Year 13 Physical Education 2017

Snow Caving

Internal Assessment Resource
Physical Education Level 3
This resource supports assessment against:

Achievement Standard 91504 (PE AS 3.7)
Analyse issues in safety management for outdoor activity to
devise safety management strategies
Internal assessment resource Physical Education 3.7A for Achievement Standard 91504

Internal Assessment Resource
Achievement Standard Physical Education 91504: Analyse
issues in safety management for outdoor activity to devise safety
management strategies
Resource reference: Physical Education 3.7A
Resource title: Snow Caving
Credits: 3
Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with
Analyse issues in safety Analyse, in depth, issues in Critically analyse issues in
management for outdoor safety management for safety management for
activity to devise safety outdoor activity to devise outdoor activity to devise
management strategies. safety management safety management
strategies. strategies.

Student instructions

This assessment activity requires you to: examine the safety management
issues associated with our snow caving trip; consider factors that influence the
issues; and devise safety management strategies to address them.
The snow caving trip will include three different modes of travel: vehicle,
cross-country skiing and walking on foot. During the trip you will also be
digging snow caves and learning a number of other alpine skills.
You will not be assessed on the trip itself; rather on the extent to which you
undertake a critical analysis of the issues in safety management and devise
strategies to address them.
You will work in a group to plan certain aspects of the trip. However, your
final write up will be an individual submission.
The due date for your written report is: Friday September 1.
Internal assessment resource Physical Education 3.7A for Achievement Standard 91504

Preparatory activities

1) Through completion of class activities, readings and a review of the
trip RAMS form; identify safety management issues for all stages of
the trip. These should cover issues relating to:

a) People
b) Environment
c) Equipment

2) Taking account of the safety management issues that you have
identified plan the trip accordingly. These plans should include:

a) Completion of all of the relevant class work*
b) Group gear list*
c) Group menu*
d) Group shopping list*
e) Summary of equipment for the whole party*
f) Summary of weather forecast for the trip*
g) RAMS developed and agreed on by the class

3) Through class discussions and set readings consider the following
issues related to our trip:
a) Environmental sustainability
b) The place of risk in outdoor activies
c) Why is outdoor education valuable as a means of learning?

*These items must be checked prior to the trip by Monday August 7.
Internal assessment resource Physical Education 3.7A for Achievement Standard 91504

Written Report
After taking part in the trip you will review your evaluation of the issues in
terms of their relative importance and question and challenge the practices
(that is, the use of RAMs forms) relating to safety management in outdoor

Prepare a written report outlining your critical analysis of the issues in safety
management relating to your planned and completed snow caving trip.

1) Summarise risks identified for the following and state what strategies
you put in place to manage them:
a. People
b. Environment
c. Equipment

2) Which strategies do you consider to be most/least important for this
trip? Explain why you think this?

3) Outline issues in environmental sustainability related to your snow
caving trip and how these affected your planning.

4) Discuss and question the place of risk (real or percieved) in outdoor
education activities giving examples from your trip.

5) Consider the value of using the outdoors and specifically an alpine
environment as a place of learning. What was the value of your snow
caving trip in particular?
Internal assessment resource Physical Education 3.7A for Achievement Standard 91504

Assessment schedule: Physical Education 91504 The journey over the destination
Evidence/Judgements for Achievement Evidence/Judgements for Achievement with Evidence/Judgements for Achievement with
Merit Excellence
The student analyses issues in safety The student analyses, in depth, issues in safety The student critically analyses issues in safety
management for outdoor activity to devise safety management for outdoor activity to devise safety management for outdoor activity to devise safety
management strategies. They have done this by: management strategies. They have done this by. management strategies. They have done this by:
 examining issues in safety management  examining the wider implications and/or  critically analysing the issues in safety
inherent in the proposed scenario, impacts of factors influencing safety management inherent in the proposed
considered factors that influence the management inherent in the proposed scenario, considered factors
issues, and devised safety management scenario (such as sociocultural, (sociocultural, environmental,
strategies to address the identified issues. environmental, philosophical, and ethical philosophical, ethical) that influence the
For example: factors), issues, and evaluated these issues in
As our proposed journey requires travelling over  devising safety management strategies to terms of their relative importance.
different types of terrain by foot, mountain bike, address the identified issues.  devising safety management strategies to
and kayak, it is important that all potential risks are For example: address the identified issues.
identified. On the mountain bike course there are three large  questioning and challenging taken-for-
For the river leg of the journey, it is important that drops to negotiate that could potentially lead to granted assumptions and practices
we check the water level before setting out as injury caused by a fall. Strategies that will be relating to safety management and
when this is low, hazards such as rocks and tree utilised to minimise this risk will include the class outdoor activities. The evidence they have
stumps may be exposed and kayakers risk injuries undergoing a teaching and learning programme provided with their own article
from collisions or they could potentially capsize. that will include descending techniques and demonstrates a clear, coherent
Conversely, if the water level is high, the water instruction on how to fall correctly. The drop-offs relationship between their analysis of the
flow will be stronger and debris such as tree will be identified by signs and on the maps we will issues and the safety management
branches may be present in the river. This could be using for the course. Any students who lack the strategies that they devised.
potentially cause the group to separate and could confidence and/or the skills to negotiate the drop- For example:
make it difficult to perform a rescue if someone offs will be advised to dismount and walk their As we start and finish our course at school we will
capsizes. bikes at those sections. be minimising our carbon footprint. In the past, we
When travelling by mountain bike one of the Part of the teaching and learning programme will used to travel by bus for several hours to reach
issues may be students not sticking to the track also include balance and bike-handling skills. our destination. However, if we bring gear and
that is there for mountain biking. This influences Handling skills are important for maintaining bikes to school, we will need transport to take
not only the students’ safety in terms of physical control of the bike and also to avoid skidding. them there so this may offset the benefits that we
risk to themselves by having an accident from Skidding is based on the rider’s skill, and riders gained by not taking the bus. In terms of an
objects such as tree stumps and rocks, but also have different levels of skill. A poor rider or one environmental impact, not taking the bus will have
poses a problem to the environment through the who has less control of their bike will end up using little effect.
damage the bikes pose to the ecosystem when the brakes more, and this will result in them With our local journey we will also have the

This resource is copyright © Crown 2012 Page 5 of 7
Internal assessment resource Physical Education 3.7A for Achievement Standard 91504

going off the track. Damage can be caused to locking up the back or front wheel, causing it to opportunity to revisit the sites with friends and
native plants and shrubs when a bike goes over skid. The skidding will cause damage to the grass family. and actively take care of the sites by
them. This is known as ‘trampling’ and occurs and roots of the farmland we will be travelling collecting our own litter and that left by others and
when ground vegetation is destroyed by off-trail through, and this may have an effect on the adhering to the minimum impact environmental
riding. This can lead to erosion of the trail and the pasture growth of the field. The farmer may not let code.
land around it. Riding of the trail can also cause us use the land again, and it may have an effect We need to make sure that we plan for this trip
wildlife disturbance, which may mean nesting on the amount of stock that can be grazed in that and use strategies to minimise risk. The RAMs
animals could be affected by bikers riding off the paddock. Many bikers doing the same thing may forms are definitely a real help in analysing and
trail. compound the effect. Studies show that most of managing risks. The use of these forms,
A strategy to address this issue is to have a the damage occurs when travelling downhill, and emergency procedures and student health and
teacher riding at the back or in the middle to keep because much of the course we will be travelling capability forms help to ensure that we are not
an eye on riders at all times so that bikers stay on on is downhill, we will have to be aware of the putting ourselves and others at risk by not
the trail. effect skidding may have on pasture growth. planning to manage the risk in the outdoors.
The examples above relate to only part of what is Skidding may also lead to injury. If the movement Most outdoor activities have some inherent risk in
required, and are just indicative. is not controlled then riders may end up hitting a them and the way we can minimise or be prepared
root or bump and coming off their bike. This comes for this is through the use of risk management
down to the individual skill and experience of each strategies. We must not just see these forms as an
rider. A skilled rider may not have to use their optional add-on but as something that is an
brakes as much as unskilled riders and when essential part of planning a safe journey.
wheels lock up there is always going to be some This is really important because the students may
loss of control. not understand the risks, and some might be put
The examples above relate to only part of what is right out of their comfort zone. We have to make
required, and are just indicative. sure that we consider all risks relating to the
journey and devise strategies to address the
highest risks. Injury from falling off my bike would
be a real risk that could be considered, while a risk
like dehydration may not be so high as we will not
be short of water if we run out due to the
environment we are in.
I think that risk strategies should reflect the
environment that you are in and the priority of risks
should be considered. The risks that may lead to
major injury or death should prioritised. For
example, when kayaking or being around water
the first consideration should be to minimise the
risk of someone drowning no matter how small the
chance. If you look at the recent tragedy in
Taranaki you can see that perhaps this may not

This resource is copyright © Crown 2012 Page 6 of 7
Internal assessment resource Physical Education 3.7A for Achievement Standard 91504

have been of such importance due to the fact that
they were not in the water. However, maybe this
was not considered as part of the risk assessment
and management process.
Of great importance, and as part of our planning,
we contacted the Department of Conservation
(DOC) to inform them of our proposed course. We
were informed by the DOC officer that the native
blue duck is currently nesting in the area we were
planning to mountain bike through. If we were to
mountain bike through there we could destroy the
habitat of this native duck. Although the blue
duck’s predators are introduced mammals (such
as the stoat), and we would pose little threat to the
bird itself, we risk harming the eggs or ducklings
and so have adapted this leg of the course to
avoid the nesting area.
The advantage of planning a journey in our local
area has been that many of us now have a
relationship with our local places, for example, our
maunga/mountain and awa/river.
Safety management skills are important in
ensuring that the experience at these places will
be safe and enjoyable and will have a minimal
impact on the environment.
The examples above relate to only part of what is
required, and are just indicative.

Final grades will be decided using professional judgement based on a holistic examination of the evidence provided against the criteria in the
Achievement Standard.

This resource is copyright © Crown 2012 Page 7 of 7