Answers to Exercises

Chapter One 3(a) x2 + 5x + 6 (b) 2a2 + 13a + 15 (c) x2 − 2x − 8
(d) 2b − 13b + 21 (e) 12x + 17x − 40
2 2

(f) 30 − 71x + 42x
2
Exercise 1A (Page 2)
8x + 4y (b) −3a2 + 4a (c) −5x2 − 12x − 3 5(a) x − 2xy + y (b) a + 6a + 9 (c) n − 10n + 25
2 2 2 2
1(a)
(d) 9a − 3b − 5c (d) c − 4 (f) 9p − 12p + 4
2 2 2
(e) 4a + 4a + 1
(g) 9x − 16y (h) 16y − 40xy + 25x
2 2 2 2
2(a) 6x (b) 20a (c) 5ab + bc
(d) 2x − 5x y + 2xy + 3y 6(a) a −4b (b) 10−17x−20x (c) 16x +56x+49
3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2

3(a) 2x (b) 4x (c) −6a (d) −4b (d) x −x y −12y (e) a −ac−b +bc (f) 27x +1
4 2 2 2 2 3

4(a) 2x − 2x + 4 (b) 3a − 5b − 4c (b) t − 2 + t12 (c) t − t12
2 2 2 2
7(a) t + 2 + t12
(c) −3a + 2b − 2c + 2d (d) 2ab − 2bc + 2cd 8(a) a − b − c + 2bc (b) x − 2x + 3
2 2 2 2

5(a) 2x − 2x
2 2
(b) 6x y + 2y
3
(c) a − c − abc
3 3
9(a) 11x − 3 (b) −4b + 8c − 8
(d) 4x − 5x − 2x − x + 2
4 3 2
10(a) 10 404 (b) 998 001 (c) 39 991
6(a) 10a (b) −18x (c) −3a (d) 6a b (e) −8x 11(a) 2ab − b (c) 18 − 6a
2 3 5 2
(b) 2x + 3 (d) 4pq
(f) −6p q (e) x + 2x − 1 (f) a − 2a − 6
3 4 2 2

(b) −24a b (d) −8a b
5 6 4 8 6 12 3 2 2
7(a) 6a b (c) 9a 12 7x + 16ax + 4a
13(a) x − 6x + 12x − 8 (b) x + y + z
3 2 2 2 2
8(a) 18 (b) 2
(c) x − y − z + 2yz (d) a + b + c − 3abc
2 2 2 3 3 3
9(a) 59 (b) 40
10(a) 5 (b) −7x (c) 12a (d) −3x y z
2 3 4

11(a) −2 (b) 3x (c) xy (d) −a
4
(e) −7ab
3 Exercise 1C (Page 6)
2 6
(f) 5ab c 1(a) a(x − y) (b) x(x + 3) (c) 3a(a − 2b)
3 2
12(a) 3a
2
(b) 5c
4 2 6
(c) a bc (d) 6x(2x + 3) (e) 2a (3 + a + 2a )
(f) 7xy(x − 2xy + 3y)
5 5 4 3 2
13(a) 2x (b) 9xy (c) b (d) 2a
14 −x + 3x + 7x − 8 2(a) (x−y)(a+b) (b) (a+b)(a+c) (c) (x−3)(x−y)
3 2

15 −b + 11c (d) (2a − b)(x − y) (e) (b + c)(a − 1)
(f) (x − 3)(2x − a)
2
16 8d − 14c − 2b
17 −18x y
25 22 3(a) (x − 3)(x + 3) (b) (1 − a)(1 + a)
√ √
18(a) 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 (b) x ≤ − 3 or 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 (c) (2x − y)(2x + y) (d) (5x − 4)(5x + 4)
(e) (1 − 7k)(1 + 7k) (f) (9ab − 8)(9ab + 8)
Exercise 1B (Page 4) 4(a) (x+3)(x+5) (b) (x−1)(x−3) (c) (a+4)(a−2)
1(a) 4a+8b (b) x2 −7x (c) −3x+6y (d) −a2 −4a (d) (y−7)(y+4) (e) (c−3)(c−9) (f) (p+12)(p−3)
(e) 5a + 15b − 10c (f) −6x + 9y − 15z (g) (u − 20)(u + 4) (h) (x − 3)(x − 17)
(g) −2x + 4x + 6x − 2x (h) 6x y − 15x y
4 3 2 3 2 4
(i) (t + 25)(t − 2) (j) (x − 15)(x + 6)
(i) −2a b + 4a b
4 4 5 2
(k) (x − 2y)(x − 3y) (l) (x + 2y)(x + 4y)
2(a) x + 4 (b) −8a − 3b + 5c (m) (a − 3b)(a + 2b) (n) (p + 8q)(p − 5q)
(c) −x − 25x + 10x + 13x − 6x
5 4 3 2
(o) (c − 11d)(c − 13d)
(d) −12x y + 14x y − 13x y
5 5 4 6 3 8
5(a) (2x + 1)(x + 2) (b) (3x + 2)(x + 2)
(c) (3x − 1)(2x − 3) (d) (3x − 1)(x + 5)

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Answers to Chapter One 539

(e) (3x − 4)(3x + 2) (f) (2x − 3)(3x + 1) x
(f) (x−1)(x−2)(x−3)
(g) (3x − 1)(2x − 1) (h) (3x − 5)(x + 6) 8(a) −1 (b) −u − v (c) 3 − x (d) a−b 2
(e) 1
−1
(i) (3x − 4)(4x + 3) (j) (12x − 5)(x + 3) (f) 2x+ y
(k) (4x − 5)(6x − 5) (l) (2x − y)(x + y) (f) tt 2 −1
2
9(a) 13 7
(b) 13 (c) 11 3
(d) 15 (e) x+21
+1
(m) (2a − b)(2a − 3b) (n) (3p + 4q)(2p − q) ab
(g) a+b
2
x +y 2
(h) x 2 −y 2 x2
(i) 2x+1 (j) x−1
x−3
(o) (9u + 4v)(2u − 3v) 2x+3 x 4 −y 4
11(a) x+y (b) 3x−1 (c) a−b+c (d) x2 y 2 (e) x 216x−16
6(a) 3(a − 2)(a + 2) (b) (x − y)(x + y)(x + y )
2 2 ab
4 −13x
(f) x+2y (g) (x+1)(x+2)(x+3) (h) (x+1) 22 (x−1)
(c) x(x − 1)(x + 1) (d) 5(x + 2)(x − 3) 2
12(a) x + 2 + x12 (b) 7
(e) y(5 − y)(5 + y) (f) (2 − a)(2 + a)(4 + a )
2
3n −m
13(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) (d) x1
(g) 2(2x − 3)(x + 5) (h) x(x − 1)(x − 7)
2

(i) (x − 2)(x + 2)(x + 1) (j) (x − 1)(x + 1)(a − 2)
2
Exercise 1E (Page 11)
(k) m(4m − n)(4m + n) (l) a(x − 5a)(x + 4a)
3(a) a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + b3 (b) x3 − 3x2 y + 3xy 2 − y 3
7(a) (9 − x)(8 + x) (b) (a − b − c)(a − b + c)
(c) b − 3b + 3b − 1 (d) p + 6p + 12p + 8
3 2 3 2
(c) a(a − 4b)(a − 6b) (d) (a − b)(a + b − 1)
(e) 1 − 3c + 3c − c (f) t − 9t + 27t − 27
2 3 3 2
(e) (x − 4)(x + 4)(x + 16)
2
3 2 2 3
(g) 8x + 60x y + 150xy + 125y
(f) (2p − q − r)(2p + q + r) (g) x (3x − 2)(2x + 1)
2
(h) 27a − 108a b + 144ab − 64b
3 2 2 3
(h) (c + 1)(a − b) (i) 9(x + 5)(x − 1)
2
4(a) (x + y)(x − xy + y ) (b) (a − b)(a + ab + b )
2 2 2 2
(j) (2x − 1)(2x + 1)(x − 3)(x + 3)
(c) (y + 1)(y − y + 1) (d) (g − 1)(g + g + 1)
2 2
(k) (xy − 16)(xy + 3) (l) x(x − y − z)(x − y + z)
(e) (b − 2)(b + 2b + 4) (f) (2c + 1)(4c − 2c + 1)
2 2
(m) (4 − 5x)(5 + 4x) (n) (2x − 1)(2x + 1)(x − 3)
(g) (3 − t)(9 + 3t + t ) (h) (5 + a)(25 − 5a + a )
2 2
(o) (2x − 3y)(6x + 5y) (p) (x + a − b)(x + a + b)
(i) (3h − 1)(9h + 3h + 1)
2
(q) 9(x − 7)(x + 5) (r) (x − x − 1)(x + x + 1)
2 2
(j) (u − 4v)(u + 4uv + 16v )
2 2
(s) x(5x − 9y)(2x + y)
(k) (abc + 10)(a b c − 10abc + 100)
2 2 2
(t) (x + 2y − a + b)(x + 2y + a − b) (u) 4xy
(l) (6x + 5y)(36x − 30xy + 25y )
2 2
2 2
8(a) (a+b)(a+b ) (b) (a+c)(b−d) (c) 4ab(a−b)
5(a) 2(x + 2)(x − 2x + 4) (b) a(a − b)(a + ab + b )
2 2 2
(d) (2x + 3y )(2x − 3y)(x + y)
2 2
(c) 3(2t + 3)(4t − 6t + 9)
2
(e) (x − y)(x + y)
3
(d) y(x − 5)(x + 5x + 25)
2
(f) (a − b − c)(a + b + c)(a − b + c)(a + b − c)
(e) 2(5p − 6q)(25p + 30pq + 36q )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
(g) (x + y )(a + b + c )
(f) x(3x + 10y)(9x − 30xy + 100y )
2 2
(h) (x + ay)(x − by) (i) (a − ab + b )(a + ab + b )
2 2 2 2
(g) 5(xy − 1)(x y + xy + 1)
2 2
(j) (a − 2ab + 2b )(a + 2ab + 2b )
2 2 2 2
(h) x (x + y)(x − xy + y )
3 2 2

(c) a −a+1
2 2
6(a) x x+1
+x+1 a−5
(b) a 2 −2a+4 2a 2 (d) x1
Exercise 1D (Page 8) 2
x 2 −3x+8
4y 7(a) 12a+12
a 3 −8 (b) x 3x−1 (c) (x−4)(x+2)(x 2 −2x+4)
1(a) 12 (b) a1 x
(c) 3y (d) a3 (e) 5xz (f) uw2 v 2
−ab
2(a) 1 (b) 12 3
(c) x (d) 2b (e) 3x 1
(f) 1 (g) 2a (d) 3a
a 3 +b 3
2y
2 2 8(a) (a + b)(a2 − ab + b2 + 1)
(h) 2c
3b (i) 6a 5c
(j) 2a (k) xy z (l) 2a1 2
(b) (x − 2)(x + 2)(x − 2x + 4)(x + 2x + 4)
2 2
(f) − 45
3x−2y xy
3(a) 7x
10 (b) a6 (c) 24 (d) 13a6 (e) 15b
(c) (2a − 3)(a + 2)(a − 2a + 4) (d) 2y(3x + y )
2 2 2
3 25 b−a x2 + 1 a2 +b x−2
(g) 2x (h) 12x (i) ab (j) x (k) a (l) 2x 2
(e) (s − t)(s + st + t + s + t) (f) 2t(t + 12)
2 2 2
5x+ 7 −x−17 9x+ 26 12x+3
4(a) 6 (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 5
(g) 9(a − b)(a − ab + b )
2 2
(e) 2x−16
15x (f) 1
x(x+ 1) (g) 2x
x 2 −1 (h) 5x−13
(x−2)(x−3)
(h) (x − 2)(x + 1)(x + 2x + 4)(x − x + 1)
2 2
−10 x2 + y 2
(i) (x+ 3)(x−2) (j) x 2 −y 2 (k) (x+ax−bx (l) x 22x
(i) (u + 1)(u + 1)(u − u + 1)
a)(x+ b) −1 2 4 2
x+y
(j) (1 − x)(1 + x + x )(2 + 3x )
1 3 x 2 3
5(a) x+ (b) 2b (c) x−2 (d) a+ 3
(e)
y a+ 4 x−y
(k) (x − 1)(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 1)(x − 2x + 4)
2 2
y −5
(f) x+ 5
(g) c+ d
(h) 2y + 1 (i) 3a+ 2b
(l) (a + 1)(a + a + 1)(a − a + 1)
x+ 4 a 3x+ 2y 2 2
3x c+ 2
6(a) 2(x−1) (b) a (c) c+ 4 (d) x (e) 3x−1 x−7
(f) 3(x+3) 6
a+ b 9(a) a−3 (b) 1 (c) a2 (d) x 3 −27
x
(e) x 3 3−1 (f) (1−x)
1
2
7(a) x 2 2−1 (b) (x−2)2x2 (x+ 2) (c) 3x
x −y 2
2
x+1 bx
(d) (x−2)(x+3)(x+ 4) (e) a(a−b)(a+ b)

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

540 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

10 (A + B)4 = A4 + 4A3 B + 6A2 B 2 + 4AB 3 + B 4 , Exercise 1G (Page 16)
(A − B)4 = A4 − 4A3 B + 6A2 B 2 − 4AB 3 + B 4 , 1(a) x = 3 or −3 (b) a = 2 or −2 (c) t = 1 or −1
√ √
A4 + B 4 = (A2 − 2AB + B 2 )(A2 + 2AB + B 2 ), (d) x = 32 or − 32 (e) x = 12 or − 12
A4 − B 4 = (A − B)(A + B)(A2 + B 2 ) (f) y = 45 or − 45
√ √
11(a) x(x + 1)(x − 3x + 1)(x + 3x + 1) (b) c = 0 or −2
2 2 2
2(a) x = 0 or 5 (c) t = 0 or 1
(b) (x − y)(x + y)(x + y )(x + xy + y ) (f) u = 0 or − 13
2 2 2 2 1
(d) a = 0 or 3 (e) b = 0 or 2
√ √
(x − xy + y )(x − 3xy + y )(x + 3xy + y 2 )
2 2 2 2 2
(g) y = 0 or 3 (h) u = 0 or − 5
2 12

12 13 3(a) x = 1 or 2 (b) x = −4 or −2
(c) a = −5 or 3 (d) y = −5 or 1 (e) p = −2 or 3
3
13 8x
15 a + b (f) a = −11 or 12 (g) c = 3 or 6 (h) t = −2 or 10
16 1 + a − a (i) u = −8 or 7 (j) h = −25 or −2
3

(k) k = −4 or 15 (l) α = −22 or 2
Exercise 1F (Page 13) 4(a) a = 13 or 2 (b) x = −5 or − 21
1(a) x = 10 (b) x > 23 (c) a = −5 (d) x ≥ 4 (c) b = − 23 or 2 (d) y = −4 or 32 (e) x = 15 or 5
(e) x = −1 (f) y = 50 (g) t < 0 (h) x = −16 (f) t = 4 or 3 (g) t = − 2 or 3 (h) u = − 45 or 12
3 5

2(a) x = 9 (b) x ≥ −5 (c) x > −4 (d) x = −7 (i) x = 35 (j) x = − 32 or − 32 (k) b = − 32 or − 16
(e) a ≥ − 75 (f) t < −30 (g) y = − 16 (h) u ≤ 48 (l) k = − 3 or 2
8 1
7

3(a) x < 4 (b) x = −11 (c) a > − 12 (d) y ≥ 2 5(a) x = 12 (1 + 5 ) =
.
. 1·618

(e) x ≤ 9 7
(f) x = − 5 3
(g) x < 6 23
(h) x = − 52 or x = 12 (1 − 5 ) = .
. −0·6180
√ .
(i) There are no solutions. (b) x = 12 (−1 + 13 ) = . 1·303

(j) All real numbers are solutions. (k) x ≤ 19 or x = 12 (−1 − 13 ) = .
. −2·303 (c) a = 3 or 4
6
√ .
(l) x = 143
(m) x > −1 (n) x = 17 (d) u = −1 + 3 = 0·7321
6
√ ..
4(a) x = 4 (b) a = 8 (c) y < 16 (d) x = 13 or u = −1 − 3 = . −2·732
√ . √ .
(e) a = 5 2
(f) y = 2 3
(g) x ≥ −8 (h) a ≥ 1 78 (e) c = 3 + 7 = . 5·646 or c = 3 − 7= . 0·3542

(i) x > 14 (j) a = − 45 (k) t = 35 (l) c < 92 (f) x = − 12 (g) a = 12 (2 + 2 ) =
.
. 1·707

(m) a = −1 (n) x = 5 (o) x = 17 (p) t = − 26
1 7
or a = 12 (2 − 2 ) = .
. 0·2929 (h) x = −3 or 5
2
27

5(a) x ≥ 15 (b) a > −15 (c) x = 92 (d) x = 16 1
(i) b = 4 (−3 + 17 ) =
.
. 0·2808

(e) x = 12 (f) x > 6 (g) x > 20 (h) x = − 23 or b = 14 (−3 − 17 ) = .
. −1·781
2

(i) x = − 73 (j) x = 56 (k) a > −11 (l) x ≤ 2 1
(j) c = 3 (2 + 13 ) =
.
. 1·869

(m) x > 34 (n) x = − 73 (o) x = − 52 (p) x ≤ − 43 or c = 13 (2 − 13 ) = .
. −0·5352
57 69

6(a) a = 3 (b) s = 16 (c) v = 23 (d)  = 21 1
(k) t = 4 (1 + 5 ) =
.
. 0·8090

(e) C = 35 (f) c = − 14 5 or t = 14 (1 − 5 ) = .
. −0·3090 (l) no solutions
7(a) x = 1, 2, 3 (b) x = −5, −4, −3, −2, −1 6(a) x = −1 or 2 (b) a = 2 or 5 (c) y = 12 or 4
(c) x > −4 (d) x ≤ 2 (e) x = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (d) b = − 52 or 23 (e) k = −1 or 3 (f) u = 43 or 4
√ √
(f) x = −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2 (g) 0 < x ≤ 5 7(a) x = 1 + 2 or x = 1 − 2
√ √
(h) 1 ≤ x ≤ 4 (b) a = 2 + 3 or a = 2 − 3
√ √
8(a) −4 (b) 7 (c) 36 (d) 80 litres (e) 15 min (c) a = 1 + 5 or a = 1 − 5
√ √
(f) 16 (g) 30 km/h (h) 5 hours (d) m = 15 (2 + 14 ) or m = 15 (2 − 14 )
p−q t √ √
9(a) b = a+ d
(b) n = t−a+ d
(c) r = t (e) y = 1 + 6 or y = 1 − 6
c d
√ √
(e) a = − 2b
3 2f h
(d) v = u −1 3 (f) g = 5f −h (f) k = 14 (−5 + 73 ) or k = 14 (−5 − 73 )
2x 4a+ 5
(g) y = 1−x (h) b = a−1 8(a) p = 12 or 1 (b) x = −3 or 5 (c) n = 5
−w −u w
(i) d = 5c−7
3c+ 2 (j) v = 1+u 1−u 9(a) a = 2b or a = 3b (b) a = −2b or a = 3b
14
10(a) x = 5 (b) a = 4 10(a) y = 2x or y = −2x (b) y = 11 x
or y = − x2
11(b) x = 6 11(a) x = 15 (b) 7 (c) 6 and 9 (d) 4 cm
(e) 25 or −9
−6 (f) 3 cm (g) 2 hours, 4 hours
(h) 55 km/h and 60 km/h
12(a) a = − 73 or 3 (b) k = −4 or 15

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

y = 23 or x = − 73 . y = 6 or x = 2. y = 3 2 2 2 (g) x = 5. y = −2 5(a) p − 2pq + q = (p − q) 2 2 2 (e) x = −3. y = 3. Answers to Chapter One 541 √ √ (c) t = 2 3 or − 3 Exercise 1I (Page 22) √ √ (d) m = 13 (1 + 2 ) or m = 13 (1 − 2 ) 1(a) 1 (b) 9 (c) 25 (d) 81 (e) 94 (f) 14 (g) 25 4 13(a) x = 2c or x = 11c 14 (b) x = a or x = ab a−2b (h) 81 4 2(a) (x + 2)2 (b) (y + 1)2 (c) (p + 7)2 (d) (m − 6)2 Exercise 1H (Page 20) 2 2 (e) (t−8) (f) (20−u) (g) (x+10y) (h) (ab−12) 2 2 1(a) x = 2. y = 5 Exercise 1J (Page 27) (b) x = −8. 10 members (c) x = 12 . y = 74 (g) finite. y = 1 2 2 (e) x = 3. 0 members (d) infinite (d) x = 4. y = 1 or x = 4. 14 $10 notes (g) x = − 13 or 3 (h) x = −3 or 52 √ √ (g) 5 km/h. y = 4 or x = −2. y = −24 (h) c − 13c + 169 4 = (c − 2 ) 2 13 2 (g) x = 1. y = 2 (f) x = 16. the son is 12. y = −11 or x = 11. y = 8 (f) x = −2 + 3 or x = −2 − 3 √ √ 3(a) x = 1. y = −6 4(a) true (b) true 9(b) x = 1. y = −2 4(a) x = −1 or 3 (b) x = 0 or 6 (c) a = −4 or −2 (i) x = 5. 22 children (d) x = 12 (−4 + 10 ) or x = 12 (−4 − 10 ) (c) The man is 36. y = − 23 { b }. { b. y = 3 2 2 3(a) x +6x+9 = (x+3) (b) y +8y+16 = (y+4) 2 2 (c) a − 20a + 100 = (a − 10) (c) x = 2. 6 members (h) finite. w = 1 7(a) x = 5. { c }. y = 6 (h) x = 5. y = 4 (g) x = 5 + 5 or x = 5 − 5 (b) x = 2. v = 6. z = −4 (b) u = x + 4. y =3 2(a) false (b) true (c) true (d) false (e) true 8(a) x = 1. q = 2. y = −1. (e) x = − 32 or 12 √ √ (d) 189 for. David Sadler. b } (c) ∅. (b) 44 adults. y = 3 or x = −5. 3 km/h (h) 72 (i) x = 12 (5 + 11 ) or x = 12 (5 − 11 ) 5(a) x = 12. c = 2 (d) p = −1. y = 3 (i) a = 12 (−7 + 21 ) or a = 12 (−7 − 21 ) (d) x = −2. 168 against (f) x = 14 (1 + 5 ) or x = 14 (1 − 5 ) 2 (e) 15 (f) 9 $20 notes. y = 10 or x = 10. y = 3 35 (h) x = 13. c }. y = 2 or x = 32 . y = −7 or x = 3. y = −1 (d) b − 100b + 2500 = (b − 50) 2 2 (g) x = 5. { a } (b) ∅. y = 3 (d) x = 2. { a. y = −6 6(a) x = 2 or 3 (b) x = 2 (2+ 6 ) or x = 12 (2− 6 ) 1 4(a) Each apple cost 40 cents. y = 4 (f) x = 4. y = −3 (e) u − uv + 4 v = (u − 2 v) 2 1 2 1 2 (h) x = 9. y = 4 (b) x = −1. y = 1 or x = −2. or x = 73 . y = −6 2 (f) m + 11mn + 121 2 + 11 n)2 4 n = (m √ 2 √ or x = −9. y = 6 or x = −9. c }. r = 5 3 2 8(a) x + 12x + 48x + 64 = (x + 4) 3 (e) x = 5. y = −3 2 2 (d) c + 40cd + 400d = (c + 20d) 2 or x = −5. y = −3. z = 1 (b) x = 2. Julia Shea. y = −4 3(a) false (b) true (c) true (d) true (e) false or x = 43 . 18 members (f) infinite (e) x = 1. y = 54 (f) false (b) x = 2. y = 2 5(a) ∅. { a }. { b }. { a. y = 32 (l) x = 5. u − 18u + 12 = 0 3 (f) u = −2. B = 6 and C = 8 (c) a = 3. y = 2 7(b) a = 3. y = 4 (e) finite. z = 3 (d) A = −5. y = 5 or x = 5. y = 20 (b) x = 3. { a. y = −5 or x = 5. 14 members (f) x = 2. each orange cost (c) no solution for x √ √ 60 cents. y = 5 (h) no solution for y √ √ (c) x = 0. y = 5 or x = 10 3 . y = 1 (c) finite. y = 3 2 2 (b) a + 4ab + 4b = (a + 2b) 2 (c) x − 6xy + 9y = (x − 3y) (f) x = 1. y = 6 or x = − 43 . y = 5 (d) y = −5 or 2 (e) b = −2 or 7 √ √ (k) x = 12 . b = −2. { a }. b. y = 7 2 1 (e) u + u + 4 = (u + 2 ) 1 2 2(a) x = −1. b }. y = 6 (j) x = 7. y = 2 (f) t − 7t + 494 = (t − 2 ) 2 7 2 (c) x = −4. { a. y = −6 2 (g) m + 50m + 625 = (m + 25) 2 (e) x = 1. y = 0 or x = 1. y = 8 1(a) infinite (b) finite. y = −2 or x = −1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y = 4 or x = 2. y = 2 (d) x = 9. y = 3 (b) x = 5. y = 3 or x = 5. b = 4 and c = 25 6(a) x = 6. c } ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. y = 6 or x = 9.

5. 4. Julia Shea. 9 }. 9 } (f) { 1. 7. { 4. t. 8. (d) { c. 9. 10 } (d) { 2.’ It is true. 5. f. 4. 5. 2. (e) { 1. 9 } — leaving it alone. 6. David Sadler. 5. 8. 7. 9. n }. 9(a) { 2. 9. r. 7. (c) { 1. 7. 7. 10 } (b) { 1. { 4. 4. 4. 5. u. 3. t. RHS = 5 + 6 − 4 = 7 13(a) 10 (b) 22 (c) 12 14(a) (b) P Q P Q R R (c) P Q R 15 4 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 9. 8. 5. 5. w. 11 } 8 17 2 = 256 7(a) students who study both Japanese and His.542 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (d) ∅ 16(a) Every subset of a four member set can be- 6(a) { m. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 4. e. { o. 9 } 20 A ∪ B (e) { 2. 7. 10 } 21 If A ∈ A. 9 } 19 It is true. 2. m. 2. then A ∈ A. 5. 2. 6 } come a subset of a five member set in two ways (c) { 1. then A ∈ A. and adding the fifth member. o. 11(a)(i) (ii) 0 3 x 0 3 x (iii) (iv) 0 3 x 0 3 x (b)(i) (ii) −1 0 2 x −1 0 2 x (iii) (iv) −1 0 2 x −1 0 2 x (c)(i) (ii) −3 −1 0 1 4x −3 −1 0 1 4x (iii) (iv) −3 −1 0 1 4x −3 −1 0 1 4x 12(a) |A ∩ B| is subtracted so that it is not counted twice. 6. s. 8 }. a }. 10(a) III (b) I (c) I (d) II (e) IV Hence A is not well-defined. 5. { m } (b) { 2. 2. { 3. p. 11 }. (b) 5 (c) LHS = 7. 8. 3. r } n (b) An n-member set has 2 subsets. 18 ‘The set whose only member is the empty set tory (b) students who study either Japanese or is not equal to the empty set because the empty History or both set is a member of the set whose only member is 8(a) Q (b) P the empty set. If A ∈ A. e.

24 (b) 90. 34 (d) 16. 67. 15 2001 5 (b) n = 63 293. 3·11 3(a) 8. 98 (b) 6. √ . 72 (f) 780. which is in the form . 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ (c) 6 − 3 − 2 + 1 (d) 3 2 + 2 3 − 6 − 2 √ √ √ √ √ −3 = −3 1 4 1 . 31. √ √ √ √ 10(a) 2 3 − 1 (b) − 6 (c) 0 (d) 2 10 (e) 2 5 14(a) 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 28 √ √ √ √ √ √ (f) 4 3 − 5 2 (g) 3 6 + 6 2 (h) 3 3 − 13 15(c) 3·000 300 03 = 3. 13. 2 + 2+··· 1 + 2+··· 157. 72 (d) 210. 167. 13 90 1 (c) 72. 199 1 2+ 2(a) 2 × 3 (b) 2 × 3 × 5 (c) 2 × 3 3 2 3 2 (d) 2 × 3 × 7 2 1 4+ (e) 2 × 13 (f) 3 × 5 (g) 3 × 7 (h) 2 × 3 × 7 3 3 3 2 1 4+ 1 (i) 3 × 5 × 7 (j) 5 × 11 2 2 4 + 4+··· . 29. 181. √ √ √ (f) −2 (g) −1 (h) 14 − 8 3 (i) 4a + 1 − 4 a 8(b) 11 √ (j) a + 6 + 4 a + 2 (k) x − 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. LCM = 2 × 13 × 7 4 2 √ . Answers to Chapter Two 543 Chapter Two 11(c) . 173. 2 = 16 (b) 2 × 3 . 43. 13 π = . 193. 5. namely 2... 197. (The number you obtain 11(a) a = 192 (b) x = 275 (c) y = 15 (d) m = 24 may vary depending on the calculator used.. 3. LCM = 2 × 3 × 11 2 2 3 3 √ √ √ √ (g) 23 (h) 67 (i) 2 2 (j) 15 7 (k) 13 11 (l) 12 7 (b) HCF = 7 × 13. but RHS = 7. 19. 23. √ . 163. 37. 79. 8·65 12(a) the primes < 250. 3. Julia Shea. 97 (b) 151.) √ √ √ 12(a) 6 + 3 (b) 5 + 5 3√ (c) 6 3 − 12 √ √ √ (d) 3 21 − 7 2 (e) a + ab (f) 4 a − 4a Exercise 2B (Page 37)   (g) x2 + 2x + x (h) x − 1 + x2 − 1 2(a) rationals: 4 12 = 92 . 53. 79 p+1 p+1 p 14 14(a) Clearly n > a. 6·72 (d) HCF = 2 × 5 × 7. 73. p = 2000 (c) 63 4(a) 24. 451 = 11 × 41. 191. LCM = 2 × 3 × 5 × 7 2 5 2 2 √ . 61. 17. (f) 0·583̇ (g) 4·64 (h) 5·3̇6̇ (i) 2·875 (j) 2·83̇ √ √ √ 2(a) 4 (b) 9 (c) 6 (d) 2 3 (e) 3 3 (f) 2 5 3 6(a) 20 (b) 79 27 (c) 250 2 (d) 11 (e) 78 (f) 60 (g) 53 √ √ √ √ 25 11 (g) x 6 (h) 2y 2 (i) 22 (j) 5x (k) 6 2 (l) y y 40 (h) 33 (i) 19 98 (j) 15 √ 3 90 (m) 4 (n) 7 (o) 2x (p) y 4 7(a) 1·83̇ (b) 1·083̇ (c) 0·46̇ (d) 0·4̇32̇ (e) 0·0̇74̇ √ √ √ √ 3(a) 6 (b) 2 3 (c) 3 5 (d) 5 (e) 6 15 (f) 84 (f) 0·5416̇ (g) 3·1̇42857̇ (h) 1·21̇42857̇ (i) 2·0̇76923̇ √ √ √ √ (g) 15 3 (h) 12 (i) 6 15 (j) 20 21 (k) 36 6 (j) 1·2̇38095̇ √ √ 2 √ 2 √ (l) 420 3 (m) 6π 2 (n) 2a π π (o) 336x 33 8(a) 25 (b) 28 (c) 169 44 (d) 101 (e) 21 (f) 52 (g) 137 √ √ √ √ √ 33 27 37 90 4(a) 20 (b) 27 (c) 72 √(d) 150 √ (e) 48 (h) 129 (i) 257 5 (j) 44 √ √ √ 55 36 (f) 32 (g) 567 (h) 68 (i) 275x 2 (j) 216π 2 9 The digits of each cycle are in the same order. √ . 89. (c) 247 = 13 × 19. 0 = 01 . then they are equal. 5 = 51 . 1 1 2+ 1 2+ 1 47. 41. 2 × 11 = 44 2 2 4 2 2 √ √ √ √ 6(a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 2 3 (e) 12 (f) 25 11(a) HCF = 2 × 3 × 11. −5 34 = −23 . √ √ √ √ 9(a) 2 2 (b) 20 3 (c) 3 7 (d) 6 503 is prime. 11. David Sadler. showing that some fractions √ √ (i) 6 2 − 2 7 are not stored exactly. 14 15 (c) 26. n = n + n1 < a+b−a = b (f) 21. 7(a) 2 2 = 2·82 (b) 2 3 = 3·46 (c) 2 5 = 4·48 (c) HCF = 3 × 7 . 79 (e) 24. 16 = 1 2 (e) 26+6 6 (f) 19+ 7 (g) 4 5−2 15+2 3−3 √ √ √ ad + bc p (h) 6 3 − 3 10 − 30 + 5 3 2bd . (d) 3 2 = 4·23 (e) 3 3 = 5·19 (f) 3 5 =. 2 × 3 = 24 8 4 6 2 3 (h) 43 (c) 5 × 7 . Exercise 2A (Page 33) 1 1 2+ 1+ 1(a) 2. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . where p and q q √ √ √ 14(a) 2 2+3 (b) 2 (c) −4 (d) 4−2 3 (e) 5+2 6 are integers. 59. √ (g) 5 2 = . If one of a or b is zero. √ . (b) It is prime since 22 > 457. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √  4 13(a) 15+ 6− 10−2 (b) 10+ 15+ 2+ 3 4 = 21 (b) rationals: 27 = 31 . then LHS = 5. 71. 11. 5 × 7 = 35 (d) 2 × 11 . 13 √ 8 If a = 3 and b = 4. 727 is prime. LCM = 2 × 3 × 7 2 2 3 3 √ . 83. 7.  √ (k) 117y 3 (l) 864a4 but start at a different place in the cycle. π= . 173 105 293 5 401 (e) 216. √ . 7·05 (h) 5 3 = . 5. 329 = 7 × 47. 179. √ √ 5(a) 2 (b) 34 (c) 15 7 (d) 52 (e) 73 (f) 14 7 (g) 32 3 3 10(a) 2 . 49 = 23 . 780 Exercise 2C (Page 40) 5(a) 0·625 (b) 0·6̇ (c) 0·4375 (d) 0·5̇ (e) 0·15 1 The graph is steeper there. 333 106 . 1+ .. 1 1 12 1 + . 7. with error less than 10−4 .. 1001 = 7 × 11 × 13.

or x = 12 and y = 52 3 1(a) (b) 2 7 7 (c) 5 1111 (d) 5 (e) 2 (f) 6 7(a) a = 1. 0. y = 12 (g) x = −2 and y = −5. 1 (b) 6. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . b = −2 (b) a = 2. b = 1 √ (h) 5 9 7 (c) a = 12 . −2. −11 8(a) 3 − 6 √ √ √ (f) −2. range: y < 2 √ √ √ √ (m) x + 1 − x − 1 (n) x+y −2 xy (o) a+ b+ 2 ab (f) domain: x ≥ −1. g. range: all reals 6(a) 3 (b) 1 √ √ (i) domain: 0 ≤ x ≤ 3. 4 1(a) a = 7. b = 12 √ √ 16(a) 3 (b) 15 (c) 4 (d) 2 15 (e) a = 3. 21 (b) 1. y = 6 (f) x = 14. range: all real numbers √ √ 2( 5+1 ) √ √ x−y  a−b (g) domain: x = 0. 3. 2. b = −4 (d) a = 3. 10.544 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11  √ (l)2x − 1 + 2 (x + 1)(x − 2) (m) 32 + 12 5 (c) x = −7. 3. b = −2 (d) a = 5. z = 3 √ √ √ 15(a) 2 (b) 2 3 (c) 5 2 3 (d) 3 (e) 5 (f) 5 (g) 2 5(a) a = 2. y = 28 (b) x = 4. range: −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 7(a) 3 (b) 45 (c) −2 √ √ 17 (j) domain: x < 4. b = − 43 (c) 1. −6 (b)(i) 5 − 3 (ii) 7 + 17 (iii) − 12 + √1 = − 12 + 33 √ √ √ 3( 5+ 1) √ 3( 5+ 1) 3 3(a) 1+ 2 (b) −1− 2 (c) (d) − √ √ √ √ 4√ √ 4√ 3( 11+ 6 ) (e) √ 3 − 2 √ (f) 5− 3 2√ (g) 4+3 7 (h) √ √ 5 √ Exercise 2F (Page 50) 2 5 4(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 6 (d) 2 3 3 (e) 721 (f) 35 14 1 a. 0. −1 (d) 10. y = 180 (f) x = 3 and x = −3 2 2 4(a) x = 0. y = 12 (d) x = 11. y = 12 (f) x = 13 . 0. b = 20 9(a) 1. y = 12 10(a) −3 ≤ x ≤ 3 (b) x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 2 (c) x = 39. y = 5 (c) x > 0 (d) x = −1 (e) x = 3 and x = 2 (e) x = 9. David Sadler. range: y = 2 √ √ 3 x−6 47 √ q+ p (j) 4 + 15 (k) x−4 (l) q 2 −p (e) domain: all real numbers. y = 3 (b) x = 52 . h. 3. l √ √ (g) 17 2√ (h) 6 11 2(a) domain: all real numbers. z = 2 11(a) 64 (b) 28 (c) (x + 3) (d) x + 3 (e) 64 (h) 3 × 2 3x x (b) x = 20. −1 (b) 3. b = 12 (f) a = − 15 . y > 1 √ 2 9(a) 2 2 (b) 4 (c) 4 (d) x−1 (l) domain: all real numbers. range: y > 0 x+ h− x 8 h (k) domain: all reals. 2. d. −1. z = 3 (f) 12 (g) 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 1. y = −10. b = −2 (e) x ≤ 2 (f) x < 2 8(a) h −h+1 (b) −h +h+1 (c) h −1 (d) h −1 3 3 2 2 (e) a = 57 . range: y ≤ −1. 15. b = 18 (b) a = −1. b = 1 √ 2(a) 4. range: y ≥ −1 √ √ 11 √ √ 5(a) 2√ 2 + 5 3 2+4 (b) (c) 2( 5 + 3 ) (b) domain: all real numbers. Julia Shea. e. range: y < 1 √ 3(a) 2 (b) 0 (c) a − 2 (d) a − 2 (e) a + 4a + 2 2 2 2 10(b) 2 5 (c) 18 (d)(i) 6 (ii) 14 √ √ √ √ (f) x − 2x − 1 (g) −1 34 (h) 9t + 12t + 2 (i) t − 2 2 2 4 11(a) 2 3 (b) 3 11 (c) 3 + 2 2 (d) 7 − 2 6 √ √ √ √ 2 1 (j) t + t 2 1 (2 3 + 3 2 − 30 ) (b) 12 4 3 12(a) 12 √3 √ 3 4(a) 0 (b) −1 (c) 8 (d) 0 (e) t − 2t (f) t + 2t 2 2 (c) 4+ 2+1 (g) w − 4w + 3 (h) w − 2w − 1 (i) w − 1 2 2 2 14(a) 8·33 (b) 8·12 (j) x − 2x = g(x) 2 Exercise 2E (Page 46) 5(a) −3. 2. 12 3(a) x = 7. b = 3 6(a) all real numbers (b) x = 3 (c) x ≥ 0 (d) x > 0 (c) a = −7. or x = 5 and y = 2 Exercise √ 2D √ (Page√43) √ √ √ (h) x = 52 and y = 12 . b = 15 8 17(a) − ab (b) ac 6(a) x = 2. b = 2 (e) 13 16 (f) 34 (c) a = 3. y = −6 2 3 18(a) xy y (b) x y (c) x + 3 (d) (x + 1) x 2 (e) x(x + 1)y (f) x(x + 1) (e) x = 1. b. range: y > −1 √√ (d) 3 15−9 2√ (e) 28−10 7 (f) 2 2 − 3 (c) domain: all real numbers. b = 3 2(a) a = 2. 7. y = 1. z = 10 √ (n) 32 − 12 5 (d) x = 20. 0. y = 10. b = 12 (f) a = 23 . 1. y = 32 (d) x = 12. range: y = 0 (p) 2 (q) 21 − 15 (r) x2 + 2x − x (h) domain: all real numbers. b = −1 √3 √ 2 2 15 (g) 3 (h) 7 510 (c) a = 1. 4 (c) 2. 1 (e) 2. 6. b = −2 (d) a = 32 . b = 2 (f) a = 95 . 6. j. y = 8 √ √ (c) x = 92 . 4 (e) a = 43 . y = −3. b = 1 (b) a = 2. 4. b = 1 (b) a = −2. range: all reals √ 3√ √ √ (g) 1 + 3 (h) 9 2+ 21−3 42−7 (i) 2 − 3 (d) domain: all real numbers. b = 12 (d) a = − 12 .

0) and (0. 2) (g) intercepts: (3. −1) x (h) intercepts: (4. 0) and (0. −2 x 6 ber.  2   −3 15(b) s(x) = 12 c(2x) − 1 −6 Exercise 2G (Page 56) (e) intercepts: (1. or b = 0 and a is any real number. 0) and (0. David Sadler. 0) and (0. Answers to Chapter Two 545 13(a) all real values of a and b (c) (d) y y (b) all real values of a and b (c) no solutions (d) no solutions (e) a = 0 and b is any real num. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .5 x −1 x −1 1 x (e) (f) (c) (d) y y y y 2 2 2 x −1 1 1 2 1 x −1 1 x −1 1 x (g) (h) (e) (f) y y y y 2 x 9 −2 2x 1 −3 3 1 x x −3 −4 2(a) (b) (g) (h) y y y y −1 1 2 4 x −1 −2 2 1 x −2 −1 x 2 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Julia Shea. x 14 It approaches 2·72. 0) and (0. 0) and (0. 1) 1(a) (b) y y (f) intercepts: (−1. −2) (i) intercepts: (6. 0) and (0. −4) 1 x (j) intercepts: (−6. 0) and (0. −7 12 ) (c) (d) 3(a) (b) y y y y −1 1 3 x 1 −1. 5) −2 (l) intercepts: (3. −1 12 ) (k) intercepts: (2.

Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .546 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 4(a) (b) (e) (f) y y y y −1 1 4 3 x −2 4x 8 −1 −1 3 3 1 x 2 4 x −8 −9 −1 (c) (d) (g) (h) y y y y 4 16 −6 −3 3x 14 −4 −2 x 12 −4 12 −12 −2 −7 −2 x 2 6 x −9 −6 14 (e) (f) (i) 6 The curves are all y y y sketched in the notes 4 of Section 2G. Julia Shea. 4 1 12 −2 12 3 x −4 −1 x −2 14 −2 1 4 −2 2 x The ranges are: 7(a) y (b) y (a) y ≥ −1 (b) y ≥ −9 (c) y ≤4 (d) y ≤ 16 3 1 (e) y ≥ −2 14 (f) y ≥ −2 14 5(a) (b) y y x 1 3 x 8 −3 −2 4 (c) y (d) y −4 x 3 2 −1 2 x 1 2 (c) (d) y y 1 2 x 3 2 x 5 11 1 −1 x 1 2 x −11 (e) y (f) y 2 −36 −1 1 −2 2 x x −1 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. David Sadler.

−3 ≤ y ≤ 3 (g) (h) y y (i) − 12 ≤ x ≤ 0. Answers to Chapter Two 547 (g) y (h) y 9(a) (b) 2 12 y y 3 3 3 −2 12 2 12 x 3 x 1 1 −3 1 x −1 x (i) y (c) (d) y y 10 10 1 2 − 12 x − 12 1 1 1 x −1 x The domains and ranges are respectively: (e) (f) (a) −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. − 32 ≤ y ≤ 32 (e) −2 ≤ x ≤ 2. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y y 10(a) (b) 3 y y 2 10 18 −1 1 x 7 x −4 12 1 −1 −2 14 x −2 2 −3 1 2 3 x 1 2 −9 Each domain is x = 0. −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 y y (b) −3 ≤ x ≤ 3. each range is y = 0. 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 1 1 3 x (f) −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. − 21 ≤ y ≤ 12 8(a) (b) y y 1 1 2 1 4 x 1 10 x 1 −1 1 x 1 x −1 −1 −2 For parts (a)–(e). the domain is (c) (d) x > 0. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. and the range is y > 0. Julia Shea. and the range is all real y. − 12 ≤ y ≤ 12 2 (d) − 32 ≤ x ≤ 32 . 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 12 −1 x (h) 0 ≤ x ≤ 3. the domain is all real x. For parts (f)–(h). −1 ≤ y ≤ 0 (g) −2 12 ≤ x ≤ 2 12 . −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 1 (c) − 12 ≤ x ≤ 12 . David Sadler.

y ≥ 0 (d) x ≤ 4. y ≥ 0 (f) x ≤ 0.−6) 7 − 37 3 2 −1 x (c) (d) −2 y y −5 ( 14 .548 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (c) (d) 13(a) (b) y y y y 1 2 13 − 13 x 2 1 −7 25 1 x 1 −16 1 2 3 x 1 x (e) (f) (c) (d) y y y y 16 3 15 2 7 3 1 1 − 12 x − 35 x 4 5 x 3 4 x 1 12 3 12 1 5 1 11(a) y = (x − 2)2 − 1 (b) y = (x + 1)2 − 9 (e) (f) y y y y −1 −4 2x 3 1 1 1 2 −8 x −9 −1 3 1 x −1 x (c) y = (x + 1 12 )2 − 1 4 (d) y = (x − 12 )2 + 3 4 The domains and ranges are respectively: y y (a) x ≥ 0.−6) 2− 7 3 3 1 3 x −1 ( 23 . Julia Shea. −437 ) 7 + 37 y y 2 6 3 −5 x (−1. y ≤ 1 (c) x ≥ 4.4 18 ) 4 2+ 7 x (2. y ≥ 1 (b) x ≥ 0. David Sadler.−2 13 ) 1− 33 1+ 33 x 4 4 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. y ≥ 0 2 1 (e) x ≥ 0. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y ≥ 0 3 −1 1 2 4 14(a) y (b) y −1 2 3 −2 − 1 x 1 x x 4 2 12(a) (b) 1 y y −3 −1 − 6 x 1 −1 + 6 x 3 (c) (d) ( 27 .

−2). 0). (1. −4). −1 1 x x (−4. (− 12 . Inverse is a function: (a). (3. 11 x+2  2 16 3(a) y = (b) y = 2x − 2 (c) y = 6 − 2x 20(a) y = (4x − 1) 1 − x 2 2 3 (d) y − x + 1 = 0 (e) 2y + 5x − 10 = 0 (f) x = 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. (−4. 4). (1. 0). (0. (0. 3) −2 −3 (h) (−1. 1) (b) (0. 2b ) (c) 2 units √ . (3. (1.1) √ (d) r = 17. (h) 19(a) a = 14 . = . (1. b = 34 . (3. −1). −4). 0). (2. 0). −2). (4. (3. (2. (4. (c) (d) (−2. Answers to Chapter Two 549  (e) y (f) y or y = −(4x2 − 1) 1 − x2 (b) −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 1 (c) (−1. 1). −1). David Sadler. Julia Shea. (1. 0).−1) 1 2 2 16(a) y = (b) x + y = 2 x y y (e) (f) y y 2 2 2 2 x x −1 1 x x −2 (d) y (g) (h) y y 1 2 −1 1 x −1 −4 x 1 x −2  17(a) (0. (3. (−1. 0). (f). (0. 4). (−3. −1) √ (c) r = 10. (c). (1. 1). −4). (d). −1). −5) (e) (1. (−1. c = 1 (b) 2= . 2 3 (3. 1). 1) (f) (1. −1) 2 x 3 x (g) (−4. (4. −3) (c) (0. 3). 0). (1. (−2. 6) (d) (−1. 3). −3). (2. 1) √ 15(a) r = 5. −1) (−1. (−1. 4). . ( 12 . 1). 23 √1 16 . −1). −1). −1) (−1. 2 λ2 − α2 ) (b) r = λ 2 Original is a function: all except (f) 2 18(a) P ( 2b . (1. 2). (−1. 2). (1. −3). (−1. 1). −1) y y √ (b) r = 2. −2). (1. 1) 1 2 x (d) −1 y −1 1 x −2 1 −1 (g) (h) −1 1 x y y −1 4 1 3 −1 34 x 1 x Exercise 2H (Page 62) 1(a) (b) −1 y y intersection points: (a) (0. 0). Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .

where x ≤ 0 (d) y = log2 x 5 y y 2 2 ( 107 . for example 1 f (1) = f (−1) = 1. 1 3 5x 1 x −1 (b) f (x) = x . so the inverse is not a function. Julia Shea. 2 8(a) x + (y − 3) = 4 2 2 (b) y = − log2 x 1 y y x 5 −2 2 1 x −2 3 1 10(a) It fails the horizontal line test.550 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 4(a) (b) (e) x = y2 + 1 (f) y = 3x y y y y 1 1 (2.−1) 2 −2 x (e) It fails the horizontal line test. for example y y f (1) = f (−1) = 1. 2 2 −1 1 (d) f (x) = (x − 1) 3 −4 (−1. so the inverse is not a function. 2 (c) (x+1)2 +(y+1)2 = 9 (d) x = y 2 − 4 (c) It fails the horizontal line test. x √ −2 −1 (f) f (x) = 9 − x (g) It fails the horizontal line test. so the inverse is not a function. for example −4 −4 f (1) = f (−1) = 13 . 107 ) 1 1 2 1 −1 x 1 2 x 2 5 x 2 x 5(a) y = x−1 (b) y = x − 1 (c) y = x−1 1 1 2x+ 2 −1 2x (d) y = 3−x  (e) x=− 4 − y2 (f) y = log 32 x 6 Each inverse is identical to the original function. so the inverse is not a function. −1 1 − 3x (h) f (x) = 1+x √ −1 √ −1 (i) f (x) = − x (j) f (x) = 1 + 1 + x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. David Sadler.2) x −1 1 x −1 x −1 1 x 1 2 3 6 −1 (e) (f) y y (c) y = x2 .2) 3 −2 1 x −2 1 x 1 1 −2 −2 1 x 1 3 x (c) (d) 9(a) x = y2 (b) x = 2y − y 2 y y y y 6 1 2 1 1 3 (2. where x ≥ 0. y y Therefore the graph must be symmetric about the line y = x. for example −4 2 f (1) = f (−1) = 8. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .

Answers to Chapter Two 551 √ x+1 y = log2 (x + 2) y= 1 (k) f −1 (x) = 1 − 1 + x (l) f −1 (x) = (c) (d) x−3 x−1 y y 12(b) The inverse of the first. Julia Shea. x = −y . and neither of these 1 functions has an inverse that is a function. −2 −1 x 3 x 13(a) 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 (b) x > 0 y y y= f −1 ( x) y = f ( x) 2 (e) x2 + (y − 1)2 = 9 (f) y = (x + 1)2 − 4 2 x y y −2 1 y = f −1 ( x ) y = f ( x) 4 −2 1 x −3 1 x 1 (c) x < −1 or x ≥ 1 (d) −1 ≤ x◦ ≤ 1◦ ◦ −3 3 x y y −3 −2 (−1.−4) 1 1 y = f ( x) y = f −1 ( x ) √ −1 −1 (g) x(y + 1) = 1 (h) y = x + 2 1 x 1 x y y −1 −1 y = f ( x) 4 y = f −1 ( x ) 1 x x≥0 −1◦ < x◦ < 1◦ 2 (e) (f) −1 y y y = f −1 ( x ) 4 x & 1 y = f ( x) y = f −1 ( x ) 2(a) y = −x2 (b) y = 2−x −1 1 x 1 −1 y y y = f ( x) 1 x x 2 14 log3 (x ) = 2 log3 (x) √ 2 if x < 0. Instead we must write log3 (x2 ) = 2 log3 ( x2 ). The second is a natural restriction of 1 the domain of the first in order that its inverse √ y = −x is a function. David Sadler. is not a 2 function. −1 x Exercise 2I (Page 66) (c) y = 2x (d) y = − x1 1(a) y = (x − 1)2 (b) y = 2x − 3 y y y y 1 x 2 −1 1 x 1 −1 1 −2 1 x 1 x −3 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .

0) (b) r = 1. (−7. 1) 2 x 4 4(a)(i) (ii) y y 1 −4 1 2 x 3 −3 1 2 4 x −2 −1 1x (b) From y = x2 : (i) shift 9 down (ii) shift 9 up −1 −1 (iii) shift 3 right y (i) y (b)(i) (ii) y y 9 2 2 x 1 1 x (ii) y (iii) y −4 −3 −2 −1 x −3 −2 −1 1 x (c)(i) (ii) y y −3 3x −1 1 9 2 2 x −9 3 x 1 −1 (c) From y = x2 : (i) shift 1 left −1 1 2 x (ii) shift 1 left and reflect in x-axis (iii) shift 1 left. (−1. (1. 2) (d) r = 5. (5. (−3. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .552 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (e) x2 + y 2 = 9 (f) x = y2 − 4 (d)(i) (ii) y y y y 2 3 2 1 1 −3 3x −4 x x 1 2 −1 1 x −2 −3 √ 5(a) From y = 2x: (i) shift up 4 (or left 2) (g) −xy = 1 (h) y= −x (ii) shift down 4 (or right 2) y y (iii) reflect in y-axis and shift up 4 y (i) y 1 x 2 4 x −1 1 x −2 x 3(a) r = 2. (1. 4) (e) r = 3. David Sadler. reflect in x-axis and shift up 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 2) (ii) y (iii) y (c) r = 3. Julia Shea. −4) (f) r = 6.

5) (ii) shift up 1.−2) −4 x −2 − 5 (x − 2)2 + (y − 5)2 = 9. centre: (2. Answers to Chapter Two 553 y (i) y (ii) y (iii) y 1 12 x 1 1 −3 −2 x x −1 x (ii) y (iii) y 6(a) (b) y y −1 −1 − 2 2 x −1 1 1 2 x x − 12 x −1 1 1 2 −1 + 2 2 √ (d) From y = x : (i) shift 4 left (c) (d) (ii) shift 4 left and reflect in x-axis y 1 y 2 2 (iii) reflect in x-axis y (i) y 2 x −1 x −2 2 2 −1 −2 12 4 x −4 x (e) (f) y y 3 12 (ii) y (iii)y 3 23 4 3 −4 4 −2 13 2 34 x x x x −2 3 −2 −2 7(a) y (b) y 5+ 5 1 −1 1 x (e) From y = : (i) shift up 1 −3 + 10 x (2. Julia Shea. −3) 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. r = 3. centre: (0. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . left 2 −3 (iii) reflect in the x-axis or in the y-axis 5− 5 y (i) y x −3 − 10 (c) (d) y y 1 1+ 2 8 x x −1 x (−2. David Sadler. 5) (a) √ x + (y + 3)2 = 10.4) 1− 2 −2 + 5 (1. r = 10 .

2 2 √ √ √ √ 4 3 so ( 1+ 2 41 . −2) 4 8(a) (x + 1) + (y − 2) = 25 (b) On the line y = x. 1+ 2 41 ) and ( 1−2 41 . down 1. 4) (i) (j) √ y y (x − 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 6. down 1. y + 1 = x−2 1 −1 1 x x (k) (l) (c) The exponential y = 2 reflected in the x-axis. y y shifted 1 up. centre: (1. r = 6 .554 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ (x + 2)2 + (y − 4)2 = 20. centre: (−2. y = −(x − 3)2 + 1 x 1 1 10(a) (b) y y −2 −1 1 2x 3 −4 −1 1 1 2 x (m) y (n) y −1 1 2 −4 4 2 5 x −2 4 −1 1 1 (c) (d) 1 y y −2 x −1 x 4 −1 2 −4 (o) (p) −3 2 x y y 1 2 −3 3 −2 −1 1 x 1 (e) (f) −3 3 x y y 1 23 4 −2 5 x 2 −1 2 (q) (r) y y 1 1 2 −2 1 x −1 1 −1 1 x −1 1 (g) (h) 1 x y y 5 −1 1 x 1 2 (s) (t) y y 2 5 x − 13 1 x − 13 1 −1 1 2 x 1 x − 1 −1 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 1−2 41 ) 2 9(a) The parabola y = x shifted left 2. Julia Shea. then −3 4 shifted 3 right and 1 up. r = 2 5 . y = 1 − 2x 2 2 (d) The parabola y = x reflected in y = 0. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . David Sadler. 2 −4 4 x y + 1 = (x + 2)2 1 −4 (b) The hyperbola xy = 1 shifted right 2.

x = f (−y). Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . −y = f (−x). y = f (x) 1 1 Exercise 2J (Page 71) −1 1(a) (b) y 1 x x −1 1 y 18 −1 −1 6 −2 2 (b) −8 −4 x y 3 6 12 x y −4 4 −8 2 1 −2 1 x −2 1 2 x ( −21 . −x = f (y). −y = f (x − a). −y = f (x). y = f (x) y y (d) −x = f (y). 13(a) y − a = f (x). Julia Shea. x −1 1 y = f (x) −1 1 x (b) y = f (x − a).−2 14 ) −2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Answers to Chapter Two 555 (u) (v) 2(a)(i) (ii) y y y y 1 2 1 −1 1 −1 −2 1 x 1x 2x −1 −1 1 2 x −1 −2 −1 (w) (x) (b)(i) (ii) y y y y 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 4 x x −1 1 −2 −2 −4 −2 2 4 x −2 −1 1 2 x (y) (c)(i) (ii) y y y 1 2 1 −1 1 x 1 −2 2 4 x −1 −1 1 2 x 11(a) x + 2y − 2 = 0 (b) x + 2y − 2 = 0 (d)(i) (ii) y y (c) Both shifts yield the same result. y = f (x − 2a) 3(a) (c) x = f (y). 12 y − y1 = m(x − x1 ) is the line y = mx shifted 1 1 right by x1 and up by y1 . −y − a = f (x). −y = f (x). −y = f (x − 2a). David Sadler.

David Sadler. vertically by factor 4 2 (c) stretch horizontally by factor 12 −1 1 x −1 x y y 1 1 1 (c) y y 1 x 2 x 2 −1 1 y y x 1 4 1 1 x (d) y y 2 x 1 2 1 x 1 x 5(a) (b) y y 1 2 x 1 1 1 −3 1 2 x −1 x y −1 −1 y 7(a) 2 1 x 4 1 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .556 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (c) (c) 6(a) y y y y 1 2 1 −1 1 1 2 x 1 x −1 −1 1 x x −1 1 (d) y y y y 2 2 1 −1 −1 −1 −1 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x −1 −2 −2 (b) 4(a) stretch horizontally by factor 2 y y (b) stretch horizontally by factor 2. Julia Shea.

0). k k 2 1 or stretch horizontally by k . Julia Shea. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 0). Answers to Chapter Two 557 (b) y (c) y y y 2 2 1 1 x 4 x −1 1 x 2 x −2 1 −1 −2 (a) reflect in the x-axis and translate up 2 (b) stretch vertically by a factor of 2. 0) (d) a figure eight  2 (e) (x − 1) + ( 2 ) = (x − 1)2 − ( y2 )2 2 y 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. = x . David Sadler. y = 2(x+ 1) y 1 (ii) stretch along both axes by k. (1. or reflect in the y-axis. y2 = 2x . y = 31x . and translate down 2 (c) reflect in y-axis and translate right 4. or trans- late left 4 and reflect in y-axis 8(a) (b) y y 1 1 −1 1 −1 1 − 2 2 x − 2 2 x −1 −1 9 y 1 1 −1 x −1 x 10(a)(i)stretch vertically by factor 2. y = x k2 (iii)reciprocal. (0. or translate left by 1. y = 3−x √ 11 stretch horizontally by factor 3 and vertically √ by factor 3 3 12(c) (−1.

558 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 Chapter Three (e) x< 1 2 or x > 5 (f) −4 ≤ x ≤ − 53 y y Exercise 3A (Page 76) 1(a) x>1 (b) x≤2 20 5 1 x 2 x (c) x > −2 (d) x<3 1 2 5 x −4 − 53 x −2 x 3 x (e) x ≥ −1 (f) x<2 6(a) −3 < x < 1 (b) x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 4 y y −1 x 2 x (g) x<2 (h) x≥3 4 2 x 3 x −3 1 x (i) x≥3 (j) x ≤ −2 x x −3 1 4 x 3 −2 (k) x>2 (l) x ≤ −2 (c) x < −4 or x > −2 (d) −2 ≤ x ≤ 3 2 x −2 x y y 2(a) −2 ≤ x < 3 (b) 3 <x≤5 4 −2 3 x x 4 5 x −2 3 3 8 (c) − 12 ≤ x ≤ 2 (d) 12 ≤x<4 − 12 2 x 1 2 4x −4 −2 x 3(a) x > 4 (b) x ≤ 2 (c) x < 2 (d) x ≤ −1 −6 (e) −2 ≤ x < 1 (f) −6 ≤ x ≤ 15 (e) −1 < x < 1 12 (f) −1 < x < 4 4(a) 0 < x < 4 (b) x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3 y y (c) x ≤ 0 or x ≥ 2 −1 1 1 x 5(a) −2 < x < 4 (b) x < −1 or x > 3 2 y y 4 −2 4x −1 3x −3 −1 4 x 7(a) −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (b) x < 0 or x > 3 (c) x ≤ −12 or x ≥ 12 (d) x < 0 or x > 0 (or simply x = 0) (c) 2≤x≤5 (d) x ≤ −3 or x ≥ −1 (e) x = 3 (f) 1 ≤ x ≤ 3 y y 8(a) x < 0 or x ≥ 12 (b) 3 < x < 5 (c) −4 < x ≤ −2 12 (d) x < 32 or x > 4 2 5 x (e) 1 < x < 3 (f) 53 < x ≤ 3 9 The curve is always above the line. Julia Shea. David Sadler. 10(a) false: x = 0 (b) false: x = 12 −3 −1 x (c) true (d) false: x = 12 or x = −2 (e) false: x = −1 (f) true (g) false: x = −1 (h) true 13(a) 12 < x ≤ 3 (b) −3 < x < −2 (c) x < 1 or x ≥ 3 (d) x < − 17 or x > 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .

with solution x < 2 17(a) x ≥ 3 (b) 0 < x ≤ 3 (c) −4 ≤ x ≤ 4 (d) x < −4 (e) 0 < x < 8 (f) 25 1 ≤ x ≤ 625 x −2 2 18(a) true (b) false: a = −2. 1 3 x (f) x = −2 or x ≥ 0 or x − y = (x + y)(x − y) > 0 so x2 > y 2 . Answers to Chapter Three 559 14 The two lines are parallel and thus the first is (b) (c) always below the second. b = 1 (e) true (f) false: a = 1. (ii) n > 0 √ 4(a) f (x) = x(x − 2)(x + 2) (b) f (x) = x2 (x − 5) 22(a) Put x = a and y = √1a . Julia Shea. −2 25(a) 2(a + b + c − ab − bc − ac) 2 2 2 2 x 5 x (b) 2(a + b + c − 3abc) 3 3 3 Exercise 3B (Page 81) 1 2(a) y y (c) f (x) = x(x − 2)2 y 1 3 −1 1 x 2 x −3 −1 x 5(a) −2 < x < 0 or x > 2 (b) x < 0 or 0 < x < 5 (c) x ≤ 0 or x = 2 6(a) x < 1 or 3 < x < 5 (b) x = 1 and x = 3 (alternatively. 2 2 or otherwise. b = 2 19(a) −4 ≤ 4t < 12 (b) −3 < −t ≤ 1 (f) 3(a) x ≤ 0 or 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 y (c) 6 ≤ t + 7 < 10 (d) −3 ≤ 2t − 1 < 5 (b) −2 < x < 0 (e) 0 ≤ 12 (t + 1) < 2 (f) −2 ≤ 12 (3t − 1) < 4 or 2 < x < 4 √ (c) 0 < x < 3 or x > 3 (g) 12 ≤ 2 < 8 (h) 0 ≤ t + 1 < 2 t 9 (d) x = 0 or x ≥ 4 20(a) 7 < x + 3 < 19 (b) 3 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 12 2 2 2 2 (e) x = −3 or x = 3 21(b)(i) Either x > xy > y . −1 1 2 x (d) (e) −1 y y 16 5x − 4 < 7 − 12 x. y y 2 2 2 2 2 23 x + xy + y = 12 (x + y ) + 12 (x + y) or otherwise. −2 2 tion is where the diago. The y solution to the inequa. √ √ (b) Put x = a and y = b . 1 x 2 4 x 1 nal line lies between the −4 horizontal lines. y y 15(a) (b) −1 ≤ x < 2. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . David Sadler. b = −1 (c) true −4 −2 2 x (d) false: a = −1. x < 1 or 1 < x < 3 or x > 3) (c) −2 < x ≤ 4 (d) −3 < x < 0 or x > 3 (e) −3 < x < −1 (f) x < 0 or 0 < x < 5 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.

x = −1. 0 or 1 1 1 (b) y = (x − 2)(x − 1)(x + 1). undefined at x = 3. then it is odd. x = −2 or 2 2 −1 1 x −1 1 x 8(a) y (b) y −1 2 (c)(i) (ii) y y −1 −1 1 x x 1 2 1 −1 1 −2 1 −2 2 x −1 2 x (c) y −1 −1 x 4(a) even (b) neither (c) odd (d) even −2 2 −8 (e) neither (f) odd (g) odd (h) neither If a function is a sum of multiples of odd powers of x. x = −1. If the sum involves for x < 0 or x > 3. positive 5(a) y = (x + 3)(x − 3) (b) y = (x − 1)(x − 5) for x < −2 or x > 4. 1 or 2 (c) y = (x + 2) (x − 2). then it is even. positive for x < −3 or x > −1. Julia Shea. then it is neither. David Sadler. undefined at x = −1. (b) zero for x = 4. positive even powers. negative for −3 < x < −1 5 10(a) x ≤ −4 or −3 < x ≤ 1 (b) −2 < x < −1 12 or x > 12 x x −3 3 1 5 (c) − 12 ≤ x < 1 12 or x ≥ 2 12 −9 Exercise 3C (Page 84) (c) y = x(x − 5)(x + 5) (d) y = x2 (x − 2)(x + 2) 1(a) x = −1 (b) x = 32 (c) all real numbers y y (d) all real numbers (e) x ≥ 0 (f) x ≥ 1 (g) x ≤ 7 (h) x ≥ −4 −5 2(a)(i) y (ii) y 5 x −2 2 x 1 1 −2 −1 −2 −1 1 2 x 1 2 x (e) y = x2 (x + 5) (f) y = x(x−2)(x+2)(x2 +4) −1 y y −2 −5 x 2 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . negative for 0 < x < 3 even and odd powers. If it is a sum of multiples of 9(a) zero for x = 0. negative for −2 < x < 4 y y (c) zero for x = −3. undefined at x = −2.560 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (g) x ≤ 0 or x ≥ 5 (h) −2 ≤ x < 0 or x ≥ 2 (b)(i) y (ii) y (i) x < −3 or 0 < x ≤ 2 7(a) y = x(x + 1)(x − 1).

Julia Shea. (e) x > −4 (f) x > 1 (g) all real x (h) x = 3 y= y= −2x. f (0) = −f (0) = −c. for x < 1. 2 x 2(a) 5 (b) 3 (c) 7 (d) 3 (e) 3 (f) 3 (g) 16 (h) −3   3(a) x = 3 or − 3 (b) x = 5 or − 5 x − 2. for x < 0. for x ≥ 0. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . for x ≥ 0. 1. 0. For |x| − 2: −1. 1. (b) The graph will fail the horizontal x 3 line test unless it is a single point on the y-axis. In the second. Then since f (x) is odd. 2 + x. and hence c = 0. for x ≥ 0. 0. −1. for x ≥ 2. for x < 0. g(x) and h(x) are not defined for y=  y=  all x in the natural domain of f (x). for x ≥ 0. (b) It is not defined at the origin (it is 1 for x > 0. Then −x = f (y). x + 3. −2. and thus f −1 (−x) = −f −1 (x) as required. y y Exercise 3D (Page 89) 2 1(a) For |x − 2|: 3. for x < 0. 2 − x. for x ≥ −3. 2. for x < 0. for x ≥ 0. So c = −c. −x − 3. y= y= 1 − x. from y y which it follows x = f (−y) since f is odd. and −1 for x < 0). 3 − x. (e) x = 6 or − 5 (f) x = 2 or − 3 13 6 An absolute value can not be negative. for x ≥ 1. 1. (e) (f) −1 12(a) Let y = f (−x). for x < 2. specifically at x − 1. x + 3. x = 0 is the only place at −x − 1. 2 x. for x < 0. Hence −y = f −1 (x). 7(a) x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 2 (b) x < −2 or x > 2 (c) (d) 8(a) −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 (b) −2 < x < 2 (c) −5 ≤ x ≤ 5 y y (d) −5 < x < 5 (e) x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 2 (f) x < −2 or x > 2 9(a) even (b) even (c) odd (d) neither 3 10(a)(i) even (ii) even (iii) odd (b)(i) even (ii) odd 1 (iii) in general. for x < −3. David Sadler. 2 −2 2 x (b) The first is y = |x| shifted right 2 units. −1 1 13(b)(i) g(x) = 1 + x and h(x) = −2x 2 −1 2 x + 2 −x −x and h(x) = 2 −2 x (ii) g(x) = 2 2 x (c) In the first. x = −1. the second is y = |x| shifted down 2 units. y= y= (c) x = 10 or − 4 (d) x = 5 or − 7 2 − x. − 12 x.   x − 1. Answers to Chapter Three 561 (g) y = x(x−2)2 (x+2)2 (h) y = x(x − 3)(x + 3)2 5(a) (b) y y y y 2 −2 x 1 2 −3 3 x −1 1 x −2 2 x x = 1 (b) x = 4 (c) x = −1 (d) x = 2  1 6(a) 2x. neither 1 x −3 x 11(a) Suppose f (0) = c. (g) (h) which g(x) and h(x) are defined. (g) x = 75 or − 11 5 (h) x = 2 or − 87 7(a) even (b) neither (c) odd (d) even 4(a) false: x = 0 (b) true (c) true 8(a) −1 < x < 5 (b) 13 ≤ x ≤ 3 (d) false: x = −2 (e) true (f) true 1 x −1 5 x 3 3 (g) false: x = −2 (h) true ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.

the −4 second when x is nega. for x ≥ 1. 2 (b) x > 1 19(a) 3 y 4 −1 2 x − 12 3 x −1 1 3 x (iii) 10(a) The first holds −2 y when x is positive. y = −2x. x −1 ⎧ −1 ⎨ −2x − 3. 3(x + 1).562 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (c) x ≥ 9 or x ≤ 5 (d) −2 < x < 1 (f) false: x = −2 14(a) x = 1 5 9 x −2 1 x 1 1 (b) y = x−1 . or −10 < x < −6 (b) −1 1 x y (ii) 3 ≤ x < 4 12 or 12 < x ≤ 2 11 y (a) y is undefined 1 for x = 0. for x > 0. −1 2 1 (c) y = 1. for x ≥ 3. for x < −1. for x ≥ 2. for x ≥ 0. x2 + 2x. for x ≥ −1. ⎨ −x − 4. y = −1. for x ≥ 0. (e) x > 2 or x < 1 3 (f) x≥ 2 5 or x ≤ −2 17(a) (b) y y 1 3 2 x −2 2 5 x 1 9(a)(i) (ii) −2 y y x −1 −2 2 x 3 3 −3 −1 y = y = 1 3 x 1 3 x x + 1. and x −2 3 y = −1. for x < −1. y = 2x − 2. 13(a) false: x = 2 and y = −2 (b) true y = 3x. for x < −1. for x < −1. y = 0. Julia Shea. and y = 1−x . ⎩ (c) false: x = 2 and y = −2 (d) true (e) true x + 2. for x < 1. for −1 ≤ x < 2. ⎧ y = 0. ⎧ tive. for −1 ≤ x < 1. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. for x > 1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . for x < 0. David Sadler. ⎩ 2x − 5. 12(a) y (b) y (c) y 2 2 3 −4 −1 1 x 1 x −1 x −3 y = 2x. x2 − 2x. (b)(i) −2 < x < 2 ⎩ 4. ⎨ −4. for x ≥ 0. for x < 0. for x < 0. (b)(i) y (ii) y 18(a) An absolute value must be positive. for x < 0. for −1 ≤ x < 3.

Answers to Chapter Three 563

20(a)(i) (ii) (a) (b)
y y
y y
3 1
1
2
1 2 x
1
4 x
x x −2
1
(b) 21 (c) (d)
y y y
y
1
1
−1 −1
1 x x x
2 1
−2 −1
1 x

22(a) |x − a| + |x − b| = (x − a) + (b − x) < c 5(a) x ≥ 4 (b) 0 < x < 1 (c) x < −1 or 0 < x < 2
(d) −1 < x < 0 or x > 1
( x − a) (b − x )
6(a) 2 solutions (b) 3 solutions
a x b y y
(b)|x − a| + |x − b| = (x − a) + (x − b) = (b − a) + 1
2(x − b) < c
( x − b) x
(b − a) 2
2
a b x
1 x
(c)|x − a| + |x − b| = (a − x) + (b − x) = (b − a) +
(c) 3 solutions (d) 3 solutions
2(a − x) < c y y
(a − x )
(b − a)
−1 1
2
x a b
1 x 4 x
(d)The result follows directly from parts (a), (b)
and (c). (e) −3 < x < 7

Exercise

3E √
(Page 93) (e) no solutions (f) no solutions
. . y y
1(a) 2 =
. 1·4, 3 =. 1·7 (b) y = 2 and y = 3
(c) x = −1 or x = 2 (d) x < −1 or x > 2
(e) x = −2 or x = 1, −2 ≤ x ≤ 1
. . −1
(f) x =. 1·62 or x =. −0·62
−2 1 x −1 x
(g)(i) Draw y = −x, x = 0 or x = −1.
. .
−1
(ii) Draw y = x + 12 , x = . 1·37 or x = . −0·37.
(iii) Draw y = 12 x + 12 , x = 1 or x = − 12 .
2(a) x ≤ −3 (b) 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 (c) x = 1
3(a) x < −2 or x > 1 (b) 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
(c) −1 < x < 0 or x > 1
4(a) (4, 2), x − 2 = 3 − 14 x (b) (0, 0) and (1, 1),
x = 2x − x2 (c) (−1, −2) and (2, 1), x2 = x − 1
(d) (−1, −1) and (0, 0) and (1, 1) x = x
3

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

564 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

7(a) y (b)The graph of (c) −2 < x < 2
(d) x < −4 or x > 23
3
. .
y = |x + 1| is always 16(a) x =
. 1·1 (b) x =
. 1·2
1 above the graph y
y
of y = 12 x − 1. 2
−1 2 x
−1 2 1

1
1 2 x
8(a) (−4, 3), (2, 3) (b) (1, 1)
y y 1 2 x
. . .
(c) x=
. 0·5 or x =. 1·9 (d) x = 0 or x =
. 1·8
3 y y
2
1 1 1
−4 −1 2 x 1 2 x
2 x

(c) (−1, 2), (2, 4) (d) (−1, 0) 1 2 x
y y
17(a) −1 ≤ x < 1 or x ≥ 2 (b) x<2
2
(c) −3 < x < 1 or x > 2
4 y y

2 2
−1 1 x 1
−1 x
x −1 2 x 2
−1 2 −1
9(a) −4 ≤ x ≤ 2 (b) x < 1 (c) x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2 −2
(d) x < −1
10(b) The right-hand branch is y = x, which gives 18(a)
solution x = 3, and the left-hand branch is y y
y = −x, which gives solution x = −3. 4
2
(c) −3 ≤ x ≤ 3
−3
11(a) (b) x = 2 or − 2 1
y 2 x −2
(c) x < −2 or x > 2
−4 1 2 x
−2
2
−2

−1 1 ⎨ −3x − 8, for x < −2,
−2 2 x y = x, for −2 ≤ x < 1,
−1 ⎩
3x − 2, for x ≥ 1.
−2
(b) −3 13 ≤ x ≤ −2 13 or −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 13
19(b) b < m (c) −p ≤ m ≤ p and b < − p
qm
12 (c) c > 12
y 2
13(b) b < 92 20 x ≤ −2 or 1 12 < x ≤ 2
y
14(a) 2
1 (b) The solutions are
1 12
not integers.
−1 1 1
x (c) x = 11 or 73 −2 2
1
2 x
−1 − 12
15(a) x ≤ 2 12 (b) x ≤ −4 or x ≥ 0

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Answers to Chapter Three 565

21(a)(i) (ii) 2(a) (b) y
y y y

1 1 1 x
−2 x

1 x 1 x

(iii) (b) 0, 1 or 2 (c) y (d)
y
y
2
4 1
x 2

2 −2 −1 x

2 4 x
(e) y (f)
y
Exercise 3F (Page 98) 3
1(a) y (b)
y x x
3 2
1
−4
x
x
3(a) (b)
y y
−3
4
(c) (d)
y y 2 −4
3 x x
3
x
1 x 3
−1 (c) 4(a)
y y
2
(e) y (f) y
2 1 12 x 2 x
−1 −3
2
x −1 x
(b) (c)
y y

2
1

1 x 2 4x
−2

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

1) 2 x x 2 6(a) (b) y y (ii) y y 1 1 −2 x −2 x 1 −2 −2 x x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.1) (1.−3) −3 x −2 2 x (f) (g) 8(a)(i) (ii) y y y y x x −1 5 −1 2 x x (h) (i) (b)(i) y y y y x − 1 2 3 x 2 2 −1 1 12 (1.−3) (−1. David Sadler. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .566 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (d) 5(a) (c) (d) y y y y 5 1 −1 1 x x −1 x −4 2 x −1 −1 (b) (c) (e) y (f) y y y 1 −1 3x 1 x 1 2 x −1 x (d) (e) 7(b) y (c) y y y −1 x −1 x −1 −1 4 (−1. Julia Shea.

2) (−2.−1) (−2.−1) 12(a) y 13(a) 3 y x 1 2 x 1 1 3x 12 x 21(a) (b) y y 3 2 (b) whole plane (b) no intersection 14(b)(i) (ii) y y x x 4 −2 2 3 4 4 −3 4 x x 22 23(a) 6 (b)(i) y y 1 x < 2 and 15(a) (b)x − y ≤ 2 and x x > −2 x − y ≥ −2 −1 x y y 2 −2 −2 2 x 2 x −2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.−1) 2 (ii) (iii) 5 x y y (−1. −2) − 5 (1. 2) 1 1 −1 −1 17 18 x x y y −2 −2 (1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . undefined when x = 0. 2) 2 x 1 1 −1 −1 The curve is 19(b) 20(a) The curve is x x undefined for x < 0. Julia Shea. David Sadler. Answers to Chapter Three 567 9(a) x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0 (b) x ≤ 0 and y ≥ 0 y ≥ 1 or 16(a) (b)y + 2x > 1 or (c) x ≤ 0 and y ≤ 0 (d) x ≥ 0 and y ≤ 0 y ≤ −1 y + 2x < −1 (e) x ≥ 0 or y ≥ 0 (f) x ≥ 0 or y ≤ 0 y y 10(a) y < x and y ≤ 2 − x 1 (b) y ≤ − 12 x − 1 or y ≥ 2 − 2x 1 1 (c) y < x + 2 or y > 4x − 1 2 11(a) y (b)(i) y x − 12 x −1 −1 (1. −2 −2 (c) (b) y y (−2. 2) (1.

vertical asymptote: x = 1. as x → −∞. x → 2+ . and y → −∞ as x − x → −2 12 (c) (d) (c) y y y 1 x −2 12 −2 x x −1 3(a) x = 2 y 25(a)A region is connected if every pair of points (b) x = 0 and y = 0 within the region can be joined by a curve that (c) y → 1 as x → ∞ and lies within the region. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y → ∞ as 2 line that goes outside of the region. 4(a) x = −3 (d) y 1(a) f (x) → 0 as x → ∞ and x → −∞ (b) x = 1 and y = − 3 1 (b) f (x) → 1 as x → ∞ and x → −∞ (c) y → 1 as x → ∞ and (c) f (x) → −2 as x → ∞ and x → −∞ 1 as x → −∞. y → −∞ as Exercise 3G (Page 105) x → 2− . and y → ∞ as x → 3− 2 x 1 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. vertical asymptote: x = −2. and y → ∞ as x → −2− (d) domain: x = −2 12 . 1 (b) A region is not convex if there exist two points (d) x = 2 is a vertical in the region which may be joined by a straight x asymptote. David Sadler. y → −∞ as x → −2+ . 5 6(d) y y y → ∞ as x → 1+ . vertical asymptote: x = 3. and y → −∞ as x → 1− (b) domain: x = 3. Julia Shea. (e) f (x) → 0 as x → ∞ and x → −∞ y → ∞ as x → −3− . (d) f (x) → 12 as x → ∞ and x → −∞ 1 y → −∞ as x → −3+ . y → ∞ as x → −2 12 . −3 − 13 x (f) f (x) → 0 as x → ∞ and x → −∞ 2(a) domain: x = 1.568 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (ii) (iii) (a) (b) y y y y 2 x x 3 x 1 x 3 −1 24(a) (b) y y (c) domain: x = −2. vertical asymptote: x = + x −2 12 . y → −∞ as x → 3+ .

Julia Shea. David Sadler. x = − 31 and y = 49 14(a) y (b) y (c) x = −1. x = −4 and y = 1 (d) x = −5. Answers to Chapter Three 569 7(a) even (d) y 13(a) (b) y y (b) y = 2 2 −1 x −3 3 x x 8(a) x = 1. 2 and y = 1 (d) − 12 y (c) y = −1 2 x −2 2 x 1 −2 2 x 15(a) (b) y y −1 −3 −1 x 10(a) y (b)(i) y −2 4 x −1 −3 3 x 2 x −3 16(a) y (b) y −2 2 −4 (ii) y (iii) y 1 −1 3 −1 1 x 3 x −1 2 1 1 (c) (d) −2 −1 2 x y y −1 1 x 1 1 2 11 y 12 y −1 1 2 x 4 1 2 x −1 1 −1 2 x (e) y (f) y −1 3 x −2 (1. x = 2 and y = 0 9(b) x = −2. x = 3 and y = 2 (b) x = 13 .−2) 2 − 2 1 2 x −2 1 2 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .

17·4. 69 5 and 41 51 (b) 0·4838 (c) 60 31 ◦  ◦  (d) 3·172 (e) 64 1 and 115 59 (f) 0·2217 √ 2 21(b) 16 3 cm 23 457 metres 24 1·58 nautical miles ◦ ◦ 25(a) y = x tan 39 and y + 7 = x tan 64 ◦ 26(a) 108 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . ◦  . (d) a = .570 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 17(a) y (b) y Chapter Four −2 1 Exercise 4A (Page 111) x 1(a) 0·4067 (b) 0·4848 (c) 0·7002 (d) 0·8443 4 −1 2 −1 (e) 4·9894 (f) 0·9571 (g) 2·9238 (h) 1·4945 −4 1 (i) 0·6745 (j) 1·8418 (k) 2·6372 (l) 1·0119 −2 3 x 2(a) 76 ◦ (b) 27 ◦ (c) 39 ◦ (d) 71 ◦ (e) 10 ◦ (f) 21 ◦ −4 ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  3(a) 41 25 (b) 16 42 (c) 46 29 (d) 77 3 18(a) (b) ◦  ◦  y y (e) 40 32 (f) 75 24 1 4(a) 12 13 5 (b) 12 (c) 13 12 (d) 125 (e) 13 12 (f) 13 5 1 5(a) 6 and 17 (b)(i) 15 17 (ii) 5 (iii) 4 (iv) 17 4 3 8 (v) 53 (vi) 15 x x √8 3 √ √ 6(a) (b) √1 (c) √1 (d) 2 (e) 2 (f) 3 −1 2 3 2 7(a) 1 (b) 12 (c) 4 (d) 1 −1 . 16·314. 10·4 (c) h = . 10·534. 15(a) b = . 8·452 (b)  = . . 57 16 . . ◦  (c) θ = . (c) s = . Julia Shea. 54 19 . ◦  (d) α = . ◦  9(a) α = . 63 25 ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  20(a) 69 5 . 17·001 . . 16·2 . h = . ◦  (b) x = . j = . β = 35 41 .  = . 8(a) x = . . y = . ◦  . . 58 13 . ◦  . 7·607 −1 x 16 73 ◦ ◦ 17 11 ◦ ◦ ◦ 18(a)  P QR = 20 + 70 = 90 (using alternate angles on parallel lines and the fact that due west is 270◦ ). 4·4 (b) a = . 8·476 . 19·0. 19(a) (b) (d) k = . β = . 12·6 y y . β = . φ = . 31 47 . (b) 110◦ + 39◦ = 149◦ ◦ ◦  19(a) 5·1 cm (b) 16 cm (c) P Q = 18 sin 40 . ◦  . . 31 36 . b = . 32 44 . 58 24 . David Sadler. 23 √ √ (c) y 12(a)(i) 12 22 (ii) 32 2 ◦  ◦ ◦  14(a) 71 34 (b) 21·98 (c) α = 54 19. 35 41 10(a) 0·61 (b) 2·86 (c) 0·26 (d) 0·31 (e) 1·09 1 x (f) 3·65 x √ 11(b) 3 (c)(i) 13 5 .

(h) cosec 55 (i) − tan 40 (j) − sin 85 (k) sec 80 ◦ 12(a) If OA = OB = x and OP = y. (g) −1 (h) 0 (i) 1 (j) 0 (k) undefined ◦ so  QSR = 90 − α (vertically opposite) and so (l) undefined √ √ √  RP Q = α (angle sum of P QS). (m) 12 (n) 3 (o) − 2 (p) − √23 6(a) 0·42 (b) −0·91 (c) 0·91 (d) −0·42 (e) 0·49 Exercise 4C (Page 119) (f) 0·49 3(a) −320◦ (b) −250◦ (c) −170◦ (d) −70◦ 7(a) −0·70 (b) −1·22 (c) −0·70 (d) −0·52 (e) 1·92 ◦ ◦ (e) −300 (f) −220 (f) −0·52 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 4(a) 310 (b) 230 (c) 110 (d) 10 (e) 280◦ 8(a) 1 (b) − 27 (c) 34 ◦ √ √ (f) 170 10(a) (2. 225 15(a) cos θ (b) cos θ (c) − sin θ (d) − cos θ 10(b) A circle of radius r0 . −580 13(a) − sin A (b) cos A (c) − tan A (d) sec A ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (d) 200 . cot θ = 12 sec θ are even. 1) (c) (1. −220 . 116 (iv) 53 . then (l) cot 20 AP − P B = (x + y) − (x − y) = 2y = 2 × OP. (g) 60 (h) 70 (i) 40 (j) 60 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ tary angles). Therefore  QP R = 90◦ − α (angle 3(a) − tan 50 (b) cos 50 (c) − sin 40 (d) cot 80 ◦ ◦ ◦ sum of P QR) and so  QP C = α (complemen. cos θ = 12 13 . cos θ and √ √ cosec θ = − 12 5 . 150 (ii) 120 . −260 . tan θ = 2. 240 try in every vertical line through a maximum or ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (iii) 64 . sec θ = 12 . cosec θ and sec θ have period 360 . tan θ and cot θ are odd. ◦ cosec θ = 53 . cos θ. −290 . (ii) N R = 5(a) − √1 (b) 23 (c) 1 (d) 23 (e) 3 (f) − √23 2 M Q (opposite sides of rectangle M N RQ). sec θ = − 54 . Thus  RBQ =  RQP =  QP C. 12 p 3 and 12 (q + p 3 ) (o) − (p) + ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 8(a) If  RBQ = α. (b) sin θ. sec θ = − 5 . −5 3 ) ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (b) 100 . cot θ = 34 and y = cosec θ have range y ≥ 1 or y ≤ −1. cot θ = − 5 13 12 ery θ-intercept. tan θ = 43 . sec θ = 53 . (h) + (i) + (j) + (k) + (l) − (m) + (n) − √ √ 6 12 q. −650 (d) (−5. −520 (e) sin A (f) − sin A (g) − cos A (h) tan A ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (e) 240 . and about every point where an 8(a)(i) 0·5 (ii) -0·5 (iii) 0·95 (iv) 0·95 (v) 0·59 asymptote crosses the θ-axis. cosec θ. (e) − sec 10 (f) − cosec 40 (g) − cos 5 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ tary angles). (g) −2 (h) √1 (i) −2 (j) − √1 (k) − √2 (l) − √1 √ 2 √ 3 3 2 So N P = N R + RP = M Q + RP . −380 14(a) y = sin θ and y = cos θ have range −1 ≤ y ≤ 6(a) sin θ = 5 . −20 . cos θ = − 45 . 4(a) 1 (b) −1 (c) 0 (d) 0 (e) undefined (f) 1 ◦ 13(a)(i)  N SO = 90 − α (angle sum of N OS). 253◦ try. David Sadler. so  RP S = θ. two-dimensional coordinate plane. cot θ = − 43 tan θ and cot θ have period 180 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 460 . (b) sin θ = 35 . 600 . tan θ = − 34 . y = tan θ and y = cot θ have range R. −120 . 500 . 430 . 336 (viii) 107 . 560 . ◦ ◦ (c) 45 . −160 . 5 (d) The graphs have point symmetry about ev- cosec θ = − 13 5 . (c) 2(b)(i) BD = a cos B and is the same curve as the curve y = 1/x in the 3(a)  QP R = 90◦ − θ. tan θ = − 12 . Julia Shea. (vi) 0·81 (vii) −0·89 (viii) 0·45 (ix) −0·81 (x) 0·59 (e) sin θ. cos θ. −480 (i) − sec A (j) − cosec A (k) − cot A (l) sec A ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (f) 340 . 1(a) + (b) + (c) − (d) − (e) − (f) − (g) − so  AT P = θ. (b) ha and hb ◦ Exercise 4D (Page 125) 5(a)  OT P = 90 (radius ⊥ tangent) and  OT A = 90◦ − θ (angle sum of OT A). (e) − tan θ (f) − cosec θ ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 4 3 1. 700 . 307 (v) 53 . ◦ √ √ (c) sin θ = − 25 5 . (c) sin θ. (d) sin θ = − 13 5 . −620 ◦  11(a) 53 8 (b) 138 11 ◦  (c) 300 ◦ ◦ (d) 213 41’ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (c) 140 . tan θ and cot θ have no axes of symme- ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (vi) 143 . 2 3 ) (b) (− 3 . 217 (vii) 204 . cos θ = − 15 5 . cosec θ and sec θ have line symme- ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (b)(i) 30 . y = sec θ cosec θ = 54 . 127 minimum. then  RQB = 90 − α (angle 2(a) 36 (b) 30 (c) 50 (d) 20 (e) 60 (f) 30 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ sum of BQR) and so  RQP = α (complemen. Answers to Chapter Four 571 Exercise 4B (Page 115) The curve is called a rectangular hyperbola. cos θ = 5 . −1) ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ √ 5(a) 70 .

sec θ = − 13 12 (h) α = . cot α = 15 8 or − 8 15 (k) α = 60 or 300 ◦ ◦ (l) α = . 120 . (o) α = . 140 . 210 or 330 ◦ ◦ ◦ √ √ sec x = 13 34 or − 13 34 (c) θ = . ◦  ◦ . cot α = 25 5 or − 52 5 ◦ 5(a) θ = 0 . 135 . 210 or 330 ◦ ◦ . 180 or 360 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ √ √ 3(a) cos β = − 13 3 13 (b) cot α = − 12 21 (n) α = . ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  x y y x (h) θ =. 70 32 or 289 28 2 2 2 2 . 300 or 360 ◦ ◦ . cosec x = 47 7 ◦ (m) α = −360 . . 80 . 180 . 19 28 or 160 32 ◦ ◦ ◦  ◦  (f) θ = 90 or 270 14(a) x = 71 34 or 251 34 . 63 26 . 135 . 199 28 or 340 32  ◦  1(a) θ = 60◦ or 120◦ (b) θ = 45◦ or 225◦ (b) α = . 90 . 23 35 . 240 . ◦  ◦  10(a) cos β (b) cosec φ (c) cot A (d) −1 2 2 2 (g) θ =. 23 35 or 156 25 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 2(a) θ = 90 (b) θ = 180 (c) θ = 90 or 270 13(a) x = 45 . . David Sadler. Julia Shea. 108 . −16 42 or 163 18  ◦  √ √ (c) cosec θ = 12 5 or − 21 5 (d) sec A is undefined. 200 . ◦ . 222 or 318 (f) x = . ◦ ◦ ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  (c) x =. ◦ . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 210 or 270 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 2 2 6(a) cos α (b) sin α (c) sin A (d) cos A (c) θ = 0 . ◦  ◦  (b) x = 135 or 315 . 65 or 295 (b) x = . or θ = . 120 . 243 26 or 341 34  ◦  ◦  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  ◦  (c) θ = 135 or 225 (d) θ = 120 or 300 12(a) A = . 224 26 . 252 or 288 ◦ ◦ ◦  q 2 − p2 p ◦ (d) θ = 45 . 180 . 75 . or x = . . or x = . 0 . 584 26 or 675 34  ◦  ◦  √ 4(a) cosec P = − 34 2 (b) tan θ = 0 ◦ (p) α = 157 30 or 337 30  ◦  √ √ √ √ (c) sin α = 13 5 or − 13 5 . 75 58 . . tan θ = 43 (f) α = 45 or 315 ◦ ◦ (g) α = 90 or −90 ◦ ◦ 5 (b) sin θ = 13 .572 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 . 195 or 255 k  ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  6 sin α = ± √ . 80 or 280 (d) x = 0 . ◦ ◦ . −180 . 116 34 . 116 34 . 270 or 300 15(a) 2 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 0 ◦ ◦ . 180 or 225 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  ◦  (d) θ = 0 or 360 (e) θ = 0 or 180 or 360 (b) x = 120 or 240 . 221 49 or 318 11 14(a) 2 + 2 = 1 (b) 2 − 2 = 1 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ a b b a (i) θ = 0 . ◦  ◦  ◦ ◦ (b) α = . ◦ . ◦  ◦  (d) x = . 180 . 247 30 or 292 30 1 + k2 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (c) x = 20 . 255 58 or 296 34 . 90 . 260 or 320 2t 2t 7(b) sin x = . 95 44 or 264 16 (c) α = −45 or 135 Exercise 4E (Page 128) ◦ (d) α = 270 (e) no solutions 1(a) sin θ = 45 . ◦  . 98 or 278 (d) x = . ◦ ◦ ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  3(a) x = . 243 26 (i) α = 150 ◦ (j) α = 210 or 330 ◦ ◦ 2(a) cos α = 17 or − 15 15 . 18 26 or 198 26 ◦  √ 17 √ (b) tan x = − 13 7 . 60 . 71 34 or 251 34 17(a) y − x = 1 (b) x + 2xy + 2y = 5 ◦ ◦ ◦  ◦  2 2 . 225 or 315 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 2(a) cosec θ (b) cot α (c) tan β (d) cot φ 9(a) θ = 0 . 48 11 or 311 49 . 156 25 . or θ = . 112 30 . sec α = ± 1 + k 2 (b) x = 67 30 . 116 34 . 315 or 360 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. ◦  ◦  2 2 7(a) cos θ (b) 1 (c) tan β (d) cot A 2 (d) θ = 135 or 315 . (c) x = 210 or 330 . ◦  . ◦ ◦ . 63 26 or 243 26 ◦ ◦ ◦ 8(a) cos θ (b) cosec α (c) cot β (d) tan φ (e) θ = 90 . 14 29 or 165 31 2 (c) x y = y + 2 . 5 44 or 174 16 . 201 48 or 296 34 . 135 . ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (e) x =. or α = ◦ . tan x = (d) no solutions 1+t √ 2 1 − t2 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 7(a) α = 75 or 255 (b) α = 210 or 270 ◦ 1−k 2 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 8 tan(θ + 90 ) = (c) α = 345 or 165 (d) α = 285 or 45 k ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 8(a) θ = 45 or 225 (b) θ = 150 or 330 9 Hint: tan θ = a − 4a 1 1 or 4a −a ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (c) θ = 60 . ◦  ◦ . 225 or 315 ◦ ◦ ◦ 5 cos θ = − . ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  (e) x =. 7 or 173 (b) x = . or x = . 104 29 or 255 31 . ◦  ◦  16(a) −1 (b) tan α (c) − cot α (d) − cos α 4(a) α= . 270 or 360 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 3(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 1 (b) θ = 30 . 315 34 . 56 19 . 60 . 72 . tan θ = −  q q − p2 2 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 6(a) x = 15 . 21 48 . 150 . ◦ (b) θ = 30 . 161 34 . 300 or 360 (c) (x − 2) + (y − 1) = 1 (d) x + y = 2 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 2 2 2 2 10(a) x = 60 . . 48 11 or 311 49 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  ◦  (e) θ = 210 or 330 (f) θ = 150 or 210 (b) A = . 114 or 294 (c) x = . 240 or 300 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Exercise 4F (Page 131) (d) θ = 45 . 236 19 or 296 34 Exercise 4G (Page 137) 11(a) α = 90 . ◦  ◦  2 2 9(a) 1 (b) sin β (c) sec φ (d) 1 (f) θ = 60 or 300 . ◦ ◦ . 180 or 360 ◦ ◦ √ √ (d) cosec x = 15 34 or − 51 34 . 90 .

11 cos A = 34 . 120 . ◦ ◦ . ◦ (c) 65 35  √ 2 3−1 √ ◦  ◦  20(d) 7(a) 46 59 or 133 1 2 2 21 If the related angle for θ is α and the known (b) 66·4 metres or 52·7 metres √ ◦  angle is β and α < β. cos B = 16 9 . Answers to Chapter Four 573 15(a) θ = 54◦ . 9 P1 by 2·5 min But (180◦ − α) + β = 180◦ + (β − α) > 180◦ . 225◦ . But  P JK =  P AJ +  AP J (exterior angle of Exercise 4J (Page 152) triangle). 180 or 300 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Exercise √ 4I (Page 148) √ (i) θ = 45 . 210 . 225 . 315 or 330◦ (f) θ = 120◦ . C = . 161 34 or 341 34 2(c) 57◦ 101◦ 32 − 15 3 11·5 km Exercise 4H (Page 143) 4 167 nautical miles 1(a) 1·9 (b) 9·2 (c) 8·9 ◦ 5 20 2(a) 49◦ (b) 53◦ (c) 43◦ ◦  ◦  2 2 6(a) 94 48 (b) 84 33 3(a) 5 cm (b) 22 cm ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  7(a) 101 38 (b) 78 22 4 42 24 . c = . ◦  . 281 32 or 311 25 ◦ ◦ ◦ (h) θ = 60 . P D = x tan 52 remains unchanged. ◦  .  SP Q = 24◦ . (c) 473 metres isosceles ABD) and  ABP =  P DC (alternate 18(b) 12 km (c) 9:52 am angles on parallel lines). bearing = . ◦  . ◦ 13(a)  DAP =  DP A = 60 (angle sum of isosce- 8(b) 28 metres les triangle). 135 . then θ = α is one solution 8(a) 12 37 cm (b) 25 17 and θ = 180◦ − α is the other possibility. So  AP J = 20◦ − 5◦ = 15◦ . C = . DC DI = ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ s (e) θ = 30 . ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  πa2 b2 c2 πΔ . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 225 or 300 ◦ ◦ . 13 41 . 138 or B = . 193 41 or 301 19 24(a) Combine the formulae DC = c/ sin C and . so ADP is equilateral. 22 38 . DI = √ s gles on parallel lines). (b) 3 7 cm 10 32 √ √ √ √ √ 15(a)(ii) 9 3 units 2 11(a) 3 6 (b) 3 2 (c) 2 6 (d) 6 2 abc 12(b) 79·3 metres 17(a) DC =  . 121 19 . 1(a)(i) 44◦ 25 (ii) 9·8 cm2 (b)(i) 11·6 cm (ii) 49◦ (d) 53 metres 2(b) 10·61 metres ◦ 17(a)  QSM = 36 (angle sum of QRS) and 3(a) 9·85 metres (b) 5·30 metres (c) 12·52 metres ◦  P SM = 48 (angle sum of P SM ). ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  (b) θ =. ◦  ◦  abc (d) θ = 45 or 225 . 213 41 or 243 26 Δ = 12 ab sin C. 63 26 . ◦  . 78 28 . 117 22 . 18 26 or 198 26 2 (c) DC : DI = abcs : 4Δ . 150 . 137 36 ◦  ◦  ◦  2 9 13 10 5(a) 49 46 (b) 77 53 (c) 3·70 cm ◦  ◦  10(a) 19 cm (b) 37 38 6(a) 69 2 or 110 58 (b) 16·0 units or 11·0 units . ◦ . 22 . c = . 126◦ . the circle sin 65◦ 45 ◦ ◦ 13(a) CQ = x tan 48 . so  P DA =  P DC and ◦ 19(a) sin  BM A = sin(180 − θ) = sin θ  P DC = 1  ADC. 4·6. 86 sin 60◦ 45 √ 11(a) (b) 66 metres 23(a) 8 3 (b) As the triangle varies. cos C = 18 7 Either B = . because  A is an angle at the (b) QD = x tan α and CQ − CP = P D − QD circumference standing on the chord BC. 5(c) 34 metres So  P QS = 180◦ − 24◦ − 12◦ = 144◦ (angle sum ◦  6(a) 34 35 (b)  P DA =  ABP (base angles of of P QS). and 10(a) 42 km (b) 78 ◦ so θ = 180◦ − α is impossible. 13 11·0 cm  2 s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) 2 (s − a)(s − b)(s − c) ◦ 14(a)  P JK =  P BQ = 20 (corresponding an. ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  (c) θ =. 62 38 . ◦ . ◦  ◦  1(c) 13 14·43 cm 10 (j) θ = 135 or 315 . Julia Shea. 228 35 . 9(b) 6 cm √ So AP = 3 cm. 12(b) 108 km (c)  ACB = . 198◦ or 342◦ (c) 2:1 . David Sadler. or θ = . or θ = . ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 45 . 11·5 . 33 41 . (g) θ = . 300◦ or 315◦ 16Δ3 s2 (d) . 4(b) 8·7 nautical miles so  P SQ = 48◦ − 36◦ = 12◦ . 77 22 .

since it is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal. −9) 15(a) Check the results using the distance formula — there are eight such points. (−4. −2) (b)(i) P = (−1. −2. −1) (iii) (11. √ √ √ 8(a) XY = 2 13. −6) 3(a)(i) (3. 4) (iii) (9. −18) (d)(i) (−6. 1) (f) (2 12 . (d) XY Z is an isosceles triangle. −1) 17(a) 7 : 2 (b)(i) −3 : 5 (ii) 2 : 3 (iii) −5 : 2 18(a) AB : BM = −2 : 1 (b) AB : BM = −4 : 3 (c) AB : BM = −11 : 4 (d) AB : BM = 1 : 1 (e) AB : BM = −2 : 3 (f) AB : BM = 1 : 3 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Such a quadrilateral is sometimes called a kite. 6). (c) DEF is none of these. −17) (ii) P = (7. 10(a) (0. 1) (d) (4. 1) (c) (−1. −3). −2) (b) (0. 2π 17. √ √ (b) y = 4 or 10 (c) a = 1 + 2 or 1 − 2 16(a) P (1. so XY 2 + Y Z 2 = 104 = ZX 2 (b) 26 square units 9(a) ABC is an equilateral triangle. (6. 2 17. − 12 ) (iii) (−3. (b) AB = AD = 5. −5) (iv) (37. 0) (d) (15. 12 ) (ii) (2. 3) (ii) (−4. the quadrilateral becomes a trian. 17π 13(a) (x − 5) + (y + 2) = 45 2 2 (b) (x + 2) + (y − 2) = 74 2 2 14(a) S(−5. 2(a) (3. 3) (ii) (5. 11) (iv) (−8 12 . 15) 11(a) Both midpoints are M (2 12 . 9). (f) 13 gle whose circumcircle remains the original circle. (b) P QR is a right triangle. 8) √ 7 AB = BC = 10 and CD = DA = 5. ZX = 2 26. −1) (iii) (−10. Julia Shea. 2 12 ) (b) ( 12 . −3) (c) (−1. 6) (iv) (9. 7) (b) (−7. −2 12 ) (0. since its diagonals bisect each √ other. It must be a parallelogram. ABCD is a rhombus. 6) (b)(i) (0. 5) (e) (0. 7) (d) R = (12. (c) 42◦ 42 Chapter Five 15(a) − cos θ ◦ 16 120 Exercise 5A (Page √ 159) √ √ √ ◦  21(b) 17 52 1(a) 5 (b) 13 (c) 10 (d) 8 = 2 2 (e) 80 = 4 5 22(f) As d → 0. −4). Y Z = 2 13. 12). √ √ √ 12 17. 2 12 ). −7) (c) B = (0. (2. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . David Sadler. 2) (iv) (5.574 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (both = P Q). 8) 4(a) 2 : 3 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 3 : −1 (or −3 : 1) (d) 1 : −3 (or −1 : 3) (e) 4 : −1 (or −4 : 1) (f) 1 : −4 (or −1 : 4) 5(a)(i) 2 : −5 (ii) 5 : −3 (b)(i) 3 : −5 (ii) 5 : −2 (c)(i) 3 : −2 (ii) 2 : 1 (d)(i) 1 : 2 (ii) 2 : −3 (e)(i) 4 : −3 (ii) 3 : 1 (f)(i) 1 : 3 (ii) 3 : −4 6(a) (13. (4. −2) (c)(i) (−1. 1) (ii) (3.

6(a) m = 1. 20(a) (−11. 5(a) x − y + 3 = 0 (b) 2x + y − 5 = 0 so AB ⊥ BC. M moves infinitely far along + (b) mP Q = mB C = 2 and P Q = 5 the ray QP . B(0. B(0. b = −2 so XZ ⊥ Y Z. −2) (e) square 23(a) Q(− 2t . 153 . −3) a circle with centre (4a. 2ab 23(b) They are collinear if and only if Δ = 0. ◦ 1(a) not on the line (b) on the line (c) on the line (c) m = − 4 . α = . α = . Q = (3. ◦  . Q = (−1. ◦ 2 Check your answer by substitution. (b) x = p − p1 4p ◦ ◦ 24(a) x = 1−p 2 (iii) 76 . b = −5 (d) m = 13 . ◦ . 143 8 (f) α =. ◦  (d) α =. y = 2 x + 31 12(a) −5 (b) 5 (b) y = 52 x + 3. 0). b = 3 (b) m = −1. 0) pendicular. y = 1 dient formula. (e) x = −2. ◦  . 2). ◦ Exercise 5C (Page 169) 5(a) m = 3. ◦ . 1 (b) 2. upwards (ii) 120 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 0). − 12 (b) −1. that 3(a) 0·27 (b) −1·00 (c) 0·41 (d) 3·08 ◦ 4(a)(i) 45 . (a) Show also that two adjacent (e) A(1 23 . M moves infinitely 19 12 (p + q) 20 x + (y − 1) = 5 . 63 26 sides are perpendicular. 5) and (17. b = 2 9(a) mA B = 12 . (b) OA = AB = 5 (c) D( 32 . ◦  8(a) α = 45 (b) α = 135 (c) α = . 2) sides is parallel. and OB has gradient 2. show that each pair of opposite (c) A(2 12 . downwards ◦ is a1 b2 + a2 b3 + a3 b1 = a2 b1 + a3 b2 + a1 b3 . b = 54 (f) m = 1 12 . 10(d) square (a) A(−3. 1 (c) 34 . 1 14 ) (f) A(1 13 . −2 (d) − 12 . (b) (x − 4a)2 + y 2 = (2a)2 . Exercise 5B (Page 165) y2 21(a) = −1 (products of gradients is −1). b = 2 so P Q ⊥ QR. α = . B(0. Julia Shea. 5) √ (iv) As k → (−1) . 1(a) 2. 112 3(a) x = 1. mQ R = − 41 and mP R = − 53 . pq x(x − 4) 2(a) −1. − 13 (f) − 2a b . thus they are per- √ 21(a) P ( −1+ 2k 4−2k 1+k . − 43 (d) − pq . y = 1 6 Check your answers by substitution into the gra- (c) x = 3. 1+k ) (b) k = 2. a2 + b2 ) not a parallelogram. 143 2 (d) m = 3 . but (b)(i) S( ra2 . (b) mP Q = mR S = − 35 and mP S = mQ R = 1 25(a) Q (b)(i) k > 0 (ii) k < −1 (iii) −1 < k < 0 18(a) P = (2. R = (−3. upwards (iv) 30 . (c) Show that it is both . 1) 2 2 2 far along the ray P Q. 3) (b) A(2. a circle with centre (0. y = − 25 x + 3 13 λ = − 12 (c) y = − 34 x + 3. − 12 (c) 12 . 18 26 (e) α = . (e) m = − 43 . y = 43 x + 3 14 k = 2 or − 1 √ 11(a) x − y + 3 = 0 (b) − 3x + y + 1 = 0 √ √ (c) x − 3y − 2 3 = 0 (d) x + y − 1 = 0 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. α = 3 . b = 2 (ii) mX Y = 73 . P (1. 2) 11 In each case. y = 1 7(a) 3·73 (b) 1·00 (c) 2·41 (d) 0·32 4(a) m = 4. a vertical straight line through the 17(a) P = (2. B(0. 39 (f) m = − 52 . As k → (−1)− . Area = 8 12 units2 (c) m = 2. 3). −3) Their product is 12 ×(−2) = −1. and radius 5. 0). ◦ . 10(a) y = −2x + 3. Area = 14 12 units2 7 The sketches are clear from the intercepts. 1) (b) M = (4 12 . B(0. (c) x − 5y − 5 = 0 (d) x + 2y − 6 = 0 (b)(i) mP Q = 4. α = . 72 (b) m = − 21 . 34 . 1 12 ) (d) C(1. y = 2 (b) x = −1. α = . upwards ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ (b)(i) 45 (ii) 30 (iii) 14 (iv) 60 . − 4 15 ) (b) Q( 15 1 15 1 (e) 3. Answers to Chapter Five 575 19(a)(i)2 : 1 (ii) 1 : 3 15(a) OA has gradient 12 . 0). 2 and (x − 4) + y 2 = 1 2 √ √ 4 . midpoint of AB. −7) (b) R( 41 . y = −4 (d) x = 5. S = (0. b = −3 8(a) non-collinear (b) collinear with gradient 23 (c) m = −1. −1). − 12 ) 22(a) (−2. mB C = −2 and mA C = 0. B(0. b = −2 (b) m = 15 . It is a trapezium. y = −3 (f) x = −4. 0). (e) m = 45 . XY = 10. rb2 ) (ii) S( a 2 + a b b2 . t12 ) 16(b) W Z = 5. 4). −5) (d) A(−6. 0). (b) Show also that two adjacent ◦ ◦ . −2) sides are equal. David Sadler. mY Z = 25 and mX Z = − 25 . 0) and radius 2a. 56 19 a rhombus and a rectangle. 4 15 ) or Q( 4 . 3 24(a) x = 2 a.

and from their gradients ( 34 ) with the x-axis. AC: y = 2 − 2x Exercise √ 5E (Page√178) √ 1(a) 12 10 (b) √4 = 4 5 (c) √520 = 12 5 10(a)(i) x − 3 = 0 (ii) y + 1 = 0 5√ 5 √ (b) 3x + 2y − 6 = 0 (c)(i) x − y + 4 = 0 2(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 17 (d) 12 10 √ √ √ √ (ii) 3x + y − 4 = 0 (d) x 3 + y + 6 3 = 0 (e) 0 (The point is on the line. the first two intersect at (−4. y = − 52 x + 4 15 21 ( p+ q . P S = 85 5 parallel and two lines are perpendicular. (ii) They all meet at (5. (b) C is distant 4 10 . 4(a) 3 is distant 5 10. 15 k = 2 12 (b) The distance between the x-intercepts of one 16(a)(i) μ = 4 (ii) μ = −9 pair of lines must equal the distance between the (b) μ = 4 (c)(i) λ = 8 (ii) λ = 0 or 16 y-intercepts of the other pair. (d) gradient = tan(180 − θ) = − tan θ = −2 so √ 2 √ (x + 2 ) + (y − 2 )2 = 2 2x + y − 6 = 0 (e) R(3. AB: y = x − 1. −1). p+ q ) The two lines are inverse functions (c) y = −1 13 x + 3. 6) 15 (x − a) + (y − x) = a . 17(a) 2x − 3y + k = 0 (b)(i) 2x − 3y + 2 = 0 (ii) 2x − 3y − 9 = 0 Exercise 5D (Page 173) 18(a) 4x − 3y + k = 0 1(a) 2x−y−1 = 0 (b) x+y−4 = 0 (c) 3x−y+8 = 0 (b)(i) 4x − 3y − 8 = 0 (ii) 4x − 3y + 11 = 0 (d) 5x+y = 0 (e) x+3y−8 = 0 (f) 4x+5y+8 = 0 19(a) x = 1 2(a) y = 2x−2 (b) 2x+y−1 = 0 (c) x+2y+6 = 0 (b) y (d) 3y = x + 13 3(a) 2 − x = 1. and 3  4 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 34 (b) 3y = 2x − 2 3(a) D is distant 10 √ . 2) √ √ ◦ (x − 2 )2 + (y + 2 )2 = 2. (−4. √ (c) D(4. √ √ 16(a) From their gradients. (e) isosceles 5(a) μ = 15 or −5 (b) λ = 12 or − 1 √ √ (f) area = 12 × AC × BD = 12 × 52 × 52 = 26 6(a) h > −4 or h < −6 (b) −6 ≤ k ≤ 4 (g) E(8. 0). (3. so there are two pairs of 25(a) bx + ay = 2ab (b) bx + 2ay = 3ab parallel sides. AB = 2 13 14(a) 2x − y = −4 (b) x − y = −3 (c) 5x + y = −3 13(b) 4y = 3x+12 (c) M L = M P = 5 (d) N (4. θ = . (f) x + (y − 3) = 25 2 2 2 2 2 √ √ where a = 2 − 2 or a = 2 + 2. ◦ 3 1 11(a) mA C = 23 . ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. OA is parallel to BC. (b) 1 is distant 17 3 13 13. and so are reflections in the line 6(a) 3x + 2y + 1 = 0 (b) 2x − 3y − 8 = 0 y = x. −4) 7(a) They do not intersect. Julia Shea. 2x − y + 2 = 0 y (b) x2 + 3 = 1. so the two lines make acute angles of 61◦ and hence parallel. 3x + 2y − 6 = 0 y (1. 4). (1. √ 13(a) k = − 13 (b) k = 3 2 (d) 12 units . 14(a) (0. hence they are perpendicular. −7). √ √ 7(a) x − y − 1 = 0 (b) 3x + y + 3 = 0 22 3x + 4y − 24 = 0 √ √ (c) x − y 3 − 4 − 3 3 = 0 23 y−2 = m(x+1) (a) 2x−y = −4 (b) x−y = −3 √ √ (d) x + 3y + 2 + 5 3 = 0 (c) 5x + y = −3 8 1  2 .576 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 12 The angles of inclination are about 61◦ and 12(b) 3x − 4y − 12 = 0 (c) OB and AC are vertical 119◦ . BC: y = 12 x + 2. which does not lie on the third. y = 34 x + 6 12 of each other. 20 Stretch horizontally by a factor of a and verti- 5(a) y = −2x + 5. The vertices are (c) bx + kay = (k + )ab 1 √ (−2. 7). x + 4y + 4 = 0 (d) x3 − 3 = 1. 2) (d) mA C × mB D = 23 × − 23 = −1. 1 1 (b) y = 2 12 x − 8 12 . hence area = 8 units2 . x − y − 3 = 0 y −3 4(c)(i) No. 4).) (f) 32 5 . David Sadler. y = 12 x + 6 cally by a factor of b. two pairs of lines are (f) QR = 2 5. 28(c)(i) 1 (ii) 13 13 9 mB C × mA C = −1 so BC ⊥ AC.0) x (c) − x4 − y = 1. Thus k = 2 or 4. −2).

the lines are not parallel. 2 2 2 1(a) QR = q + r k =1 k=2 y k= 1 3(a)(i) P (2. 1) (c) 3y + x − 4 = 0 10(a) P = 12 (a1 + b1 ). thus C( 48 36 25 . distance √4 12(a) y = 3x − 9 (b) 4y = x + 8 (c) 5y = 4x − 1 5 (b) √4 (d) 2x + 3y − 6 = 0 5 12 The distances should differ. 2) 2 √ (ii) mP Q = mA C = −1 and AC = 4 2 4 (b) P (a + b. (ii) 4x+3y−24 = 0 (iii) x−6y+21 = 0 (iv) 3y = 4x (d) They intersect twice. (b) The sum of the squares on two sides of a trian- k = −2: x + 3y − 4 = 0 gle equals twice the square on the median to the 2(a) x + 2y + 9 + k(2x − y + 3) = 0 third side plus twice the square of half the third (b) k = −3 gives y = x. c). −2 1 2 4 k = −2 AC = 95 −2 6(a) AB = BC = CA = 2a (b) AB = AD = 2a √ (c) BD = 2a 3 (b) k = 2: 3x + y − 4 = 0. c). 14(c) They are all 1 and −1. AB = 5. (b) M = (p. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 5 17(a) (x − 7) + (y + 1) = 25 (b) √7m 2+ 1 2 2 m +1 (c) m = − 43 or 34 Exercise 5G (Page 185) √ (d) 4x + 3y + 6 = 0 or 3x − 4y + 17 = 0 1(a)(i) M = (4. k = 1: x = 1. |3m −1| (e) λ = − 19 . Julia Shea. P S = 17. thus they are congruent by the (b) Using (x + 2y + 10) + k(2x − y) = 0 yields RHS test. 3) vertically in line with Q. k = − 12 2 mP Q = mA C = 0 and P Q = a k = −1 y 1 4(a) x3 + 4 = 1 and 4y = 3x. which is not a parabola. BD2 = b2 + c2 . (c) k = − 12 : x − 3y + 2 = 0. (x − 32 )2 + (y + 32 )2 = 13 2 . (c) k = 1 gives x = 1. side. P M and QM are three radii of the circle. 2 2 2 k = 12 : 3x − y − 2 = 0 BC 2 = (a + b)2 + c2 . giving (x − 52 ) + y = 29 2 2 14(a) y = mx (b) √ 2 4 . 7(b)(i) 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 (ii) 3x + 2y + 7 = 0 √ √ 8(a) √7 = 10 7 10 (b) √1017 = 10 17 17 (iii) 2y + 5x + 13 = 0 (iv) x − y + 4 = 0 10 √ √ 9(a) x − 2y − 1 = 0 (b) 2 5 (c) AB = 3 5 so the 8(a) (4. CD2 = a2 . 4) (ii) (−3. AO = AB and both triangles 11(a) 2x − y = 0 are right-angled. BC = 5 . d2 = p 2 r+ q 2 . 11(a) centre (−2. AB = (a − b) + c . 7) √ area is 15 square units. 4(b) k = −2 gives y = 3. giving y = 4(x − 1). 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (iii) OM . 1) (b)(i) (0. 5) (ii) OM = P M = QM = 41 19(b) Substitution gives (p +q )(r −q d ) = p r . and must inter. 3(a) x−2y −4 = 0 (b) 2x+y −3 = 0 (c) y = x−3 8 Both midpoints are at the origin. √ m +1 √ 15(b) k = − 5 . 12 (b2 + c2 ) . 12 (a2 + b2 ) . Q(0. (d) 10 square units 10(a) 10 (b) 2y + x − 4 = 0 10(e) AC is common. q).  2 Rearranging this. David Sadler. the line is tangent to the circle. 7(a) D is the origin. so that R is (d) (1. (f) 50 units2 (g) 2 25 k = −1. 9 The condition reduces to x = q. P S = p + s . sect. 0). 25 ). Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . OC = 5 . 6(a) 2x − 3y + 6 + k(x + 3y − 15) = 0 (b)(i) x = 3 (c) Once.  5(a) (1. −3) and r = 2. 3 2 (c) Using (d) y = 15 (3 + 2 6 )x or y = 15 (3 − 2 6 )x |2q − q 2 − 3| (h + 1)y = x (h − 1) − 2x(2h − 1) gives h = 1 and 2 16(b) √ (c) √2 5 the result is y = −x. k = −1: y = 1. RS = r + s . hence the line is 3y − x + 10 = 0. the line is tangent to the circle. OM = P M = QM = p2 + q 2 2 2 2 2 2(a) P Q = 5. Since the distances 13(b) μ = 32 and the circle is differ. RS = 25. Answers to Chapter Five 577 (b) Once. x 12 16 (b) OA = 3. Q(b. QR = 13 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exercise 5F (Page 182) (b) P Q = p + q . (d) When λ = −1 13(b) x + 3y − 4 = 0 and 3x − y − 2 = 0 the equation reduces the straight line to x = 0.   Q = 12 (b1 + c1 ).

x = −1 (e) 7 = 49 . AP : x = 1 8 3(a) 169 (b) 98 (c) 12 (d) 4000 1 (e) 900 (b) The medians intersect at (1. 4 5 27 16 (h) 25 (i) 1000 (j) 1 (c) a parallelogram 2(a) 5 (b) 3 (c) 9 (d) 4 (e) 8 (f) 27 (g) 81 12(a) P = (1. 2 9x 2 y 2 4(a) x7 (b) x33 x (c) (y +1) 2 (d) t+3 s2 (e) 13(a) The median through B is 8 y 6 2 2 3a(y + 6b) = (c + 3b)(x + 6a). 1. 2c). 3. Q = (−1. (g) 2x y2 (h) q 6 (b) The medians intersect at (0. 2. 14 (a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) . Julia Shea. x = 4 x 1 1 x 1 √ √ (g) 5 = 5. 4). a 2 + b 2 ). x = 4 x (c) 5 = 125. x = − 21 x x x 2 For y = 2 : 18 . 6(a) −1 (b) −2 (c) 13 (d) 32 (e) 12 (f) − 21 14(a) perpendicular bisector of AB: x = 0. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. x = 12 (h) 11 = 1/ 11. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 1. 12 (c2 + d2 ) . CR: y − 2 = 0. 14 . −2. (e) x = −4 (f) x = −2 1 1 1 13(a) b = 343 (b) 11 (c) x = 81 14(a) x = 3 and y = 4 (b) x = 0 and y = −1 (c) x = −2 and y = 2 1 b−a y x2 y 2 ab 15(a) (b) (c) 2 (d) ab y+1 y − x2 b−a x3 − y 3 1 (e) 3 3 (f) x y a+1 6n 3x 2x 2x 16(a) 2 (b) 81 (c) 2 (d) 2 3 (or 62x ) 4n −4 4n −5 x 1−x (e) 5 2 (f) 2 3 n −3 17(a) 50 × 7 (b) 26 (c) 124 × 5 n (d) 7 2n −1 (e) 7 × 2 n (f) 2 n 1 (c) −2 3 n n 18(a) 32 (b) x 3 19(a) > (b) > (c) < (d) < (e) > (f) > √ 20(a) 1 12 (b) 4 12 (c) 5 (d) 4 (e) 6 (f) 7 2 11 15 22(a) 12 < 2 3 < 13 (b) 13 < 2 4 < 14 x 0 23 lim 0 = 0 and lim x = 1 x→0 + x→0 Exercise 6B (Page 195) 1(a) 3x = 9. 12 . 2). 2 (c1  Chapter Six S = 12 (d1 + a1 ). B(2b. 2). −1. The median 5(a) x 2 (b) 21 x (c) ys 9 c (d) 5d 3 (e) 21m2 (f) ba p2 through A is −3a(y − 6b) = (c − 3b)(x − 6a). 12(a) x = − 31 (b) x = 14 (c) − 23 (d) x = 12 5 2 a2 b 16 C has coordinates ( a 2ab + b 2 . c + bc −a ). For y = log2 x: −3. 8. 0) (f) 2 and C(0. x = 3 (d) 10 = 10 x 1 . 0) and R = (3. 11(a) 2 (b) 5 (c) 3 (d) 11 (e) 7 3x−5 15 A suitable choice is A(0.578 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11   R=  1 + d1 ). 0). x = 2 (b) 2x = 16. 2c). 0. David Sadler. x = −2 (f) ( 3 ) = 81 . (h) 125 8 (i) 27 (j) 32 BQ: x − y + 1 = 0. 2 2 2 3 5 (f) x 2 (g) x 2 (h) 2x 2 (i) 18 x (j) 7(3x + 2) 1 3 (c) Any point on the perpendicular bisector of an 9(a) 9 (b) 3 (c) 20 (d) 10 (b) x −14+ x494 2 25 4 interval is equidistant from the endpoints of that 10(a) x +10+ x 2 (c) 9x−12+ x4 4n n −1 6x+1 1−5n 2n − 12 interval. (g) 25 36 1 2 125 (h) 8 (i) 3 (j) 27 7 3 (b) 5 4 (c) 5−1 x 3 (d) 11− 5 a 2 (e) 7y − 5 1 3 4 1 1 4 of AC: c(c − y) = (b − a)(x − b − a) 8(a) −1 −1 −1 (b) They all meet at (0. 4. 12 (d2 + a2 ) Exercise 6A (Page 190) (b) The midpoint of both P R and QS is  1 1(a) 1 (b) (c) 3 12 4 (d) 21 1 (e) 49 (f) 64 (g) 81 M 14 (a1 + b1 + c1 + d1 ). 2. 7(a) 12 1 (b) 128 (c) 25 4 (d) 343 64 (e) 16 81 (f) 125 8 of BC: c(c − y) = (b + a)(x − b + a).

55. 89. (g) x < log 1 100 = . −5. . 1. . 1. David Sadler. . 65 8(a) x = log2 13 = . T64 = 401. 56 . −2 −2x 18(a) SD = 14 (2 − 2 16(a) The Fibonacci sequence is 1. 1. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 8. −27. 13. 12. all terms are zero. 36. 7. 2 (b) −50. 13. −19. x = 7 3(a) 5. 2 . 3·700 √ √ (b) x = 2 + log3 20 = . 29. (c) 2 and 3. −15 = T9 . 2·322 7(a) Tn = Tn −1 + 5 (b) Tn = 2Tn −1 (e) x < log5 0·04 = −2 (c) Tn = Tn −1 − 7 (d) Tn = −Tn −1 (f) x = −1 + log 1 10 = . −x S−D =2 . 32 . −4·322 8(a) −10 is not a member. −200. 15 4 1 (g) x 3 = 16. 19 (e) 1. . 2. 6. 0. . 5. 0. 14(a) 12 (b) 49 (c) 15 (d) x n (e) 1/x (f) x × 5 x (e) −1. 19. 47. − 12 . (g) x x (h) x 1/x (f) 1. 25. 13(a) 3 = 2 2 log 3 (b) u = 3 3 log u log 7 (c) 7 = a a (c) −1. 625 −2 (c) 1. 0. 4. 4 2 . −28 (d) 3. 27. 4. −1. . 12x . 3. 15 (b) 4. 0·99 = T100 (b) n : (n −1) (d) n1 2 2 16(b) 2. 12(a) 5 (b) 7 (c) n (d) y (b) 0. 8 3 (g) 64x = y 2 (h) (2x + 1) = (2x − 1) 2 3 14(a) 45 (b) n +1 n (d) 301 = T5 15(a) 0·9 = T10 . 16a. 33 (b) 24. 17. 41 (b) 34 . −16 1 1 (c) x = 9 2 = 3 (d) x = 10 = 100 1 − 14 − 12 √ (e) x = ( 16 ) = 2 (f) x = 7 = 1/ 7 (e) 12. 125. 29. 1. −35 1 1 3 (c) x = 1000. 18x. 3a. 13 . 16 2 (c) x > log7 1000 = . x = 3 (b) x −1 = 17 . 0. (d) u = v log v u (d) 0. 1577 = T260 . 0. 5. T15 = 1125. 192 −1 (c) −1. 3·01 5(a) 60 is not a member. −1 (f) 64. 8. 108. 0. 96 = T10 (b) T7 = 12 x 3 10(a) 6x (b) −x − y − z (c) 3y + 5 (d) 2x + 2z − 1 11 From Q2: (a) y = 5x−2 (b) y = 5 (c) y = x (d) y = 12 − 7x (e) y = 4 × 3 x (e) y−x (f) x+2y−2z−1 (g) −2z (h) 3x−y−z−2 (f) y = 2x(x + 1) 11(a) −3+log2 5 (b) log2 5+ 32 log2 3 (c) − 12 −log2 3 (g) nothing simple (h) nothing simple (d) 12 + 32 log2 3 − 32 log2 5 12(a) 1. 34. 1. 96. 30. 1. −1. 2. −14. 80 = T4 . 18. 24 (d) 28. 322. S −D =1 2 2 21. 400 (d) −1 + log2 5 (c) −36x. 7. 27 4 x. −11. 2x ). 24. 40 = 216 (h) x = 8− 3 = 14 (g) −1. 48. x = 81 16 5(a) 1 (b) −1 (c) 3 (d) −2 (e) 2 (f) − 12 1 4(a) 77 = T10 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 3·550 (i) 34 x. Tn where n is odd. 2    x = log2 D + D2 + 1 1 Exercise 6C (Page 198) −1 1 2 x 1(a) 21. 1. 25. 70 = T10 (b) 5 terms (h) x > log0·06 0·001 = . 50 (e) x = 25. 8. 14 3(a) x = 43 = 64 (b) x = 13−1 = 13 1 2(a) 3. −4·192 (b) 106 terms 3 . 9 (h) 1. . −1. −2. 1. 2·455 9(a) 33 powers (b) 14 powers 10(a) 1 12 = T4 . 4 (h) −3. 100. Tn where n is even. 13. 8. x = 8 (h) x 2 = 9. −9. −3. 0. 9(a) 28 = T7 . S + D = 2x . 7(a) 2 log2 3 (b) 1 + 2 log2 3 (c) −1 − log2 3 6(a) 0. 15. 34 . 0. 4·727 (g) 3. 81 2 1·5 (g) x = 36 3 4(a) x = 27. 3x. 11. x = 15 (f) x2 = 49 . 0. 3. (e) 4a. 349 is not a member. . −1. 3. The Lucas sequence is 1. 324 (f) 4. 6 (c) 1. x = 9 √ √ −2 (f) 2 2 . 78 (h) −2. 100. 3·46 (b) 3 and 4. 92 x (d) 5a. 29. . 0. 2 2 . 0. −9x. . 78 . 199. x = 10 (d) x 2 = 3. 1. 6(a) 3 and 4. −2. −1. 2 3 (d) x y = z 4 x (e) 2 = y (f) x = yz n 13(a) 11. 76. 9. no terms are zero. Tn where n is even. 64 (d) 5. . (d) x < −1 + log2 10 = . 32a (f) 1. Julia Shea. 18 (b) 5. (g) 0 (h) −1 12 (b) 63 terms are less than 400. 144. a. −10. Answers to Chapter Six 579    y (b)x = log2 S + S 2 − 1 . 121 (g) 45 . 8 (g) 5. the third and fourth term in each 15(a) x + y = xy (b) x = 1000y (c) x = y 4 group of 4 is zero. 67 . 123. −3 2 (e) 37. 2. 2·21 (d) 8 and 9. 605 = T11 . −a . 81. 8·64 (b) 14 terms are less than 1000. 8a. 2. x = 23 −1 (h) 12 .

Tn = nx + (4n − 7)y √ √ 8(a) AP: x = −48. Tn = 29 − 17n. T10 = 100) √ √ √ n −1 (e) 1. a = 16 8(a)(i) T63 = 504 (ii) T106 = 848 (iii) 44 terms (b) r = 3 and a = 19 . x = −2 (b) T50 × T25 = 5 × 2 . Tn = 10 × 2 . 2. d = 18 T6 = 110. 23. T25 = 10. Tn = n log3 2 (d) 6400 = T8 (f) T6 = 1600. T6 = 8 3 (c) d = 3 12 . 2. d = λd1 + μd2 √ √ √ √ (c) 12 + 12 5 . T285 = 1995. 32 + 12 5 .580 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 The sum of two odd integers is even. T6 = 320 (b) d = −8. a = 50. 1 2 . . a = 7 5−16 2 n 2n −1 (b) r = ax . T25 = −5 12 . Tn = (−1) . . 20. 27. Tn = 14 (2 + 5n. a = 60 √ √ √ √ √ √ 6(a) r = 2. 1. Tn = 38 × (−12) . r = 2 (c) d = −3 − 3x. 2. Tn = 4n − 7. d = 4. 15(a) a = λa1 + μa2 . . d = 8 (d) x = −2. 800. Tn = 2 (7n − 12) = 72 n − 6. which is 2Fn + 1 . 2240. 4. 2 . 3(a) x = 23. T10 = 13 n −1 (b) 5. 15. 171 terms √ (d) r = 12 . Julia Shea. Tn = 5 × (−2) (f) d = −17. 2 . Tn = loga 3 + (3 − n) loga x (c) They can’t form an AP. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.) (e) r = 4. 14(a) a = m + b. 23 . 9. 1 5(a) r = 4. T29 = −2 n −1 2(a) r = 2. 1(a) d = 3. T6 = 169) T21 = − 12 (d) not a GP (It’s an AP with Tn = 20 + 15n. . d = 9 (b) x = −4. T6 = 768 (c) x = 10. or r = − 2 and a = 32 (ii) T115 = 805. GP: x = 9. 7. −10. T10 = −33 Note: a1 : a2 = d1 : d2 ensures a2 d1 − a1 d2 = 0. 2480 n −1 (c) r = −3. T6 = −27 × 36 (b) T50 + T25 = 314. 3. Tn = ( 2 ) (i) d = 3 2 . T45 = −7 n −1 (b) r = 3 . Tn = 6 × ( 2 )n −1 . d = −4 n −1 (f) r = 14 . 0) is 1. a = −4 12 (d) d = 2− 5. T10 = 35 a1 d2 − a2 d1 a2 d1 − a1 d2 (b) d = −6. Tn = 6 × (− 12 ) 1 3 2 (h) not an AP (but Tn = n . . 91 terms √ √ (c) r = 2 and a = 32 . . . . T10 = 5 − 8 2 n −1 (d) 6. 1. Tn = 3·24 − 1·88n GP: x = 48 and r = 2. A(a. 6. or x = −48 and r = −2 (f) d = − loga x. 72 + 32 5 (b) A(1. . T6 = a6 x11 10(a) T8 = 37 (b) T6 = −2 2−n n −2 (c) r = y/x. A(0. d = 36. T6 = 64 5(a) 2120. − 4 . . . 16. 2 27 (c) not a GP (but Tn = (n + 7) . 2 2 . 6. Tn = a x . A12 = 3440 (c) 34 years n −1 (d) r = − 21 . T6 = − 128 3 4(a) cost = 200 + 300n (b) cost = $4700 n −1 3(a) r = −1. −40. and the sum 13 The 13 terms T28 = 19. d) = aA(1. 6. 200. . T50 ÷ T25 = 2 4 75 25 12(a) d = log3 2. or r = −3 and a = − 19 (b)(i) T91 = 1001. T6 = − 15 8 6(a) 667 terms (b) 44 terms (c) 81 terms n −1 (e) r = − 12 . a = 11. squares less than 200. 4. Tn = −8 × (−3) . d = 4 n −1 (f) r = −12. Exercise 6D (Page 201) ad2 − a2 d ad1 − a1 d (c) λ = . . making 25 terms. Tn = 85 − 3n. 4−n 1 (c) not an AP (but Tn = 2 . (b) The first is 2. Tn = −x y . T6 = 1944 (b) An = 2000 + 120n. x = 1 (b) d = 6x. Tn = 5 + 3n. r = 4 (d) d = −4 + 7 5. . −7. which is 2Fn −1 . 1600. Tn = −1024 × (− 12 ) . d = m (b) f (x) = a + (x − 1)d The second is 0. T181 = 1991. Tn = loga 2 + (4 − n) loga 3 between 1000 and 100 000. −3. Tn = 27 − 6n. . Tn = 14 (103 − 5n). . Tn = −7 × (−1) = 7 × (−1)n 2(a) d = −3. a = −1 (b) d = −9. 400. making 6 terms. (c) d = x + 4y. . . r = 2 (d) AP: x = 2. GP: x = 6. 1). Tn = 34 × 4n −1 . 42 + 22 5 . 2360. T6 = −y 4 /x4 11(a) d = 4. . T10 = 29 1 1 n −1 (f) −7. T73 = 299 lie between 200 √ √ (f) r = 2 or − 2 and 300. d = 72. T10 = 64 ) Exercise 6E (Page 205) (d) d = 4. . . Tn = 3n −1 (e) d = 1 14 . Tn = 9 − 4n + (7n − 13) 5 (b) AP: x = 60. T10 = −141 √ √ √ √ (c) 18. Tn = −24 × ( 14 ) . T6 = 20 (c) d = − 54 . Tn = 180 × ( 13 ) 1 . 1) is 0. 0) + dA(0. T10 = 33 1(a) 1. T50 − T25 = 100 4(a) r = 2 (b) r = 3 or −3 (c) r = 19 or − 19 (d) 815 = T202 (e) T248 = 999. 10. 1 .μ= . (e) d = −1·88. Tn = 60 × (− 12 ) . 19. Tn = −2 × (−2) = (−2)n . Tn = 18 × ( 13 ) n −1 (g) d = − 2. T249 = 1003 (d) r = − 23 (e) r = 0·1 or −0·1 (f) T49 = 203. T6 = 32 7(a) 11. . . 100. Tn = 353 − 8n. 7. David Sadler. Tn = 5 + 2 2 − n 2. T11 = 51 200 lie (b) d = − loga 3. T6 = −1 (c) 32 windows n −1 (b) r = −2. T40 = −17 have of an even and an odd is odd. T25 = 153. x = 13 7(a) 50. . a = 128 2 9(a) d = 4. . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . . 2.

b = 25 12 . 4. Answers to Chapter Six 581 GP: x = 4 and r = 3. (b) first term = log2 a. . 10. −10 10. 2 or −2 (b) 38 2. . . 1 (c) x = y 2xy (b) 11 years 8(b) The sign of the AM is the sign of the larger in 15 152 sheets absolute value. . 1 or −1 3 2 4 4 (l) 2x3 (j) (−1)n −1 xn −1 2(a) x = 2 (b) x = −4 (c) x = 13 (d) x = 1 or 6 n =1 3 6 8 13 3(a) 14. 7 terms (c) x. 12. 22 2 . 12 (c) 36 12 . 6 a d 20(a) first term = 2 . 5 terms 5(a) 5 . 9. 0·050 015. 4 √ √ . 8. b = 12. 8 2 (d) 10. 16(a) Tn = 2x . 132 terms 14(a) W1 = 20 000 × 0·8. . 33. b = 12. . 0·9439 = (c) No. . 3 or −3 (f) 25a . a or − a 1 √ √ (h) (−1)n n (i) (−1)n −1 n (i) 40. −100 10 6(a) 125 (b) 0 (c) 873 (d) 56 700 4(a) a = 14 14 . b = 0 (c) a = 66 (d) a = 16 (e) a = 28. . 3 d = −1 (f) a = 3 and r = 3. 11 terms 6(a) 0·100 01. r = b (b) f (x) = ar x−1 √ left of A). √ 13(a) Tn = 98 × ( 17 ) n −1 . 10 terms (i) 14 5 . 35 (b) 18. 10 or −10 (d) −15. or x = 0 and r = −1 (b) a = 6. c = −24 n −1 √ √ (b) Tn = 2 × 7 . it can be any positive number except 1. ratio = 2 2 (e) T3 /T1 = ( 12 ) 1 2 = . 0·8908 = . 0·002. x = 13 or − 13 2 ab. . T18 . 15(b) T8 /T1 = ( 12 ) 1 2 = 7 . 8. 10. 2. 28. . 0·6674 = . 2 log2 3 or −2 log2 3 5 √ √ (b) An = P × (1·07) n (c) 11 full years to double. 0·02. x2 − y 2 or − x2 − y 2 (d) x + y . . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 8 or −8 (b) 20 12 . 19. P × (1·07) . 5 . no GM (e) 2n −1 (f) arn −1 (g) a + (n − 1)d (e) 3 34 . 0·100 01. . . 0·002. −0·0002 x2 + y 2 W3 = 20 000 × (0·8) . . . 17 . 4. Wn = 20 000 × (0·8) 3 n 7(a) . . −16 (c) Tn = 2 × 24n −4 x = 24n −20 x. 6 terms or a = −6. Julia Shea. 7a or −7a 2 2 2 n =1 n =1 n =1 √ √ 10 10 (g) 0. 2. 5 (d) T6 /T1 = ( 12 ) 1 2 = . 12 or − 12   n −3 (c) Tn = 5 . so (a + b) ≥ 4ab. 10 10.  or  (c) T8 . . ratio = r1 r2 Exercise 6G (Page 212) (b) G(2. 18 √ 16(a) λ = − 12 + 12 5 (b) λ = 32 + 12 5 (M to the 21(a) a = kb. David Sadler. 0·8409 = . 0·002 or −0·002 n −1 (b) 0·150 005. . 29 12 . (g) 2 log2 3. 5 18(c) r = 1. . . x − y or y − x 2 2 2 2 2 2 10(a) 18 terms (b) 7 terms (c) 11 terms 11(a) T9 . . . 10 terms (b) T5 . a or −a . 2 . 1 1 1 √ √ 3(c)(i) (3n+1) (ii) (3n−5) (iii) (3n−20) 26. x = 6 13(b) XP = AM 17(a) a = 6 4 and b = 2 12 . √ √ √ √ 5(b) 3 n =0 n =2 n =7 100 10 or − 10. (c) When a = b. (c) Tn = (0·9) . P × (1·07) 2 3 (f) 2 log2 3. 2) is 1(a) 75 (b) 55 (c) 10 (d) 40 (e) 404 (f) 0 (g) 31 1. 4 logb 2 or −4 logb 2 35 full years to increase tenfold. . √ . W2 = 20 000 × (0·8) . . c = 24 n −1 9(a) Tn = 7 × 2 . 8 . or λ = 32 − 12 5 (M to the right of B) 22(a) first term = aA. μ = log2 r (h) 10 (i) −10 (j) −1 (k) 1 (l) 80 40 40 1 20 12 3 Exercise 6F (Page 209) 2(a) n (b) (c) (n + 2) (d) 2n n =1 n =1 n n =1 n=1 1(a) 10. no GM (h) 2 (a + 1). or a = 23 and r = −3 1 4 (c) T5 /T1 = ( 12 ) 1 2 = . 2. 2 n =1 n =1 1 + x6 2k +1 (k) 12 a (a + 1). 1) is 2. 21. 3 . 100. . 4. . 12 or − 21 (b) Tn = 25 × ( 5 ) 1 n −1 = ( 15 )n −3 . 2. 100. λ = log2 a. 0·7491 = . so a + b ≥ 2 2 √ (b) Tn = x 6−2n . 2. or a = 4 and b = −2 1 √ 14(a) c : a = 5 : 3 (b) c : a = (1 + 5) : 2 3 (b) a = 1. G(1. c = 36 34 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 2 or −2 2 or −25 2 5 5 5 (j) 72. 0·7937 = . . 8−3n 19(a) Tn = 2 3 T4 /T1 = ( 12 ) 1 2 = . T7 . 20 or −20 k   13 k (c) −12 12 . 15 2 . x = 1 or −1 n 10(b) (a − b) ≥ 0. 2 0·0002 or −0·02. 3 terms x 1 −1 (e) 2 . . 4 terms x − y2 x −y 2 2 x2 − y 2 12(a) P × 1·07. 3 log2 3 or − 3 log2 3 (h) 5 logb 2. 12 + 12 5 or 12 − 12 5 (d) 1. . ratio = log2 r 1 T2 /T1 = ( 12 ) 1 2 = . T11 . ratio = rR λ μ λ μ 23(a) first term = a1 a2 .

582 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11

Exercise 6H (Page 214) (d) n = 18 or n = −2, but n must be a positive
1(a) Sn : 2, 7, 15, 26, 40, 57, 77 (AP with a = 2 integer. (e) n = 4, 5, 6, . . . , 12
(f) Solving Sn > 256 gives (n − 8) < 0, which has
2
and d = 3) (b) Tn : 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 (GP
with a = 2 and r = 2) no solutions.
2 They are the partial sums of the AP 2, 6, 10, 10(b)(i) n = 3 (ii) n = 10 (iii) n = 40
14, . . . . For further explanation, see your chem- (c) 21 or more terms (d) Solving Sn = 50 gives
istry teacher. n2 + n − 100 = 0, which has no integer solutions
3(a) 3, 8, 15, 24, 35 (b) 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 because b2 − 4ac = 401 is not a square.
(c) Tn = 2n + 1 11(a) 20 rows, 29 logs on bottom row
2
4(a) Tn = 5−2n (b) Tn = 6n−8 (c) Tn = 11−10n (b) Sn = 5n , 7 seconds
6(a) 2, 8, 26, 80, 242 (b) 2, 6, 18, 54, 162 (c) 11 trips, the deposits are 1 km apart.
n −1
(c) Tn = 2 × 3 12(a) 10 terms, 55 loga 2 (b) 11 terms, 0
n −1
7(a) Tn = 5 × 2 (b) Tn = 16 × 5 (c) 6 terms, 3(4 logb 3 − logb 2)
n

n −2
(c) Tn = 3 × 4 (d) 15(logx 2 − logx 3)
8(a) Tn = 6n, 6, 12, 18 13(a) d = 11 (b)  = 22 (c) a = −7·1 (d) a = −3
(b) Tn = n + 1, 2, 3, 4 (c) Tn = 6 − 2n, 4, 2, 0 (e) d = −2, a = 11, S10 = 20
(d) Tn = 4, 4, 4, 4 (e) Tn = 3n − 3n + 1, 1, 7, 19 (f) a = 9, d = −2, T2 = 7
2

−n
(f) Tn = 2 × 3 , 23 , 29 , 27 2
, (g) d = −3, a = 28 12 , T4 = 19 12
−n
(g) Tn = −6 × 7 , − 7 , − 49 6 6
, − 343
6
14(c) a = −27, d = −2 (d) n = 15
(h) Tn = a + (n − 1)d, a, a + d, a + 2d 15(a) 37 + 45 + · · · + 101 = 621 (c) n = 11
2 3
(i) Tn = n , 1, 4, 9 (j) Tn = n , 1, 8, 27 (d) 666 667 or more
n −1
(k) Tn = ar , a, ar, ar2 16(a) n(43 − n), n = 43 (b)(i) 32 n(41 − n), n = 41
9(a) T1 = 8, Tn = 2n + 3 for n ≥ 2 (ii) 3n(n + 14), n = 3 (iii) 14 n(n + 9), n = 6
n −1
(b) T1 = −7, Tn = 14 × 3 for n ≥ 2 17(a)(i) 14 850 (ii) 30 000 (b) 150 000
−1 (c) 149 700 + 150 400 = 300 100
(c) T1 = 1, Tn = for n ≥ 2
n(n − 1) (d) 322 multiples, sum is 442 911
(d) Tn = 3n − n + 1 for n ≥ 1
2
18(a) n = 17, a = −32 (b) n = 11, a = 20
The formula holds for n = 1 when S0 = 0. 19(a) 300 (c) 162
n
Exercise 6I (Page 216) 20(a)
n+1
1 185 3 2n + 3 1 1
(b) − and −
2(a) 222 (b) −630 (c) 78 400 (d) 0 (e) 65 (f) 30 4 2(n + 1)(n + 2) 4 2(n + 1)(n + 2)
3(a) 101 terms, 10 100 (b) 13 terms, 650
(c) 11 terms, 275 (d) 100 terms, 15 250 Exercise 6J (Page 220)
(e) 11 terms, 319 (f) 10 terms, 61 23 1 2186
4(a) 500 terms, 250 500 (b) 2001 terms, 4 002 000 2 2800 kits, cats, sacks and wives  
3(a) 1023, 2 − 1 (b) −341, 13 1 − (−2)
n n
(c) 3160 (d) 1440
 
5(a) Sn = n(1 + 2n) (b) Sn = 12 n(5n − 23) (c) 242, 3 − 1 (d) 122, 12 1 − (−3)
n n
√ √
(c) Sn = 14 n(21 − n) (d) Sn = 12 n(2 + n 2 − 3 2 )    
2 2 (e) 1023 , 16 1 − ( 1 n
) (f) 341 16
, 1 − (− 1 n
)
6(a) 12 n(n + 1) (b) n (c) 32 n(n + 1) (d) 100n 64
 2
 64 3
 2

(g) 27 , 2 1 − ( 3 ) 1 n
(h) 27 , 4 1 − (− 13 )
364 27 182 27 n
7(a) 450 legs. No creatures have the mean number
 
of 5 legs. (b) 21 835 years (c) $352 000 (i) 1820 135
1 − ( 13 )n (j) −11 111, 19 (1 − 10 )
n
27 , 2
8(a) n terms, 12 nx(n + 1) (b) 60 + 190d    
(k) −9091, 11 1
(−10)n − 1 (l) 211 , 4
( 3 n
) − 1
(c) 21 terms, 21(a − 50) (d) 40 400b    24 3 2 
√ √
4(a) 5 (1·2) −1 , 25·96 (b) 20 1−(0·95) , 8·025
n n
(e) 6(13 + 24 2 ) (f) 20 terms, 230 3
 
9(b)(i) 16 terms (ii) more than 16 terms
(c) 100 (1·01) − 1 , 10·46
n
(c) 5 terms or 11 terms  
(d) 100 1 − (0·99) , 9·562
n

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Answers to Chapter Six 583

√ √ √
5(a)(i) 263264 − 1 (b) 615 km3
(ii) 6(a) 76 (7
+ 7) (b) 4(2 − 2) (c) 5(5 − 2 5)

cx(3n xn − 1) xn − 1 (d) r = 13 10 > 1, so there is no limiting sum.
6(a) Sn = (b) Sn = √ √ √
 3x − 1  (x − 1)xn −1 (e) 13 3 (f) 12 ( 3 + 1) (g) 2 5 + 4
cx 1 − (−3x)n y n − xn (h) r > 1, so there is no limiting sum.
(c) Sn = Sn = (d)
(y − x)y n −1 7 37
 √ 1 + 3x √ 
7(a) Sn = ( 2) − 1 8(a) The successive down-and-up distances form
n
2+1 ,
√  a GP with a = 15 and r = 23 .
S10 = 31 2 + 1
 √ √  (b) S∞ = 45 metres
1
(b) Sn = 20 1 − (− 5)n 5−1 , 9(a) r = 12 , S∞ = 14 (b) r = − 25 4
, S∞ = − 25
√  29
S10 = − 781 5−1 (c) The first GP has r = 15 and S∞ = 5, the second
5
GP has r = 14 and S∞ = 6 23 , so the total is 11 23 .
8(a)(i) 121 13 (ii) 9 loga 3 (iii) 765 3 9 129
32 (b) 4 + 2 +27 = 4
11(a) r = 45 (b) 18 + 6 + 2 + · · · or 9 + 6 + 4 + · · ·
9(b) n = 8 (c) 14 terms (d) S14 = 114 681 √ √
(c) r = 56 (d)(i) r = − 12 + 12 5 (r = − 12 − 5 < −1,
10(a) 41 powers of 3 (b) 42 terms
so it is not a possible solution.)
11(a)(i) 0·01172 tonnes (ii) 11·99 tonnes √ √ −1
−3 (ii) r = 12 (iii) r = 12 2 or − 12 2 (e) r = 2 3
(b) 4·9 × 10 g
12(b)(i) 96 (ii) 32 (iii) 64 (iv) 32
(c)(i) Sn = 10P (1·1 0 − 1) (ii) $56.47
1
13(a) 1 : 10 (b) 45th year
12(a) 34 010 and 26 491 (c) 3·30
n+1 3 14(a) 66 667 (b) 88·2% (c) 12th month (d) 98%
13(a) (b) n
n 2 +1 15(b) r = −3, which is impossible. (d)(i) S∞ > 3
14(b) n = 6 (c) T12 = −708 588 (ii) S∞ < −4 (iii) S∞ > 2 a (iv) S∞ < 12 a
1

(d) S13 = 1 594 324 ar
16(a) First term is , ratio is r, it converges
15(a)(i) 2 097 151 (ii) 6560
4374 (b) r = 4 and n = 4 1−r
(c) n = 6 and  = −1215 to zero because its ratio is between −1 and 1.
3−n
16(a) r = 2 or r = −2 (c) r = 3 2 or −3 2
−1 −1 (b) Dn = 3 , D5 = 19 , 16 terms (c) 10 terms
√ √ 1
17(a) 3 × 3 + 6 × 2 − 9 (b) 2 × 2 + n + 4n − 2
n n n 2
17(a) − 2 < x < 2 and x = 0, S∞ =
2 − x2
(c) a = 1, d = 3, b = 3, Sn = 2 n + 2 n − 6 + 6 × 2
3 2 5 n
√ √ 1
18 112 (b) 1 < x < 3 or −1 > x > − 3, S∞ =
3 − x2
19 694 5x
(c) x > 15 or x < − 15 , S∞ =
5x − 1
Exercise 6K (Page 225) x
18, 24, 26, 26 23 , 26 89 , 26 26 (d) x > 2 or x < −2, S∞ =
1 27 , S∞ = 27, x+2
S∞ − S6 = 27 1
1 + x2
(e) x = 0, S∞ =
2(a) r = 12 , S∞ = 2 (b) r = − 12 , S∞ = 23 x2
(c) r = 13 , S∞ = 18 (d) r = −1, no limiting sum 3−x
(f) x > 4 or x < 2, S∞ =
(e) r = 109
, S∞ = 1000 (f) r = − 15 , S∞ = − 53 4−x
(g) r = 15 , S∞ = − 56 x2 + 1
(g) x = 1 and x = −1, S∞ =
(h) r = 1·01, no limiting sum
(x − 1)2
n −2 n
(i) r = −0·99, S∞ = 100 199 19(b) Sn = 4 − ( 12 ) − n −1 (c) S∞ = 4
−1 2
(j) r = (1·01) , S∞ = 101
√ ax dx

(k) r = − 16 , S∞ = 108 (l) r = 14 , S∞ = 64 5 20(b) Sn = + 1 − ( 12 )n −1
175 3 x − 1 (x − 1) 2
3(a) x = 2 (b) x = − 3 (c) x = − 3
1 2 2
a + (n − 1)d ax dx
4(a) a = 43 (b) a = 83 (c) a = 23
− (c) S∞ = +
(x − 1)xn −1 x − 1 (x − 1)2
1 1
5(a) 0 < x < 2, (b) −2 < x < 0, −
2−x x
1 1
(c) 13 < x < 1, (d) −1 < x < − 13 ,
3 − 3x 3x + 3

ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

. 9991 = 0·001̇. 0·1011 9(a) 2 − 1 = (2 ) − 1. then 2 + 1 = (2 ) + 1. 1×2 2×3 3×4 (o) (1 − ax)(1 + ax + a x + a x + a x + a x + 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 + + + · · · = 13 . The n n (g) (x + 1)(x − x + x − x + x − x + 1) 6 5 4 3 2 result now follows. 7·282 = 7·2819̇ 8(b)(i) (x + 1)(x + x 3 + 1)(x − x 3 + 1) 2 2 2 29 5(a) 303 25 (b) 101 3 (c) 13 (d) 37 √ √ (ii) (x−1)(x+1)(x +1)(x +x 2+1)(x −x 2+1) 2 2 2 (e) 0·25 + (0·0057 + 0·000 057 + · · ·) = 211 (f) 14 1 135 (iii) (x − 1)(x + 1)(x + 1)(x + x + 1)(x − x + 825 2 2 2 1 (g) 3690 (h) 7 27 √ √ 35 1)(x2 + x 3 + 1)(x2 − x 3 + 1) 1 13 27 7(a) 4 . 2p−2 Mp with sum (2p−1 − 1)Mp . M3 = 7. Exercise 6M (Page 230) . 8128 = 26 × 127 (e) (t + 1)(t − t + 1) (f) (t + 1)(t − t + t − t + 1) 2 4 3 2 (d) Fn +1 − 2 = (2 + 1)(2 − 1) = Fn (Fn − 2). 57 . 0·011. David Sadler. M11 = 2047 = 23 × 89 and so on. 1 (d) 0·0̇1̇. so since Fn and (j) (x − 3)(x + 3x + 9x + 27x + 81) 4 3 2 Fm are both odd. F0 = 2 + 1 = 3. 0·1̇100̇. for odd cardinals n.. which factors when a > 1 ab a b (c) 23 . 5. then the fraction will factors. Some perfect numbers: 6 = (d) (t − 1)(t + t + t + t + t + t + 1) 6 5 4 3 2 2 × 3. (k) (x + 5)(x − 5x + 25) 2 (l) (x + y)(x − x y + x y − xy + y ) 4 3 2 2 3 4 Exercise 6N (Page 234) (m) (x + 2)(x − 2x + 4x − 8x + 16) 4 3 2 1 1 1 (n) (2t + 1)(16t − 8t + 4t − 2t + 1) 4 3 2 2 + + + · · · = 1. 0·0̇01̇ and b > 1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 2 . M7 = 127. 3. p 1(a) (x − 1)(x + 1) (b) (x − 1)(x2 + x + 1) 2 Mp . . If n > m. 3 x + x y + x y + x y + x y + xy 5 + y 6 6 5 4 2 3 3 2 4 (e) x4 + x3 y + x2 y 2 + xy 3 + y 4 n 7 2 > 2n 3 .. F1 = 22 + 1 = 5. F5 = 232 + 1 = 641 × 6 700 417 2 (c) The divisors of N less than N are 1. 1. 6. 6. which a b be made a string of nines. If the denominator of a fraction can ab (b) If b is odd. 28 = 22 × 7. √ n √ n x − x y + x4 y 2 − x3 y 3 + x2 y 4 − xy 5 + y 6 6 5 1+ 5 1− 5 (f) 17(d) Ln = + x4 − x3 y + x2 y 2 − xy 3 + y 4 2 2 3(a) (x − 1)(x + 1)(x + 1) 2 (b) (x − 1)(x + x + 1)(x + 1)(x − x + 1) 2 2 (c)(i) (x + a )(x + a )(x + a)(x − a) 4 4 2 2 (ii) (x − 1)(x + x + x + x + 1)(x + 1)(x − x + 4 3 2 4 3 x − x + 1) 2 √ √ √ √ 4(a) ( x + y )( x − y ) ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. since F0 − 2 = 1. The 2 (c) (x − 1)(x + x + x + x + 1) 4 3 2 combined sum is N . 1 1 u+x but is less than every positive number. a6 x6 ) (p) (3t + 2a)(9t2 − 6ta + 4a2 ) 1 × 4 4 × 7 7 × 10 2(a) x +xy+y (b) x +x y+xy +y (c) x −y+1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 + + + · · · = 14 (d) 16x − 8x y + 4x y − 2xy + y 4 3 2 2 3 4 1×2×3 2×3×4 3×4×5 5 n − n is divisible by 24. M5 = 31. 16 . F2 = 24 + 1 = 17. 3. 0·11. 15 . F3 = 28 + 1 = 257. 2. they are relatively prime. M2 = 3. 1 be a multiple of one of these recurring decimals. for n ≥  12. (h) (x − 5)(x + 5x + 25) (i) (x + 2)(x − 2x + 4) 2 2 then Fm is a divisor of Fn − 2. 64 (b)0·1. 4. 991 = 0·01̇. 496 = 24 × 31.584 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ √ √ Exercise 6L (Page 228) (b) ( x − y )(x + xy + y) √ √ √ 1(a) 0·7 + 0·07 + 0·007 + · · · = 79 (b) 23 (c) ( x + y )(x − xy + y) (c) 0·27 + 0·0027 + 0·000027 + · · · = 113 (d) 26 1 √ √ √ 33 5(a) √ √ (b) x− y (c) x + xy + y 5 (e) 11 1 (f) 37 5 (g) 37 (h) 27 5 x+ y 2(a) 12 + (0·4 + 0·04 + · · ·) = 12 49 (b) 7 11 9 1 (d) √ (c) 8·4 + (0·06 + 0·006 + · · ·) = 8 15 7 x − xy + y 2 2 6(a) 2n + 1 (b) 4n (c) 3n + 3n + 1 (d) 2(3n + 1) (d) 0·2 + (0·036 + 0·000 36 + · · ·) = 13 55 (e) 4an (f) 35(n + a)(n − a) 4(a) 0·9̇ = 0·9 + 0·09 + 0·009 + · · · = 1−0·10·9 = 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 7(a) u + x (b) u + ux + x (c) u + u x + ux + x (b) Zero is the only number that is not negative. 2Mp . (d) − (e) √ √ (f) − 2 2 ux u + √x u x √ (d) 74 = 73·9̇. 2. and Mp . 5 216 + 1 = 65 537. F4 = (b) Periods: 1. 8(a) Notice that 19 = 0·1̇.2 p−1 with sum 2 − 1 = Mp . Julia Shea. .

14. 80 32 (ii) 0. 10 2(a) 5. f  (3) = 1 and angle ◦ −1 1 x of inclination is 45◦ . At (3. David Sadler. −4. 0) (iv) (0. 0) 2(a) 2 (b) −3 (c) 12 (d) 0 (e) a (f) 23 (g) − 45 (v) (2 12 . that is when m = 2a. y = 7x − 2 (f) 11. −18 (g) 0. when m2 +4b = 0. its equation (v) −4. y = −5x + 6. 104 2 is f  (x) = 2x. 5a + 1 3(a) 3x + 1 (b) 6x − 6x − 16x 2 2 3 (f) 4x + 2h + 3. Answers to Chapter Seven 585 Chapter Seven 5(a) 5 (b) −3 (c) u + x (d) u + x − 4 (e) u + x + 3 (g) −4u − 4x 2 2 (f) 2u + 2x + 3 (h) u + ux + x 3 2 2 3 Exercise 7A (Page 240) (i) u + u x + ux + x (derivatives as before) ◦  ◦ ◦ ◦ 1 The graph of y = f  (x) should approximate a 6(b)(i) 6. −1 14(a) −7 (b) 6 (c) 1 (d) 5 (e) 6 or −6 15 The line is a tangent when the two points coin- −2 cide. 108◦ 26 1 11(b)(i) 4 (ii) −1 (iii) 0 (iv) 2·01 x 13(a) It is the difference-of-squares identity. −6) (iii) (5. 12. 4a − 2b 2 (d) 2x + h − 4. 3b (l) 0. −7. 1 (e) 1.  (k) 0. so the gradient of the (c) tangent is twice the x-coordinate. 135 ◦  line of gradient 2 through the origin. 3x (h) 2a x − 10a 3 2 2 3 3 2 (i) 4x + 6x h + 4xh + h . y = 5x + 1 (b) −3. 4x −2 −3 −4 3(a) 5. y = 11x − 8 (d) 3/x (e) − c/ax (f) −6/x + 8/x (g) −a/x + 2b/x 2 7 9 2 3 (g) −16. 0). f (2) = −1 and angle of 6(a) (b) y y inclination is 135 . 4 (i) 0. 2x + 3 (j) 0. 0 (iii) 1. y = 4 − 3x 4(a) −3x (b) −10x (c) 4x −3 (c) 4. that is. whose x-intercept 5(a) √ (b) √ (c) √ 1−x 1−x 4 − x2  2 2 is 65 . (d) 71◦ 34. −6) (ii) (2. −6 14 ) √ (h) − 10 (i) 0 8(b)(i) x = 2 (ii) x = −2 (iii) x = 2 3 3 √ √ √ 3(a) 72 (b) 12 (c) 0 (iv) x = −2 3 (v) x = 23 3 (vi) x = − 23 3 ◦ . 1·507 −x x −x  10(b) f (0) = −5. 14. which is twice the x-coordinate. 2x (f) −3. y = 32x − 48 3 1 7 a 4(a) none (b) none (c) x = 0 (d) x = 2 6(a) − 2 (b) − (c) (d) − 2 x 3x2 3x2 √ x (e) x = −1 12 (f) x = − 34 (g) x = 0 (h) x = 0 3 5 7 7 (i) x = 0 7(a) √ (b) √ (c) √ (d) √ 2 x x 2 x 2 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 4(a) − 43 (b) − 34 (c) 0 (d) 43 (e) 34 (vii) x = 2 tan 37 = . Julia Shea. −2. 5 (b) −3. 4x + 3 (g) −8x − 4h. −3 (c) 2x + h. 2 at B 2(a) 0. y = −4 (d) −4x − 4x−9 5(a) −2/x (b) −15/x (c) −2/x 3 4 5 6 (e) 7. The line is a tangent when these coincide. 45 (iv) −1. 0). in which case the tangent at x = 12 m has gradient m. 2x − 4 (e) 2x + h + 3. 11. −8x (c) 2x + 2 (d) 8x (e) 4x + 12x (f) 3x − 28x + 49 (g) 3x − 10x + 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 (h) 3x + 3xh + h . 2 (h) 1. y = −16x + 25 (h) −7n/2x n +1 (h) 12.    y 16 They meet at x = 12 m + m2 + 4b and x =    1 2 m − m 2 + 4b . 2 (d) −5. (c) At (2. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 16. x Exercise 7C (Page 247) −x x 7−x 7(a) √ (b) √ (c)  1(a) 7x6 (b) 45x4 (c) 2x5 (d) 6x − 5 9 − x2 16 − x2 36 − (x − 7)2 (e) 4x + 3x + 2x + 1 (f) −3 − 15x 3 2 2 x−1 (d) √ (g) 2x − 2x + 2x (h) x + x + x + 1 5 3 3 2 2x − x2 (i) 4ax − 2bx (j) x 3 −1 2 3b−1 (k) 3b x 5a Exercise 7B (Page 243) (l) (5a + 1)x 1(a) 2x + h − 4 (c) −2 (d) 0 at C. 7(b)(i) (3. 8. 7 (b) 0. y = 4x + 6 (d) 0. 45 (c) 0. y = 12x − 16 (i) 32.

y = 3x − 16 −3 2(a) 9x − 5 (b) 5x + 83 x (c) 2 + 6x 2 2 15 y = −2x + 5. 16). −1) (b) (1. 1 (c) −6. x − 2y + 15 = 0. 2 23 ) and (−1. 0). the normal 7(a) (1. 3. 10(a) y = −6x+14. √ (c) 4x − 5. 3 13 ) (d) none (e) ( 14 . 8) (b) (2. | QU P | = 1 23 square units −3 −15   −3 (c) −3x 2 = √ (d) − 15 2 x − 52 = 2√  b 4ac − b2 x x 2x x 18 f (x) = 2ax + b. equal to 0. x + 3y = 4. 13 ) (d) impossible. −3 (c) 1. 25) or (−5. | OAB| = 64 square units (e) −27/x . √ √ (e) b = −9. c = 17 (f) b = −5 23 . −1 −3 −3 √ (f) 12 x 2 − 12 x 2 (g) 2x − 2x (h) 32 x y = (2ax0 + b)x − ax0 2 + c. 120 − c/a . or 2 25(a) ( 12 . y = 16 x (b) y = 14 x+1. − 12 ) (a cannot be zero) a = −3 and y = −16x (b) y = (2a+15)x−a2 +36. a = 2 3 and y = (c) t = 4. as a = 0 √ √ a = 6 and y = 27x. At (−3. −1 (b) −1. −a . 1 34 ) (d) (3. 1 √ 3 √ 4(a) 18x 2 = 18 x (b) 10x 2 = 10x x Q = (0. or a = − 3 and y = (−4 3 − 7)x there is no tangent at the endpoint. −a ) 2 2 ◦  . 16 (d) 1/ 3. √ √ 2 x x − 3 x (b) 48x 3 2 2 13(a) 15 (c) 36 31 The tangents are y = 2ax−a and  y = 2bx−b . ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. or c = 0 (b is arbitrary). 9 28 (d) 30 . David Sadler. −6 23 ). a = 3 and y = −4x. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 2 √ √ (c) b = −10. P = (0. because all the tangents to 24(a) y = 2x0 x + 9 − x0 2 (b) Put the x-intercept y = 1/x have negative gradients. AB = 20. a ≤ 0 (but no restriction on b) 6(a) (1. V = (0. 0) and (1. 25) (c) This is impossible. ab . A = (5. −27 4 13(a) (2. −7 13 ) (b) (−1. x = 1 x = − −a/3. (0. −1) (g) −a/x − 2a/x . . −2). a and c must 32(a) −2 −5 (i) 4 − 4x (j) 4ax − 4ax 3 have the same sign. −1 (b)(i) 2 78 (ii) 1 (iii) impossible (c) 2 12 (d) 3 − 12 3 ◦  ◦  9(b) At (2. x = 4y (t = 0 is not allowed. 2a 2 2 2 (c) (1. a 2 3 14(a) y = −3x + 12. undefined (b) y = − 13 x + 4.) 12(a) b = 7. 0). 18) and (−3. b − 2a 12 2x + y = 16. because √ √ √ (4 3 − 7)x. 5) c 2d 16 y = −2x + 10. −2 (b) 2ax + b. − 3 y = (2 ac + b)x and y = (−2 ac + b)x  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦   9(a) 45 . 2c). U = ( 12 a. x + 2y + 1 = 0 (d) y = 0. 1(a) 4x3 − 2x. x−8y +120 = 0 (c) 2 c3 /a square units (d) y = −1. 8) and (−2. c = 0 (b) b = −2. 2c − b c/a . x+4y −18 = 0 (c) y = −8x+15. −0·5782 3 1 (b) x = 4 tan 142 17 . π −1 1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 (d) x + xπ (e) 2 x 2 − x 2 − 2x 2 9 They meet at K = 12 (a + b) . c = 25 (d) b = −1. 2) (b) (−2. c = −3 27 The tangent where x = t is y = 2tx + 5 − t . 12 ) 21(a) 9 (b) − 14 (c) a . x−6y+47 = 0 (b) y = 4x−21. (c) (1. 135 (b) 135 . 0). (e)(i) 3 13 (ii) 2 14 ◦ . −4). Julia Shea. undefined (d) (0. 45 (b) Points of contact: c/a . or a = −6 and y = 3x 26(a) 2y t = x + t − 2 t √ (c) y = (4a − 7)x − 2a + 6. 2c + b c/a and ◦  ◦  ◦ ◦     (c) about 99 28 . (a)(i) 3 (ii) 4 (iii) 3 14 (c) (− 12 3. whose midpoint is (0. 6). −1) and (−1. 18) 11(a) y = (2a−10)x−a +9. (d) a − 2 + 3 x x B = (−15. − . A = (8. − 12 ) 22 The tangent has gradient 2a − 6. y = 2x + 5. 98 8 . f (−5) = −14 5(a) y = −6x. c = −2 To pass through O. 0). 2 3) 6 − 2a √ 8(a) 1 (b) 0. −1·298 23(a) y = 2ax − a . t = 5 or t = − 5. 10(a) x = 12 (tan 22 − 3) = . 1) and (−1. x = (b) T = (5. (−1. −4 2a 4a (e) 3x 5   19 f (9) = 14. 40) (c) (2a. 3a + 2c 2 AB = 8 5 . x − 3y + 16 = 0 √ (h) 11/2 x. 23 ) 1 √ √ has gradient . x = 4  11 f (x) = 3x . x =  −a/3 and (c) y = 2x + 2. −9 (d) 3ax − 2cx. 4a ) 2 √ (f) 6/ x. c = 7 The tangents are y = 2x 5 and y = −2x 5. y = −4x+18   2 20 f (x) = 3x + a. 5 1 12 −3 −1 −1 23 3(a) 2 x (b) − 12 x 2 (c) 3x 4 (d) − 10 3 x | AKB| = 80 square units (e) 6x −1·6 17 y = 3x − 2. 1) and (3. 1 13 ). which is positive for x = 0 and 2 Exercise 7D (Page 252) zero for x = 0.586 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ √ √ √ 8(a) 1. 71 34 . (3. B = (0.

0 . b/a 2 16(a) 12 metres (b) x = 6 (c) 36 metres ◦  (d) 94 t. 0). The −5 (d) . −1) 2 4 (f) about 82 52 (g) The gradients are 12 − 2a and 2a − 12. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 0). (−1. 0) 2 3 angle with the ground is the same. At Q. they intersect at 2 8  (f) 9(2x + 3)(x + 3x + 1) (6 14 . at (h) √ . − 94 (d) about 85 14 4(a) 6x(x − 1) . dy dy x + 24y = 193 (c) x + 2y = 2. 5 ) 120 1(a) 12(3x + 7)3 (b) −28(5 − 4x)6 (c) 8p(px + q)7 (d) 13 3 169 169 169 60 + 12 + 5 = 2 (e) −64x(7 − x ) 2 11 2 3 (d) 24x(x + 1) 14(a) 4x + 3y = 25. Julia Shea. b = 12 (b) a = 19 . 3 14 ) −1 7x −x (i) √ (j) √ (k) √ (b) area = 12 P Q = 12 2 3 − 2x x2 + 1 9 − x2 b2 x 16(a) At P . −1). (0. (1. (0. 3 14 ). (0. HB = 36 metres −1 −2x 17 At (1. b = −10 Exercise 7E (Page 258) 13(a) 12x + 5y = 169. HA = 3 metres. x = h − 12 m. k) 5 (h) y = 12x. none (x = 1 is outside the domain) ular to x + 2y = 4. −1 (c) b/a. B = (0. 3) the tangent is x + y − 2 = 0. (3. (1. y = 2x − 1 12 21(c)(i) y = 12 a2 (ii) y = na2 x2n −1 dx dx   (d) none (x = 1 is outside the domain) 22 y = 2(α − 3)x + 9 − α2 . A = (2t. 2 x 4 4 − 12 x |t| √ 2|ct| 3 2 perpendicular distance = √ (c) √ (d) 12 (5 − x) 2 −1 1 t4 + c2 (1 − x 2 )2 25(b) y = x − 6x and y = 81 x + 29 x 2 25 2 −1 1 −1 1 (f) 14 b(c − 12 x) 2 2 (e) 12 a (1 + ax) 2 (c) y = x − x − 6 2   3 1 1 26 The equation of the tangent at x = t is a cubic (g) −16 1 − 2 x+ x x in t. 24) acute angle with the ground will be the same. (h. −3) the tangent is x + y + 2 = 0. none (e) −14(x − 5). x−1 (k) √ . 6(a) 2 12 and 1 (b) 2 and 1 12   7(a) y = 13 x + 15 (b) y = 3x − 4 B = (0. (b) λx0 x + y 25 − x0 2 = 25λ. (5. ( 169 169 (c) 169 2 12 . (0. x + 20y = 21 (b) y = 24x − 16. 0). A = 12 (α + 3).   5 1 1 √ 1 (Why?) (h) 6 √ − √ x+ √ 2 x 2x x x 11(a) a = 16 1 . (5x + 2)2 (f) 6(x − 5) . 0). David Sadler. x2 − 2x 20 y = 2(a + 1)x − a − 8. x = h + 12 m. OM × OT = 25 = OA2 2 3 5 2 5x + 4 15(a) P = (7 12 . (l) √ 2 a2 − b2 x2 (b) 14 m(m + 1) 17(b) The vertical distance is a(α − h) . (f) 2 (g) 4 (h) √ dx du (3 + 5x) (x + 1) 2 x+4 dP −3 m −1 1 = x2 + 3u2 + 1 (i) √ (j) √ (k) 12 (5 − x) 2 dt 2 4 − 3x 2 mx − b 3(a) 4t. 0) 2 2 (e) The gradients are 12 and −12. 0). 5 (g) −18(3x + 1)(x + x + 1) (h) √ T = (25/x0 . 2c/t) (ii) x + y√ =6 (b) 2|c| 11( x − 3)10 −3 24 10(a) √ (b)  (e) AB = t + c2 . −4 (b) −1/t . (−2. Answers to Chapter Seven 587 14(a) a2 − 2a (b) −a − a−1 (c) −2 12 (d) 0 (e) 4n4 (c) 15(2 − 3x)−6 (d) 4p(q − x)−5 (e) 1 (f) 21 (g) −21 (h) −3 12 (i) 2 n n (2 − x)2 dP dP −5 15 1 15 = 2tx + 3u. x−1 18 The tangent is y = x. = 6tu + 3x. (4. (j) √ . −5). 0). and every cubic has at least one solution. (5. 1) the gradient is 2. none (i) . (0. (−1. 1) 3 − 2x (1 + x2 )2 (−1. 4) (g) 2a(x − h). which is perpendic. 7) 2 5(a) y = 20x − 19. so the acute (b) 8(x − 2)(x − 4x) . ◦  (c) 10(x + 1)(2x + x ) . (2. (1. 0). at (− 12 . 2 2(a) 25(5x − 7) (b) −21(4 − 3x) 4 6   (c) α = h2 + k/a or − h2 + k/a ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Q = (6 12 . M = 14 (α + 3). 12 (9 − α2 ) . 4x + 5y = 25. 0). 9 − α2 ). 94 ) the gradient is −3. 2) x2 − 2x + 5 19 At (2. 8(a) −5 or −7 (b) 4 or 8 α=1 9(a) x + y(b − 4) = 2b − 4 2 2 (b)(i) x + 4y = 0 23(a) cx + t y = 2ct. 256).

y = −x  α−β 7(a) y = (b) The denominator is posi- 8(a) y  = a(2x − α − β) (b) y  (α) = a(α − β)  (x − β)2 tive. 168◦ 41 5 10x (x − 10) (x − 4). undefined at x = β). 0 (provided a = b) (b) x (x + 1) (7x + 3). 3 2 2 2  x2 − 2x + 4 √ (b) y = . 0). 78◦ 41 . 32 . 8. 1. . . 9 37. none 2 x( x + 2) 2 10x(5x − 2) 2(x + 1) 2 (c) √ . −3456) (x − 1)2 3(3x + 2) 4(3x − 1) 1 3x + 4y = 28. 2x − 1 dx √ (2x − 1)2 9 r + s (r + s)r + s (b) When r = s. 4x − 3y = 4. 2 −2r  − 2 ). . y = 5x − 12. dy −(t + 1)2 8(a) = . 0) (d)(ii) Substitute (c. 14 4 2x(a − b) (g) . f  (8) = − 14 (b) 3   13 y = u vw + uv w + uvw   x( x − 2)2 10(a) domain: x = −1. − 12 a(α − β)2   of α − β. 2 (9 − k)2 (d) y = x. 0). Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .588 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 dy dy du dv x Exercise 7G (Page 263) 18(a) = × × . 1 12 . none (b) 3 . 0). T = ( 23 . (2. 2. (−2. 9(a) f (x) = √ √ √ . − 10 2 3 2 7 (3x − 2)2 (f) 6(2x − 3) (2x + 3) (6x − 1). Julia Shea. (− 10. c < 0. c = − 12 or −1 12 (c + 1)2     1 − x2  12k 1 1 and − 12 . 1 x+5 x+1 1 − 2x 3 5(a) √ √ . k = 3 or 27 (c) 2 . − 12 (b) = 1. and y  = 0 (except that y is  n −1 9 f (x) = (x − a) n q(x) + (x − a)q  (x) . For −1 < (x − 2)3 (11x2 − x − 2) (b) √ . 0 (f) . −3456). 32 37 (ii) 12 . (0. none 1(a) 2x2 (2x − 3) (b) 4x − 9 (c) 4x3 (x2 + 1)2 (bx + m)2 2(a) 3(3 − 2x) (1 − 4x). 0). 0. 0. 0). − 37 2 3 (x2 − b)2 (c) x (1 − x) (5 − 12x). 2). un + u1 u2 . un ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. . − 32 (b) √ . = . none (d) . so a = −c or − −c. M = 12 (α + β). P = ( 12 . −1. 12 17. y = −x (b) y = 2x − 1. −2. 16 3 4 20 3(a) y = x. . 22 (1 + 89). 22 √ √ √ √    12(b)(i) 54. David Sadler. 0. 0 and 25 (x = −5 is outside the domain. 143◦ 8 6(a) √ . being a square. − 14 a(α − β) 2   horizontal line y = 1. The x-axis is a tangent to the curve at x = a. (c) When α = β. range: y = 1 (a) 2x (x − 1) (x − 2) (3x − 5)(2x − 1). they are on different branches. 1 12 . 0 (provided n > 1) (d) (x − 2) (4x − 5). 2 and 3 5 √ √ then c+a2 = 0. . x + 2y = 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 (5 − 2x)2 4(a) (x +1) (11x +1) (b) 2πx (1−x ) (3−11x ) 5  (c) −2(x + x + 1) (7x + 4x + 1) 2 2 2 4(a) y = . 2. 1. ( 10. none (b) . −1 12 . 4 2 5 (xn + 3)2 −3 (e) 2(x + 1) (x + 2) (7x + 10). 2 17 14 y = u1 u2 . 2. so the sign of y  is the sign y  (β) = a(β − α). 4 3 2 (c) I = (−1. 12 4 6 5 6nxn −1 (h) . 2 (x + 5)2 (1 − x)2 Exercise 7F (Page 261) 4x m2 − b 2 (e) . . √ √ dx du dv dx (1 + 1 − x2 )2 1 − x2 −2 4 1(a) . 1 0. √ 2x + 1 √ 1 1 (1 − 89) For c < −1. they are both on the right-hand branch.) 2x − 1 1 − 2x2 c2 + 2c 7(a) −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (b) √ 6(a) = −3. (5 − 3x)2 (d) 6x(3x − 2) (3x + 2) (27x − 2) 2 3 2 4 2 √ x + 5y + 8 = 0. −1. 3x−27y+52 = 0  10 y = x (1 − x) (3 − 8x) 2 4 dx (t − 1)2   x dy −1 r rr ss (b) y = . 1 12(a) P = . the curve is the (c) V = 12 (α + β). 53◦ 8 . G = (1. un + · · ·  +u1 u2 . none (b) dy = dy × du1 × ··· × dun −1 (x − 1) 2 (x + 2)2 dx du1 du2 dx −13 x(2 − x) (c) .

David Sadler. not 9(a)(i) 40 m/s (ii) −160 m/s − x→2 + x→2 continuous at x = 2. 1 = (3x2 + 1) (a) 65 (b) − 14 3 dt dt 2(a) 4 (b) 27 (c) 1 (d) −6 (e) −2 (f) 0 2 1 2(a) 240π cm /s (b) 12π cm/s 3(a) y → 12 (b) y → 75 (c) y → −4 3(a) 2/π cm/s (b) 5/π cm (c) 50/9π cm/s − + √ (d) y → ∞ as x → − 12 . y → −∞ as x → − 12 2 4(a) 840 cm /s. y → 12 2 − 7/x + 6/x2 domain: x = −1 or 1. range = R 11 125π cm/s. angle is about 87◦ 8 dx (d) 2 km high. range: y < 9 (iii) travelling horizontally (iv) 100 m/s or −100 m/s (c) y (d) y 2 (b)(i) 1955 metres (ii) 1755 metres dy (c) = 20. 6 cm/min 2 8 3 2 9 (ii) 600 cm /min. √ dt dt 20 3 2 96π 3 lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 12 . = 12 3 dt √ dt√ dt dt 2 1 (b) 95 3 cm /s.y→∞ 1/ x + 1 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 83 cm2 /s 1 √ 2 1 15 4 6 cm /s 16 0·246 cm/s. not contin- x→2 − x→2 dy −x dx uous at x = 2. domain = R. Exercise 7I (Page 271) domain: x = −1. range: y ≥ 0. 120 cm /min. 200 cm /min (b) lim f (x) = 9. cm/s dt  dt 6π (b) radius = 2hr − h2 . domain = R. Answers to Chapter Seven 589 Exercise 7H (Page 266) (b)(i)y → 12 (ii) y → − 13 (iii) y → 0 dy dx (iv) y is undefined for x < 0. 83 13 cm2 /min x→2 − x→2 2 continuous at x = 2. range: y = 0 1 − 4/x + 3/x2 (b) y = x where x = −1 or 1. lim+ f (x) = 0. lim f (x) = 9. (27 + 9 3) 3 (3 + 3 3 ) 3 (a) y = x + 1 where x = −1. x→2 − 20 3 m /min (c) 25 m√ /min x→2 + 1 4 2 4 2 continuous at x = 2. f (2) = 4. 180 cm /min. 125 3 ( 17 + 1) m2 /s lim f (x) = f (2) = 2. 6 cm/min √ (b) 10 2 cm dA √ ds dh √ ds 4 6(a) = 12 s 3 . y → − 31 15 + 11/x 1/x + 1/x2 + 1/x3 (iii) y = . 2 1(a)(i) y= . y = 1 2/x − 5 (ii) y = . domain = R. 6 2 cm/s 4(a) y (b) y 3 5(a)(i) 1350 cm /min. f (2) = 12 . range: y ≤ 8 (b) 8 litre/min. range: y ≤ 2 13 =√ (a) 125 cm/s (b) 1 15 cm/s dt 169 − x dt 2 5(a) (b) y y dV dh 1 14(a) = πh(20 − h) . 8(a) 24 1 cm/min. m /min. 6 2 cm/s (e) y → 0 (f) y → −1 (g) y → 12 (h) y → 5 2 √ (b) 1200 cm /s. 20 metres away dV dh 1 2 x 10 = 3πh2 (a)(i) 160π 1 m/min 2 x dt dt 3 dA dh 3 2 2 4 (ii) 160π m/min (b) = 6πh . Julia Shea.y→0 1√+ 1/x +√1/x2 + 1/x3 x x − 5/ x (iv) y = √ . 5 cm /s. 5 2 cm /s 3 √ 12(b) 0·096 m /s. Some exact forms are −1 x 3 1 −1 1 x √ 2 and √ 2 . domain: x > 0. 20 3 3 cm/s 32 000π 2 x 2 x 7(a)(i) 24π1 cm/s (ii) 1 12 cm3 /s (b) cm3 3 (a) lim f (x) = lim+ f (x) = f (2) = 8. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .

13 All except (b) are continuous in the closed in- tinuities: 180n◦ .590 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (c) y (d) y (i) y (ii) y 3 1 1 2 1 3 x x x −1 −1 x √ 1 x. ◦ ◦ (b) zeroes: 45 + 180n . for x < 0. for x = 0. for x = 0. 16(a) y y 1 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 x x −1 −1 (b) y  1. where n ∈ Z (d) zeroes: none. where n ∈ Z. lim = (2n + 1) 22n 12(a) They are all √ . for x = (ii) y = x undefined.  |x|. for 0 < x < 2. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 6(a) (gradient of P Q) = 2x + h − 1 → 2x − 1 as x − 2. for x = 0. −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 −1 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. for x ≤ 0. ⎨ 2 − x. David Sadler. terval −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. range: y = 3 ⎪ undefined. 1 x−a 2 x lim = nan −1 −2 x→a 2n + 1 2n + 1 1 x u +2 (c) = u2n − u2n −1 2 + u2n −2 22 − u+2 1 · · · + 22n . where n ∈ Z ◦ ⎪ ⎨ 1. ities: 0. discontinu. discon. ⎪ ⎪ (d) y = 3 where x = −1. for x > 0. Julia Shea. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . discontinuities: 360n◦ . discontinuities: 90◦ + 180n◦ . continuities: 7 and −1 (c) zeroes: none. where n ∈ Z (e) zeroes: ◦ ◦ 14(a) zeroes: 135 + 180n . for x = 0. 15(a) 14 (b) 14 (c) − 91 (d) − 250 1 10(a) y = −1. where n ∈ Z. (c) y = where x = 3. discontinuities: 3 (b) zeroes: 0. for x < 0. 3⎧and −3 discontinuities: 135 + 180n◦ . 180n◦ . (iv) y = domain: x = −1. ⎪ ⎩ undefined. 0. domain: x = 1 or 3. for x = 0. (f) zeroes: 1 and −1. nition of the derivative as a limit). discontinuities: 45 + 180n◦ . where n ∈ Z ◦ where n ∈ Z. 1 (b)(i) y = undefined. h → 0 (b) (gradient of P Q) = u3 + u2 x + ux2 + (iii) y (iv) y x3 − 3 → 4x3 − 3 as u → x 7(a)(i) 2c 2 (ii) 43 c (iii) 53 c 2 2 xn − an (b) = xn −1 + xn −2 a + · · · + an −1 . where n ∈ Z. (iii) y = x−1 ⎧undefined. for x ≥ 2. range: y = 0 or 12 ⎪ x − 2. (b) All are examples of u →−2 2 x 8(a) a = 5 (b) a = −2 differentiation by first principles (using the defi- 9(a) zeroes: 0. dis. for x > 0.

Answers to Chapter Seven 591 (c) 3(a) cusp at x = 0 (b)vertical tangent y at x = 0 y y 1 1 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 x 1 1 2 −2 −1 x −1 −2 −1 1 2x −1 (d) y 4(a) not differentiable (b) not continuous 1 at x = −2 at x = −2 y y x 2 −2 −1 1 2 1 −1 2 (e) same as (a) −2 x −2 x Exercise 7J (Page 275) 1(a) differentiable (b) continuous but not (c) not differentiable (d) not continuous at x = 1 differentiable at x = 1 at x = 1 or 3 at x = 1 or 3 y y y y 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 x 1 x 1 2 3 x 1 2 3 x (c) not continuous (d) differentiable (e) differentiable (f) differentiable at x = 1 at x = 1 everywhere everywhere y y y y 4 2 2 2 1 x 1 1 1 1 −1 2 −1 1 x −2 −1 x −2 −1 x 2 continuous but not differentiable at x = −1 (g) differentiable (h) continuous but not y everywhere differentiable at x = 2 y y 1 −1 1 x 1 −1 1 x 1 2 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . Julia Shea. David Sadler.

in everywhere differentiable at x = 2 which case (taking q positive) B is above the ori- y y gin for n < 1 and p even. (h) 0 < p < q and q is odd and p is even. or for n > 1 and p odd. 2 9(a) q must be odd. cusp at (0. vertical tangent at (0. f  (x) → ∞ as x → 0− and as 4 (a) (i) √ (j)  2 x+y x2 + y 2 x → 0+ .592 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 differentiable (i) continuous but not (j) rational number p/q with odd denominator q. (e) p ≥ 0 x (p = 0 requires the qualification above.  −3  −  x  3x  x (b) f (x) = 25 x 5 .0). because lim x0 = 1. thus when x→0 p = 0 the function is y = 1.0).) (c) no conditions 2 x on p and q (d) p ≥ 0 and q is odd. f (x) → −∞ as x → 0 and 2(a) y = − (b) y = − (c) y =  y 2y y f (x) → ∞ as x → 0 . (g) 0 < p < q and q is odd and p y y is odd. + − 2 2x2 . 1 1 Exercise 7K (Page 277) −1 x 1(a) 4y 3 y  (b) y + xy  (c) −1 + y  − y − xy  1  2 2  2 2 −1 1 x (d) 6x + 8yy (e) y(3x + y ) + xy (x + 3y ) −1 y − xy   2(xy − y) 2  (f) (g) 3(x + y) (1 + y ) (h) y2 (x − y)2 1 + y x + yy  f  (x) = 15 x− 5 . (b) p ≥ 0 (When p = 0 9 it is reasonable to take f (0) = 1 and ignore the problem of 00 .) (f) p ≥ q 3 5 and q is odd.

9 3 . − 3 3 .  2x + 3y  (x y) + 6(a) 3. −6 34 (b) 3. 3 3 . −8) (d) y = − (e) y =  √ √   1√ √  3x + 4y (x − y) + 2y 2 2 √ (c) 1. 4 12 . − 19 3 1 1  2y  raxr −1  y . (1.

tangent: 5x − 12y + 169 = 0. because all the tangents have negative (i) y = x gradients. 3(a) y = − . √ √  (f) y = − (g) y = − (h) y = − √ 3x sby s−1 x (d) 13 . normal: 12x + 5y = 0. The normal to a circle at 2 . y ent −1 for x < 0. There  y are none. 1/ 2 (f) 1. There are none. 2 . 94 . (g) 0. because the x  tangents have gradient 1 for x > 0 and gradi. 32 (e) − 21 .

14 (α + β) any point is a radius. and so must pass through    (j) −1/αβ. 0) (i) α + β.   . 12 (α + β). (0. 1/ αβ when α and β are the centre. αβ . (h) 0.

169 .

4(a) y = − . of the interval joining (4. normal: 3x + 5y = 15 (b) x2 − y 2 = 4 B is on the other side from H for n > 1 and on dx dy 7 x +y =0 the same side for n < 1. 3) and (−9. −1/ αβ when α and β are 5 . 8 Thetangent is y = nkan −1 x − (n − 1)kan . 12 2 3 (c) | AOB| = 169 120 (ii) AB = 13 60 negative. ka 3 ). 0). 1 12 ) is the midpoint A= . 0 . 14 √ The number a can be negative provided n is a (b) The bottom is slipping out at 15 15 mm/s. |OGP H| : | OAB| = 24 : 1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . dy t2 + 1 6(a) = 2 .  1 5(a) y = . tangent: 5x − 3y = 8. normal: 2x−3y+5 = 0 (b) P (2. 3) is the midpoint 4 4 B = (0. |OGP H| : | OAB| = (n − 1)2 : |2n|. and the dx t −1 √ √ rectangle is bigger when 2 − 3 < n < 2 + 3. A = ( 14 a. B = 0. 2y (n − 1)a normal: 6x + y = 57 (b) (0. G = (a. (a. 0). − 13 ka 3 ). kan ). − αβ . 6). 0). H = (0. the origin if and only if n < 1. G = n of the interval joining P (9. tangent: x − 6y + 9 = 0. 0) and (0. B is above dt dt √ 2 (a) The top is slipping down at 15 15 cm/s. 0) and H = (0. tangent: 3x + 2y = 12 1 4 x 7 The tangent is y = 43 ka 3 x − 13 ka 3 . B = (0. David Sadler. impossible when α and β have opposite  y signs.   (b) A = − 169 positive. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. so for a > 0. Julia Shea. 0 . −(n − 1)kan ).

23 ) 2 −1 2 x −1 (a)The tangent at (2. 2 3 ) is horizontal. Julia Shea. 2 3 . 0) is x = 2. (c) As x → 8− . and the tangent at (2 3 . − 2 3 . the tangents at √ 1 √ √ 1 1 3 . 2 2 or x and y are exchanged. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 2 and 1 1 1 −8 8x −8 8x 2 √ 2  − 12 3 . (d) 10(a) −1 y y 8 8 (x2 + y 2 )(x + yy  ) = x − yy  . ⎟ ⎝ 2 2⎠ 9(a) The symmetries arise because the equation is unchanged when x is replaced by −x. the tangent at (2 3 . the tangent at (1 12 . (b) Neither x 3 nor y 3 −1 1 2 x can be negative. − 12 are horizontal. 2 3 ) is 5 x + y = 23 . Answers to Chapter Seven 593 dS dV dS dV 13 y 8(a) S2 = 24πV or r =2 dt dt dt dt 1 ⎛ 3 1⎞ 3 (b) 10 cm /s ⎜ . 2) is y = 2. 2 1 the tangent at (2 3 . or y by −y. 12 y 2 1 −2 −1 1 2 x −1 −2 (y 2 − x)y  = y − x2 . 0) are  vertical. the tangent 2 2 at (0. −8 −8 (b) (c) y y 2 2 −2 2x −2 2 x −2 −2 11 y 2 2 ( 23 . − 2 . . 1 12 ) is 1 2 x + y = 3. 2 3 ) is vertical. the tangents at √ √ ( 2. David Sadler. 0) and  (− 2. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. either y → 0+ and y  → 0− . or y → 0− and y  → 0+ .

9) ( 87 . y = (x + 6)(x + 1) −1 10(a) y = x(x+3) (b) y = −4x(x−2) (c) y = 32 x2 (d) y = − 14 x (e) y = − 25 x(x − 5) 2 (f) y = −2x(x + 6) ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Julia Shea. y = (x − 3)(x − 8) −3 3 −3 1 4 x (c) x = 1. y = (x + 3)(x − 5) −1 1 x (d) x = −3 12 .−1) (c) y (d) y 2(a) x < −3 or x > 1 (b) 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 4 (c) −1 ≤ x ≤ 5 (d) − 52 < x < 12 (e) x ≤ −3 or x ≥ 3 (f) 2 < x < 3 (g) −3 ≤ x ≤ −1 (h) −1 < x < 3 x −2 2 x 3(a) any positive multiple of y = (x − 3)(x − 5) −4 (b) any positive multiple of y = x(x + 4) (c) any positive multiple of y = −(x + 1)(x − 3) (e) y (f) y (d) any positive multiple of y = −x(x − 2) 9 4(a) x = 5.−15 18 ) −3 1 3 −5 −8 x x (1 23 .−9) (c) y = − 16 3 (x − 2)(x − 8) (d) y = 3(x − 2)(x − 8) (e) axis: x = 0 (f) axis: x = 2 12 (e) y = 3 (x − 2)(x − 8) (f) y = − 20 4 7 (x − 2)(x − 8) y y 7 y = (x − α)(x − 1) (a) y = x(x − 1) −3 3 (b) y = (x − 1) 2 (c) y = (x + 15)(x − 1) x 6 (d) y = 2 (2x + 3)(x − 1) 1 8(a)(i) y ≥ −1 (ii) y ≥ 3 (iii) −1 ≤ y ≤ 8 2 3 x (b)(i) y ≥ −9 (ii) y ≥ −9 (iii) −8 ≤ y ≤ 27 (2 .4 121 ) y y 3 (−1.4) 3 3 x −3 −1 −1 3 x x x (−2. 161 ) −2 12 1 x 5 2 x −2 1 3 −1 5 −5 x 6(a) y = −(x − 2)(x − 8) (b) y = −2(x − 2)(x − 8) (−1.594 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 Chapter Eight 5(a) x = 2 14 (b) x= 5 3 y y Exercise 8A (Page 283) 5 1(a) axis: x = −1 (b) axis: x = 1 12 − 1 x − 23 4x y y 2 (2 14 . David Sadler. − ) 1 1 (c)(i) y ≤ 1 (ii) y ≤ −8 (iii) −8 ≤ y ≤ 1 −9 2 4 (g) axis: x = −2 (h) axis: x = 1 9(a) y (b) y y y (1.−4) −3 ( 23 . y = (x − 4)(x − 6) (b) x = 5 12 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .− 94 ) 2 4 1 (c) axis: x = 2 (d) axis: x = −1 x y y −3 (2.−16 13 ) (c) x= − 56 (d) x= 7 8 ( − 65 .

−2) a 2a (d) c + 1. (a = 1 is okay. Julia Shea. David Sadler. Answers to Chapter Eight 595 c b (c) (d) 11(a) a= (b) a=− αβ α+β y y 2 x = −1 (c) a = x=5 (1 − α)(1 − β) 23 12(a) y = (x + 1)(x − 2) (b) y = −(x + 3)(x − 2) 4 5− 2 5+ 2 (c) y = 3(x + 2)(x − 4) (d) y = − 12 (x − 2)(x + 2) (−1. (a) y = (x + 4)2 + 2 (b) y = 3(x + 4)2 + 2 (c) y = − 492 (x + 4)2 + 2 (d) y = 78 (x + 4)2 + 2 (e) y = − 8 (x + 4) + 2 (f) y = 18 1 2 2 25 (x + 4) + 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. x = 2. 9) (b) y = x − 3.−1) y x=1 y x = − 12 x 5 1 −3 −2 2 3 (1. −c. 2 2 . x = −1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . c − 1.3) 13(a) −b.x= (e) x (f) (5. (0. The graph is tangent to the x-axis at x = 3. −2) 2 y y 2 2 x=3 4 The graph of y = ax +1 is the graph of y = ax x = −2 shifted up one unit. Put h = 0 and k = 1 in the 3 formula y = a(x − h)2 + k. x = 12 (a − 1) (c) −1. a . (0.) (d) y = −a(x − 3)2 + 5.−1) (b) y = −3x +1 (c) y = 3 x +1 (d) y = − 4 x +1 2 1 2 1 2 6 x 5 Put h = −4 and k = 2 in the formula y = a(x − −3 −1 x (3. (0. x = 3. ) 1 2 3 4 17(d) y x = −1 12 x (i) x y x= 3 2 72 1 x 3+ 5 −6 −4 1 3 3− 5 2 2 (e) y x b+c ( 23 . (a = 1 is okay — a must be 2 (c) y = −a(x − 2) − 1 for any 2 larger than 34 .4) (− .) 3(a) y = (x − 2) + 5.−1) (h) (2. x = c y y  x=1 x = −2 14(a)(ii) f (x) = 2(x − 3).) (b) y = a(x + 2) − 3.− 54 ) x= 2 2(a) y = a(x−1)2 +2 for any a > 0.) a b c d x a > 0. 2 (a) y = 2x + 1 (−2. −3) (c) y = (x + 1)2 + 7. 8) (d) y = (x − 3) − 11. (b) The graph is tangent to the x-axis at x = q. 2 2 Exercise 8B (Page 287) 1(a) (b) x = 0. x = − 12 (b + c) a+b b x (b) −1. (a = 1 is okay — a must be larger than 59 . (0.−9) h)2 + k. (a = 1 is okay. 2 x 16(a) y 1 3 36 x (g) (1.

3 (b) 2 + 3.−8 13 ) 4 3 x a 2 x a 2 x −8   b 4ac − b2 14 vertex− . y ≥ 33. 2a √ 4a 7(a) y ≥ 2. −b ± b2 − 4ac zeroes x = . − 14 a(α − β)2 (d) y = (x + 2) − 10 (e) y = (x + 2) − 2 2 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. David Sadler. 2 − 101 5 2+ 5 x 12(a) y 2 2− 5 (c) y = −(x − 2 12 )2 + 1 4 (d) y = 2(x − 1)2 + 1 4 y y 2 3 x 2 ( 25 . 15 −1 x √ 3 √ (d) 32 + 10 1 5. −11 ≤ y ≤ 4 2a 2  2 8 y = (x−3) +c−9 (a) c = 9 (b) c < 9 (c) c > 9 15 y = a x − 12 (α + β) − 14 a(α − β)2 . Julia Shea.−15 ) 5 4 1 8 2 −3 x −4 3 2 x −12 −a x −23 2 (e) (f) y y (i) y = 3(x + 13 )2 − 8 13 y −2 ( − 13 . 2 − 3 (c) − 2 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y ≤ 5. y ≥ 6. 14 ) 3 −6 1 1 x x −2 2 (e) y = 4(x − 2) − 3 2 (f) y = −3(x − 1) + 6 2 (b) The vertex moves on the parabola y y y = 4 − x2 . 6 13(a) (b) 13 y y 4− 3 3 −a 2 2 2 4+ 3 x 1+ 2 x 2 1 x −3 1− 2 −a x (g) y = −5(x + 2)2 − 3 (h) y = 2(x + 54 )2 − 15 18 2 y y (c) (d) y −2 y a x ( − . y-intercept c 3 ≤ y ≤ 33 (c) y ≤ 5. 2 ≤ y ≤ 6 (b) y ≥ 1. .596 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 6(a) y = −(x + 1)2 + 1 (b) y = −(x − 2)2 + 5 (f) y = (x + 2)2 + 7 (g) y = (x + 2)2 − 3 (h) y = (x + 2) − 2 2 y y 1 10(a) y = 2(x − 1) + 1 (b) y = −(x − 3) + 2 2 2 5 (c) y = 12 (x + 2) − 4 (d) y = −3(x + 1) + 4 2 2 −2 √ √ 1 11(a) −2. 9 y = (x + 2) + k (a) y = (x + 2) − 4 2 2   (b) y = (x + 2) − 48 (c) y = (x + 2) − 9 2 2 vertex 12 (α + β).

(b) The line intersects the parabola Exercise 8C (Page 291) once at (−1. twice (c) 0.−5) ( − 12 . 7 109 10 20 ) 3+ 57 8 3 3 3− 57 x 8 7 − 109 10 −3 7 + 109 x 10 ( 83 . The two curves have the y y same axis of symmetry. − 31 √ √ −2 7(a) y = (x − 3 + 5 )(x − 3 − 5 ) √ √ −4 2 x (b) y = 3(x + 1 + 13 3 )(x + 1 − 13 3 ) √ √ −2 (c) y = −(x − 32 − 12 13 )(x − 32 + 12 13 ) (−1 − 3 . −d − e (b) 2 e −4 −2 x (c) e = 1.4) ( . 1) (−1 + 3 . −1·366 or 0·3660 9 12 p(−1 + 5 ) √ √  (g) 101 1 (7 + 109 ) or 10 (7 − 109 ). no times 4 √ √ √ √ 6(a) 4. 0·3440 or 1·744 10 f (x) = 2ax + b. but k1 = k2 . but different vertices.− 23 ) y (g) (h) y y (−1. Julia Shea.− 16 57 ) 3(a) −5 < x < −1 (b) x = −2 √ √ −3 1 x (c) x ≤ −4 or x ≥ 6 (d) 1 − 2 ≤ x ≤ 1 + 2 (d) 5(a) 16. 1) (d) y = −2(x + 1)(x − 12 ) −4 8(a) (0.25) 20(a) 24 1 (1.2) y −4 1− 2 −3 1x 6 x 1+ 2 x (e) (f) y y −1 − 3 −2 − 5 2 −3 x −1 + 3 x −2 + 5 2 (−1. 1) 2 (−1 + 5 . and so it is a tangent to the 1(a) −1 or −5 (b) −2 (c) −4 or 6 parabola. 1·319 or −0·5687 axis of symmetry have opposite gradients. twice (b) 5. (1. (−3. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.−4) (c) (d) 19 h1 = h2 . 2·414 or −0·4142 intersect. 3−2 2 (−1 − 5 . −9). 1) (d) 2. (c) The line and the parabola do not √ √ (d) 1 + 2 or 1 − 2 . 2) and (2.−4) −1 −1 (b) (−2. 8). (d) (1. David Sadler. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . − 23 (b) 1+ 5 . (i) 32 or − 32 c−k 17 y = a(x − h) + k (a) a = 2(a) (b) 2 h2 y y 2−k b (b) a = (c) a = − (1 − h)2 2h 5 k 4 (d) a = − −5 −1 √ − h) √ (α 2 √ x 18(a) −d + e. The line and the √ √ (e) −2 + 5 or −2 − 5 . once y (d) −31. The line and parabola inter- sect twice. 0·2361 or −4·236 parabola intersect twice. 3) and (5. √ √ √ (f) 12 (−1 + 3 ) or 12 (−1 − 3 ). 1). The axis of symmetry of a quadratic can be found by solving f  (x) = 0. Answers to Chapter Eight 597 √ √ 16 Tangents drawn at points equidistant from the (h) 18 (3 + 57 ) or 18 (3 − 57 ). They have vertex on the line y = −1. 1− 5 (c) 3+2 2 .

598 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ √ 11(a) x = h + −k or h − −k (iii) .

4) 1 4 x 2 5 −4 ( 13 89 20 . 12 (3+ 5 ) or 12 (3− 5 ) (b)(i) 1. − 2 . 2 (−3 + 5 ) or 2 (−3 − 5 ) 1 1 √ √ −5 7x 6 (b) 12 (−3 + 29 ) or 12 (−3 − 29 ) . 90 or 150 ◦ ◦ ◦ (b) 120 . 20 ) −1 3 x −3 −1 1 3 x 3(b) 94when x = 32 4 225 when the numbers are 15 and 15 (ii) 5(b) 18 when x = 3 y 6 16 m 2 12 7 105 metres 8 2 machines. 5 ) (b) (2. $7000 9(a) 2x − 64x + 1024 (b) x = y = 16 2 2 10(b) 15 58 cm 11(a) −x + 2015x (b) 1 015 056·25 m 2 2 −2 − 3 3 2 x 2 2 12(a) 2x + 5y = 40 (b) 1280 2000 41 cm and 41 cm 800 13(b) x = 3 and y = 200 14(b) 23 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 1 or −1 (b) 2. −3. David Sadler. vertex − 12 b. −2.− ) 1 5 (ii) −2 ≤ x ≤ − 21 6 or 12 6 ≤ x ≤ 2 2 4 √ √ √ (iii) x < 2 − 7 . 23 3 or − 23 3 (d) 1 or 2 or 12 (−5 − 21 ) (ii) 16 (7 + 13 ) or 16 (7 − 13 ) (e) 1 or 3 (f) 14 .y= (b) x = 67 . 5 or −5 9(a) 1. 3) and ( 100 .− 24 √ √ √ 13 25 ( 12 ) (c) 12 (−5 + 13 ). − 14 . 2− 7 2+ 7 (c) b − 4c = 1 2 13 y 1+ 5 x 2 x 2− 2 1− 5 2 2+ 2 −1 (b)(i) x ≤ −3 or −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3 √ √ ( . − 45 ) √ 13 1 13 √ 4(a) 2 . 12 (−5+ 21 ) √ √ √ √ √ √ √ (c) 2 . 12 (−5 + 17 ) or √ 1 2 (−5 + 17 ) 2 3 x −35 (1. 2. −1) 9 13 (c)(i) (ii) y y (c) (−2. 12 (−5 − 13 ). 4 or −2 √ √ (h) 2 + 2 2 or 2 − 2 2 (i) 1 or 2 (j) 2 or 3 Exercise 8E (Page 296) ◦ ◦ 2(a) 30 . 4 or −4 (g) 3. 180 or 240 ◦ 1(a)(i)−4 (ii) −9 (iii) − 14 (iv) − 49 8 (b)(i) 4 (ii) 3 ◦ (c) 135 or 315 ◦ ◦ ◦ (d) 30 .−36) 3 2 5(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 11 −3 6(a) −1 or 0 (b) 5 2 or 125 2(a)(i) 9 (ii) 25 4 (iii) 9 (iv) 18 (b)(i) −1 (ii) − 54 pr qr (iii) 17 (iv) 17 7(a) x = . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y = 87 4 8 p+q p+q (c)(i) (ii) 8(a)(i) y y y 9 3 (1. Julia Shea. y 12(a) x = − 12 b. 3) and ( 5 . 2 − 2 < x < 2 + 2 √ Exercise 8D (Page 293) or x > 2 + 7 √ √ √ 1(a) 3. −3. 14 (4c − b ) 2  (b) Difference between zeroes is b2 − 4c. 150 or 270 ◦ (iii) −2 (iv) 11 4 3(a) (1.

tional root) (d) rational. (When  = − 10 3 . no roots 29 (d) −1 < k < 14 (c) Δ = 0. equal (that is. g = 11 (f) 32 ≤ x ≤ 5 (g) x < − 12 or x > 52 (e) Δ = g − 4g. −1) unequal (f) unreal 20 43 and − 34 2(a) Δ = 4. 3) or (3.) (c) They intersect once. the quadratic equation (b) 2. 22 ( 13 . g = 4 √ √ (d) −1 − 34 ≤ x ≤ −1 + 34 (e) −2 ≤ x ≤ 13 (c) Δ = 1 − 8g. k ≤ 13 (d) Δ = 33 − 16k. it is not a quadratic. k ≤ −2 or k ≥ 2 2 (d)(i) 2 < k < 5 (ii) k ≤ 2 or k ≥ 5 (g) Δ = k + 12k + 20. g = 4 (If g = 0. (f) Δ = 49 − 4g . a single ra. − 3) roots) (c) rational. 2 81 8 14 −7 and 5 20 250 metres × π metres 500 15 y = 4x − 4x − 3 2 21(a) 11300 − 14300h + 4525h 2 16(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 0 (b) approximately 94·8 minutes 2 17 If ac < 0. (When  = 0. g = 25 (b) Δ = 16 − 4g. g = −1 or 7 2 (c) negative definite (d) indefinite (h) Δ = 4(g + 2g − 8). 13 ) 26(a) 1200 cm 18(a) (x − 4) + y = 4 (b) y = mx 2 2 1 1 Exercise 8F (Page 302) (d) m = √ or m = − √ 1(a) irrational. square. and so y is never zero. Answers to Chapter Eight 599 288 9(a) Δ = λ2 + 4 (b) Δ = 4λ2 + 48 (c) Δ = λ2 + 16 15 cm 4+π (d) Δ = (λ − 1) + 8 2 m m 10(a) m > − 4 9 (b) m = 39 (c) −1 < m < 2 16 × 8 4r 2(n + r) (d) m ≤ −1 or m ≥ − 2 1 17 profit= − 56 x + 15x − 27. k ≤ 0 or k ≥ 12 2 (b)(i) m > 98 (ii) m ≤ 98 5(a) −4 <  < 4 (b)  < −3 or  > 3 (c)(i) −8 < m < 12 (ii) m ≤ −8 or m ≥ 12 (c) −5 <  < 3 (d) no values (e) 0 <  < 1 (d)(i) 0 < m < 2 (ii) m ≤ 0 or m ≥ 2 (f)  < −6 5(a) −4 and 4 6(b) Δ = 28. 94 ) and (0. 19 m = √1 or m = − √1 . k ≤ 8 3(a)(i) k > 25 32 (ii) k ≤ 25 32 (c) Δ = 4 − 12k. unequal (e) rational. 6(a) 2 < k < 18 (b) no values (b) Δ = (m − 2) 2 2 8(a) Δ = (m + 4) (c) k ≤ 2 or k ≥ 18. two rational roots Exercise 8G (Page 305) √ √ (f) Δ = 36. two irrational roots 2 (e) Δ = 361 = 19 . then Δ > 0. g = 18 (d) Δ = 44 − 4g. the expression becomes 7(a) They intersect twice. then y = 1 for 2 (h) There are no solutions. k ≤ 1 (b) Δ = 64 − 8k. g = 72 or − 72 2 2(a) positive definite (b) indefinite (g) Δ = 16(g − 6g − 7). no √ 3 √ 3 (e) (3. − 10 (5x − 4) . (c) 1. but is not itself a perfect square. g = −4 or 2 2 (e) indefinite (f) positive definite 4(a) Δ = 4 − 4k.50 2 12(a) −4 (b) 17 (c) −1 or 11 18(a) x(16 − x) (c) 4 (d) $22 8 13 3x − y − 19 = 0 19(a) ( 92 . √ 3 √ 3 P ( 3. one rational root 2 22(b) b = ac (d) Δ = 32. two rational roots 1(a) x ≤ 0 or x ≥ 1 (b) − 7 < x < 7 (c) x = 3 3(a) Δ = 100 − 4g. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . Since Δ > 0. but k = 53 (c) Δ = (2m − n) (d) Δ = (4m − 1) 2 2 (e) Δ = (m − 6) 2 2 (f) Δ = 36m ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. all x. two rational roots 21(a) − 43 < a < 1 (b) b = −5 (c) g = 3 or − 13 (b) Δ = −31. 0) (b) 9x − 2x . unequal (b) unreal (that is.) (i) All real numbers are solutions. $40. k ≤ −4 or k ≥ 4 2 (c)(i) 0 < k < 24 (ii) k ≤ 0 or k ≥ 24 (f) Δ = 9k − 36. Julia Shea. k ≤ 33 16 (b)(i) −8 < k < 8 (ii) k ≤ −8 or k ≥ 8 (e) Δ = k − 16. −1) or P (− 3. which is a multiple of a perfect 1 2 (b) They do not intersect. David Sadler.) has two roots. k ≤ −10 or k ≥ −2 2 4(a)(i) −4 < m < 4 (ii) m ≤ −4 or m ≥ 4 (h) Δ = k − 12k. (d) − 92 and 2 (d) They intersect twice.

b = 16 and c = 35 (c) 2(x − 2) + 3(x − 2) + 1 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 1. 27) 11(a) b2 = 3c (b) b2 > 3c (c) b2 < 3c (d) c < 0 2 ) (c) (−2. the roots are −2 + 3 4(a) a = 1. 2 x = 1. (b) α + β = −4. n (h) −q/p. 16 9. 2 79 (b) no values (c) x ≤ 12 or x ≥ 4 √ √ (c) 5. 3 3 (b) a < 0 and b < 3ac (c) b ≥ 3ac 2 2 2 2 11(a) 3x + 4x + 28 = 0 (b) 7x + 2x + 3 = 0 10(a) (b) 2 2 y y (c) 9x + 18x + 29 = 0 (d) 9x + 38x + 49 = 0 12(a) 2 (b) −4 (c) 2 (d) 3 5 7 1 x 13(a) −1 (b) 1 (c) 10 1 (d) −3 14(a) ac < 0 (b) If ca > 0 the roots have the same x sign. −3/a 4(a) x − 4x + 3 = 0 (b) x − 4x − 12 = 0 2 2 x (c) x + 5x + 4 = 0 (d) 4x − 8x + 3 = 0 2 2 −4 −2 1 (e) x − 4x + 1 = 0 (f) x + 2x − 4 = 0 2 2 5(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 21 (d) 6 (e) 20 (f) 32 (g) 5 (h) 52 (c) Whatever the value of k. −3r/p 1 (i) (a − 4)/a. 23 . c = 12 √ 5(a) 2(x + 1) − (x + 1) − 7 2 and −2 − 3 . (c) If ac < 0 the roots (c) (d) have opposite signs. αβ = −1. David Sadler. 12 ) (b) ( 52 . 5 (b) −1. −6 (c) −1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . the roots √ √ are 12 + 12 5 and 12 − 12 5 . √ √ 17(b) (x − 1) + (x + 3) 2 2 27 −1. 11 2 (e) c > 0 and b < 0 (and b > 3c) 22 y = − 3 x. αβ = 1. (b) a = 2. and when m = −3. αβ = 1. 5 (ii) −5. 45 (f) 23 − 34 (g) m. 12 (1 + 21 ) or 12 (1 − 21 ) Exercise 8H (Page 309) Exercise 8I (Page 313) 1 α + β = −7. 53 (d) 0 < x < 2 (e) − 34 ≤ x ≤ 2 √ √ −b − b2 − 4ac −b + b2 − 4ac (f) x < −3 or x > 3 9 α= . Julia Shea. c = 3 (b) a = 1. It is the line through the centre of 1 2 the circle perpendicular to the given line. and hence is an 2(a) α + β = 10 1 identity. 53 (iii) 73 . −2) 21(a) ( 12 . if ab > 0 they are both negative.600 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 7(a) y 3(a) 2. the roots are 3 and√3. −7. If ab < 0 they are both positive. b = 7. (c) α + β = 1. 53. the roots are −2 and −5. If ab < 0 the positive root is y y numerically greater. √ √ (h) 21 8(a) x ≤ 12 (5 − 21 ) or x ≥ 12 (5 + 21 ) 7(b)(i)3. − 12 (e) −1. Note that a cannot be negative. 0 (d) − 32 . b = 3. x = −1. (f) c > 0 and b > 0 (and b > 3c) √ √ 13 x ≤ −22 or x ≥ 2. 3 . every horizontal line 6(a) 52 (b) 12 (c) −1 (d) 5 (e) 58 (f) 10 (g) 21 4 y = k intersects the graph. αβ = 10. y ≤ −15 − 12 2 23(b) √ 14 √ or y ≥ −15 + 12 2 24 5 2 units 14 (3x − 4y + 1)(x + 2y − 3) 25 2 ≤ m < 3 15 − 54 and 34 26 When m = 1. 2 It is true for all values of x.β= √ 2a 2a 2 9(a) a > 0 and b < 3ac 5 2 10 6 . 15 305 27 16 8 √ √ x x 17 13 (2 + 2 10 ) or 13 (2 − 2 10 ) 20(b) 6 (c) (3. if ab > 0 the negative root is numerically greater.

0) and radius a. the circle with centre (0. x−4 x+2 a circle with centre (1. 0) and radius 1 9(a) x + y = 4 (b) 3x + 3y − 28x + 18y + 39 = 0 2 2 2 2 10 3x − y + 12x + 10y − 25 = 0 2 2 11(a) P may satisfy x − y + 12 = 0 or 7x + 7y − 60 = 0. y = − 3x + 2 2 2 (c) x + y = 4 (d) circle with centre O and ra- dius 2 — the circumcircle of the triangle 2 2 2 2 16(b) x + y + z = a . 0) and radius 3. 32 ) 2 √ 7(b) C(2. 0. 10(a) y = x − 4x. 12 x = −4(y − 1) and y > 0 2 13 8x − 2y + 3 = 0 14 10x − 15y + 18 = 0 √ √ 15(b) y = 3x + 2. 12(a) 1 (b) 1 y y (c) (x − 1) + y = 9. 1). no 2 The locus of the point P which moves so that it (b) All four points lie on y = x − 5x + 6. which is the equation of a sphere with centre (0. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . Answers to Chapter Nine 601 6(a) (x+1)2 −2(x+1)+1 (b) (n−4)2 +8(n−4)+16 Chapter Nine (c) (x + 2) − 4(x + 2) + 4 2 8(a) a = 2. radius 5 2 2 8 x + y = 1. c = − 12 or a = 2. parabola 2 6 (x + 1) = 6(y − 32 ). which is 2 2 4(a) . c = 1 Exercise 9A (Page 318) (b) 3(m − 1) − 3(m − 2) + (m − 3) y = −2 (b) x = −1 (c) y = 2 2 2 2 1(a) 1 1 (d) y = 3x or y = −3x (e) x2 + y 2 = 9 9(a) 7(2x + 1) − 12(x + 1) (b) + x+1 x+2 (f) y = x + 5 (g) (x + 3) + (y − 1) = 9 2 2 1 1 2 (x − 3) + (y − 1) = 16 2 2 (c) + 2x 2(x + 2) 3(a) 6x − 4y + 15 = 0 (b) 6x − 4y + 15 = 0. 0) and r = 12 3 Exercise 9B (Page 323) 3(b) x2 = 12y 4(a) x = 20y (b) x = −4y (c) y = 8x 2 2 2 (d) y = −6x 2 5(a) x = −4ay (b) y = 4ax 2 2 6(vi) Only parts (a). y = −1. The details of all the parabolas follow these sketches. 5(a) 2x + y − 1 = 0. √ (c) C(0. 2 2 is equidistant from R and S is the perpendicular 11(b) 961 (d) n bisector of RS. David Sadler. 0. the perpendicular bisector of AB (b) x2 + y 2 + 2x − 6y + 5 = 0. 3) and radius 5 (c) x − 2x − 8y + 17 = 0. b = 1. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. vertex: (−1. (e). (i) and (m) are sketched below. so the lines are perpendicular. Julia Shea. (b) The gradients are 1 and −1. b = − 21 . circle with √ centre (−1.

(h) and (j) have directrix: y = 0·1. (g) y (j) y directrix: x = 2. 0). 14 ). directrix: x = − 12 directrix: y = 2. 4a = 1·2 d:x=4 7 Details rather than sketches are given: (a) vertex: (0. S(0. x = −12y. directrix: y = − 13 . − 14 . axis: x = 0. 4a = 8 (c) focus: (0. axis: x = 0.0) 4 x directrix: x = − 32 . S(0. − 12 ). 0). 18 ). S(0. 0). 0). axis: y = 0. axis: y = 0. axis: y = 0. 4a = 12 S(2. 4a = 12 Exercise 9C (Page 326) (g) V (0. axis: x = 0. 0). David Sadler. 4a = 1 −8 d:x=2 (p) V (0. axis: y = 0. S( 32 . axis: x = 0. 0.−2) (m) V (0. 0). 0). (b) focus: ( 12 . 0). 0). being 2 and 3 2 respectively. 0). S(8. −1).−7) −7 directrix: x = 14 . S( 14 . directrix: 4y − 1 = 0 (f) V (0. S(0. 0). 3 Only the graphs of (a). 4a = 8 origin equals the distance from the directrix to the √ √ (c) V (0. 0). S(− 52 . 4a = 4 (b) V (0. x x directrix: x = 3. −3). focus: (0. 0). directrix: z = 2 (e) V (0. 4a = 1 (k) V (0. 0).1) (d) V (0. S(0. −0·1). S(0. directrix: x = 0·3. 0). 4a = 6 x (l) V (0. the distance from the focus to the directrix: y = −2. S(0. −2).−8) (o) V (0. 4a = 8 5 3 (n) V (0. 0). 0. 4a = 0·4 been sketched. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. afterwards. 0). 0). S(−3. axis: y = 0. 0). 0). S(−2. Julia Shea. 0). 1(b) (x − 3)2 = 8(y − 1) 2(a) (x + 7) = 12(y + 5) (b) (y − 2) = 4(x + 1) 2 2 directrix: y = 12 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .0) (b) x = 12y. y = 12x or y = −12x 2 2 2 2 (c) x = y or y = x (d) y = 2x or y = −2x 2 2 2 2 d : x = −1 12(a) k = 4 (b) y = −3x 2 13(a) x + y + 8x − 8y + 2xy = 0 2 2 (a) V (0. 4a = 12 S(4. directrix: x = −1. 2). directrix: y = 3. 0). d:y=2 directrix: x = − 14 . axis: x = 0.−2) 9(a) y = 2x (b) y = −4x (c) y = 16x 2 2 2 (i) y (m) y (d) y = −8x (e) y = 12x (f) y = −6x 2 2 2 d:x=2 2 2 1 10(a) x = 16y (b) x = 2 y (c) y = 2x 2 (d) y = −x 2 S(1. −1). 4a = 2 (h) V (0. axis: y = 0. −2). 4a = 4 (a) y (d) y (j) V (0. S(− 14 . 0). S(0. directrix: x = − 19 S(0. axis: x = 0. 0). 0). 2 2 2 2 directrix: y = − 14 . axis: y = 0.602 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (a) y (e) y (a) V (0. 1). 0). directrix: y = − 18 d:y=2 (b) V (0. −1 d : y = −2 −2 directrix: x = − 18 . origin. 0). S(−0·3. axis: y = 0. (d). S( 19 . 13 ). directrix: x = 52 x 8(a) x = 20y (b) x = −12y (c) x = 8y 2 2 2 x (d) x = −2y (e) x = 4y (f) x = − 12 y 2 2 2 d : y = −1 S(0. The details of all graphs are given (i) V (0. axis: x = 0. In both cases.0) 11(a) x = 8y or x = −8y 2 2 x x S(−2. 0). 4a = 43 16(a) focus: (0. S(0. S(0. directrix: y = 1 (c) V (0. 0). S(1. S( 18 . 0). S(0. 0). 0). axis: x = 0. (b) x + y − 24x + 24y + 2xy = 0 2 2 directrix: y = −1. 0). 4a = 1 15(a) x + z = 12y (b) y + z = 4x (c) x + y = −8z (d) x + z = −6y 2 2 2 2 (d) V (0.

vertex: (0. −3 12 ). x x axis: y = 3. focus: (−2. focus: (3 2 . 0). focus: (−5. 3). focus: (6. −7). 3). (g) (x − 8) = −12(y + 7) (h) (y + 3) = −8(x + 1) 2 2 focus: (1. focus: (0. directrix: x = 2 8 Only graphs (a) and (b) have been sketched. vertex: (−4. 0). −2). 0). 0). directrix: x = −1 12 (g) (x − 3) = −2(y + 1 12 ). 2 (g) x = −8(y + 2 ) (h) (y + 4) = −12(x + 1) 2 3 2 2 (i) (x + 7) = 2(y + 5) focus: (2. directrix: x = −4 (h) (x − 4) = −12(y − 1). directrix: y = −7 (c) (x − 6) = 6(y + 6). Julia Shea. −1 12 ). 2 (i) (x − 5) = 10(y + 2 ) 2 13 7 Only graphs (a) and (b) have been sketched. −4). directrix: y = 1 axis: y = 0. −3). 2). vertex: (−1. 0). −25). (b) vertex: (−2. 1). vertex: (− 12 . focus: (−3. directrix: x = −1 12 (g) (y + 2) = −6(x − 5). directrix: y = 4 (f) (x + 4) = 8(y − 3).1) x (c) x = y − 4y + 3 (d) x = −2y + y − 3 2 2 (−3.−4) 10(a) (x − 1) = 4(y − 4) (b) (x + 2) = −(y − 3) 2 2 x (c) (y + 2) = 2(x + 3) (d) (y − 5) = − 21 (x − 2) 2 2 −3 34 3 S(0.0) (3. directrix: y = −2 (a) y + 4 = (x + 3)2 . 2 (f) vertex: (−5. directrix: y = −25 14 axis: x = −5. −8). 0). focus: (3. vertex: (3. ) 11(a) (x − 3) = 8(y + 1) or (x − 3) = −8(y + 1) 4 2 2 d : y = −4 14 or (y + 1) = 8(x − 3) or (y + 1) = −8(x − 3) 2 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. −2). 0). 1). 1).0) (l) vertex: (0. 2 (e) (x − 1) = 8(y − 5) (f) (y + 2) = 4(x − 2) 2 2 (g) (x + 1) = −2(y − 92 ) (h) (y − 12 ) = −4(x − 4) 2 2 focus: (− 12 . 2 (g) vertex: (−2. 1). directrix: x = −1 (b) y = −2(x − 3) vertex: (3. −6). 0). −5). focus: (4. directrix: x = 3 12 (c) y = 6(x − 3). focus: (4. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . vertex: (0. directrix: y = 2 (e) vertex: (0. −3). directrix: y = 54 axis: x = 3. vertex: (−1. directrix: x = 0 (e) (y − 2) = 8(x + 12 ). vertex: (3. 2). 3). −3 34 ). 5). 2 (i) vertex: (5. 3). directrix: y = − 32 axis: x = 0. vertex: (5. 2 (c) (x + 3) = −8(y − 4) (d) (y − 5) = −12(x − 2) 2 2 (e) (x − 3) = 8(y − 1) (f) (y − 2) = 12(x + 4) 2 2 focus: (4 12 . 12 ). focus: (− 12 . focus: (2. −8). axis: y = 0. focus: (8. 2 (i) (x − 6) = 12(y + 3) 2 5(a) (x − 2) = 8(y + 1) (b) y = 4(x − 1) 2 2 focus: (2 12 . 5). −24 34 ). 1). vertex: (−3. −2). directrix: x = −2 12 1 (f) (y − 3) = 2(x + 1).0) S(1. directrix: y = −2 12 (e) (x + 3) = y + 25. focus: (0. −2).0) S(2 12 . 2 axis: x = 4. 0). 2). 1). focus: (−8 12 . vertex: (4. 2 (d) vertex: (4. − 12 ). David Sadler. 1). vertex: (−3. 2 (a) (b) y y focus: (2. directrix: y = −7 12 (d) x = 4(y + 12 ). 3). Answers to Chapter Nine 603 axis: x = 0. focus: (−4. (a) y (b) y axis: y = −8. vertex: (6. 2 (c) vertex: (3. (j) vertex: (3. directrix: x = 4 (k) vertex: (−6. directrix: x = 12 4(a) (x + 2) = 8(y − 4) (b) (y − 1) = 16(x − 1) 2 2 d : x = −1 d : x = 3 12 (c) (x − 2) = −12(y − 2) (d) y = −4(x − 1) 2 2 (e) (x + 5) = 8(y − 2) (f) (y + 2) = 16(x + 7) 2 2 (a) y 2 = 4x vertex: (0. directrix: x = 6 12 1 (h) (y − 5) = 12(x + 1). directrix: x = −3 12 (0. 34 ). 5). −2). focus: (4. 2 6(a) x = 8(y − 2) (b) y = 12(x − 3) 2 2 (c) x = −4(y + 1) (d) y = −8(x + 2) 2 2 focus: (1 2 . −4 12 ). focus: (−3. directrix: y = 4 axis: y = −7. directrix: y = −1 (b) x = −(y − 1). focus: (3. directrix: x = −4 d : y = 1 14 −3 9(a) y = 2x + 3x − 5 (b) y = −x − 5x + 1 2 2 (0. 0). 2 (h) vertex: (0. focus: (− 12 . directrix: y = −4 14 axis: x = −2. 0). directrix: y = −1 axis: y = 1. −7). directrix: x = 1 12 (d) (y − 1) = 4(x − 1). focus: (0. 3). 0). vertex: (1.

As λ moves from 0 to −1. t = −1 t = −1 1 straight line with gradient tan θ 2 2 t=1 t=1 10(b) P1 has parameter λ = 0. (0. 0). a) (f) (− . (−2. x → ∞ and y → 0. 0). Julia Shea. directrix: z + 2 = 0 16 9 8(a) (b) (b) V (1. from P1 infinitely far along the line in the other 3 As t → 0+ . David Sadler. P moves from P1 to P2 . 3) 2 −2 4a x2 y2 3(d) (0. −1). (0. direction. P moves As t → −∞. x → −∞ and y → 0. x → 0 and y → ∞. −a) + =1 p+q 16 9 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 1). Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . −2) and radius r x2 = 8y x2 = 2y (b) y = x tan θ − (3 tan θ + 2). along the line.604 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (b) (y + 1)2 = 8(x + 1) or (y + 1)2 = −8(x − 3) 5(a) 2x + y − 7 = 0 (b) 4(y + 4)2 − 9(x − 1)2 = 36 (c) (x + 2) = 4(y − 3) or (x + 2) = −4(y − 5) (c) y = x − 2 (d) x + y = 2 2 2 2 2 2 (d) (y − 2) = 6(x − 3) or (y − 2) = −6(x − 3) 2 2 6(c) 7(b) y y (e) (x − 6) = −20(y − 2) or (y + 3) = 20(x − 1) 2 2 1 12(a) (x − 3) = y + 1 (b) (y − 2) = − 12 (x + 4) 2 2 x 13(a) x + y + 6x − 18y + 2xy + 33 = 0 2 2 −4 (b) 9x + 16y − 34x − 88y − 24xy + 121 = 0 2 2 4 x r=2 −3 14(a) (x − 1) + (y − 2) = 8(z − 1) 2 2 (b) (y − 2) + (z + 1) = −4x 2 2 (c) x + (z − 3) = −14(y + 32 ) 2 2 (d) (x − 4) + (y + 3) = 6(y − 11 2 2 x2 y2 2 ) − =1 15(a) V (1. 0). 0). 2. −3. S(−1. y y circle with centre (3. S(1. As λ moves t=0 t=0 from −∞ to −1. 2. P moves from P2 infinitely far 3(c) As t → ∞. As λ moves from −4 4 x −1 1 x 0 to ∞. (c) 10 (d)(i) (x2 − 4ay2 )λ + 2(x1 x2 − 2ay1 − 2ay2 )λ + 2 2 As t → 0− x → 0 and y → −∞ y 4(c) y (x1 2 − 4ay1 ) = 0 4 3 (ii) (x1 − x2 )(x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) + a(y1 − y2 ) = 0 2 Exercise 9E (Page 332) −2 −4 4x 1(a) x + y − 3 = 0 (b) 4y − 5x + 8 = 0 1 x (c) 3x + 2y + 2 = 0 (d) y − x − 2 = 0 −3 2(a) 4y − 3x − 12 = 0 (b) x = 12y. directrix: x = 3 y y Exercise 9D (Page 329) t −3 −2 −1 − 21 0 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1(a) x −6 −4 −2 −1 0 1 2 4 6 1 x 1 x 1 1 y 9 4 1 4 0 4 1 4 9 2 (b) x = 4y (c) (0. −3. t = 1 or −1 (c) y y x2 = 4y t = −1 1 4 1 1 x t=1 −2 2 x −3 t=0 2(a) (b) 9(a) (x − 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = r2 . 1). 1) (d) t = 0 (e) (2.

(c) x − 3y − 18 = 0 (d) x + 7y − 21 = 0 9 The midpoint lies of x = k if and only if k is the 3(a) (6. 10) and (− 45 . (d) 2 : 1 x0 (c) (x0 . (ap. a) when they are on opposite sides of the axis. 1) y = −x + 3a. x + 2y = 12 (b) (−6. 4) (b) at A. y = −2x−1. there are two 2 area = 8a (half prod. 9(a) t = 1. (d) y = 4x − 7 (b) The point of contact is (8. (24. (4. −a) on the directrix x = −5 of the parabola. a S 13(b) y = x + 1 and y = −2x + 4 (2a. y = x − 2 (b) 5 (d) k = 2 or −2 4(a) (0. 4(a) x + y = 3. y = 4x − 4 (c) M = (1 14 . 9) (b) ( 12 . point of contact: (6. 36) 5(a) y0 y = 2a(x + x0 ) (b) The point (−5. David Sadler. 50). y −x+a = 0. (0. apq . 1). 0). 14 ). D = ( 12 . 2a + ap ) 2 2 15(a) (2ap. normals: Exercise 9F (Page 336) x + y = 3a. 8). 1(a) y = 2 (b) 3x − 2y = 0 (c) x + y − 1 = 0 at B. 23 4 ) average of 2ap and 2aq. L R 2 14(b) Since Δ = 3 + 4 is positive. −ap ) (b) (0. 2) 10(b) y + x = 3a. 3) 6y − 24 = 0 √ 3(a) x = 2y (b) (0. Julia Shea. it is the positive geometric mean. x + y − 2 = 0 11(b) (0. 2a + ap ) (c) 12 a |p|(p + 2) 10(a) b = −6 (b) y = −2x − 6 (c)(i) y + 2x + 4 = 0 3 2 2 2 2 5(a) tangents: y = x−a. points of contact: (50. −ap ). −a). a). a).   2 2 6(a) y = x + 1 (c) 4 (d) (2. 2a − y0 ) 17 When the two points are on the same side of 10(a) x0 x = 2a(y + y0 ) 11(a) y = 2a0 x − y0 x the axis. 2) lies 14(a) (0. (d) 2x − y + 6 = 0 2(a) y = 3 (b) x + 3y = 0 (c) y = x − 1 (d) 5x + AB and the tangent at D both have gradient 1. (−24. 9(a) x0 x = 2a(y + y0 ) (b) x − 2x0 x + 4ay0 = 0 2   2 M = a(p + q). 6(a) y = tx − t2 (b) 3 or −1 15(b) 3x − y − 27 = 0 and 3x + y + 27 = 0 (c) y = 3x − 9 and x + y + 1 = 0 (c) y = x − 3 and x − 3y = 1 7(a) parameters: 5 and − 51 (b) gradients: 5 and − 5 . 0). these gradients are perpendicular. y − x = 3a (b) x − 4y + 8 = 0. 1). 3) 16(a) M = a(p + q). (b) (2ap + ap . Since the product of the roots uct of the diagonals) −a y = − a is −1. 85 ) 2(a) x + 2y − 12 = 0 (b) 4x − 2y + 9 = 0 (b) y = 10x − 10 and y = −4x − 85 (c) ( 35 . x = y − 3a (c) 8a2 square units 1(a) y = x − 1 (b) x − 2y − 1 = 0 2 6(a) y = 13 x + 23 (b) 2x−3y+1 = 0. ap2 ). 12 a(p + q ) . Answers to Chapter Nine 605 4(a) P (2ap. T has parame-   8(a)(i) x = 2y (ii) x − 4y + 4 = 0 ter 12 (p + q) and T = a(p + q). (c) (ii) 16y − 8x + 9 = 0 y y = −x − a. pq = 5 has no solutions. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . normals: 11 a = − 14 . 9) 5(b) tangents: y +x+a = 0. 0). it is 2 2 (b) a(p + 1) (c) a(q + 1) the negative geometric mean. the line is y = 12 × 4x − (−5)a. t = 5 gives (20. 2(a) x + 2y − 3 = 0 (b) x − 3y + 33 = 0 (c) p + q = 4. 19(b) 12 a |p − q| 2 3 5(a) The x-intercept is (4a. and 1(a) y = x − 1 (b) y = 2x − 3 (c) y = −4x + 4 t = −1 gives (−4. 0). 36). 15 ) 1 Exercise 9H (Page 342) 8(a) A = (−1. 2). 125) and (−2. 3x − 4y + 8 = 0. 3x+2y−5 = 0 (c) 6x + 2y + 9 = 0 (d) y = qx − 3q 2 7(a) (2. 3 (d) x + qy − aq − 2aq = 0 m = −2 gives y = −2x − 2. 2) (c) y = 0. and ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 14 a(p + q)2 . (−1. aq 2 ). 6(a) t = −2 or t = 1 (b) t = −3 or t = 1 8(a) Since a = 2. (0. y = x + 3a 3a 12(b) y = 7x − 147 (b) vertices: (−2a. so Exercise 9G (Page 339) p + q = 4 and pq = −5. S(0. −2a 2a x possible gradients. B = (2. 0) (c) 12 a |p| (c) y = x − 2 and y = −x − 2. 3 3(a) y = px−ap (b) (0. 3a). which are perpen- 2 2 2 3 4(a) x + py = 2ap + ap 3 dicular because their gradients are 1 and −1. Q(2aq. (0. −4) (c) x + my − 3m − 6m = 0 9(b) m = 2 gives y = 2x − 2.

sum is 6. 5) and ( 200 45 41 . focal 2 14(c) x0 > 4ay0 . 5) and ( 54 . a4 ). 14(c) y = −4a (e) x = 16a(y − 6a) point (x0 . product is −1 12(a) y = px − ap2 (b) y = px (d) y = 2px − 4ap2 (b) y − 6y + 1 = 0. sum is 2.606 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 12(a) x2 − 2x − 1 = 0. axis the y-axis. px − p y − a = 0 15(a) x1 x = 2a(y + y1 ) 2 2 16 x0 = 2am (b) y = a. (0. 4pq) 2 17(c) x = a(y − 3a) 19(a) xy0 + x0 y = 2c 2 (c) 8x + 2y = 50. vertex (0. 41 ) 16(c) (4(p + q). 20) 18(a) x + py = 2p + p 3 2 (d) N (2m. which is the condition for the length a. for x > 2a or x < −2a 18(d) 4x + 5y = 25. 2 15(a) y = px − ap . x = 4a(y − a4 ) 2 2 2 (d) 2 10 units √ 13 10 2 units (b) A parabola. (5. 12 a(p + q ) . 4m + 3) 2 (e) y = x + 3 Exercise 9I (Page 346) . y0 ) to lie outside the parabola. product is 1 2 2 (f) 2x = 9ay  √ 13(a) M a(p + q).

a + 12 at ) 6(a) Q(2at. A parabola. 0). 10(b) T (at. 2 ) 3(c) The locus of R is x = 2(y − 2). 32 at) 9(d) A parabola. Julia Shea. 7(a) y = px + a (c) y = 12 a (e) x = a(y − a) 2 2 8(a) N ( 12 at . 1 + p2 ) √ √ (b) P = (2 3. −at2 ) 8(b) y  23(c) y = 14 x − x + 2 2 9(a) A a(p + q). −y1 ) 26(c) y = −a. R(0. focal length 12 a. 2a + at ) (d) 3. apq 2 24(d) N (2mk. B(0. 22(b) x = 4a(y − 4a) 2 3 2 6(a) A(2at + at . at ). which is the directrix. 14 a(p + q)2 (d) The points P and Q coincide. since the cubic equation in part (c) has at 7(a) It is a focal chord. David Sadler. 0) (c) M ( 3at 2 . 0). = tx − at2 (c) R(0. focal length a2 . a(p + p2 ) 2 16(a) M = (p. in which case T is 2(c) q not uniquely defined. 2ay 1  15(b) Q −2a(p + p2 ). but the limit of its position 2 2 3(b) B(0. y = at2 (d) A parabola. Q = (−6. x (e) y = 2m + 2a(1 + 2m ) (c) Q( x 1 . 4). 2a + k + 4am ) 2 12(a) (x1 . −a) (e) A rhombus. 0) (c) y = 0 (the x-axis) ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. vertex (0. focal length 12 a. 2 axis the y-axis. 9). a). 5(a) T (2at. T = (−1. N (0. 2a + at ) (c) BN = 2a units coincides with P and Q. 3) 2 2 18(b) p + q + 2 19 P = (4. vertex the origin. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y1 ) satisfies x2 = 4ay. (b) y = qx − aq 2 most three real solutions for t. 4a). 3) or P = (−2 3. 20(c) x = 3 and y < 34 1(a) y = qx − aq 2 (e) N a(p + q). 2 2 4(b) M ( 12 at. k1+ 1 0 ) (b) k (x1 − 4ay1 ) + (x0 − 4ay0 ) = 0 2 2 2 Exercise 9J (Page 352) 2 1(b) x = at. −6) √ √ 22(a) q = (2 2 − 3)p or (−2 2 − 3)p kx +x ky +y 23(a) K = ( k1+ 1 0 . vertex (0. axis the y-axis. at 2 2(b) T (at. −a) (c) x = 2a(y − a). 2 21(c) x = 8ay onals bisect each other at right angles. because the diag. axis the y-axis.

G and I (b) C and E (c) B. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .4) 10(a) − (b) 5 (x − 3)2 (x2 + 1)2 2 11(a) x + 2x + 5 13(b) 1 4 x 14(c)(i) x < −1 or x > 1 (ii) −1 < x < 1. D. F and H 3(a) 4 − 2x (b)(i) x < 2 (ii) x > 2 (iii) x = 2 c d e x 4(a) 3x − 6x (b)(i) x < 0 or x > 2 (ii) 0 < x < 2 2 (iii) x = 0 or x = 2 x 3 y 4 y 2 2 6 x (x + 3) (2. (1. x = 0 1 (iii) x = −1 or x = 1 (d) 2. −2 (e) x = 0 2 x (f) 15(a) y y 3 5(a) 2 x (b) The function is not continuous at x = 0. Julia Shea.2) 6(a) x > 2 (b) x < −3 (c) x > 1 or x < −1 x −3 (d) x < 0 or x > 2 ( −1.−2) −1 1 x 7(a) x < −1 or x > − 31 (b) x < −2 or 0 < x < 2 8(a) III (b) I (c) IV (d) II 9(a) (b) (b) (c) y' y' y y 1 3 x x 2 x −3 −1 x (d) (e) (c) y' (d) y' y y x x x x 16(a) (b) (e) (f) y' y y' y' 1 a b x 2 −2 x x x −2 1 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. David Sadler. Answers to Chapter Ten 607 Chapter Ten (g) y' (h) y' Exercise 10A (Page 359) 1(a) A.

−29) ( − 23 . ( 54 .608 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 17 18 −2 < x < 0 (c) (d) y −4x y y 19(a)(i) (x2 + 1)2 4 (b) f (x) is increasing for 3 x < 0 and decreasing −4 ( − 116 .337) (2.− 32 27 ) (c) (d) y' y' (c) (d) y y (3.6 18 ) −4 3 −2 2 x − 12 x 20(a) (b) 2(a) (b) y' y' y y (−2.9) −3α 3α −2α α 5 5 −α α x −α 2α x ( 43 . Julia Shea.− 27 16 ) x (−2. David Sadler.96) −α 15 −2 x x (2.−16) 21(a) (b) −4 y' y' α 3(a) (b) x y y α x (−3. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .16) 3 12 x 2 40 x ( 12 .16) 2 3 −3α − α α 3α x 1 x −2 3 2 3 x x (−2.−14 121 ) 1 3 x 1 for x > 0.27) x Exercise 10B (Page 365) 4 5 y y 1(a) (b) y y (3. 31 8 ) x −5 1 x (c) (d) y' y' (c) (d) y y (2.−1) ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.−288) 1 3 −2 6 x (2.43) 16 −2α 2α x −3α − α α 3α x x 11 (2.

Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . Answers to Chapter Ten 609 6 y 7(a) Exercise 10C (Page 369) y ( − 25 . 511611 ) 5 7 ( 125 . 411711 ) (b) (c) x y y 1 x 1 1 4 (iii) (iv) y y x 1 5 6 ( 115 . David Sadler. x = 1 critical value 2 3 (h) x = 0 horizontal point of inflexion. x = −2 critical value. 4 25 x = 3 horizontal point of inflexion (d) x = −2 turning point.268 2308 1(a) A relative maximum. b = 2.8 1244 3125 ) (c) x = 0 turning point. H relative minimum (e) I relative minimum −4 2 x (f) J horizontal point of inflexion.− 23 ) (l) x = 2 turning point. c = −12 d = 7 (1.2) 13(a)(i) (ii) −1 y 2 2 4 36 y x 1 x ( . (d) 8 x = 1 critical value y y (1. 3 2 x = 1 critical value (i) x = 0 critical value x x (j) x = −1 turning point. x = 0 critical value ( −1. x = − 12 turning point ( − 45 . K relative min- 3 x imum. 23 ) (g) x = 0 turning point. c = 0 12 a = 2. c = 6 (e) 4(a) y y 11 a = −1. G relative maximum. 16 81 ) (b) C relative minimum (c) D horizontal point of 256 inflexion. 512712 ) x −2 −1 1 2 1 x 1 x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. L relative maximum (b) (c) y y 2(a) x = 1 turning point 8 ( 43 . E relative maximum (d) F relative minimum.49 27 ) (b) x = 3 turning point.−1) x = 0 critical value −108 (k) x = 1 turning point. 5 510 ) (−1.−2) 4 7 ( 114 . 0 (ii) 1 distinct root (iii) 2 (d)(i) (iv) 1 x = 1 critical value 9 −8 3(a) x = 0 10 a = b = −1. B relative minimum 3125 ) ( 23 . x = 1 critical value 5 x (f) x = 0 horizontal point of inflexion. x = 1 turning point. b = 3. x = 4 turning point −2 1 x − 12 (e) x = 0 turning point. (1. Julia Shea.

60x3 . dy/dx = −1. 3 . dy/dx = −1 (b) x = 2 is a critical 1(a) 10x9 .2) (1. − 4 (h) − 3 .1) −1 (1. y → 0 and y → ∞. so the curve + emerges vertically from the origin. 0. Exercise 10D (Page 371) When x < 2. 0·357x−2·7 1 2 6 2 6 24 (g) − 2 .3) 1 x (−1. 12 ) 1 2 1 (1.610 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (d) 5(a) x>0 10 11(c) y y y y ( −1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 14 (b) 9 y y y c 3 2 c x x 2 x (a)When x > 2. −0·21x−1·7 . dy/dx = 1.3) (2. David Sadler. 4 .2) x − 2 5 1 x 1 x x (d)(i) (ii) 6(a) (b) y y y y 4 (1. (Notice that (−1. 180x2 value. 90x8 . dy/dx = 1. 5 . 2. 24x − 2. 0 (d) 2x − 3.2) x x 2 x 7 12(c) 13(a) y y y 3 6 6 1 x (2. so the origin lies on the curve. 720x7 (b) 15x4 . because y  is not defined there.  (d) As x → 0 . − 4 x x x x x x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. x When x > 0. − 5 x x x x x x 15 60 300 1 2 6 (i) − 4 . (c) −3.) −1 1 x 8(a) When x < 0. 16 6 ) is a maximum turning point. − 6 (j) 2x − 2 . (b) (c) y y horizontal asymptotes: x = 0 √ (c) (3. Julia Shea.3) y(0) = 0. 2 + 3 . 0 (e) 12x − 2x. 24 2 −0·7 (f) 0·3x .1) 3 x 1 3 x (a) domain: x ≥ 0.

3 (b) . (f) √ . 1 + t2 (1 + t2 )3 2(t − 2) 4(t − 2)3 (1 − t)2 2(1 − t)3 (f) − . x = −2 3(a) .−36) ( 6 . (e) 10(a) 1 + t)2 (1 + t)3  y 13 a = 3. 25 2 6 12(a) 23 . b = 3. − 29 x 3 x 2 x 4x x √ 3 −3 −5 x (c) 32 x .10) 3(a)f  (x) = 3x2 − 3. c = 52 a 1 −2 7 −28 x 7(a) 2 . David Sadler. no (1. .5 27 7 )  f (x) = 6x 15. 34 x 2 a 4 x 1 −1 −2 −4 (e) √ . y  = 6x + 6 3 x x (d) 75x + y − 13 = 0   13(b) f (x) = g (x) = 0. y (1. (x + 2)2 (x + 2)3 (3 − x)3 (3 − x)4 (d) x = −2 −15 300 (c) .−20) Exercise 10E (Page 376) m = 16 2 m = −16 2 Point A B C D E F G H I 1 y 0 + 0 − 0 − 0 + 0 ( − 6 . 4(x − 1) (5x − 2) 3 2 8(a) (b) 9(a) 1. n(n − 1)xn −2 . 4(a)f  (x) = 3x2 − 12x − f  (x) = −2 − 6x ( − 13 . t 2t2 2t3 −5 3 x 2 x t2 − 1 4t3 3 −3 (d) . b = 4 f (x) = 12x2 − 24 1 14 r −2 3 2 3 ( − 2 . 2 (b) 9(3x − 5)2 . (e) .−20) x ( 2 .−36) 11(a) (f) y  + 0 − 0 0 0 + 0 0 f  (x) = 5 − 2x − 3x2 .−99) (c) f (x) has a horizontal point of inflexion. 32 (d) −11(8 − x) . (1 + x2 )2 (1 + x2 )3 8 (x − 1) (5x − 1).−2) (5.−45) ( − 53 . ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 14 27 ) − 3 12(a) y  = 3x2 + 6x − 72. n(n − 1)(n − 2)xn −3 (b) n(n − 1)(n − 2) . √ (d) − 12 x 2 . 54(3x − 5) 5(a) x > 2 or x < −1 (b) −1 < x < 2 (c) x > 1 2 (c) 8(4x − 1). .9) x (2.2) (−1. f  (x) = 4x3 − 24x. 1 − 4x (1 − 4x) 2 3 3 2 x + 2 4(x + 2) 2 (c) (d) 13 5(a)(i) 2 16 (ii) 8 3 y y (b)(i) −8 (ii) 48 (iii) −192 (iv) 384 6 a = − 12 . Answers to Chapter Ten 611 2(a) 2(x + 1). 7(a) (b) (5x + 4)4 (5x + 4)5 y y 12 108 (d) .−1 (b) − 13 (c) − 34 y y n −1 11(a) nx . 0 −1 1 −3 5 (c) − 35 t . 0 (b) . (4 − 3x) (4 − 3x)4 3 a 1 −1 −2 −5 4(a) √ . (b) . √ (b) 13 x 3 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . Julia Shea. 1. (x + 1) (x + 1) (2x + 5) (2x + 5)3 2 a x 1−x 2 2x(x − 3) 2 (c) . 110(8 − x) 10 9 (d) x < 12 −1 2 2 6 6(a) x = −5 (b) none (c) x = 3. f  (x) = 6x − 12 (e) 16 7 3 (d) (d) y y (−1.

2) 1 2 −1 (4.612 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 g(x) has a minimum turning point.59) −1 (−1.−2) 11 2 6 x x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.−21) x y y 10 (2.6 3 ) 4 x −1 2 x −1 −3 3 x − 12 ( 12 . ) 1 4 ( −3. ) 4 ( −3 3 . ) y = f''(x) x 3 ( 1 3 1 .− 49 ) ( − 3 . y y (6. (e) (f) 14 a = 2. ) y 9 8 y = f ′( x ) y = f ′′( x ) ( − 23 . 19(b) 1 −2 −1 x f  (x) = 2x + 1 y ( −6. b = −3. −31 ) 5 ( 3 .− 3 3 ) y = f ( x) 4(a) (b) x 1 x y A B D ( −4. David Sadler. −6 3 ) (−1.16) 1 x x (2.−3) −1 1 x (c) (d) (e) (f) y y y y (2.92) (1. 3 3 ) 3 (− 1 3 .− ) 2 3 (b) 17(b) 1 y y x 2 (3.186) x y = f'(x) (4. 109 ) −2 2 x (d) y ( 23 . concave down when x < 3 5 (c) 16(a) (−2.−75) 1 A 2(e) 3(e) C E x y y −2 − 2 3 x (3 3 .1) 1 2 18(a) f  (x) = x2 + x + 1.32) (3. 29 ) (1. Julia Shea. c = 0 and d = 5. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party .− 1 5 x x 1 2 12 ) 1 1 4 −2 −1 1 2 x 1 x Exercise 10F (Page 379) 1(a) (b) (c) (d) y y y y ( 12 .442) 15(b) concave up when x > 3.− 18 ) 5(a) (b) y y ( − .33) (1.

Answers to Chapter Ten 613 (g) (h) (c) 9(a) y y y y 16 2 3 3 (5.9 13 27 ) points of y = f (x) give ( 12 . 8 (d) −49. 2 2 (f) −1.2) the stationary points 2 −2 2 x of y = (f (x)) .2) 2 1 x −2 2 3 x x x − 3163 − 25 (2. 7 (b) 161 . 4 x E relative maximum. 2 (h) −1. (2.−9) (d) 7(a) y y 11(b) 12(b) x > 23 y or x < 0 a −1 x −a a x x −a (b) (c) y y Exercise 10G (Page 382) 3 4 +4 1(a) A relative maximum.6 34 ) (1. global maximum 20 (b) global minimum −5. 2 ) √ 4 (−2 − 10.2) (1. 81 4096 3 ) (b) (c) √ 10(a) (b) (−2 + 2 2. √ ( −2.2) (2. −1). 1) −5 1 x −1 −5 3 x x (−2. 5 (e) 0. Julia Shea. 4 (d) 0. −6 6 x −1 1 x global maximum 139 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. y y √ y (−2 − 2 2.10) 1+ 3 − 2 2 (−1. −1). D relative minimum. 5 (e) 0. 2 3(a) 7. B relative minimum −15 1 (b) C absolute maximum.−2) 1− 3 3 (−1. 19 (c) −1. 9 1 4(a) global minimum −5. F absolute minimum −1 −2 (c) G absolute maximum. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . H horizontal point of x inflexion (d) I horizontal point of inflexion. − 41 (g) 1. David Sadler. local maximum 11.−2) (i) 6(a) (b) The x-intercepts (c) y y and the x-coordinates y y= f2 of the stationary ( 2 3 . 1). 4 (b) 2. y= f 3 −1 x x ( − 23 . 4 3 (f) 0.− 19 ) 1 (−2 + 10. 5 (c) 0. 2 8(a) (b) J absolute minimum √ y y 2(a) 0.

614 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (c) global minimum 4. y → 0. 1 (d) − 25 5. (c) 5 (d) 258 m when θ = 90◦ . 181 (b) infinitely many 27π√ 3 (c) As x → ∞. This problem is resolved in Chapter 12. x = 12 a 2 4(b) 5 (c) 25 cm 17 4:3 5(c) 20 (d) 200 m 2 √ 2 18(a) 4 3 cm 6(a) R = x(47 − 13 x) (b) − 15 x + 32x − 10 (c) 30 8 2 2 19 12 a . 5 (b) 1. This problem can be done very easily 7(a) 20 and 20 (b) 20 and 20 (c) 24 and 16 without calculus — the triangle has area 12 a2 sin θ. 19. 0). David Sadler. depth 16 6 cm 2(a) 13 x − 32 x + C (b) 15 x + 23 x + x + C 3 2 5 3 √ 23(b) 23 a × 43 a 3 2 x − 4x + C (d) 56 x − x + C 3 2 6 4 (c) x + 11 24 A(10. the function 4(d) 272 πs3 3 takes every value in the interval −1 ≤ y ≤ 1. 5 (c) 15 5. and sin θ is maximum x 10 − x 2 9(a) . 14 ) 2 axa+1 bxb+1 21 64 cm (l) + +C √ √ a+1 b+1 22 width 16 3 cm. global maximum 11 √ √ √ √ Exercise 10I (Page 389) 5(a) 1. Its height is 48 cm √ 12(c) Each of the 6 rectangles has dimensions 34 × 23 . Julia Shea. 12 2 1000 3 1(b) m 7(a) 2. ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 8(b) 24 cm where θ is the apex angle. √ √ 13 27 × 9 × 18 23 414 x 2(7 − 2 2) 14(b) 80 km/hr (c) $400 15 12 × 8 × 8 Exercise 10J (Page 394) 7 2 1(a) 17 x + C (b) 32 x + C (c) 5x + C (d) 12 x10 + C 16 32 sq units 7 1 13 (e) 3x + C (f) 39 x + C (g) C 17 72 units (h) 3 x + 8 x + C (i) x − x − x + C 2 3 5 8 3 4 5 18 8 units √ xa+1 19(b) y = −2ax + a + 4 (c) 23 3 2 4 3 (j) 14 ax + 13 bx + C (k) +C a+1 20(b) ( 12 . There is no limit as x → 0 2(c) 20 10π cm + √ — however close one goes towards 0. 4 4 √ 2 10(c) 40 π000 m 2 21 3 3r 11(c) 4 × 4 × 2 22 There is only one such cone. B(0. and they are attained 8(b) 4 (c) 27 πr2 h r infinitely often. which is meaningless. and its radius is 12 2 cm. 180( − 2r) 5(a) θ = (d) The global maximum and minimum are 1 πr πR2 h(r − R) and −1 respectively. πrh 9 2 Exercise 10H (Page 384) 11(b) V = S2 r − 12 πr 3 1(a) 2x2 − 16x + 64 (b) 4 (c) 32 12(b) 30 cm× 40 cm 2(a) 11x − 2x 2 (b) 11 (c) 121 2 4 8 13(c) 2πR 1 3(b) 3 8 metres  √ 2 14(a) y = ab a2 − x2 (c) A = 2ab. 6) (e) 5 x + 3 x + x + C (f) 4 a x − 2ax + 92 x + C 4 5 4 3 1 2 4 3 2 √ 25 5 2 metres 1 1 1 3(a) − + C (b) − 2 + C (c) − +C 26 8 km x x 3x √ √ 27 2( 10 + 1) × 4( 10 + 1) 2 1 1 a  (d) + C (e) − + 2 + C (f) − +C 28(a) 103 (b) 16 (a + b − a2 + b2 − ab) 15x3 x 2x bx b−a+1 34 30 2 39 1 x (g) + C (h) x + +C (1 − a)x a−1 b−a+1 3 √ 4 √ 4(a) 23 x 2 +C (b) 2 x+C (c) 34 x 3 +C (d) 43 x+C 8 (e) 58 x 5 + C 2 3 5(a) y = x + 3x + 4 (b) y = 3x + 4x + 1 3 (c) y = 23 x 2 − 16 6 The rule would give the primitive of x−1 as x0 /0.

(d) 0 (the integrand is odd). is not continuous. When a = 5 . 16 $4. P1 P2 . This func- 2 3 √ tion. x 8(a) The function is odd. (e) (ax − b)6 + C (f) +C 7(a) 4x −3x +x−1 (b) −(7−6x) (c)(i) (a−x)u(x) 3 2 4 6a 81(1 − 9x)9 8 The function defined by f (x) = 0 for x = 12 . Each odd power is an odd function. Answers to Chapter Eleven 615 7(a) 4 y (b) y c = −1 Chapter Eleven c=4 2 2 Exercise 11A (Page 401) c=0 8 (b) 24 (c) 8π (d) 25 1 x 1(a) 4 π (e) 30 (f) 15 −1 c>0 c<0 2(b) When a = 14 . y = 3x + C. and so has integral zero. 2 c=0 2 c=1 Exercise 11B (Page 406) 15 (b) 41 23 (c) 19 (d) 62 (e) 30 (f) 3. it is 375 . Therefore the combined area of the (c) y (d) y c=1 trapezia is greater than the area under the curve. 1 y = −2x2 + C. and t > 0. 19 f (x) = + 1 for x > 0. which (c) 211 (3x − 4)7 + C (d) − 28 1 (1 − 7x)4 + C 1 2 lies in the given interval. 4 64 When a = 5 . 4 4 4 c=0 (g) 4 (h) 33 34 (i) 66 23 1 5 2(a)(i) 10 (ii) 36 (iii) 3 34 (b)(i) 12 (ii) 15 32 (iii) 7 y = x3 + C. The 1(a) 1 x 1 x  7  7  7 c<0 c = −1 notation dx means 1 dx. Each even power is an even ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. it is 24 . Julia Shea. 3 3 9(a) 23 (x + 1) 2 + C (b) − 32 (1 − x) 2 + C √ 3 (c) 13 (2x − 7) 2 + C (d) − 23 2 − 3x + C and f ( 12 ) = 1 satisfies the conditions. 1 (f) 0 (the integrand is odd). y = x1 + C. which is x . it is 125 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . David Sadler. 3(a) 4 (b) 32 23 (c) 32 (d) 13 13 8 (e) 15 (f) 27 12 y = x3 + 1 y = x1 + 1 4(a) 1 + π2 (b) 2 12 4 −1 8(a) 14 (x + 1) + C (b) +C 5(a) k = 5 (b) k = 49 (c) k = 5 3(x − 2)3 6 The function is discontinuous at x = 0. the price will (c) 0 (the integrand is odd). so the integral is zero. 1 x 1 1 3 9 c<0 When a = 2 . 1 and f (x) = + 3 for x < 0 (b) The integral can be split into the sum of the six x integrals. Since p = 10 t 3 +4. lie above 6n2 y = 4 − 2x2 y = 3x − 1 the curve. 15 25 seconds (b) 0 (the interval has zero width).08. . and so a slight (e) (ax + b) 2 + C (f) 34 4x − 1 + C 3a extension of our definition of the definite integral 10(a) 18 (2x + 1) − 98 (b) y = x + 2x − 5x + 6 4 3 2 is required. 17(a) x = − 72 (b) x = −18 23 18 3 seconds (e) 0 (the integrand is odd). 5 (c) y = 15 4 (3 − x) 2 + 32 3 x + 16 3 2 a+ b+ 1 a−b+ 1 x x Exercise 11C (Page 410) 11(a) + C (b) +C a+b+1 a−b+1 1(a) 14 π (b)− 92 π (c) −6 (d) −8 (e) 32 (f) −8 ab+ 1 b+ 1 a+ 1 x ax bx 2(a) 3 34 (b) 0 (c) −36 (d) 0 (e) 12 (f) 0 (c) + C (d) + +C ab + 1 b+1 a+1 3(a)(i) 23 (ii) 2 (iii) 45 (b)(i) 14 (ii) 96 45 (iii) 4 5 √ 3 4 3 (e) 25 x 2 + C (f) 2 x + 23 x 2 + C 4(a) − 32 (b) 2 23 (c) 1 19 3 1 3 5 3 √ 32 (d) 143 4 (e) 3 3 (f) 42 4 (g) 25 x 2 + 23 x 2 + C (h) 12 x − x + C 5(a) 2 − 2 (b) 1 − 2 π 1 π 12(a) y = 35 x − 14 x +x (b) y = − 14 x +x +2x−2 5 4 4 3 6(a) k = 3 or k = −5 (b) k = 2 or k = − 85 (c) y = − 20 (2 − 5x)4 + 21 (d) y = x − 4x + 4 1 2 20 (c) k = 1 14(a) −121 (b) y = −x + 4x + 3 3 2 13 30 7(a) 0 (the interval has zero width). the integral is 192 1 . . always exceed $4 (but by a decreasing amount). however. 5(a) 13 + (b) The lines P0 P1 .

−4 2) (b) 16 2u b−a+1 3 3 4 √ 5 13(a) f (x) = 3 x − x − 3x. as sin 4x is odd and cos 2x is even. + tension question in the previous exercise explains √ (c) The integral is 2 N − 2. (0. √ ◦ ◦ (e) 23 3x + 5 + C (b) True. 1). √ √ x 3 (c) False. 0) and at (1. (0. −9) (b) 16 56 u2 4(a) 53 x − 34 x + C (b) 43 x + 2x + x + C 3 4 3 2 15(a) 2 : n + 1 (b) 1 : n + 1 √ √ 5 (c) x − 3 x + 5 x + C (d) 2 x − 25 x 2 + C 2 3 1 5 3 2 2 4 16(b) a = 12 (3 + 5). the curve y = x is 2 1 √ (g) 111 (2x − 1)11 + C (h) − +C always below the curve y = x . as 2 > 3 for −1 < x < 0. 10 2 1 u2 and 10 1 u2 . 5 2(x + 1)2 (b) In the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. as t > t n+1 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 and hence 2√ 1 1 ax + C ≤ . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 4 2).616 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 function. as 2 < 3 for 0 < x < 1. as 2 −x 2 > 0 for all x. √ 3 (e) 12 x − 4x + C (f) 2x − 83 x 2 + x + C 2 2 1 a5 = 12 (11 + 5 5) (g) 12 x − + C (h) 16 x3 − 16 2 1 4 x +C (c) Areas are 15 u .  −1  ∞ 1 dx dx (b) The integral is −1 + . (f) − 34 (1 − ) 2 + C (g) 2 x + 1 + 2 x + 2 + C x x 2 (d) True. and so its integral is twice the integral (c) − 15 (4 − x)5 + C (d) 15 1 (3x + 1)5 + C over 0 ≤ x ≤ α. which diverges to ∞ the meaning of ∞ in the limits of integration). David Sadler. 2(4x + 1)4 1 10(a)(i) 5 (ii) 25 (b)(i) 25 (ii) 17 12 (iii) 27 12 (i) +C 2 5 − 20x 11(a)(i) 2 (ii) 18 (iii) 8 (b)(i) − 12 (ii) −18 (iii) −8 1 3 3 6(a) 23 (x + 1) 2 + C (b) 13 (2x − 1) 2 + C 12(b)(i) 3 (ii) 4 (iii) − 73 (iv) 10 (v) 60 23 (vi) 33 3 4 3 (c) − 16 (7 − 4x) 2 + C (d) 16 3 (4x − 1) 3 + C 13(a) True. Julia Shea. as the function is odd. which diverges to ∞ as 9 Here is one clue: 2 = = 1 (an ex- ε −∞ x 1 x2 ε→0 . 2 2 2 2 2 2(a) 9 u (b) 6 23 u (c) 1283 u (d) 6 u (e) 14 u 1 2 2 2 Exercise 11D (Page 413) (f) 57 6 u (g) 36 u (h) 60 u 9 2 2 2 2 2 1(a) 4x+C (b) x2 +C (c) x3 +C (d) C (e) 23 x6 +C 3(a) 2 u (b) 34 3 u (c) 18 u (d) 2 u 4 2 27 2 81 2 2 2 (f) 57 x 1·4 + C (g) 12 x14 + 13 x9 + C 4(a) 3 u (b) 2 u (c) 4 u (d) 46 5 u 9 2 4 2 45 2 2 (h) 4x − 32 x + C (i) x − 2x + 75 x + C 2 3 4 5 5(a) 2 u (b) 3 u (c) 4 u (d) 9 u 2 a 3 b 2 1 6 8u (j) x + x + C (k) xa+ 1 + C 2 2 2 2 3 2 a+1 7(a) 11 23 u (b) 128 12 u (c) 4 u (d) 8 12 u 2 3 2 5 2 3 2 2 a b (e) 16 u (f) 6 4 u (g) 11 6 u (h) 32 4 u (i) 17 3 u (l) xa+ 1 + xb+ 1 + C a+1 b+1 (j) 21 15 2 u2 1 1 1 8(a) 13 u 2 (b) 2 12 u 2 (c) 9 13 u 2 (d) 2 u 2 2(a) − + C (b) − 3 + C (c) +C √ x x 10x2 9(a)(i) 64 u 2 (ii) 128 u 2 (iii) 12 3 (b)(i) 50 u 2 5 1 1 x1−a xa−b+ 1 2 32 2 (d) − + C (e) + C (f) +C (ii) 18 u (iii) 3 u √ √ 4x 4 x 1−a a−b+1 2 10(a) 4 u (b) 1024 u2 (c) 2 3 u2 (d) 53 5 u2 a xb−a+ 1 √ 15 √ √ 2 (g) x + C (h) x + +C 11(a) (2. which converges to 2 1(a) 2 u2 (b) 21 2 u 2 (c) 92 u 2 as ε → 0+ . x 2 3 5 3 17(a) 3 ah + 2ch (i) 25 x 2 + 43 x 2 + C 6 4 5(a) 16 (x + 1) + C (b) 14 (x + 2) + C ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. a 1 + tn 1 + tn + 1 7(a) 242 (b) 0 (c) 121 13 (d) 1 (e) 13 a + ab + b 2 2 5 1 (f) 13 (g) 2 (h) 45 (i) 46 (j) 6 23 (k) 112 (l) 8 25 14(a) The integral is − +1. x 4 1 (e) − 54 (1 − ) + C (f) − +C 9(a) The curves meet at (0. √ Exercise 11E (Page 416) (d) The integral is 2 − 2 ε . relative maximum at 1 3 2 3(a) 23 x 2 +C (b) 34 x 3 +C (c) 2 x+C (d) 35 x 3 +C (−1. which converges to 1 6 4 9 N 3 8(b) 3 x(1 + x) 2 − 15 (1 + x) 2 + C 2 4 5 as N → ∞. relative minimum at (3. x x 3a n (f) True. as N → ∞. a = 12 (7 + 3 5). 53 ). 0). 3 √ 2 3 (h) − 32 (4 − x) 2 − 2 4 − x + C (i) (ax) 2 + (e) False.

6). minimum at (10. 2).6 (e) 24 u2 1 1 21(a) relative minimum at (1. −2) (c) 94 π u3 3 22(a) (0. Julia Shea. 2πu 38 3 2 3 (f) 3 b 9 682 3 π u √ 2 2x2 − 1 10 5270 25 π u 3 9(a) x ≥ 1 or x ≤ −1 (b) √ (d) 16 2u 9 3 x2 − 1 3 11 2 π u 2 3 3 12(b) 43 u (c)(i) 65 π u (ii) 245 πu ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 8π u (b) 3 π u . Answers to Chapter Eleven 617 2 3 1 3 18(a) (d) 13(b)(i) 35 πu (ii) 10 πu 1 3 y y 14(b) 21 3 π u πr2 (b3 − a3 ) 15(a)(ii) 4 (12. 3 π u 8(a) 32 15 (b) 3 64 (c) 12 1 (d) 936 (e) 3 128 3 3 1 3 2(a3 + 1) (c) 8π u . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 4) (b) 36 u 2 2 4(a) 20 56 u (b) 57 16 u 4 (c) 15 u2 (d) 32 1 u2 Exercise 11H (Page 430) 5(b) 36 u 2 1(a) 8x(x2 + 3)3 2 2 4 2 4 6 5 58 u (b)(i) (x + 3) + C (ii) 18 (x + 3) + C 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 7(a) 4 2 u (b) 12 u (c) 20 56 u (d) 21 13 u 2(a) 12(x + 2x)(x + 3x + 5) 3 2 4 8(b) 13 u 2 (b)(i) (x + 3x + 5) + C (ii) 12 1 (x3 + 3x2 + 5)4 + C 3(a) −7(2x + 1)(5 − x − x) 1 2 2 6 9 53 u (b)(i) (5 − x − x) + C (ii) − 17 (5 − x − x) + C 2 2 7 2 7 10(c) 108 u 4(a) 15x (x − 1) 1 2 2 3 4 11(a) 4 2 u (b) 169 u2 12(a) −1 < x < 1 or x > 4 (b) 21 12 (b)(i) (x − 1) + C (ii) 15 (x − 1) + C 3 5 3 5 1 u2 1 2 2x 13 16 u 5(a) √ 14(b) y = 2x − 7 (c) 12 7 u2  +3 2x 2  1 (b)(i) 2x2 + 3 + C (ii) 12 2x2 + 3 + C 15 1 − √ √ 3 2 3( x + 1)2 6(a) √ √2 x 3 √ 3 Exercise 11G (Page 426) (b)(i) ( x + 1) + C (ii) 23 ( x + 1) + C 1(b) 81π u3 2 3 7(a) 13 (5x + 3) + C (b) 14 (x + 1) + C 2 4 3 1 3 6 1 2 5 2(b) 36π u (c) 6 (1 + 4x ) + C (d) 30 (1 + 3x ) + C (e) 18 (x − 4x − 5) + C (f) − 32 (1 − x4 )8 + C 3 3 3 3 3(a) 16π u (b) 9π u (c) 32 5 πu (d) 6π u 2 4 1 3 3 (g) 3 (x − 1) 2 + C (h) 15 (5x + 1) 2 + C 16 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 (e) 3 π u (f) 7 π u (g) 9π u (h) 16π u 3 256 3 3 3 3   4(a) 3π u (b) 3 π u (c) 618 5 π u (d) 12 π u (i) x2 + 3 + C (j) 14 4x2 + 8x + 1 + C 1 (e) 85 3 π u 3 243 (f) 5 π u 3 16 (g) 15 π u 3 16 (h) 3 π u 3 1 √ 3 3 3 (k) − + C (l) 25 ( x − 3)5 + C 296 5 5(a) 3 π u (b) 19 6 π u (c) 104 6 π u (d) 105 1 16 π u3 2 4(x + 5) 2 1 6(a) 3 π u 3 28 (b) 15 π u 3 81 (c) 10 π u 3 1 (d) 2 π u 3 p r (m) (qx2 − 3)4 + C (n) (px3 + q)5 + C 1024 3 3 3 3 8q 15p 7(b) 5 πu (c) 256π u (d) 128π u (e) 128π u 32 3 3 50 3 5 3 a2 8(a) 5 π u . 5 π u (d) 24 5 πu . 1) (d) 13 π u √ Exercise 11F (Page 421) 23(a) maximum turning point at ( 13 . David Sadler.2) 3h2 6 2 3 2 3 10 16(a) 43 ab π u (b) 2ah π u 3 3 3 3 3 10 u 3 6 x 17(a) 2πa u (b) 165 πa u 18(a) x ≤ 9.−4) (12. 19(a) − (b) n+1 n+1 relative maximum at (−1. 16). 29 3) 1(a) 20 56 u2 (b) 36 u2 (c) 16 23 u2 (d) 94 u2 (e) 9 13 u2 (c) 158 u2 (d) 12 1 π u3 1 (f) 12 u2 (g) 16 u2 (h) 43 u2 24(c) 8πu 3 2 2(b) 4 12 u 25(b) 6π u 2 3 2 3(a) (−1. (5.−6) (d)(i) 81 2 πu 3 (ii) 129 35 π u 3 15 3 3 19(a) y = 3x (c)(i) 7 π u (ii) 25 π u (b) maximum at (3. 0) and (1. y ≥ 0 (c) 18 u 2 −8 (6. −8) 20(b) 72 − 92 π u 2 3 (c) 1000 45 π u (c) 0.

range: Exercise 11I (Page 432) y > 0. because the curve is concave down. the curve is concave down. 5(a) e (b) − 1e (c) 6 (d) 12 (e) 2e (f) 0 (g) e (h) 1 (i) 0 6(a) x = 13 (b) x = 3 or 4 −2x 7(a) x 22x +1 (b) x 2 2x+3 +3x+2 (c) 2−x 2 (d) 2x+1 √x 2 −1 8(a) x (b) x3 1 (c) 2x (d) x (e) 4+12x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. real numbers.618 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ 10(a) √ horizontal points of inflexion at ( 7. relative minimum at (−1. For y = log3 x. 3 π u 1(a) x1 (b) x1 (c) x2 (d) 1+ 4 (e) x1 (f) x1 x 12 4·65 units (g) x3 (h) 12x − 2 1 x 2 3 −1 2(a) 2x+5 (b) 3x−7 (c) 3+22x (d) 4−x (e) 4+77x −1 (f) − 2−5x5 1 (g) 1+ 1−x (h) 3−x a (i) ax−b π (j) π x+1 π 2 (k) π x−2 (l) 2x−ab . David Sadler. For y = log10 x. regardless of the value of a. 0) and Chapter Twelve (− 7. (g) 3 (h) −2 27 5(c) 1 260 4(a) 14 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 10 (e) 15 (f) 2 (g) 9 6(a) 0·729 (b) 3·388 (h) 49 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . range: all 2(b) 10 (c) 10 23 . 2·7 4 Check the answers using the calculator. domain: x > 0. 5 59 % 8(a) −3 (b) 16 (c) −2 (d) −3 (e) 4 (f) 3 3 11 180π u (g) 9 (h) 13 (i) 0 7 12(e) 876 400 9(a) 1·58 (b) 3·17 (c) 1·72 (d) 1·89 (e) 1·00 (f) −3·97 Exercise 11J (Page 435) 10(a) x = 2. relative maximum at (1. 0). y = −1 (b) x = 2. range: interval 1 ≤ x ≤ 5. so the curve is concave down. (d) 6 14 % 2(c) reflection in the line y = x 1  −3 3(b) 10 10 (c) y = 12x . Julia Shea. 7(a) 0·7489 (b) π = . y = 34 2(b) 2·80 11(a) 32 (b) 23 (c) 53 (d) 43 (e) − 52 (f) −3 2 3(b) 14·137 (d)(i) 12·294 (ii) 13·392 (g) 4 (h) 5 6 4(b) 32 (c) 32 3 3 14(b)(i) 13 (ii) 23 7 5(a) 15 (b) 22 9 15(b)(i) 73 (ii) 83 6(a) 7·740 (b) 0·9376 (c) 660 (c) x = 2. which is negative in the 3(a) 4 (b) −1 (c) 2 (d) −2 (e) −2 (f) −3 interval 9 ≤ x ≤ 16. 49 6) Exercise 12B (Page 448) 2 3 √ 2 4 3 (c) 1·45 u (d) 4·19 u (e) 16 15 2 u . 7(a) 0·7709 (b) 3·084 16(b)(i)log2 3 (ii) log3 2 (iii) log3 5 8 6 19 30 metres 17(c) 2·3222 2 9 613 13 m 18(a) x = 3 (b) x = 3 3 10 115·19 u √ 11(a) maximum turning point at ( 23 . 3 e= . the estimate is less than 5(a) 3 (b) 5 (c) −2 12 (d) 10 (e) 3·5 (f) −2 the integral. y = −3 1(b) 25 (c) 73 (d) 11 18 90 5 (c) x = 178 . which is positive in the x (d) For y = 10 . (g) 2π (h) y 8 9·2 metres 6(a) −2 (b) −2 (c) 56 (d) 4·5 2 9 550 m 7(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 3 3 3 10(a) 38π u (b) 36π u . y = − 14 x 2 . 2·996. 216). range: all 4(b) 24·7 real numbers. domain: all real numbers. domain: x > 0. so the curve is concave up. y = 15 8 (d) x = 54 . domain: all real numbers. −216) (b) 600 14 u2 Exercise 12A (Page 440) 8 16 11(b)(i) 136 15 (ii) 105 1(c) reflection in the line y = x (d) For y = 3x .  −1 1 (c) 24 23 . y > 0.

Answers to Chapter Twelve 619 1 1 1 (f) 1+x + 1−x (g) 3x+ 3 (h) x1 + 2(x+1 1) (e) (f) 1 9(a) x log (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 5 y y 2 x log 10 x log 2 x log 3 2x 10(a) 1 + log x (b) 2x+ 1 + log(2x + 1) 2+√ log x 1 (c) 2x+ x 1 + 2 log x (d) 2 x 11 x − e2 y + e2 = 0 2 2e x −1 1 x 12 ex + e y + e − 1 = 0. 2e 1 ) 1 ln2 17 x = log 10 −1 1 x 1 18(a) 2x4x−3 2 −3x 1−4x (b) x−1−2x 2 (c) −1 1 x −ln2 x(1 + log x) 2+ x √ 2 √ (d) 2x( √x+ log x) 2x+x (e) 2(x−2) + 2(x + 1) log x − 2 3(a) x>0 4(a) y  = 1 − x1 . David Sadler. ( 1e − e. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 2 e 2 ) (e) y ≤ e 3 3 x 2 3 x −1 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 1) (c) ( √1e . Julia Shea. y = x12 20(a) √ x(x+ 5) (b) (x−1) 2 (x+ 2)(x 2 −15x−4) (x−3) 5 y  = x22 (1 − log x) (b) x > 0 (d) y ≥ 1 2 x−1(x+ 2) 2 x(2x 2 −x−2) (x−1)(3x 2 + 6x−1) (c) y ≥ 0 (c) √ (d) √ (x−1) 3 / 2 x+ 1 2 x(x+ 1) 2 1 1 y y (x+ x ) π (x 2 −1) 2 (e) (f) √3x√ + 6x+ √2 π x(x 2 + 1) 2 x x+ 1 x+ 2 x log x−1 21(a) x (1 + log x) (b) 2x log x 1 −2 (c) x x (1 − log x) 22 2 28 39 1 1 23(d)(i) 2 (ii) 2·5937 (iii) 2·7048 (iv) 2·7169 (v) 2·7181 1 e x 1 x   5(a) x>0 (b) y = x−1 x 2 and y = 2−x x3 (d) y≥1 Exercise 12C (Page 452) y 1(a) (b) y y 1 1 −1 1 e−1 x −e −1 x 1 2 x 6(a) x > 0. −1 e ) (b) (1. 2x log x −1 y ≥ − ln 2 (g) x8 (2 log x − 3) 3 1 (h) x(log (i) x log x) 2 x y y − log 3 log x−1 (j) x(log x) 2 (k) (log x) 2 log 3(log x−1) (l) logx 3 − (log x) 2 = log 3 (log x) 2 1 15(a) ( 1e . 3−12x−7x 2   (f) 2x(3+2x−x 2) (b) y = x2 log x. 0) 2 2 1 13(a) 2x−2 − x 22x+ 1 (b) x2x−2 2 −2x + 2x 1 (c) log π 1−log x 2 log x 14(a) x(1 + 2 log x) (b) x 2 (c) x 4(log x) 3 y≥0 (d) x (e) −1 x(1+log x) 2 (f) √ 1 all real x 2(a) (e) (f) all real x. y → 0+ as x → ∞ so the x-axis is (c) (d) a horizontal asymptote. y → −∞ as x → 0+ so y y the y-axis is a vertical asymptote.   (b) y = x12 (1 − log x) and y = x13 (2 log x − 3) 3 − 3 −1 1 e 3 (d) (e 2 .

y ≤ e−1 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . David Sadler. 2c 16(a) 1+c 11(a) x > 0. y = − (x1+log log x x) 2 8(b) √e (d) The value is outside the domain. otherwise the result is as above. graph becomes horizontal approaching the origin. (c) The change to base b stretches the graph vertically by a factor 1 log b . which is x > 0. y (d) y ≥ − 2e 1 e y 1 e −3/ 2 e −1/ 2 1 x 1 x  x 19(a) y = x (1 + log x) −1/e (b) x > 0. y → 0 as x → 0+ . Minimum at ( √1e . Julia Shea. y → ∞ as x → 0 . y < 0 or y ≥ e. 2 2 c = e (b)(i) c = 1 or e 14(a) x>1 (c) y = 1 x log x . − 2e 1 ) (c) y → 2  18 y = e for all x in the domain. 0 as x → 0 . x = 1. y ≥ e and y  = 1 when x = 1. y 1 e e −1 1 x y  = x−2 x x (1 − log x) 1 1 e e2 x 20(b) 13(a) x > −1. 12 x > 0. 5 y t x − 2 log t + (log t) y = 2 log t 2 9(a) (b) 4e 10(a) x > 0  1 (c) y → 0 as x → 0 . y tical asymptote and the curve becomes horizontal approaching the origin. which can never be −1  (ii) e zero. √ (d) one at x = −2 + 2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. x = 0 (c) x = −2 is outside the domain. x = 1 is a ver. y e −1 15(a) log a (b) For the graph of y = log x a hori- e −1 1 x zontal enlargement of factor a1 is equivalent to a −1 translation of log a upwards. + + + hence the graph becomes vertical approaching the 1 e ee x origin.620 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 y y (1− 5 ) −1 2 e 1 e e3/ 2 x −1 1 (1+ 5 ) x 2 x = −2 + 2 7(a) y − 2 log c = c (x − c). hence the + x = 1.

(1. log 3 = . 0·805 u 1(a) log x + C (b) 2 log x + C 4(a) 2 log 2 u (b) (1 − log 2) u2 2 1 (c) 3 log x + C (d) 15 log(5x + 4) + C 3 2 2 5(b) 2 u 6(b) 4(1 + log 2) u 5 (e) 2 log(3 + 2x) + C (f) 14 log(4x − 1) + C y y (g) 12 log(2x − 1) + C (h) 32 log(2x + 1) + C (i) log(2x − 1) + C (j) − 15 log(3 − 5x) + C 1 (k) − 27 log(5 − 7x) + C (l) πe log(πx + 1) + C √ 1 (m) − e log(2 − ex) + C 1 (n) 32 log(3x − π) + C (o) − a1 log(b − ax) + C (p) − ac log(b − cx) + C 1 e x 8 x 2(a) 1 (b) 1 12 (c) log 5 (d) log 3 (e) log 2 (f) 3 log 2 (g) 23 log 2 (h) 32 log 3 (i) 12 log 3 7(a) ( 13 . x = e (b) y = 2 log(x −1 1  2 + 1) + 1 (c) y = log x +10 5x+ 4 +1 1 4 x −4 (d) y = x + log x + 12 x2 (e) y = 2 log x + x + C. 1) (b) ( 43 − log 3) u2 3(a) x + log x + C (b) 23 log x − 13 x + C 8 π log 6 u 3 2 (c) 3x − 2 log x (d) 3x2 + 4 log x + x1 + C 9(a) π log 2 u 3 (b) π log 16 u 3 (c) π( 25 3 6 + log 36) u 4(a) log(x − 9) + C 2 2 10(a) x − 4x − x + 4 (b) log(3x + x) + C 3 2 (c) log(x + x − 3) + C (d) log(2 + 5x − 3x ) + C 2 2 (b) (−1. e1/ e . −4). 1·0986. . −0·69 (f) Using x = 12 . Answers to Chapter Twelve 621  log x + 1. 0·41 (ii) log 2 = 1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + · · ·. y = 2 log x + x. log 12 . 2 3(a) 2 log 5 =. for x > 0. . 3) and (1. 4) and (4. y (b) y= log(−x) + 2. 15(d)(i) log 32 = 1 1 1 x2 x3 x4 1 (e) log(1 − x) = −x − 2 − 3 − 4 − · · ·. =. Exercise 12E (Page 459) 1 e x 1(a) 1 u2 (b) 2 log 2 u2 2(a) (6 − 3 log 3) u2 (b) (3 34 − 2 log 4) u2 (c) 1 2 u2 Exercise 12D (Page 456) 1 . y(2) = log 4 + 2 (c) (12 − 4 log 4) u2 11 (log 4 − 12 ) u 2 6(a) log(x − 5) + C (b) log(x + x − 5) + C 3 4 12(a) x log x − x (b) e u (c) (e − 1) u 2 2 c 2 (c) 4 log(x −6x )+C (d) 2 log(5x −7x +8)+C 1 4 2 1 4 2 √ 15 . 1) (e) 12 log(x + 6x − 1) + C y 2 (f) 4 log(12x − 3 − 2x ) + C 1 2 −2 4 5(a) y = 14 (log x + 2). for x < 0.

3 3 .

3 13(a) π 2 − log 4 u 3 (e) 23 log( x3 + 1) + C (f) 13 log(x − 2x 2 + 1) + C 3 (b) π 2 + log 4 u . 11(a) log 9 (b) log 2 (c) 12 (d) 9 log 2 17(d) 2·715  . 1 √ 14 4π(2 log 2 − 1) u 3 2 8(a)(i) x log x−x+C (ii) 2e (b) 10− log9 10 (c) e4 √ 15(a) M = log 3 (b) x = 2 (d) 2 x(log x − 2) + C log 3 9(a) (n − 1) log a (b) t12 log(s + tx) + C 16(a) The upper rectangle has height 2 . −n (c) b12 log(b + 1) the lower rectangle has height 2−n −1 .   10(a) log 54 − 15 (b) 16 log x−3 x+ 3 + C both rectangles have width 2n +1 − 2n = 2n . There  2 7(a) log e 2 6−1 − 1 (b) log 14 2e (c) log e+ is a difference because (a − b)2 = a2 − b2 .

Julia Shea. − log 3 ax + b ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. David Sadler. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 2 12 log(x + x2 + 1) + C 18 log 2516 u √ 13 2 log( x + 1) + C a 14(a) They are both .

622 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 y Chapter Thirteen Exercise 13A (Page 465) 2e2x (b) −3e−3x (c) −5e5x (d) 12 e 2 x (e) aeax 1 1(a) −k x −π x − 1c x 3 (f) −ke (g) πe (h) −1 c e 4 −3x+4 1 (b) −e (c) −9e 2x−1 1−x x+4 2(a) 2e (d) e 2 x px+q 2x −3x e x +e −x 1 12 (e) pe (f) 2e + 3e (g) 2 −bx (h) e − e ax 19(b) (2 − log 3) u2 −3 x (b) e−3 (d) −3 x  3(a) 2e 2x (c) 12 e 2 e 2 3 dx .

= log 32 u2 . x2 3x 1−x 2 2 x 2 +2x 20(a) Using symmetry. 4(a) 2xe (b) −2xe (c) 2(x + 1)e 2 x 2 3x −2x+1 2 (d) (1 − 2x)e (e) (3x − 1)e 6+x−x (b)(i) 3 u2 log 3 u2 (ii) −x (g) (1 − x)e x x (f) (x + 1)e (h) xe (c) (2 − 6 log 43 ) u 2 21(b) 3x−4 2 x 2 +1 2 x (i) (3x+4)e (j) (2x +1)e (k) (x +7x)e y −x (l) (x − 4x + 2x)e 3 2 6 −e x x 6(a) (2x − 1)e 2 2x−1 (b) 1−e (c) ee x +x+1 .

 (d) log 2 (e) y = 2 lim 2 h−1 = 2 log 2 h x x h→0 17(a) y = ex log x . The gradient of the tangent is 0·69 to 2 decimal places. 3 (b) The curve is concave down. x −x (x−1)e x (e) ee x −e x x (d) e log x + x1 +e −x (f) x2 3 (g) −xe−x (h) − (e x2e−1) 2 (i) (x−1)e x (j) x 4 2 x x (x+1) 3 x (e x +e −x ) 2 7(a) 2 log 2 (b) 10 log 10 (c) π log π x (d) a log a (e) 2 3x−1 3 log 2 (f) −52−x log 5 1 2 3 x x−2 bx+c (g) a log a (h) a b log a (i) (x log 2 + 1)2x x −3x log 3 = (x2 − 1)3x −3x+1 log 3 3 3 (j) (3x − 3)3 π (e−1) 3 2 23 e u 8(a) 1 (b) −1 (c) −1 (d) 3 (1+c) log(1+c)−c 24 π( ) u3 √ 1+c √ Ae x2 d 25(a) − 3. . 0. √ √ −5 or 2 (ii) − 1+2 5 or − 1−2 5 10(c)(i) −1 x1 x log 3 − 1 12(a) x 2 e (b) (x + 1)e (c) x 2 3 x −1 √ √ 13(a) √ 2 or √12 (b) −2− 2 and −2+ 2 (c) 1−x2 15(b) The secant has gradient 1 and the tangent is less steep. so y  = (log x + 1)xx . 9(a) e−1 (b) The common ratio is e .

Julia Shea. range: all real numbers. so y  =√ 0. range: y > 0. (b) y = e (2−x) log x . lo g x y = e(log x) . 2 (c) (d) y = e log x× l o 1g x √ . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. −b+ b 2 −4ac −b− b 2 −4ac (b) when b − 2 18(a) 2a or 2a 4ac < 0 x 19(b) f (x) simplifies to e . For y = log x. domain: x > 0. so y  = 2x x log x . domain: all real numbers. Exercise 13B (Page 469) 1(c) reflection in the line y = x (d) For y = ex . 2(d) The x-intercept is 1 unit left of the point of contact. so y  = x2 − 1 − log x x2−x . David Sadler.

q).− e −1 )     −2t 2 (b) t 1 − 2e (c) − log 2 log 2 2 . x which is 1 if and only if a = e.−2e −2 ) 1 1 (1. 2   E(0. 0). y = e+e 2 2 y y 3 −1 (c) 12 (e + 2e + e ) x = 1− 2  −1 ( −1 . D(0. Answers to Chapter Thirteen 623 y  = −xe− 2 x .− e −1 ) 1 x 1 2 x −1 x −1 1 (c) (d) e y y 1 x −1 1 x y  (a) y = −x e . 0). 0 and 2 1 x 18(a)A(p−1.2e −1 ) y y 1 e −1 1 11(b) The gradient of y = ax at x = 0 is log a. −1 x which is 1 if and only if a = e1/A . F (0. 1−e 13(a) y = e (x − t + 1) t −1 (g) (h) 14 y ≤ e y y y x = −2 − 2 e e 1 1 ( −2. 0). −1 ) x= 3 2 6(a) y = 1 − e . David Sadler. B(p. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . C(p+q 2 . q + pq ) (c)(i) 2q (q 2 +1) (ii) p2 q + 1q 19 x = 1 or x = −1 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. e − 4e −2 ) 1 x x= 2 −2 2 x −1 1 x 4(a) y = x + 1 (b) y = (1 − e)x −1 15 y≥0 16 √ ≤y≤ √1 −1 2e 2e 5(a) x−ey+e +1 = 0 (b) x = −e −1. x (c) The gradient of y = Aa at x = 0 is A log a. Julia Shea. 1 2 3(a) (b) (f) 8(a) y y y y  = (x2 − 1)e− 2 x 1 2 e e e (d) 0 < y ≤ 1 y (2.−2e −2 ) −1 1 x   −t 2 y + t 2e−2t − 1 = 0 2 17(a) x − 2te ( −1. x 7(e) y ≥ −e (1. (1−p)q).4e −1 ) 2 2e y  = −ex (d) y ≤ −1 x = 1+ 2 −1 y y 1 x x e ( . 1 1 ) 2 2e −1 x = − 23 ( −2. x 9 −1 1 y  = −(x + 1)ex 1 (c) y ≤ 1 −e 2 x 1 x 10 −3 (e) (f) ( −1.

8(b) e − 1 13 square units 1 2x x 4x+ 5 2(a) 12 e +C (b) 3e 3 + C (c) 14 e +C 1 1+ 3x 1 4x−2 x−1 (d) 3 e +C (e) 4 e +C (f) e +C (i) −e 3x+ 2 2x−1 3−x (g) 2e +C (h) e +C +C −1 7−2x 1 π x−1 (j) 2 e + C (k) π e +C ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender.   ent y  = x1 . y = e−1 22 x = 0. 0·63 7 π (ex )2 dx. y > 0. x + 2x 2 (c) 3 log 3 +C true if there is more than 1 intersection point. −1 . π (e2 − 1) cubic units −2 . so y  → 0 as x → ∞. y < 0 or y ≥ e (l) − 2e 1 1−ex e + C = − 12 e−ex + C (m) π3 e3x− 2 + C ( −5. but y = (d) e0·5 = α + α2 − 1. This does not imply an 20(b) 1·1276 asymptote. f (0) = 0 x (c) y = log 2 ex +3 +C (b) e5x −2x +C (c) 12 e3x +4x+1 +C 2 2 2 e 7(a) x 3 −3x 2 (d) 13 e +C ( −21 . 1·72 (ii) 1 − e = .624 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ 20 y 21 x = 0. y = 1 23 (b) y = e + 1 − e 2 2−x . 10(a) e − e x (b) log e +e2 tions. they are symmetric in the line y = x. y = 2(x − x3 )e−x (b) 2e2e−5  2 3 kx 1 13(a) (c) k e = 1 and k1x = 1 (d) k = 1e . Note: This assertion is un.  17 log 12+ 1 (e) y → 0 as x → ∞. e −2 ) x 3 −2x 2 +3x−5 3x 8(a) 2e + C (b) log x + e 3 + C 1 1 x √ −x 2 (c) 2 x + 12 e + C (d) 12 e2x + 2ex + x + C 2x e −2 x 1 (e) 2 − 2x − 2 + C (f) −e x + C e √ x (g) 23 e x x 3 + C (h) x3 + C (i) kx2 + C 24(a) y = ek x and y = k1 log x 2 9(b) e + 1  2 −2  x −x (b) Since y = a and y = loga x are inverse func. The 11 log(ex + 1) + C common tangent must therefore be the line y = x. 0·95 0 (d) The total area is exactly 1. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . y = e2 + 1 y y 1−2 −x (d) f (x) = e + xe − 1. For example. 1 2 26(a) 0 (b) y = e 2 −x x −x 15(a) y = 2e 3 +1 (b) y = 2 − 3 . 2 2x ax ax 2 12(a) x + 2 log x + log 2 +C (b) log a + 2 +C which has gradient 1. −3 . 0·86 (iv) 1 − e =. a = e e 4 x  − x 14(b) (x + 1)e √ so y  > 0 for all x.12e −5 ) y (n) −e b−ax + C (o) ab ebx+c + C (p) ea−π x + C −5 − 5 −3 −1 2 x= 2 3(a) e − e (b) e − e 2 (c) e − e (d) e2 (e − 1) 2 ab (g) πe(e − 1) (h) e b (e − 1) 1 ab e (e) 1 (f) 12 −5 + 5 x= 2 2 −1 −2x 4(a) 2 e −x + C (b) x − e + C (c) 2e 2 + C x x −3 x x (d) 2e 2 + 23 e 2 + C 1 2x 3x −5 −x πx −2 −1 x 5(a) log 2 +C (b) log 3 +C (c) log 5 +C (d) log π +C 6(a) y = e x−1 . David Sadler. (f) − π <y< π 2 2 1(a) 1 − e−1 square units (b) e(e2 − 1) square units y (c) 3 square units (d) 3 12 square units −2 π 2 3−e square units 2 3(a) 0·8863 square units (b) 0·8362 square units −2 x 4(a) 1 + e square units −1 (b) 2 log 2 − 1 square units (c) e square units −2 − π (d) 3 + e square units 2 5 e − 1 square units  1 6 ex − 1 − x dx = e − 2 12 square units Exercise 13C (Page 473) 0 . y(0) = 1 (c) y is an odd function. 2 (iii) 1 − e = . 1 1(a)(i) e−1= . Julia Shea. y = log x has gradi. e−0·5 = α − α2 − 1 log x clearlydoes not  have a horizontal asymp- Exercise 13D (Page 477) tote.

7) and (3. 8·08 hours e e . 7(b) h0 = 100 (c) k = − 15 log 25 = . e =. 0·23 (c) 2·52 cm .5 × 10 6 (c) during 2000 1 dP 106 (d) = kP dt =. ◦ 13 π(1 − e ) = −4 . 2 −1 −2 −2 12 π[2 + 2e (1 − e ) + 12 e (1 − e )] = −4 . . Answers to Chapter Thirteen 625 y 3(a) 1 k = 10 log 52 P . 0·36 (d) k log 20 = 1 . −4 square units 9(a) k = 1690 = .2 4 t 2 x 1 2 x 5(b) V0 is the value of V at t = 0. 3·084 mL 14 intercepts (0. 8·491 cubic units (d) 21 hours 50 minutes . 0) and area 24 − log7 2 8(a) 72% (b) 37% (c) 7% log 2 . 10 =. 916 000 10 t −1 x 9 e2 − 3 square units 10 1 12 −e−1 square units 4(a) k = − 41 log 3·2 10 S . y y = . 11 −1 π[ e−e2 − 1] cubic units (c) − log 10 = . 4·10 × 10 . 0·28 . . 8 hours 5 minutes (c) 2 kg/h 1 1 3. 0·18 (d) 6·4 C . 0·092 (b) 8·23 million 2. (b) t =. 6(b) k = 13 log 2 = . 9 years . 7 .

δ −4 −4 14(b) μ1 = 1·21 × 10 (c) μ2 = 1. 18(a)(i) 1 − e (ii) 1 (b) 1 (c) t = k log 15 = . 15(a) x = 12 log ab . so cost = $29·80. 1·21 × 10 −N 1 100 . 13(b) k = 2 log 2 . the triangle with (d) The values of μ differ so the data are incon- vertices at the origin. 17·10 years. 6 . 60·26 (b) t = . Julia Shea. 0·46 (c) 10 hours 3 19(a) 2(e − e ) (b) It approaches 2(e − 1). 17(a) p = 10 log 54 = 1 . (ii) 12·345 (iii) 4·330 1 . √ √ log 5 . 0·27 16 π2 (8 log 2 − 3) cubic units (c) 5 min 57 sec. 0·6931 (c) = −3 log 2 . thus in the limit 2 2 (c)(i) 0 12(b) 8 more years as N → ∞ this √ is just 1. −4 17 area = e − 12 − 1e m . . (e)(i) 625·5 millibars −N 21(a) 1 − (1 + N )e (b) 1 (c) 2 (ii) 1143·1 millibars (iii) 19 205 metres 15(a) 34 minutes (b) 2·5% Exercise 13E (Page 482) log 2 . ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. with e−λt (y  − λy) = A and hence y = (At + B)eλt . dy 2(a) y = . 16 000 years. =. q = 10 log 5 = . to the nearest second log 2 . to the nearest  N 1000 years 2xe−x dx = 1 − e−N . (b) t = p+ q = . y = ab (b) a + b − 2 ab (b) t = k = .16 × 10 20(b) eb(e−1−b b b −1) (c) 12 square units. 0·018 . David Sadler. (1. dt dy 18(b) t = λ1 log(1 + D P ) (d) = 2e (c)(i) 1·47 × 10 −11 (ii) 500 million dt    20(b) z = y − λy μt (d) z = A e (f) Only the last step would change. that is during 1997. 0) and (0. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 1·21 × 10 −4 . 2 11(b) k = 5750 = . 0·022. C0 = 15·3 1(a)(i) 13·6 (ii) 1·12 (iii) 47·4 (b)(i) 1·39 (ii) −3·22 (b) 2728 years old (c)(i) 15 847 years old (iii) 3·58 (c)(i) 4 (ii) 5 12 (iii) 16 (d)(i) 82·789 (ii) Further tests should be carried out. square units 10(b) k = 3 log 32 = 2 . sistent. 3924 years . 1). 16(a) k = 5730 = .

Julia Shea. 3 . 7 . π or 2 (d) x = 0. 3π 7π 11π 19π 23 θ = 10 . 22 .626 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 Chapter Fourteen Exercise 14B (Page 493) 1(a) 12 cm (b) 2π cm Exercise 14A (Page 490) 2(a) 32 cm2 (b) 12π cm2 1(a) π2 (b) π4 (c) π6 (d) π3 (e) 2π 3 (f) 5π 6 (g) 3π 4 3 4 cm (h) 5π 4 (i) 2π (j) 5π 3 (k) 3π 2 (l) 7π 6 4 1·5 radians ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 2(a) 180 (b) 360 (c) 720 (d) 90 (e) 60 5(a) 2·4 cm (b) 4·4 cm ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 2 (f) 45 (g) 120 (h) 150 (i) 135 (j) 270 6 8727 m ◦ ◦ ◦ 2 (k) 240 (l) 315 (m) 330 7(a) 8π cm (b) 16π cm ◦ 3(a) 1·274 (b) 0·244 (c) 2·932 (d) 0·377 (e) 1·663 8 84 (f) 3·686 9 11·6 cm ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  √ √ (c) 3(2π − 3 3) cm 2 2 2 4(a) 114 35 (b) 17 11 (c) 82 30 (d) 7 3 10(a) 6π cm (b) 9 3 cm ◦  ◦  (e) 183 16 (f) 323 36 11 43 (5π − 3). 4π 2π 3 or 2π π 5π 7π 11π (e) x = 6 . 10 or 10 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Because π = . it follows that 1 radian < 60◦ . π2 . 5 −π π 22(a)The solutions of sin x = 0 are x = kπ where −2π −1 2π x k is an integer. 2(π − 3) cm2 2 9(a) 15◦ (b) 72◦ (c) 400◦ (d) 247·5◦ (e) 306◦ 21(a) 1·2661 radians (b) 49·2 cm ◦ 2 (f) 276 22(b) 9 cm 10(a) π3 (b) 5π 6 24(a) 1 radian (b) Since OAC is equilateral. 2 14(a) 0·841. Since π is irrational. (b) n = 22 is the first positive integer solution of | sin n| < 0·01. sin 22 = . . − π3 . 2 . 4 . so B must 12(a) 0·733 (b) 0·349 lie on the minor arc AC. sin 7π = 0. π3 or π −2π −π π x (c) x = − π2 or π2 (d) x = −π or π2 (e) x = − 3π −1 4 (f) x = − 3 or 3 2π π ◦   (b) period = 2π 19 6 11 15 y 20 169π 1200 21 2π π 3π 7π 4π 1 5 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 3 or 7π π 3π 4π 1 4 2π π 18(a) x = 12 or 12 5π (b) x = −π. 43 (7π + 3) (b) −0·80 2 5(a) 0·91 (c) 0·07 (d) 1·55 (e) 2·99 12 15 cm (f) −0·97 2 13(a) 4(π + 2) cm (b) 8π cm √ √ √ 25(4−π ) (c) − 23 3 (e) −1 (f) 12 2 6(a) 23 (b) √1 2 (d) 25π 14(a) 2 cm (b) 2 cm2 (g) − √1 (h) √1 15(a) 4π3 (b) 5 cm 2 3 7(a) x = 6 or 5π π (b) x = 2π 3 or 3 4π 16(a) 21 rad/s (b) 6 m 6 √ 17 43 (4π − 3 3) cm 2 (c) x = 3π 4 or 4 7π (d) x = π2 (e) x = π6 or 11π 6 π 7π 2 (f) x = 6 or 6 (g) x = π (h) x = 5π 4 or 4 7π 18(a) 1·38 radians (b) 10 cm √ 3 2 (i) x = π4 or 5π 4 19(c) 3 55π cm (d) 24π cm 2π 2π 2 8(a) π9 (b) π8 (c) π5 (d) 5π (e) 5π (f) 7π (g) 13π 20(a) 3 cm (b) 3 cm (c) 2π cm 9 8 5 72 √ √ (h) 263π 720 (d) 3 cm . 6 or 6 (f) x = 3 . 5π 3π 1(a) period = 2π 8 6 or 2 y π 3π (c) x = 2 . David Sadler. 6 . 0·997. 10 . 11 4π 9 chord AC = the radius = arc AB. kπ is never an integer when k is an integer. 5 . 10 . Since  AOC = 60◦ and 13(a) 0·283 (b) 0·819  AOB = 1 radian. 0·909 (b) 1·0 25 2·54 cm 15(a) sin x (b) cos x (c) − cos x (d) − cos x 26 36 seconds (e) tan x (f) − tan x (g) − sec x (h) sec x √ 16(a) 12 (b) √1 (c) − √1 (d) − √1 (e) −1 (f) − 2 Exercise 14C (Page 501) 2 3 3 17(a) x = π8 or 9π (b) x = π6 .

David Sadler. . 6 y y no amplitude 1 y 1 2π −2π −π π x 1 −1 2π −1 1 2x 2 π x −1 y 4 y = 4 sinθ −1 2 y = 2 sinθ 7 y 1 3π (c) sin(x + π2 ) = cos x 2 2π y = sin x π π θ 1 −1 2 −2 y = sinθ −π π x −4 −1 3 y y = sin( x + π2 ) y = cos 4α y = cos 2α 1 8(a)3 (b) 3 solutions. 3 (d) period = 4π. 1 positive solution (c)Outside this domain the line is beyond 2π π 3π the range of the sine curve. . x = −1 10 y y = cos α 4 4 y 1 y = cos(t − π4 ) y = cos(t − π ) −π π 1 π x −1 2 2π π 3π 2 π 2 t −4 −1 11 12(a) y = cos t y y 5(a) period = π. −1·9 or x = 0 2 2 9 x= . Answers to Chapter Fourteen 627 (c) period = π (e)period = π2 . 1·9. (b) period = π. amplitude = 4 amplitude = 3 3 y y x 4 3 π 2π π 2π −3 x π 2π x −4 −3 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 4 1 amplitude = 1 amplitude = 2 3 x y y 1 2 2 π 2π 2π −1 x π 2π x π 2π x π −1 −2 (b) y 2π (c) period = . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . Julia Shea. π α .

Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . (b) each of its x-intercepts 2 (d) m > 14 (c) translations to the right or left by π or by in- 1 teger multiples of π (d) x = π4 . . x = −π. Julia Shea. x = 0. x = 2π (b) each of its x-intercepts (c) translations to the −2π −π 2π x −2 right or left by 2π or by integer multiples of 2π (d) translation right or left by π (e) translation to the right by π2 or to the left by 3π 2 (c) 3 (d) P is in the second quadrant.628 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 (c) 18 y y y = 4 cos 2x y = 3 sin 2x 6 1 2 2π −π π x π x −1 −4 y = 3 sin 2x − 4 cos 2x 13 (c) amplitude = 5 y 19(a)(ii) 1 (iii) 0 < k < 1 (b)(ii) 1·3 1 (iii)  AOB = 2θ = . x = π. 2·6 radians (c)(ii)  > 300 ◦ ◦ 20(a)(ii) 2·55 (b) 146 (c)(ii) 205 21 y 4 π 2π x 2 (a) 0. David Sadler. (f) x = π4 .) 1 2 3 4 x Exercise 14D (Page 507) 16 y (c) 4(d) x = π6 1(a) sin x cos y − cos x sin y (e) 6 < x < 5π π (b) cos 2A cos 3B − sin 2A sin 3B 2 6 (c) sin 3α cos 5β + cos 3α sin 5β or 7π 6 < x < 11π 6 φ φ tan A +tan 2B 1 x (d) cos θ cos 2 + sin θ sin 2 (e) 1−tan A tan 2B tan 3α −tan 4β π 2π (f) 1+ tan 3α tan 4β −2 2(a) cos(x + y) (b) sin(3α + 2β) (c) tan 20◦ ◦ ◦ (d) sin 3A (e) cos 50 (f) tan(α + 10 ) 17 ◦ y 3(a) sin 2x (b) cos 2θ (c) tan 2α (d) sin 40 y = sin x + cos x ◦ ◦ 1 (e) cos 100 (f) tan 140 (g) sin 6θ (h) cos 4A y = sin x (i) tan√8x √ 3+1 3−1 √ π 3π 7(b)(i) √ (ii) √ (iii) 2 + 3 2 π 2 2π x 2 2 2 2 7 −1 8(a) 25 (b) 19 (c) 120 (d) 43 y = cos x 169√ √ 63 5(1+ 2 3) 9(a)1 √(b) 65 (c) 12 2π 1·4 11 − 3 8 7 (c) (d) √ √ √ 13(a) 1−√ 3 2 2 (b) 1−√ 3 2 2 (c) 3−2 ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. x = − π4 24(a) 63 (b) 218 (There is more than one answer. 12 . 1. 0 (c) period = π. amplitude = 1 2 2π 14 y 1 π x 2 −2 P 1 2 π 22(a) x = −2π. x = − 3π 4 15 y (a) 4 (c) the origin 23(a) There are none. 12 .

1) (c) 53 (p) 6 sin( 5 ) ◦ 3(a) 2x cos(x ) (b) −3x sin(x +1) (c) − x12 cos( x1 ) 2 2 3 6(b) 63 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ √ 7(a) 30 .  0·9987. 2x − 3y + 1 = 0 4 cot 4x (e) 9 sin 3x(1 − cos 3x)2 √ √ √ √ (d) 11(a) (2− 3)x−y+ 3 = 0. so the angle is 29◦ 45 . cos 1 = . that is.  B = 56 19 and  C = 52 8 . AOB has two 45◦ x-axis. x sin 2x) (g) −2 cos x sin x (h) 3 sin2 x cos x The sum is 180◦ 1 . 4◦ 26 18(b) sin 1 = . 135 1 (d) 2 √ x sec2 x (e) x cos x + sin x (f) 2x(cos 2x − ◦  ◦  ◦  8  A = 71 34 . so the third angle.e 2 tan x (l) (cos x+sin x) 2 (b) Let A and B be the points where y = −3x and 4(a) The graphs are reflections of each other in the y = 13 x meet y = 2x − 4. 2 (b) 6 . 7x − y − 11 = 0 (g) −15 cos 3x sin 3x (h) (3+4 4 20 sin 5x cos 5x) 2 √ ◦  ◦  12(b) 75 58 at (0. 21(a) sin α cos β + cos α sin β Exercise 14G (Page 520) Exercise 14E (Page 511) 1 y = cos x ◦ ◦ ◦ (b) − sin x 2 1(a) 37 (b) 41 (c) 33 2(a) cos x (c) sec x (d) 2 cos 2x 2(a) 45◦ (b) 45◦ (c) 45◦ (d) 90◦ (e) 30◦ (e) −2 sin x (f) 4 sec 2x (g) 2π cos 2πx 2 (h) π2 sec π2 x (i) 3 cos x − 5 sin 5x 2 (f) The lines are parallel and distinct. (i) − (1+sin cos x x) 2 1 (j) 1+ cos x (k) 1+−1 sin x 9(a) m = −3 or 13 −1 (m) − tan x (n) sec x. 2 9(a) 90 . 6x + 12 3y = π + 6 3  √  √ 11 26  6(a) y = − sin x+ 3 cos x. and so do not intersect at all. 0·5403 2(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 12 (d) 32 (e) 53 (f) 8 3(a) 1 (b) 75 (c) 15 7 Exercise 14H (Page 525) 1 1 1(a) − 21 (b) √1 (c) 1 (d) −2 (e) 1 4 (f) 8 4(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 6 2 √ 5(a) 2 (b) 32 (c) 57 2(a) y = −2x + π (b) x + y = 2 + π 3 2 3 6(a) 1 (b) ab (c) 0 (c) y = −πx + π 2 2 −4 8(a) cos A cos B − sin A sin B (c) 2 3(a) x − y = π4 − 12 . 2). y = − cos x− 3 sin x 14(c) 23 ◦ (d) 4·924 metres (b) maximum turning point ( π3 . is 90◦ . (j) 4π cos πx − 3π sin πx (k) −5 sin(5x + 4) ◦  (l) −21 cos(2 − 3x) (m) −10 sec (10 − x) 2 3 3 11 ◦  (n) −2 sec ( 2 − 2πx) (o) 3 cos( x+1 2 π 4 36 52 2 ) ◦ 3−2x 5(a) (1. 15(a) sin(A − B) = sin A cos B − cos A sin B (d) 6 minimum turning point ( 4π 3 . angles. (b) The graphs are identical. −2) ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. Answers to Chapter Fourteen 629 √ 17(b) 3 16(a)AB 2 = 2r2 (1 − cos x). The error is due to rounding. 0·8415. 0) and 17 6 at (1. 6 (c) 6 . David Sadler. 0·9962 − 2 (m + n) sin(m + n)x + (m − n) sin(m − n)x 1 (b) sin x < x < tan x (c) 1 and 1 12(b) sin( n2π + x) −y cos x−sin y sin(x−y )+cos(x+ y ) (d) x ≤ 0·0774 (to 4 decimal places). 1) (iii)− 90 π sin 2x◦ and at (−1. 3) (i) 15 tan2 (5x − 4) sec2 (5x − 4) (j) x cos √ x 2 +1 x 2 +1 13(b) 3 πx 7(a) 180 π (b)(i) 180 cos x◦ π (ii) 180 sec (x + 45◦ ) 2 ◦ 14 At (0.  AOB. 5(a) 2 cos 2x. Julia Shea. tan θ = 47 .  = cos mx cos nx. √ 10(a) logb P − logb Q  15 x = 0. π π 3π π 5π 5π 7π π 3π π (b) sin 2 = sin 90 = (c) 0·0349 4(a) 2 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 0·087 16. 0·087 49. At (1. x ≤ 16(a) cos x sin y (b) x cos y +sin x (c) sin(x−y )−cos(x+y ) . arc AB = rx 2 √ 19(a) −1 (c) 2+1 (b) The arc is longer than the chord. 1·003.e sin 2x 2x (b) 2e cos(e ) 2x 2 cos 4x (c) √ sin 4x 10(b) 3x + 2y − 5 = 0. (2+ 3)x−y− 3 = 0 (f) 2(cos 2x sin 4x + 2 sin 2x cos 4x) (b) x − y + 1 = 0. y = − 3x 1 11(b) 2 (m+n) cos(m+n)x+(m−n) cos(m−n)x Exercise 14F (Page 515) (c) 12(cos(m + n)x + cos(m − n)x) 1(a) The entries under 5◦ are 0·087 27. 6 (d) 2 . 150 (b) 45 . 1). . so cos x is √ 20(b) 2−1 larger than the approximation. 0) the curves are perpendicular. 90 √ √ √ √ 10 87 metres 5 12 3x − 6y = 2 3π − 3. x + y = π4 + 12 (b) π 32 units2 ◦ π .

π horizontal points of inflexion (− π2 . y = cos x. y  = 2e−x sin x points of inflexion ( π4 . 3π (b) minimum turning point ( 3π 4 . π) (d) y y ( 23π . (π. 0). √12 e 4 ) −π (c) (−π. 3 2 3√). −3) and ( π2 . − π2 ). − √12 e− 4 ). − π2 π −2π π 2π x points of inflexion (− π2 . Q = (0. −e ). 3 − 3). 2 tan α + 1) √ 20 minimum 3 when θ = π6 . 0) (d) maximum turning point ( π6 . 2 ). 4π 4π minimum turning points (− π2 . 0). minimum turning point ( 3 . π 2π x ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. (0. ( π2 . y 6 . ( 2 . 23π + 3 ) 1 x −π − π2 π 6 π 2 5π 6 π π −3 ( 43π . −e ). √3 + 3). 1) inflexion (π. − 2 ). 0). 2 7π √ maximum turning point ( 4 . ( 5π 4 . (c) (0. y  = − cos x + sin x. 12(a)y  = −e−x (cos x + sin x). −2π maximum 2 when θ = 0 10(a)y  = 2 cos x−2 sin 2x. y  = −2 sin x−4 cos 2x √ 21(a) maximum turning point ( 2π 2π 3 .− 1 2 e− 4 ) 2 . Julia Shea. 2 ). π 13 π 3π −π maximum turning point ( 3π √1 4 . −1 2 e− 4 ) (d) y 2π minimum turning point (− π4 . 0) √1 − 4 ). y = − sin x (b) (−π. π) are horizontal points of inflexion.− 2e y π 2 maximum turning point (− π4 . ( − π4 . 1 3π e ) 4 2   9 y = 1 + sin x. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 0) 3π ( 34π . David Sadler. −e ) π 1 2π (d) π y π π 7π x ( − π4 .630 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ (c) ( 5π 11π 6 . −π) and (π. 1 e4 ) 4 2 π 4 2 1 π −1   −π − π 2 π 2 x 8(a) y = 1 + cos x. ( 3π 3π 2 . ( 6 . 43π − 3 ) 11 horizontal point of inflexion (− π2 .− 2). 2e 4 ). −π (b) P = ( tan1 α + 2.− 2 ) minimum turning point ( 5π 3 3 2 y 3 3 11π 2 6 1 π π 5π 3π 3 2 π 6 2 2π x 5π 6 x −2 − π2 π π −π 6 2 π 7 y  = − sin x − cos x. 1). −1 √ − 3 3 minimum turning point ( 3π 4 . (c) maximum turning points ( π6 .e2 ) −π y −2π ( 34π . 2 ) points of inflexion (− 3π 3π π π − π2 π 2 π y x 2π −π √ 2 14(b) 9102cm /min (c) θ = π π 19(a) The angle of inclination is π − α and so −π −2π −1π 2π x m = tan(π − α) = − tan α. 32 ) and ( 5π 3 6 . 0). 2).

. the three turning points of y = f (x) are π 2 π 3π 2 2π x approximately (1·43π. ratio of two odd functions. 2 2 2 3 x-intercepts 0. f (x) is even because it is the minimum turning points ( 3π 3π 7π 7π 4 . ( 5π 4 . ( 4 . π. y π − cos −1 5−1 . −1). 4·0. where k is an integer. Answers to Chapter Fourteen 631 point of inflexion (π. (2π. (2·46π. 2π. tan x − x + C 2 2 π 3π √ (b) 1 − sin x = cos x vertical asymptotes x = 2 . which is zero when ( 54π . e − 1 23 (π 2 − 8)x − (4π − 8)y + (32 − 8π) = 0 2 9(a) 2x cos x . minimum turning points √ (0. y = − 1x π + cos−1 5−12 =. . 2 − 1) π π 5π 5π where n is an integer. − 13 cos x + C 2 3 3  λx 25(a) y = e (λ sin nx + n cos nx) 1 2 √ √ (c) 2 √x sec x. ( 4 . 2 7 The integrand y = sec x is undefined at x = π2 . 1). 1 y = 1x x-intercepts √ 2 =. 2π).−1) π 4 ( 5π 4 . lim f (x) = 0. the zeroes are x = nπ maximum turning points ( 4 . 10(a) 1 (b) 24 5 (k + 12 )π 4 5 (ii) They approach n . 1). 11(a) 5 sin x cos x. (π. 2 tan x + C (c)(i) They approach knπ where k is an integer. 0). David Sadler. 2(a) tan x+C (b) sin(x+2)+C (c) − 12 cos 2x+C minimum turning points ( 3 . x = 2 . (π. (b) 26(a)Domain: x = 0. 16√ ). (2π. −1). sin x + C 2  24(c) f (x) = x cos x−sin x2 x (b) −3x sin x . 54 ). 0). ( 4π 3 3 3 . tan x = − ln cos x + C ( . 52π − 1) x2 3π tan x = x. 0·128) and (3·47π. 6(a) 1 + tan x = sec x. ( 3 . 2 − 1). Using the calcu- π 2 2 ( π4 . ( 5π 5 3 . π2 − 1) lator. 2 +1). (c) The graph of y = x crosses 2π the graph of y = tan x just to the left of x = 3π 2 . tan−1 2 = . − 3163 ) 2π 3 3 5π (d) 3 tan 13 x + C (e) 13 sin(3x − 2) + C horizontal points of inflexion (0.−1) (c) cos xesin x . 32π + 1) of x = 5π and of x = 7π . the tan −1 2 π + tan −1 2 result could hardly be 0. e − 1 (d) ef (x) + C. 22(a)maximum turning points ( π3 . Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . 15 sin x + C −4 −3 (b) −3 sec x(tan x) . y = sinx x y 5 4 1 −π − π2 π π x 2. π + tan 2 = . 4·25 so it is not possible to form the definite integral y over the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ π. x→∞ y 4π  x cos x − sin x (b) f (x) = . ( 34π . −0·091). 2 +1). − 16 ). −0·217). 4 ). 3√163 ). −1). 1·1. 0) (f) 15 cos(7 − 5x) + C (g) − tan(4 − x) + C y (h) −3 tan( 1−x 3 ) + C√ 1 1 3 3 16 3(a) 2 (b) √ 2 (c) 3 (d) 1 (e) 34 (f) 2 (g) 1 2π (h) 4 3 π π 3π 4(a) 2 sin 3x + 8 cos 12 x + C π 2π x (b) 4 tan 2x − 40 sin 14 x − 36 cos 13 x + C 3 2 2 5(a) − cos(ax + b) + C (b) π sin πx + C − 3163 (c) u12 tan(v + ux) + C (d) tan ax + C (c)minimum turning points ( π4 . 2·2. (d) There is an open circle at (0. −1 . In any case. − 13 (tan x) 2 +C ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. 1). 2π x 8(a) loge f (x) + C π (b) tan x = sin x cos x . since the integrand is a square and can never be negative. Julia Shea.2 4 −2π 2 2π π 2π 4π 5π 3 3 π 3 3 2π x −1 √ √ Exercise 14I (Page 530) (b)maximum turning points ( π3 .

(ii) 2(m + n ) + C 21(b) sin x = 12 (1 − cos 2x).632 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 11 √ 2 12(a) 29 1 (b) n + 1 (c) 0 (d) 2 n + 1 1(n + 1) (e) 10 18 17(c) 34 3u 1 (f) n + 1 18(b) The curve is below y = 1 just as much as it 13(b)(i) 14 (ii) 14 0 (the integrand is odd) (iii) is above y = 1. √ √ √ 22(a) A = 5. (f) − 23 + π4 . (d) 6 3 . since the integrand √ sin(m + n )x is even. The first term is odd. since sin(m + n )x sin(m −n )x 20(b)(i) 1 15 (ii) 0 (c)(i) 2(m + n ) + 2(m −n ) + C the integrand is odd. since the integrand is even. π −2 8 24(a) We know that sin x < x < tan x 17(b) 43 for 0 < x < π2 . The regions above and below the x-axis have equal area. the other two are 2 2 3 = 14 − 14 cos 2x + C = − 14 cos 2x + (C + 14 ) odd. where D = C + 14 . Since x2 > 0. so the definite integral is not defined. 19(b)(i) 5 (ii) − 7 6 6 26(a) 0. so the inte- gral is zero. The first term is even. B = 3 27(b) 241 2 (12 − π) (c) 24 π ( 3 + 1) and 12 π 2 23(b) y = (1 − λ)eλx sin x + eλx cos x Exercise 14J (Page 535) 1(a) 2 u2 (b) 1 u2 √ 2(a) (2 − 2 ) u 2 2 (b) 1 u 2 √ 2 4 2√ 2 3(a) 2 u (b) 2 u (c) 3 3 u (d) 2 u2 (e) 12 u2 2 2 2 (f) 4 u (g) 4 u (h) 1 u √ 4(a) y = sin x + cos 2x − 1 (b) π1 (c) 12 3 (d) f (x) = −2 cos 3x + x + (1 − π2 ) 3 3 3 5(a) π u (b) π4 u (c) π4 (π + 2) u 2 6(b) π4 u 2 7 3·8 m 2 8(b) They are all 4 u . since the integrand is odd. (ii) There are asymptotes within the interval at x = π and x = 2π. (b) 0. Julia Shea. and so the area approaches zero. so 12 sin x + C (e) 6π. 2 2 3 13(a) 1 u (b) π4 u √ 3 2 π √ 3 14(a) 2 u (b) 24 (4π + 3 3 ) u √ 2 16(b) 12 (3 + 3 ) u ISBN: 9781107633322 © Bill Pender. √ 9(b) 16 (1 + 2 2 ) 2 10 4 u √ (b) π3 (3 3 − π) u 2 3 11(a) ln 2 u 2 12(a) log sin x (b) log 2 u (c)(i) The calculation is valid. and the calculation is therefore invalid. the = − 14 cos 2x + D. 18(b)(i) 12 tan2 x + loge (cos x) + C 2 25(b) cos x and (1 + sin x) are both positive in the (ii) 14 tan x − 12 tan x − loge (cos x) + C 4 2 given domain. other two are even. so y  is negative there. 2x −2x √ 2 2 3 15(a) 12 sin e + C (b) 12 cos e +C 20(b)(i) 2 2 u (ii) π u 21(b)(i) ( π4 − 12 ln 2) u (ii) π(1 − ln 2) u 1 2 3 (c) 3 loge (3 tan x + 1) + C (d) − 35 loge (4 + 5 cos x) + C 22 71·62 mL (e) tan x − sin x + C (f) 23 23 12 16 sin 2x + 2x cos 2x. Derek Ward 2012 Cambridge University Press Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party . π4 19(a) 0 (b) As n → ∞ the period of the sine curve 2 √ √ 1 (f)(i) 12 (2π + 3 3 ) (ii) 18 (π − 2 2 ) approaches zero. (e) sin 2x = 12 (1 − cos 4x). David Sadler. (c) 2. the result follows. so the area is equal to the area of 14(d)(i) 12 x− sin 2x + C (ii) π4 1 4 a rectangle n units long and one unit high.