “National Electric Code”. “Effects of Welding on Health. Miami. American Welding 12. 24. Florida.” American Welding Society Mi. American Welding Society. FL. Data Piping for Welding and Cutting. Cutting and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. “Cylinders: Safe Storage. 26. “Laboratory Method for Measuring Fume Generation Rates 3. “Arc Welding Equipment. “Method for Sampling Airborne Particles Generated by Weld- ing and Allied Processes. “Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment”. American 34. U. September 2005.” 29 CFR 1910. tion. Vol. American Welding Society.” American Other Hotwork. National Fire Protection Society. Florida. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. “Hazard Communication Standard. Miami. “Occupational Safety and Health Standards” Code of Federal 21. Miami.” Safety and Health Fact Welding Journal. Miami.1 American Welding Society. “Safety in Welding. ing Environment of Arc Welders”. U. May 1982. 27. U. Miami. “Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding.” ANSI and Total Fume Emission of Welding and Allied Processes.

American Petroleum Institute.” C7.” D16. www. “Braze Safely” BRS. American Welding Society. American Welding Society. www. “Thermal Spray Manual. National Electrical Manufacturers Association. FL. 51. American Welding Society.org 40. Miami.gov American Welding Society.com 46.acgih. 38. FL.gov tection Devices. www. World Engineering xchange.” SHB. American Welding Society. 53.com 42. 18. “Thermal Spraying Practice. FL. Miami. Canadian Standards Association. FL. Volume 49. FL. FL. Miami. 47.com FL.” C5. American Welding 1. “Recommended Practices for Electron Beam Welding. “Risk Assessment Guide for Robotic Arc Welding. 54. 14. FL. “Underwater Cutting and Welding. 37. American Welding Society. American Welding Society.aws.” D16. www.” C7.” Safety and Health Fact Sheet No.awspub. “Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. 5. Miami. Cutting. 4. Miami. Ltd.” International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Miami.6M. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.References (Continued) 10. FL.ca 41.api. www.csa.ul. New York.org 39. Compressed Gas Association. Naval Sea Systems Com- mand.” BRH. American Welding Society.2.com American Welding Society. and Drilling.org 43. www. Miami. Theory and Application. Underwriters Laboratories. Miami. FL. “Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Pro.nfpa. U. Government Printing Office.2. 7.” TSS. www. 49. FL.1. Ameri- can Welding Society.org Society. Miami. “Specification for Robotic Arc Welding Safety.usgpo.org Welding Society.2.nema.3.org 45.1 American National Standards Institute. 1990.global. www. FL. “Ventilation Guide for Weld Fume. of the Navy. www.osha. Nickel.” RWM.” TSM. FL 2.” C5. 52. American Welding Society.cganet. Global Engineering Documents. “Recommended Practices for Laser Beam Welding..” F3. Miami. www. 12. Dept. American Welding Society. “Chromium. 3.” NAVSEA S0300-BB. 10. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. “Soldering Handbook. Miami.1. www. “Brazing Handbook. “Specification for Underwater Welding.1.S. Miami. 9. Miami. FL. and Welding. “Resistance Welding Manual. Miami. Miami. National Fire Protection Association.3.” C1. Washington. American Welding Society.cdc. “Lockout/Tagout. www.American Welding Society. American National Standards Association. DC.S. Web Sites 36.ihs.” D3. American 8.ansi. 48. 11. American Welding Society. www. 6. U.” ANSI Z87.gov/niosh/ MAN-010. 13. “Recommended Practices for Plasma Arc Cutting and Goug- ing. Miami. FL. www. 50. 44. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 23 . FL. NY. “Recommended Practices for Resistance Welding.

Fax: (937) 332-5220. Individual Hobart Technical Guides are available on these subjects: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (EW-470) Shielded Metal Arc Welding (EW-472) Gas Metal Arc Welding (EW-473) Flux-Cored Arc Welding (EW-492) Electroslag Arc Welding (EW-493) Safety and Health of Welders (EW-607) Welding Guide (EW-385) 400 Trade Square East.A.org .S. 5433. Email: hiwt@welding.welding. 45373 Phone: (800) 332-9448 Ext. Troy.org Visit our website and order online at http://www. OH U.