BH3 borano Reglas para escribir fórmulas

SiH4 silano
CH4 metano a) Se escribe el símbolo del catión
con su carga y el símbolo del --
NH3 amoníaco
anión con la suya.
PEa. fosfina fosfamina
b) Se intercambian las cargas colo-
AsH3 arsina arsenamina
cando la del catión como subíndi
ce del anión y la del anión como
C. Compuestos binarios que no contie subíndice del catión.
nen oxígeno ni hidrógeno. -
Ejemplo: Escribir la fórmula deJ.~-
a) Metal + no metal = sal~sbinarias sulfuro de fierro (111).
sales haloideas
5tOz~ SOet
'b) No me.tal + no metal = ha Lur-o s no 3+ . S2-
T¡letálicos
a) Fe :2 +. Hz,O ••• Hz.50s
.

SALES B1NAR1AS. Se .nombran agregando b) 'Fe~-
la terminación URO al no metal, se--
guido del nombre del metal:
Fe S '
KF fluoruro de potasio 2 3
Nap cloruro de sodio
MgBr bromuro de magnesio
2 Ion: átomo o ~orijuritode átomos
Ca12 yoduro de calcio
con carga elé~trica definida
Al S sulfuro de aluminio
2 3
.Anion: Ion con carga eléctr'ica neg~
FeC1 cloruro ferroso
2 tiva
cloruro de fierro (11)
dicloruro de fiérro
Catión: Ion .con carga' eléctrica vo~
sitiva
HALUROS NO t1ETALTCOS. Se formulan y -
nombraD igual que las sales haloideas;
Radical: Conjunto de átomos con car
se escriben poniendo en primer térmi- ga eléctrica definida
no al el~mento m&s electropositivo.
sulfuro de carbono
cloruro de fósforo (V)
pentacloruro de fósforo
..-
Las'reglas para nombrar los com B. -CompÚestos b;inarios que contienen
puestos inorgánicos fueron dadas en- o Hidrógeno .\
H
(!)
1957 por el Comité de Nomencla-tura - H
(!) (!) -H
de la Unión Internacional de Química ;,-j
H -41 El hidrógeno puede ir unido a un lÍle-
'Pur-a y Aplicada (IUPAC). - - o
.,-j
o 41
.,-j
41
;::l
;::l talo a un no metal. \
H N
o H 'O N !1l

Para un estudio sistemático de ()
rI
l1l
al
'M QJ-
!1l
QJ a) hidrógeno + metal = hidruro
la nomenclatura química, haremos la - ~
n, o 41 'O al
'O
'O b} hidrógeno + no metal = hidrácido
siguiente clasificación: ::> (!) al o o
H 'O '0- 'O
-.,-j
o 'O
.,-j a) HIDRUROS. En. los hidruros el hi--
'O
1. _Compuestos binarios. o o X .,-j
X drógeno tiene valencia de 1-. Se
'O 'O ###BOT_TEXT### X ###BOT_TEXT###
.,-j .,-j .,-j ###BOT_TEXT### .;,.¡ nombran con la palabra hidruro y
2. Compuestos ternarios. X X H .,-j
H
3. Compuestos polinarios. 'o ###BOT_TEXT### -i-' 'O -i-' se señala el metal:
,-.. hidruro. de sodio
COMPUESTOS BINARIOS ,-.. H ~ ~ NaH
H H >- -H
H H H :>
Los compuestos binarios están forma- '-' '-' ~ '-' ·1 -eaH
2
hidruro de calcio
dos pardos elementos diferentes. -- o o o (!) QJ

Pueden clasificarse:
.,-j- H H H H AIH hidruro de aluminio,
o H H 41
;::l
-41 3
·rI - QJ . QJ ;:l
!1l .,-j .,-j N N
b) HIDRACIDOS. Se cOnocen también co-
A. Contienen Oxígeno ~ o 'H 41 !1l !1l

B. Contienen Hidrógeno o mo_ ácidos biriarios. El no metal --
o al al al Q) Q)
pertenece al grupo 6 Ó 7 en la ta-
C', No -contienen ni Oxígeno ni -Hidró- -i-' 'O _.'el 'O 'O 'O
(fJ
geno. o o o o o bla periódica.
'O
.,-j
'O
.,-j
'O
.,-j
'O
·ri
'O
.,-j
Se nombra la palabra ACIDO, seguida
A. Compuestosbinarios que contienen X X X X X' de parte del nombre del no metal con
.- -'o 'o ###BOT_TEXT### ###BOT_TEXT### 'O la terminación HIDRICO.
oxígeno
o o
Ul o HF ácido fluorhídrico
El oxígeno puede ir unido a un metal o .,-j
H H
o a un no metal. o ;::l \;::l
ácido clorhídrico
.,-j 41 'H
HCl
a) D~ígeno + Metal = óxido básico M o o o M M
I{l M Ul o ;:l ;:l HBr- ácido bromhídrico
b) Oxígeno ~ No Metal = óxido ácido h I{l o .,-j Ul Ul
-o -o H H HI á6idoyodhídric6 _
. o anhídrido .,'1 _ - H H o o
. - - o Q) QJ \(l) 'O 'O
ácid6 sulfhídrico
- HS
.,-j 'tJ 'H 'H •.-1 '.-1
Senompran poniendo. la_palabra. OXIDO_ 'O :H H 2_.-
y se señala al met a'Lo no metal -que _ I{l
''0
o o o 'O
.\,-j
'O H Se ácido selenhidrico
interviene, utilizando la termina- - 1:-<
H
-'rl
'O 'O
·rl - -.,-j: .c
.. 'ri
.t: 2
X -X -X h ¡::- H Te ác_idotelurhídric.o
ción"oso" o "ico" -según sea el gra- 'o \G \G l1l I{l 2
dO de oxidación del elemento~ e) COMPUESTOS NEUTROS. Son compuestos
-i-'
o que ~stán ~ormados por hidr6geno y
"oso" papa el m~nor grado de ox~daci6n Ol
un no metal, pero el no metal per~
"ico" para el mayotgrado de oxidaci6n (lJ

Ii
;:l -CV)
te~ece al.~r~po_3, 4~ 5 o 6de la
p. :0
En el sistema ~TOCK estos sufijos se 6' e o .. N· N CV) tabla pe r í.ód i ca . N()o_ nay regla para
suprimen y el estado de oxidación del e m QJ
u,
Q) o o _nombr-a r-Lo s ,
() () ú.. (fJ co
elemento se señala con un número roma ,I
no.
..:,. ~.',.. :" .'.,: ' ..
1+ 2.::...··'··(::·

Na2
(2+)+(
S . °4
)+(8~):: O

8 - 2 :: 6 se locnliza en
la tabla y le
cor-r-e.sponoe le:
terminación
Ilatoll
,.
sulf~to de sodio.
/1
!
./

i ,J/}u r. ¡
(! J
.'

¡
¡

.. ," . ¡i'
¡?" (")
, 1,-. • /~ ¿;',: '"':;'''
1+
K.,
'"'
P
2-
°4 { 't: . D;) L. .
(3+)+( )+(8-):: O
.
"
~. A'Y,--
;--,}¡ F' r.c: .. ""
B - 3 :: S . \ 'Al:
,,·
..
't··
'/O·.:Jr::::íO -':p'
5= ato !\{:'-I.:l~) I (() . f\ lIS. .
f\n ti ('{"IOr\ C): S la
fosfato de potasio ·C~.I~~;.K'.:",)\ :~'): v,

1+ 2- \
AgCl. , °3
(1+)+'( )+(6-)= O

.6 1 :: 5 v,

5 :: flto

clorato de plata
;.,'

B. ACIDOS TERNAR!OS. OXACIDOS. Se localiza :17 (no ir:lp;:l'!..,t.a re 1 S .l.~
no) en La tabla: PE.F. - ICC:,

F.:n.":rlcn su nomL'T'e. cor-~ le. pdle..bra el nombre del ácid~ es:
ACIDG y ~l nomore del elemento aeter
ml!:..-::frt'-2 (!")!'t sl :,);"

2.1::lolO V tP,Y.'D'j r~(''; ,'::n
Acidos lernariq~_(ox~~~idos) ~:~·~1":::":;s!)r:;¡·;d5.\~i:-:::e. 1:/');:; u't's±''; l"-::::'1
~;,"?.l¿~ :ter~2~ri3.s ~ex: ~a2.~.S.
~\I"

los no:nb;.'2.s
t~1"':""
--~~-....~,
aClno per~an~i~i2Q
•..•.•..•.•.... .....-~-",~~:

n í t rí.cc
Sé C¿L['~Ct2~i -ar: p::::...... ccr:t.-:>·"~e:,· ~ .., HC10 h i p (,:(~lo!"':) S

.,n:CicD ,)
:":;'::9; ·3 ~ i'';
·(2.~~C~,;~~~:~C.'~!0~.:?:,;.~~r~
.=? . '~. -
H10
Z
~a].abr2 ~!uROX~DC y S2 s0~ale p' !12803
r:':)l:\brr~ de] me ra r .

N.:-:.OH hidr6xido de 50dio !13P04
!,\.;!' hidr6xido de potasio' H?CrOi+
;:':;0·( ~J;"¡) ~ hidr6xido de calcio
H.;(OH),.., h~rir6xidG de magnesio. ~_._-~--------_ __..•.._,_ .._~---
H/"s03
.•..

Exis-;:e:-: O.l.S\..!!LOS :li~.}~('é:<ií~I)3·que t ie n en
C. SALES TERNARIAS
~~ nombr~ tr~v al q~~ se conserVa po~
r::j emp Lo : Nombrar el áci:jo can ró r-mu-
razonas hist6r c~s.
la:
~~e~,~~:;~c.~e~!~~~~~:;~B
n~~:~~
¡"¡":j"'-'
~~I J ,v 4
;:l~~~'~~~a~~Ó~a
C~~~~~)'O;.;d~:r:
C¿¡lc:ul2.!"' el al ;1'.,::;

Related Interests

:11.
J.
.d e Hn ,
table. Ej er:1.pl05 :
Le c h e oe
c aL
de
i-¡~d~at,ada'
c2.l
2. ~~n tj;0 /.~~O~:~i~~:n~~i~~
;.'~~f co- - d e duci r' :::1 rlomJ:¡~e. de. 1-:';3
siguientes corapu e s t o s :
ce Lh i c r a r-r-e spcr.c er.t e .
í

leche de m~gnesia L. ~••
1+
!í !\!r: CI¡ l'ín= 7+
9.
c .. ~.g/::103
'Ejemplos: iones presentes son los mismos antes y después

al Fe +, CuSO -FeSO + Cu de la reacctón, ésta en realidad. no se ha efec-
4 ,4
bl Zn .•. 2HC1~ZnC12 + H tuado. Para que la reacción de doble sustitu--
2
.•. ción sea efectiva. se procura que entre los pr o->
cl Cu M9C12~sin reacción
ductos aparezca una sustancia insoluble. gaseo-
En el segundo caso. cuando un no metal' reempl.§l.
sa o poco ioniz ada.
z a a un ion no metálico de su sal. la sustitución
Ejemplos:
depende de los dos no metales participantes. -- 1) AgN0 + HC1-- AgCl + HNO
3 . ,3 COMO COMPLETAR ECUACIONES qUIMICAS
ci$#a"'5f:JbAt54íi~~¡W&E¡¡:a:&&?+§d#i'*'¡m"¿f@-~
X o Z. Existe una serie similar a la serie elec- !
2) Na S + H SO-H S + Na SO j
2 2 ,4 2 2 4
tromotriz para loshalógenos: F2~ C1 • Br 2' 1 ,
2 2 LOS CUATRO TIPOS PRINCIPALES DE
[El compuesto, AgCl es insoluble en agua y el -
Ejemplos: REACCIONES qU!MICAS
H 5 es un gas)
2 Tipo de reacción Ecuación Genera!
al Cl + NaBr'_2NaCl +,' ,8r
2, , 2 Reacciones de neutraliz.ación
Reacción de combinación Z-+AZ
bl 1 , + NaBr_Sin reacción Un tipo importante de las r'eaccio'nes' de doble
2
sustii:"u~i.óll son las reacciones de neutralización. Reacción de descomposición AZ----.n. .• z
Ol Reacciones de metátesis
, '

Estas reacciones se resumen como si,gue: ReacC':6n de sustitución A + BZ~AZ + B
En lasr e acc innes de metátesis, hay dos com--
Acido + Base Sal +, Agua X BZ-·BX + Z
puestos que participan de tal manera que el ion
En este caso. el agua que se forma como pr oduc Reacción de metátesis' AX '1' BZ-AZ .•.BX
positivo Icattónl de un cornpuestn.se lnter cam-
to es la sustancia poco ionizada que impide la -
,bia con el ion positivo de otro compuesto; es--
reversibltí dad de la reacción.
decir. 105 dos iones positivos lnter-carnbien sus
Ejemplos:
iones negativos lanioneal, Las reacciones de -
lJHel + NaOH--':" NaC 1, +
metátesis se denominan también de doble sus-
2J H SO + 2KOH~ K SO ,+
titución y se representan con la.ecuación gene- 2 4 2' 4
ral siguiente: Cornp+eteIas.aiqutentes ecUacio~e~ quirnicas:

AX BZ---AZ + BX a) Ca
iJ °2
Generalmente. 105 compuestos que intervienen b) , 2NaC 1 _-.CE=.!,!I
e,-,c,-,t:r,_~ó~i
¡~s:.!.:is~

en este tipo de reacción son sustancias iónicas , cl Zn + H 60 1>

2 4
clisueltas en agua. por' lo .que una metátesis rie~ '
el BaCI2 + Na PO
3 q
de a seruna reacción reversible si 105 produc-
el HN0 + LiOH ----'---- """"!lA
tos se convier ten en' reactivos. o bien si 105 - 3 """"""'-
~~\M.l!r.~ COLEGIO DE,QUIMICA
,/

Una ecuac'ión químlc a es una forma abreviada sin ningún subíndice. si el elemento se encuen-
de exr:resar un cambio químico utilizando sím- tra en estado sólido y con el subíndice 2 s¡ el -
21algunos carbonatos o carbonatos ácidos se de~
bolos y fór'muias. En una ecuación. las sustan- elemento se presenta como gas. (Hay algunas
ponen al ser calentados. produclendcfdióxido -
cias que se combinan entre sí y por lo tanto se -'excepciones. como la molécula de fósforo sóli-
de carbono,
transforman (los r eact ivosl se escriben a la iz- do. que se representa P o la de azufre gaseo-
, 4
a) CaCO .AcaO +
quierda. Las sustancias que se forman y por lo so. S J. 3
B
tanto aparecen (los productos) se escriben a la
3) anhídrido + agua __ oxácido (oxiacido) + ca
, 2
derecha. Los reactivos y los productos se sep~
+ H O-H SO
2 2 4 Cl Reacciones de sustitución
ran mediante una flecha o por una doble flecha ,
5) Reacciones de descomposición En las reacciones de sustitución un elemento re-
según las condiciones de la reacción. Si se co-
,En las reacciones de descomposición. una sustan emplazá a otro dentro de un compuesto. Las r~
nocen los reactivos resulta fácil escribir 105--

productos; si se toman e'n cuenta algunas gen~
cia se transforma en dos o más sustancias. La acciones de sustitución se denominan también -
sustanoia que se.descornponesiempr-e es un com dedesptazarnientu. Este t ipo de r-eacc lónse re-
ral iz ac iones respecto' aIás' r eacciones qUímicas
puesto y los pr oduct os pueden ser elementos o presenta mediante las dos ecuaciones generales
"ordinarias. Con este Fin, Ias reacciones quími-
compuestos. Con freJtuencia se necesita apl,i-- siguientes:
cas más frecuentes se dividen' en cuatro tipos.
car calor para lograr l!na composic lón: la rea~ 1. Un metal reemplaza a un ion metál ico en su -
A) Reacciones de combinación
ción se representa conla siguiente ecuaci6n g~ salo a un ion hidrógeno enun ácido.
En las reacciones de combinación; también 1,la-
,nt'Oral: A + aZ-AZ + B
madas síntesis. dos sustancias (ya sea elemen--
AZ~A-. + Z 2) Un no metal sustituye a un ion no métálico en
tos o compuestos) reaccionan para producir su 'sal.
, ,donde A y Z son elementos o, compuestos. En-
o tr a.sust anci a. Este tipo de reacción se indica
general, la predicción de los productos en una x + BZ-BX + Z
mediante la ecuación A + Z-AZ donde A
,reacción de, descomposición. SÓ.i1l 'se logra si se En el primer .caso, la sustitución depende de los
y Z sor. elementos o compuestos, conocen las propiedades químicas de la sust an- dos metales par ttcular es. es decir. A y B. Los-
Ejemplos: cia que va a descomponer-se, "rnet
.
al es . se han
-
acomodado en ..una serie
."
llamada
1]' metal + no metal--' _!';al EJemplos:, serie electr-orriotr lz , d~ 'tal modo que~~cia ~leme::
iNa(s] . + Cl (g)--' 2NaCl(sl
2 ' I i 'algunos compuestos se, descomponen para dar . ' tode la misma desplazará de una solución acuosa
2) no meta! .• axfgeno-- Anhídrido oxígeno de 5U sal a cualquiera de los que le siguen . .t\un-,
, ' 1'::;.
e + o --
, 2
CO (gJ
2 a)2HgO_ 2Hg + que el hidrógeno no es un rnetalvse ,le incluye en

Nota: Pan) escribir la fórmuia de un elemento esta serie: i.r. K. Ba. ce. Na. Mg; AL z». Fe. ce.
b} 2KG10,~-2KCl + 30~gl
en una ec~ac¡ón química, se escribe el sfrnbo lo ,,'eL, f\.li. s-. Pb. (Hl.Cu. Hg. Ag. Au.
.••.
27. Mn0
2
+ HC1~MnCI2 + H20 + C12
1. 4-2.1
RESPUESTAS
2lo 1.2. -.:...1.1.1
el rnJ
~ Mn0 +
2B. Mn
2 °7 2 °2 2.
3.
2--- 2;3

2.6-2.3·
22.
23.
3.1 -
4.5 - 6.4
1.3

29. Kr2Cr 2 7 HC1~KCl + CrC1 + H 0
° +
3 2 4. 2.1 -1.2 24. 2.1 -- 2.1.1
+ C12 5. 2.3 -- 4.3 25. 4.1 - 2.4.1
6. 1-2.1 26. 2 -- 2.2.1
30. Mn + HC1~MnCi + H 0 +
3 4 ° . 2 2 7. 4.5 -6.4 27. 1.4 -- 1.2.1
CI
2 8.
9,
8.3-2
4,4 -- 1.3·
2B.
29,
2 -- 4.3
1,1.4 -- 2,2.7,3
B
. 31.

32.
N.a2~q

H SO
+ As S --~Na

+
2 3 .

H
3
AsS

+
3

H o
10.
1l.
1.1 -
2.3 -- 2.6
1.2
...
30.
3l.
1.8 -
3.1 -- 2.
3.4.1
r:
2 ~H2S 2
2 4
12. 1.12-4.3 32. 1.4 -,- L4
33. AliSOl:! + NH40H~AHOH)3 + lNH4]2
13. 5.11-1.5 33. 1.6 -- 2.3
S04 14. 2.1.2-1.2 34. 1.2 - 1.2.1
15: 2.10 -2,5 35. 2.1 - 1.1
34. Cu +. H S0 ~ CUS0 + SO + -'"
2 4 4 2 .16. 2 - 1.3 36, 1.6 -- 2.3.1
H 0
2 17. 2.1-2.2 37. 1,2 --- 1.1
35. NAOH +. W03~Na2Wo4 + H 0 18. 2.5 -- 2 38. 1.4 -- 1.2
2
36. C0 0 + Hel~CoCI + H 0 + 19. 1.10 -2.5 39. 3.8 - 2.1
2 3 . 2 2
20. 2.8 --- 2.5 40 .. 2 --- 2.1
el
2

37. Zn + NH4Cl~ Zn(NH3]2eI2 + H2

38. Ti + HCI .~ TiC1 + H
4 2

39. Si0 + Al ~A1 0+ AISi
2 2 3 3

40. NaN0 ~ NaNO + O
3 .2 2
ESCUELA
NACIONAL
.. . .p~~ P••••
~A'f'ORr.a.
BALANCEO OE ECLJACÜJNÉS .Bal ancear por tanteo la siguiente ecuación: B. As + 02--'AS406
. '. '.

°
,,"

Un método conveniente
,
para representar
,
.los .: 'H2 0:+ ' N
25".
~HNO
,3
9. S + H O--+H
2 Z
SO + H S
2 2
cambios y las' tr ansf'ór-rnactcnes que exper irnen
" ' io. BiCI
3
+ H O--'BiOCI
2 ,
+ HCI
aJEx¡5~en dos hidrógenos en.el primer miembro
ta la materiá es' establecer un sistema con los
,'CH 0J 'y un hidróge~~ enel I~¡;jode los produc- 11. BCl ' .• H ~HCl .• B
elementos conocidos ~sando sírrib.ol~s.,'f6rtmilas 2 ,32
tos JHNO L. Con ag'reg,ar un .dos,aláci,do nítri
y ecuaciones para que de manera abreviada. 'se' , " ~ - 12. AII.¡C + H20~AJ(OH)3 + CH
3 4
ccqueda bal'arice'ai:loelhid~ógenb. '
puedan explicar todos',estos, cambi:os.,' , - - . .', -,

13. CO + H~CH+ HO
La ley de Iaccnservación de la masa 'establece , H'O ':.' N O~2H~O 2 5 12 2
,Z ' 2 5, ' ,3
que antes y después de tod~s las r-eaccicnes e> " 14. C + Si0 + CI~SiCll.¡ + CO
,blP ara 'el, ni,trógeno.tambi ~~, queda equi I ibr ado, 2
químicas [no n~Cle~resi debe estar presente la "
puesh.aY,d~Senel pr irnér tnié~bro (NZ05l y dos
15. Cr + HC1---:+CrCI + H
rni~rri~ cantidad de ~a~~ria. " 3 2
en el segundo' miembro (ZHNO l.
'" "" ' ,',' ,- 3.,' 1.6. , Cr(OHl + H O
'. Una ecuación quirnlca balanceada indica la -:-- ~ Cr 0
3 , 2 3 2
'exact~ proporción en que dos o rnás s~~táricias' ' 'c}P!3r~elo~ígeno. seti,~ne~tJn oxígeno en el -
agua [H 01 y cinco oxígenosEmel anhídrido - 17. CuCI + °2--+CUO + ci2
se combih~n ylósproductos
. -'. . . '.'
que' seforina~.
",' '. .
'- 2 2
nítrico [N2~5l dan un tot~1 de seis oxígenos.
Debe .existir .et mismo -número de 'cada unode
.' . ~. .' .'
. ,16. P + Br ~PBr5

..
."
'.'

2
, tcaetementos tantc.en 10'5 reacttvcs. corno en
las productos.
,B¡jlahce~~ .las slgulentesecuactcnes:
j(¡; 'p
I.¡
+ NO ---+ PO,
2 5
.• N
2
1. .Fe'+.'02 ---.¡)~Fe203
" , Existen varios":;étodos para b~fahc~~r ,una~--
, 20, P+ H O~HPO + H
ecuación:' 2 34 2
2. KC10 ----~~KCI+ 'O
3 " 2
Por tanteo 21. CI + NaOH~NaCI .• NaCIO +H 0
2 2
3. Al. + HCI ---~&AICI + H ,
Algebráico" ' 2
'" 3 22. KBr +' I-Í PO' ~KPO + HBr
, ,,3 , ,L¡ , 3' ,4
Oxidación y reducción I.¡. Al + FeZ O ~~-&~AI
3 , ,2
° 3
+ Fe,
23. NH
3
.• 024820 + NO
lón electróri ..

5. Fe 0 + C --~~'Fe .,:CO
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BALANCEO DE ECUACloNES POR EL El procedimiento general para balancear una Paso 3.
METODO DE DXIDACIDN y REDUCCION
ecuación por el método de oxidación y reduc- 7+ 2+
Mn~Mn 5e-
ción es el siguiente:
El balanceo de ecuaciones por este método ¡~ O
está ba'sado en Que el número de electrones- 1. Identificar las especies que cambian de Cl=+01 le

perdidos en una r esccíén química debe ser número de oxidación en la reacción. 7... 2+
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1- O
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5
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con el número de electrones ganados y vic~ Paso 4.
pérdida de electrones
versa. 2KM
-
O .•. HC1~f<C¡
.!1 4
+2MnCl_
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OXIDACION
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aumento del número de 5C12.
éxldc-eeduccfén en la ecuación inicial;
oxidación
Paso 5.
5. _Completar el balanceo por tenrec siguiendo
ganancia de electrones
Balancear K
con los elementos diferentes del hidrógeno.
REDUCC¡ON 2KMn0 .•. HC1~2KCl •. 2MnC1
seguir con e! H y comprobar con el G. 4 2
disminuclén _del número
.•. H 0 •. 501
de oxidación Ejemplo. Balancear la siguiente ecuación: 2 2

~--=~oX!DAOION ~--=~~ . KMn0 + HC1~KCl .• MnCi .•. H O
Balanceer
2KMn0
Cl
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estado de oxidacién de un e¡é~e~to iibre KMr.íJ ..•. HC1~KCl .•. MnOl .> H Il + Cl
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2
o combinado en un~Ó~¡:iúesto químico •..
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AGENTEDXIDANTE. Son especies que: . 2 .. -··.2···
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AI-ba!ancear los oxígenos se nota que están
otras sustancias. I 7+ 2-.
completos tanto en los r.eactivos como en los
Mn ~ M n se reduce gana 5 e-o
AGENTE REDUCTOR. Son especies que: ll
1;.. O productos;
pierden e 2) se oxidan, y 33 reducen a otras PRACTiCA VARIAS VECES ESTOS PASOS Y
Ol~Cl se oxida pierds_l e-
sust anclaa,
Bt:,LANCEALAS SIGiUI!:::NTES ECUACiONES.

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:11.
J.
.d e Hn ,
table. Ej er:1.pl05 :
Le c h e oe
c aL
de
i-¡~d~at,ada'
c2.l
2. ~~n tj;0 /.~~O~:~i~~:n~~i~~
;.'~~f co- - d e duci r' :::1 rlomJ:¡~e. de. 1-:';3
siguientes corapu e s t o s :
ce Lh i c r a r-r-e spcr.c er.t e .
í

leche de m~gnesia L. ~••
1+
!í !\!r: CI¡ l'ín= 7+
9.
c .. ~.g/::103
'Ejemplos: iones presentes son los mismos antes y después

al Fe +, CuSO -FeSO + Cu de la reacctón, ésta en realidad. no se ha efec-
4 ,4
bl Zn .•. 2HC1~ZnC12 + H tuado. Para que la reacción de doble sustitu--
2
.•. ción sea efectiva. se procura que entre los pr o->
cl Cu M9C12~sin reacción
ductos aparezca una sustancia insoluble. gaseo-
En el segundo caso. cuando un no metal' reempl.§l.
sa o poco ioniz ada.
z a a un ion no metálico de su sal. la sustitución
Ejemplos:
depende de los dos no metales participantes. -- 1) AgN0 + HC1-- AgCl + HNO
3 . ,3 COMO COMPLETAR ECUACIONES qUIMICAS
ci$#a"'5f:JbAt54íi~~¡W&E¡¡:a:&&?+§d#i'*'¡m"¿f@-~
X o Z. Existe una serie similar a la serie elec- !
2) Na S + H SO-H S + Na SO j
2 2 ,4 2 2 4
tromotriz para loshalógenos: F2~ C1 • Br 2' 1 ,
2 2 LOS CUATRO TIPOS PRINCIPALES DE
[El compuesto, AgCl es insoluble en agua y el -
Ejemplos: REACCIONES qU!MICAS
H 5 es un gas)
2 Tipo de reacción Ecuación Genera!
al Cl + NaBr'_2NaCl +,' ,8r
2, , 2 Reacciones de neutraliz.ación
Reacción de combinación Z-+AZ
bl 1 , + NaBr_Sin reacción Un tipo importante de las r'eaccio'nes' de doble
2
sustii:"u~i.óll son las reacciones de neutralización. Reacción de descomposición AZ----.n. .• z
Ol Reacciones de metátesis
, '

Estas reacciones se resumen como si,gue: ReacC':6n de sustitución A + BZ~AZ + B
En lasr e acc innes de metátesis, hay dos com--
Acido + Base Sal +, Agua X BZ-·BX + Z
puestos que participan de tal manera que el ion
En este caso. el agua que se forma como pr oduc Reacción de metátesis' AX '1' BZ-AZ .•.BX
positivo Icattónl de un cornpuestn.se lnter cam-
to es la sustancia poco ionizada que impide la -
,bia con el ion positivo de otro compuesto; es--
reversibltí dad de la reacción.
decir. 105 dos iones positivos lnter-carnbien sus
Ejemplos:
iones negativos lanioneal, Las reacciones de -
lJHel + NaOH--':" NaC 1, +
metátesis se denominan también de doble sus-
2J H SO + 2KOH~ K SO ,+
titución y se representan con la.ecuación gene- 2 4 2' 4
ral siguiente: Cornp+eteIas.aiqutentes ecUacio~e~ quirnicas:

AX BZ---AZ + BX a) Ca
iJ °2
Generalmente. 105 compuestos que intervienen b) , 2NaC 1 _-.CE=.!,!I
e,-,c,-,t:r,_~ó~i
¡~s:.!.:is~

en este tipo de reacción son sustancias iónicas , cl Zn + H 60 1>

2 4
clisueltas en agua. por' lo .que una metátesis rie~ '
el BaCI2 + Na PO
3 q
de a seruna reacción reversible si 105 produc-
el HN0 + LiOH ----'---- """"!lA
tos se convier ten en' reactivos. o bien si 105 - 3 """"""'-
~~\M.l!r.~ COLEGIO DE,QUIMICA
,/

Una ecuac'ión químlc a es una forma abreviada sin ningún subíndice. si el elemento se encuen-
de exr:resar un cambio químico utilizando sím- tra en estado sólido y con el subíndice 2 s¡ el -
21algunos carbonatos o carbonatos ácidos se de~
bolos y fór'muias. En una ecuación. las sustan- elemento se presenta como gas. (Hay algunas
ponen al ser calentados. produclendcfdióxido -
cias que se combinan entre sí y por lo tanto se -'excepciones. como la molécula de fósforo sóli-
de carbono,
transforman (los r eact ivosl se escriben a la iz- do. que se representa P o la de azufre gaseo-
, 4
a) CaCO .AcaO +
quierda. Las sustancias que se forman y por lo so. S J. 3
B
tanto aparecen (los productos) se escriben a la
3) anhídrido + agua __ oxácido (oxiacido) + ca
, 2
derecha. Los reactivos y los productos se sep~
+ H O-H SO
2 2 4 Cl Reacciones de sustitución
ran mediante una flecha o por una doble flecha ,
5) Reacciones de descomposición En las reacciones de sustitución un elemento re-
según las condiciones de la reacción. Si se co-
,En las reacciones de descomposición. una sustan emplazá a otro dentro de un compuesto. Las r~
nocen los reactivos resulta fácil escribir 105--

productos; si se toman e'n cuenta algunas gen~
cia se transforma en dos o más sustancias. La acciones de sustitución se denominan también -
sustanoia que se.descornponesiempr-e es un com dedesptazarnientu. Este t ipo de r-eacc lónse re-
ral iz ac iones respecto' aIás' r eacciones qUímicas
puesto y los pr oduct os pueden ser elementos o presenta mediante las dos ecuaciones generales
"ordinarias. Con este Fin, Ias reacciones quími-
compuestos. Con freJtuencia se necesita apl,i-- siguientes:
cas más frecuentes se dividen' en cuatro tipos.
car calor para lograr l!na composic lón: la rea~ 1. Un metal reemplaza a un ion metál ico en su -
A) Reacciones de combinación
ción se representa conla siguiente ecuaci6n g~ salo a un ion hidrógeno enun ácido.
En las reacciones de combinación; también 1,la-
,nt'Oral: A + aZ-AZ + B
madas síntesis. dos sustancias (ya sea elemen--
AZ~A-. + Z 2) Un no metal sustituye a un ion no métálico en
tos o compuestos) reaccionan para producir su 'sal.
, ,donde A y Z son elementos o, compuestos. En-
o tr a.sust anci a. Este tipo de reacción se indica
general, la predicción de los productos en una x + BZ-BX + Z
mediante la ecuación A + Z-AZ donde A
,reacción de, descomposición. SÓ.i1l 'se logra si se En el primer .caso, la sustitución depende de los
y Z sor. elementos o compuestos, conocen las propiedades químicas de la sust an- dos metales par ttcular es. es decir. A y B. Los-
Ejemplos: cia que va a descomponer-se, "rnet
.
al es . se han
-
acomodado en ..una serie
."
llamada
1]' metal + no metal--' _!';al EJemplos:, serie electr-orriotr lz , d~ 'tal modo que~~cia ~leme::
iNa(s] . + Cl (g)--' 2NaCl(sl
2 ' I i 'algunos compuestos se, descomponen para dar . ' tode la misma desplazará de una solución acuosa
2) no meta! .• axfgeno-- Anhídrido oxígeno de 5U sal a cualquiera de los que le siguen . .t\un-,
, ' 1'::;.
e + o --
, 2
CO (gJ
2 a)2HgO_ 2Hg + que el hidrógeno no es un rnetalvse ,le incluye en

Nota: Pan) escribir la fórmuia de un elemento esta serie: i.r. K. Ba. ce. Na. Mg; AL z». Fe. ce.
b} 2KG10,~-2KCl + 30~gl
en una ec~ac¡ón química, se escribe el sfrnbo lo ,,'eL, f\.li. s-. Pb. (Hl.Cu. Hg. Ag. Au.
.••.
27. Mn0
2
+ HC1~MnCI2 + H20 + C12
1. 4-2.1
RESPUESTAS
2lo 1.2. -.:...1.1.1
el rnJ
~ Mn0 +
2B. Mn
2 °7 2 °2 2.
3.
2--- 2;3

2.6-2.3·
22.
23.
3.1 -
4.5 - 6.4
1.3

29. Kr2Cr 2 7 HC1~KCl + CrC1 + H 0
° +
3 2 4. 2.1 -1.2 24. 2.1 -- 2.1.1
+ C12 5. 2.3 -- 4.3 25. 4.1 - 2.4.1
6. 1-2.1 26. 2 -- 2.2.1
30. Mn + HC1~MnCi + H 0 +
3 4 ° . 2 2 7. 4.5 -6.4 27. 1.4 -- 1.2.1
CI
2 8.
9,
8.3-2
4,4 -- 1.3·
2B.
29,
2 -- 4.3
1,1.4 -- 2,2.7,3
B
. 31.

32.
N.a2~q

H SO
+ As S --~Na

+
2 3 .

H
3
AsS

+
3

H o
10.
1l.
1.1 -
2.3 -- 2.6
1.2
...
30.
3l.
1.8 -
3.1 -- 2.
3.4.1
r:
2 ~H2S 2
2 4
12. 1.12-4.3 32. 1.4 -,- L4
33. AliSOl:! + NH40H~AHOH)3 + lNH4]2
13. 5.11-1.5 33. 1.6 -- 2.3
S04 14. 2.1.2-1.2 34. 1.2 - 1.2.1
15: 2.10 -2,5 35. 2.1 - 1.1
34. Cu +. H S0 ~ CUS0 + SO + -'"
2 4 4 2 .16. 2 - 1.3 36, 1.6 -- 2.3.1
H 0
2 17. 2.1-2.2 37. 1,2 --- 1.1
35. NAOH +. W03~Na2Wo4 + H 0 18. 2.5 -- 2 38. 1.4 -- 1.2
2
36. C0 0 + Hel~CoCI + H 0 + 19. 1.10 -2.5 39. 3.8 - 2.1
2 3 . 2 2
20. 2.8 --- 2.5 40 .. 2 --- 2.1
el
2

37. Zn + NH4Cl~ Zn(NH3]2eI2 + H2

38. Ti + HCI .~ TiC1 + H
4 2

39. Si0 + Al ~A1 0+ AISi
2 2 3 3

40. NaN0 ~ NaNO + O
3 .2 2
ESCUELA
NACIONAL
.. . .p~~ P••••
~A'f'ORr.a.
BALANCEO OE ECLJACÜJNÉS .Bal ancear por tanteo la siguiente ecuación: B. As + 02--'AS406
. '. '.

°
,,"

Un método conveniente
,
para representar
,
.los .: 'H2 0:+ ' N
25".
~HNO
,3
9. S + H O--+H
2 Z
SO + H S
2 2
cambios y las' tr ansf'ór-rnactcnes que exper irnen
" ' io. BiCI
3
+ H O--'BiOCI
2 ,
+ HCI
aJEx¡5~en dos hidrógenos en.el primer miembro
ta la materiá es' establecer un sistema con los
,'CH 0J 'y un hidróge~~ enel I~¡;jode los produc- 11. BCl ' .• H ~HCl .• B
elementos conocidos ~sando sírrib.ol~s.,'f6rtmilas 2 ,32
tos JHNO L. Con ag'reg,ar un .dos,aláci,do nítri
y ecuaciones para que de manera abreviada. 'se' , " ~ - 12. AII.¡C + H20~AJ(OH)3 + CH
3 4
ccqueda bal'arice'ai:loelhid~ógenb. '
puedan explicar todos',estos, cambi:os.,' , - - . .', -,

13. CO + H~CH+ HO
La ley de Iaccnservación de la masa 'establece , H'O ':.' N O~2H~O 2 5 12 2
,Z ' 2 5, ' ,3
que antes y después de tod~s las r-eaccicnes e> " 14. C + Si0 + CI~SiCll.¡ + CO
,blP ara 'el, ni,trógeno.tambi ~~, queda equi I ibr ado, 2
químicas [no n~Cle~resi debe estar presente la "
puesh.aY,d~Senel pr irnér tnié~bro (NZ05l y dos
15. Cr + HC1---:+CrCI + H
rni~rri~ cantidad de ~a~~ria. " 3 2
en el segundo' miembro (ZHNO l.
'" "" ' ,',' ,- 3.,' 1.6. , Cr(OHl + H O
'. Una ecuación quirnlca balanceada indica la -:-- ~ Cr 0
3 , 2 3 2
'exact~ proporción en que dos o rnás s~~táricias' ' 'c}P!3r~elo~ígeno. seti,~ne~tJn oxígeno en el -
agua [H 01 y cinco oxígenosEmel anhídrido - 17. CuCI + °2--+CUO + ci2
se combih~n ylósproductos
. -'. . . '.'
que' seforina~.
",' '. .
'- 2 2
nítrico [N2~5l dan un tot~1 de seis oxígenos.
Debe .existir .et mismo -número de 'cada unode
.' . ~. .' .'
. ,16. P + Br ~PBr5

..
."
'.'

2
, tcaetementos tantc.en 10'5 reacttvcs. corno en
las productos.
,B¡jlahce~~ .las slgulentesecuactcnes:
j(¡; 'p
I.¡
+ NO ---+ PO,
2 5
.• N
2
1. .Fe'+.'02 ---.¡)~Fe203
" , Existen varios":;étodos para b~fahc~~r ,una~--
, 20, P+ H O~HPO + H
ecuación:' 2 34 2
2. KC10 ----~~KCI+ 'O
3 " 2
Por tanteo 21. CI + NaOH~NaCI .• NaCIO +H 0
2 2
3. Al. + HCI ---~&AICI + H ,
Algebráico" ' 2
'" 3 22. KBr +' I-Í PO' ~KPO + HBr
, ,,3 , ,L¡ , 3' ,4
Oxidación y reducción I.¡. Al + FeZ O ~~-&~AI
3 , ,2
° 3
+ Fe,
23. NH
3
.• 024820 + NO
lón electróri ..

5. Fe 0 + C --~~'Fe .,:CO
2 3 2 24; ,, 'Ni;
, 4 Cl + CaO~'\IH3 + 'CaCl + H 0
2
El método de tanteo o por inspección. consiste ' , 2

en anteponer a las fórmulas que intervienen - 6. NHI.¡N0 --~~~'
' H 0 + N 25. ~N03
.. ,C~HO 2
+ N0
2
+ CO
2 2 2 2
en una reacción los coeficientes necesarios p~
7. NH + O ---.~ 26. AgN03-- .•.••••
~ Ag' + ND + O
ra que los elementos de los reactivos y de los H O + NO 2 2
3 2 2
productos sean iguales.
F1{:~e: j f.-¡ .•..
.¡,,:::; ";~'~~"'="f,> 8oS1", "'> KCl .• '2'
1- • .:J

~..:'::L: ,. '<-;1'<::.1;. '~-~"'_.~,-",=,i">
Cu{NO}
, ',;, v ::12
.•. ¡\lO ." H
2
o

'" .,. :..:!\IO", <~"_3"' __ ~_~,",-"" NO .;. CO ., H o
, n ~. 2 2

1;, CL,:D·~ i\.!H "'_.•~''''"_",
.••'".W"'''<",'} N ". H 0 .• el.!
3 2 2

n~ ~.,
, 1\ .¡. ¡·"~2tJ'~~'.I~j
,.~~~~._
....==-=t6''''''''''''ft. r1 PCJ
LJ
.:,. 80.) "'H~O
3 ~ ;¿

~~ i~M~'iC" " !<\,:;1 .,. H2f-:lD,.'~•.~."~¡;''lnSO~I' ., ~<H80 . .,. H o .,.C'I
-v . '1 .' .!~ 2 2

'1'" ¡,·,:¡.,>r,j,. '" H,.D" ,. H)30,,=,~Mn30l"'> ~(HS04 .•. H 0 .• 02
'~ .:: ,!, ¿ 1'.( 1 2..••

~~:'(·j8::J· -i- '<;-':"l;,J " H Ej.] .~...J¡;'Fe (80) ,l, KI-'lSO + ¡JlnSO!.', .,. H [J
. ' i¡ :2 If • 2 4 ::1 '!I 2

s. i\fs~~C;2 .;, F~:'J};"Jq -l' (-'¡;/3:J,~~'
~-~)Na280~ •. Fe [SO J + H O + NO
2 /.j 3 2

~ ;0,
h.·.~ :....
j~:t¡,.':
.•~.
~ ,.,..'(":2
',1
t~C;'¡; .....,u~':'~F~8(~.13. + NP.lC~1 .'("~-J20·~· 1\0
"2m
21 ¡il> In
mno
, ¡
:,,1;~.~~::,_. '." S •.••.""' .•:"=,,'_ ••.•u.t~l...·~ E3CJ ..,. ~~j~1 N iHS ffi
..
.¡.
! \,.
. ,¡r 2:3 a 2 , :li)::'J:i'"
::¡¡::ll>
o
::'t'!
r:~" ~\J,,~; .,"'''"'=-~'''>.",=~.".~
. . I
so 2.'., :..j 2'o -1-
.
¡'la SO
2!.~
.,. l ,
:¿ $:

F~~:·::~::~·LJ~~:t:;Tp..~;:
'~.• :¿,i1 ~.~ ,!:'('~'"í 2~ 3.8---3.~.q 3. 1.4 --- 4.1.2
.-:. e ~.1, ' -~-, ":" 3: r ~~ l'" 1.10 -_:. 1~:.10.f.1 5. 2,10.11) --- 2.1 ~~.8.5
'Y; ¿,,::,J~ ,,·.. ~~¡::\Lt·S~ ·v ~,
": 'O~g
".1..D ~-~. '52'}1
~ .'17' G.2.2.2 -- ..' l.! .2.2
.z.:
I

:;"i',: ~.....,..... J¡.'~ ~r, !.Ul.9 -_ ..- G.2.2. 12. 2.2 -,-- 1,2.1.1

"....-==-=_.~n='__ .ro"_="'n_~"'\ tb
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it '\...:~ rl ,~~~ ';1#; ~\
~.i1l) "'"í.q~ "', ~ ~$l{¡'. 'l¡1/#
""\)j
. ,i~Pl
"h:f f "" tlAi ~t~
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I !LV
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BALANCEO DE ECUACloNES POR EL El procedimiento general para balancear una Paso 3.
METODO DE DXIDACIDN y REDUCCION
ecuación por el método de oxidación y reduc- 7+ 2+
Mn~Mn 5e-
ción es el siguiente:
El balanceo de ecuaciones por este método ¡~ O
está ba'sado en Que el número de electrones- 1. Identificar las especies que cambian de Cl=+01 le

perdidos en una r esccíén química debe ser número de oxidación en la reacción. 7... 2+
Mn~MI1 x 5e-
igual al número de electrones ganados. 2. Se escriben las semlrr eaccicnes de oxida-
2 10e

1- O
Se proporcionan a continuación algunas. ción y reducción. C1-=-+01 x 2e ~ IDe
5
definiciones' importantes. 3. Se iguala el número de electrones perdidos
con el número de electrones ganados y vic~ Paso 4.
pérdida de electrones
versa. 2KM
-
O .•. HC1~f<C¡
.!1 4
+2MnCl_
_ ¿
+ H2 Q <-
OXIDACION
4. Escr-iblr les coeficientes obtenidos por
aumento del número de 5C12.
éxldc-eeduccfén en la ecuación inicial;
oxidación
Paso 5.
5. _Completar el balanceo por tenrec siguiendo
ganancia de electrones
Balancear K
con los elementos diferentes del hidrógeno.
REDUCC¡ON 2KMn0 .•. HC1~2KCl •. 2MnC1
seguir con e! H y comprobar con el G. 4 2
disminuclén _del número
.•. H 0 •. 501
de oxidación Ejemplo. Balancear la siguiente ecuación: 2 2

~--=~oX!DAOION ~--=~~ . KMn0 + HC1~KCl .• MnCi .•. H O
Balanceer
2KMn0
Cl
.•. l5HC1-t2KCl .• 2Mne1;;:
7- 5- 5- 4- 3- 2- 1-0 1+ 2+ 3 .•. 4+ 5+ 6-+ 7.•. 4 2 2 4
.• C1
2 ~ H Q .•. 5C1
2 2
. Paso lo
NUMERO DE OXIDACION. Representa el
Ba!mncea, H
estado de oxidacién de un e¡é~e~to iibre KMr.íJ ..•. HC1~KCl .•. MnOl .> H Il + Cl
·.t! ... .' 2 .:2 2 2KMn!l<¡ + 16HC~2KCl .¡.2MnC1 .•.
2
o combinado en un~Ó~¡:iúesto químico •..
--7-+ 1- ·0 -8H (1 .•. 5Cl
AGENTEDXIDANTE. Son especies que: . 2 .. -··.2···
1] ganan e 2J son reducidos. y 3] oxiden a - Pase 2.
AI-ba!ancear los oxígenos se nota que están
otras sustancias. I 7+ 2-.
completos tanto en los r.eactivos como en los
Mn ~ M n se reduce gana 5 e-o
AGENTE REDUCTOR. Son especies que: ll
1;.. O productos;
pierden e 2) se oxidan, y 33 reducen a otras PRACTiCA VARIAS VECES ESTOS PASOS Y
Ol~Cl se oxida pierds_l e-
sust anclaa,
Bt:,LANCEALAS SIGiUI!:::NTES ECUACiONES.

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