GENERAL SYSTEMATICS

J.G. Bennett

“Systematics” Vol. 1, No. 1, June 1963
© The Estate of J.G. Bennett 2009

In this paper, I shall endeavour to establish the thesis that understanding is possible because
there is a world order that is reproduced or reflected in our experience through systems or
sets of terms having universal properties. Systematics, or the study of systems, should,
according to this thesis, be the appropriate instrument for the development of
understanding, as science is the instrument for the development of knowledge.
Understanding is a special relationship between different parts of our experience. There is
the general presentation of our senses that we sometimes call the `world'. There is also an
inner awareness that is called thought, or at least includes thought. Apart from these two,
there is also an experience of directing, selecting and choosing between the various
presentations that we associate with attention or the power of attention. Finally, there is the
experience of willing, of initiating action through our own bodies that will change the
`world' or at least some part of our general presentation. Some combination of these four
modes of experiencing gives rise to what we call "understanding".

This understanding differs from sensation and thought by the property of standing astride,
as it were, the various parts of the total experience and knitting them together. When we
understand, our knowledge is linked to our sensation; but a connection is also made
between our inner attention and our outward actions. We cannot simplify this situation by
omitting any of the four elements: sensation, thought attention, action and it seems to
follow that understanding itself is not simple, but possibly even more complex than this
first analysis suggests. It seems likely, for example, that understanding is progressive, to be
approached by stages, but must, in its fullness, always remain beyond our reach.

The impulse to understand, and not merely to know and to act, is an impulse characteristic
of man and apparently not shared by other animals. I am not concerned here with the origin
and nature of this impulse, but with its implications that there is something to be under-
stood and that understanding is not reducible to knowledge and action. We know facts by
way of perception and conception. We act from instinct and desire directed by knowledge.
But it also seems that knowledge and action would be mere automatism-indistinguishable
from animal behaviour or even the work of a machine-if not informed by some kind of
understanding. The assumption that there is something to be understood beyond fact and
feeling, means that we suppose that there is some universal order or principles by which
both we and our world are regulated. If there were no such order or principles caprice
would reign. Anything and everything would be possible and nothing could be known or

H. I want to define the word system in another more precise way as a set of distinct but mutually relevant terms. By `terms' I mean any part of experience that can be identified by some persistent token or recurrent property." we are pointing to a one-term system. that there are universal laws that distinguish what can happen and what cannot happen. By `distinct' is meant distinguishable in respect of some property or quality. B. Whenever we say "A is composed of B and C" we refer to a two-term system or dyad. Cf. an idea. a relationship or a complex system of things. that there are limits to what man can know of the totality of which our human experience forms so small a part. The word system is commonly used for every kind of group or collection of interacting things or ideas. Finally. . . B and C mast be distinct and the fact that they need one another to exemplify connectedness means that they satisfy our definition of a system. In the present paper. in other words no two terms of a system can be identical or even nearly so. but rather modes of connectedness common both to the world and our experience of it. The properties or attributes systems are the elements of all possible understanding. The recognition of a term can be made with the help of elementary predicates. 28. A `set' means a limited. The meaning common to nearly all uses of the word is that of an inner connectedness that distinguishes what forms part of a system from all that is `outside' it. but the point is that each term of a system differs in respect of some elementary predicate from all the rest. In reality we cannot perceive.e.foreseen. Most people would be prepared to admit that there are knowables and unknowables. This requires clarification. It would also probably be agreed that there are predictables and unpredictables. act or understand anything except through the distinctness and mutual relevance of the objects and ideas that present themselves to our awareness. A. well defined number. I suggest that these universal regularities are not the result of obscure properties of nature that can only be discovered by centuries of research. i. i. A term may be a thing.e. These definitions may seem so arbitrary and restrictive that we would be unlikely to meet with any set of terms that satisfy them all. This means that each of the terms of the system requires all the others in order to be what it is and mean what it means 1. think. Whenever we speak of connections or relatedness we affirm the reality of three-term system: for if A and B are connected there must be another term C to connect them. Whenever we say "this is a . ideas and relationship provided only we can recognise it. These ways can be described in terms of systems and the study of all the possible forms of connectedness can therefore be called systematics. 1 This last condition distinguishes systems as here understood from those of say Carnap's Logical Syntax. . No one doubts that there are possibilities and impossibilities. More generally. Curry Outlines of a Formalist Philosophy of Mathematics p. there is the condition that the terms are mutually relevant. We perceive and understand in certain ways because we and the world are constructed in certain ways. there are various regularities in our experience that cannot be accounted for solely in terms of the peculiarities and limitations of our human instruments of sensation and thought. feel. not just an indefinite collectivity.

e. These may be combined to produce harmony. or they may result in opposition. 1. Practical Systematics as the name implies is the application of the understanding gained through the study of systems to the problems chat arise in all departments of life. 4. The systemic attributes are the source of the basic regularities that we discover in our experience and the key to understanding ourselves and the world. 3. but the diversity has not developed into distinctions so that all the system . The number of terms gives the order of the system. upon the number of its terms. I shall give later a few examples of the results obtainable through the study of pure systematics. Indeterminate systems can also be called societies: they are composed of a relatively large number of terms making it impossible to specify all the connections or even the main groups of connections. All systems with only one term. Applied Systematics. It consists mainly of the investigation of possible modes of connectedness which evidently can very complex for systems with more than three or four terms. indeterminate and infinite. For example. i. Nevertheless. We shall examine now some of the simpler systems with a view to elucidating their systemic attributes. This is the study of systems occurring in cur experience and is chiefly directed to the identification of the terms and their characteristics. conflict and mutual destruction. Formal Systematics which studies the properties of systems out reference to the nature of the terms. The combination of characters gives the system an attribute that will depend upon the way in which the terms are connected and interact. mutual completion and fecundity. We shall mainly be concerned with determinate systems in which the number of terms is known and less than twelve.e.By systematics I mean the study of systems and their application the problem of understanding ourselves and the world. It is possible to distinguish four branches of systematics. The infinite system is the complete expression of all possible modes of connectedness without limit to the number and variety of terms. Pure Systematics which seeks to identify and describe the universal properties or attributes common to all systems. The independence of the terms of a system is expressed by saying that every term has a character. i. A whole may be diversified. namely: All the systems of a given order participate more or less in a common property called the systemic attribute. monads are characterised by wholeness without inner distinctions. The first point to be noted is that the attribute of a system depends upon its order. there is for all the systems of a given order a certain similarity or analogy in their total quality. This observation leads to the basic postulate of pure systematics. the two-term system man-woman _ the characters of masculinity and femininity. Systems can be of three kinds: determinate. 2.

Routledge and Kegan Paul pp. undivided unity are all derivative and far more complicated than at first appears. however. The view that universality is a simple notion-indeed the simplest possible notion because the most immediate-is confirmed by Piaget's studies of the development of intelligence in the child.remains monadic. The combination of wholeness and diversity is expressed by the word universality and we can readily see that every one-term system shares the common attribute of universality. 5 and 6 . continuity. 104-128. 3 F. As Bohm has shown 2. I shall make the assumption that all the properties common to all systems of a given order can be expressed as their systemic attribute. A d v a n c e m e n t o f L e a r n i n g 1 6 0 5 . The notion of hylé developed in the first volume of my Dramatic Universe suggests that universality characterises the ground state of matter no less than the totality of all its parts. Moreover this attribute can have no meaning except in a monad. the Philosophia Prima which seeks the 'unity in diversity' of all the particular arts and sciences 3. This will be apparent if we reflect that we should never say that a pair of objects or ideas is an universe. there are grounds for supposing that sub-quantum levels exist. he uses the word to mean the unification of knowledge. We should. Here I should reply to the objection that a 'diversity in unity' is a dualistic notion inapplicable to the monad. The nearest notion to that of ultimate indivisibility is that of Planck's quantum of action. Bohm Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. Notions of one as the unit of counting. Book I v. The whole universe regarded as the totality that presents itself to our experience is a monad. The only exception to this proposition that every whole combines unity and diversity is the hypothetical true atom. In Bacon's Advancement of Learning. It is of considerable importance to philosophy that physical science tends to regard even the so-called ultimate particle as composite and indeed as an universe. This objection is due to a defect of language. There should be one and only one attribute for each order. Unity in diversity is in reality a simple. of homogeneity. indivisible idea that should be conveyed by the word `universality'. but in order to express this attribute it may be necessary to put together 2 D. The total content of a moment of awareness is such a one-term system. Bacon. think of it as the immediate and simplest delivery of our experience: the "here and now" of the present moment is both one and diverse and there is no question of separating the unity and diversity into distinct concepts until we distinguish them and that means to go from the monad to the dyad.art.

but the two comprise the one and their separation is an enrichment . but we feel nevertheless. It implies acceptance of the irreducible character of the dyad. We encounter many complementary dyads in philosophy. It is not hard to see that the systemic attribute of the dyad is complementary. science and human affairs. In the story of the creation. "each monad contains the whole infinitv of existence within itself and is thus a concentrated universe.a creative act. The notion of complementarity is of unlimited generality. that complementarity does not exhaust the attributes of systems. Its only attribute is universality. Max Born and others.e. When light and darkness are separated all other dyads are revealed.many partial or incomplete descriptions. 4 The monad here is merely a one-term system and as such no more "real" than two.or multi-term systems." Cf. In every case. The next step comes when we introduce a distinction valid for the whole monad. It has in recent years played a great part in the development of physical theory thanks to the work of Niels Bohr. We must then postulate a triad ABC such that A+B+C // P+Q // X where the symbol // does not mean equal or identical. Nothing can be known except by light and shade. mindbrain. 706. It corresponds to the moment of consciousness in our current experience. and also Monadology (1714 Vienna) p. We now have two parts that satisfy the conditions of independence and mutuality. We have our first systemic attribute in the universality of all monads 4. We gain nothing by seeking to reduce the dyad to the monad.three. the systemic attribute of complementarity gives us the key to understanding the situation. i. That which was one is now two. Light and darkness are not opposites but complementarities. but `referring to the same situation'. As we found it necessary to go from the monad to the dyad. how is a link between P and Q to be found without reverting to the universality of X? The link must clearly be different from P. . by contrast. For example we can have X=man P+Q=male and female A+B+C=parents and child. This is exemplified in the account of creation in Genesis and the Babylonian tablets. Leibnitz Letters to Bouquet and Bayle. Q or X itself. The dyad man- woman is the foundation of human society. The Cartesian doctrine of two substances is derived from the dyad. so we must seek in a third term for the resolution of the enigma of complementarity. The enigma can be stated thus: if a monad X is divided into two mutually exclusive P and Q. Nevertheless it is worth noting that the monadology of Leibnitz is distinguished from atomism precisely by the property of monads of being universal. For Leibnitz. `Light' is the undivided awareness of what is. The second step is separation of light and darkness or of the upper and lower regions. light first appears alone-revealing the universe-but not revealing distinction.

The family (ABC)=X is a term in the system Z consisting of the three generations: grand parents D.e. It is not hard to recognise that the new systemic attribute is akin to relatedness. relatedness establishes a nexus of connections that extends through all possible worlds. The only point that need be made is to draw attention to the immense enrichment of our understanding that comes from understanding the systemic attribute of relatedness. both belong to the one-term system MAN=X. we can have no doubt that we have not exhausted the attributes either of the world or of our own nature. X fulfils the same role as the link between D and F. There is a certain rigidity in the net-work of triads which must be relaxed if we are to find place for creative activity. freedom and the triad in the Dramatic Universe 5 and shall not attempt here to cover the same ground. have acquired quite new characters from their relationship to the others. . 5 Vol. In this way. triads. time and number. though individually the same. complementarity and relatedness. Another example can be taken from physical science X=electron as electric charge P+Q=electron as particle and wave A + B + C=Electron as particle in three aspects electron-positron-neutrino.e. will. It has been shown by Russell that mathematical order can be defined only by reference to four independent terms. Moreover. Whereas neither universality nor complementarity are such as to allow for connection between systems. A fulfils the role of C. This agrees with the view that the triad is not capable of supporting a principle of order. It follows that as relatedness is the systemic attribute of the triad so also conversely all cases of relatedness can be expressed as systems of the third order. no principle of order and hence of continuity can be derived from the first three systems. I have already discussed very fully the connection between relatedness. II Chapter 27-31. P and Q are both human beings i. as the child C fulfils as the link between A and B. i. Thus triadic relatedness can comprise co-ordination. subordination and superordination. For example we have A as husband and father in system X but son in system Y of the preceding generation. If we contemplate the scheme so far developed of universality. the network of triads can be extended in all directions of space. It is also possible for X to be a term in a superordinate system Z. The reason for this is that a term A of a triad X can also be a term of another triad Y thus linking X and Y together. but it is a dynamic relatedness that can be understood only if it is associated with notions of will and freedom. In each case we have a transition from complementarity to a completely new situation in which the terms. In Y. It can also be shown that any set of relations however complex can be reduced to a nexus of triads. the child in X. parents E and children F. Evidently.P and Q in becoming A and B have changed character: they are no longer a complementary dyad but two terms in a triad.

Figuratively one could speak of K and L as "above and below" and M and N as "within and without". The act of freedom whereby entirely new factors enter the process is another form. The scientific activity of man is directed towards knowing. K. There is casual and there is non-casual reciprocity. I shall take an example recently studied by the Integral Science Education Research Group of the Institute. It is worth noting that the four factors K. It is not capricious. It is evidently creative in character and should therefore best be exemplified in a tetrad. In order to illustrate the tetrad. in fact. but neither with order nor continuity.entitles us to suppose that reciprocity has many forms. We can reasonably conclude that reciprocity is the systemic attribute of the tetrad providing we understand the word rightly. doing and understanding.In the Dramatic Universe. N. Freedom to be realised. . I associated the tetrad with Being and Creativity6. These we can deduce from our intuition of the nature of any creative activity. recognise four independent factors. 6 Vol. we need to recognise the characters common to the four terms of any and every tetrad. The answer must surely be that the exercise of freedom is creative activity and its medium is being. but the regulated orderly activity whereby the world undergoes progressive enrichment of its content and quality. L. We can approach the systemic attribute of the tetrad if we recall that freedom is the quintessence of relatedness. . II Chapter 32-34. M. We can. must be exercised and we can ask the question how and in what medium is freedom exercised. The wealth of possible connections between four independent terms: K. N can be used to define order which needs the concepts of `extremes' and `betweens'. To understand all the forms. Creativity in all its forms involves an interplay of the four factors of such a kind as to transform and to enrich the situation. There is absolute and there is relative reciprocity. Understanding as the source of creative activity and also its goal. L. M. Herein lies the-reciprocity of the tetrad. except in so far as it became clear that the notion of being itself requires to be understood relatively and so implies both order and continuity. Insight into Nature as the field of scientific work.there are twenty-four primary arrangements . The entire process of existence in space and time is a form of creativity. arbitrary or transcendental. Now creativity is the dynamic aspect of being reciprocal to order as its passive aspect. There must be: First term K: A motive force or source of the action Second term L: A medium or field in which the action proceeds Third term M: A character which represents the state of the system Fourth term N: A character which corresponds to the new element introduced by the creative action.

all four elements. Knowledge and memory. In the Dramatic Universe. All scientific work requires. to team work. The scientist must first of all make contact with his material. Synthetic understanding . I connected the five-term system with potentiality and the quality that I called `spiritualisation'. Nevertheless. The feeling or flair for natural phenomena. the scientist himself. Referring back to the diagram. to the advance of a particular branch of science and to the scientific activity of mankind as a whole: thus exemplifying the extreme generality of the systemic attribute of reciprocity and the power of the tetrad as an instrument of understanding. A thorough examination of the tetrad will reveal the immense significance of the systemic requirements of independence and mutual relevance.The whole body of scientific knowledge representing the state of the system. Insight-the ability to recognise significant characteristics in the subject matter of the research. True creativity in science. Experimentation. Because of this lack. Experimental skill-instrumentation and the conduct of experiments. . His insight into what lies before him enables him to bring to bear both his knowledge and his experimental skill. it has no central point from which alternative paths can bifurcate.hypothesis formation. Theoretical ability-analysis of results. As the hypothesis is tested and verified it gradually enters into man's total understanding of nature. Empirical generalisation. As new data are discovered he has to reconcile them with existing theories and for this he must formulate a hypothesis which requires a creative act of the understanding. the first four systems by no means exhaust the modes of understanding open to us. Integration of new ideas into existing body of theory and practice. We can also look upon it as the focus of the creative agent. Thus there is a flux and reflux of creative activity in which all the factors play a part. It comprises all that becomes real but it does not allow for non-realisation. though in varying proportions. we might say that the tetrad needs to be completed by installing in the centre. Power of observation. The tetrad is the field of creativity: but it does not provide for non-creativity. Devising of crucial tests. The four elements correspond to four abilities or skills which the accomplished scientist displays. The `scientific tetrad' is applicable to the work of the individual. observation and technical progress as the new element introduced by the creative action.

There are very many ways in which five terms can be interconnected and this suggests that potentiality is a richer notion than is commonly supposed. adding an independent parameter to the four co-ordinates of space- time. probably refers to five-term systems which we incorrectly interpret as dyads and so miss their true meaning. We tend to see it in terms of temporal successiveness. Jung consisting of four independent factors: sensation. In Volume I of the Dramatic Universe I showed how potential energy can be represented by adding the fifth dimension of eternity to the four dimensions of space-time. The word spirituality conveys some part of what we require.Yet another way of looking at the transition from tetrad to pentad is to notice that whereas the triad is too rigid. This is clearly the act itself whereby creativity is accomplished. It seems better therefore to keep to the word potentiality making it clear that this is to be taken subjectively as referring to the agent as well as objectively as applied to the field. Looking more closely into the meaning of potentiality we can see that it is the field of creativity just as creativity is the field of freedom. It is closely associated with the idea of life itself-for life is both the creative agent and the field of creative action. the tetrad is too lifeless to give an adequate representation of reality. it has not been found possible to formulate a theory of potential energy fields without. Potentiality thus generalised. the immense field of non-casual phenomena. the fifth term is the "I" or self that exercises the powers or functions of the psyche-the latter according to Dr. Much that is mysterious and unaccountable. G. we must remember that a system is a set of terms significantly connected. the hexad is associated with recurrence and the sixth dimension I have called hyparxis. This can also be regarded as a complete event standing out of the undifferentiated goings-on of the existing world. To bring the tetrad to life we must go forward and add a fifth term. In attempting to assess the importance of understanding the pentad. In the Dramatic Universe. but there are probably more important forms of potentiality that lie outside the fields of sense perception and mental constructs. The additional term is that which gives concreteness and uniqueness to the creative act. We must not pause to discuss examples. Self-realisation in this . but go forward to reach for the field in which potentiality is realised. intuition. is a notion of far-reaching significance. It seems then that in order to express the systemic attribute of the five-term system we must find a word that will convey the notion of open potentiality within which creative action can be accomplished and attach this notion to that of the creative agent. C. This introduces a new depth and wealth of meaning for it allows that which already is what it is to become what it is. The nature of the hexad is to provide the conditions for free and independent self- realisation. but it would certainly be confusing to the reader who was not aware of the way we have reached it. In theoretical physics. thought and feeling. In psychology.

but to become in reality what one was only in potentiality. beneficent and harmful metals.and full-tone intervals. "Universal suffrage" is an idea. It has a pattern and it has something more than that which. but it failed to become part of history. It predominates in the Vedic and Avestan mythology and in the Hebrew and other Semitic traditions and rituals. Here there is a clear statement that the qualities of . I must. It is easy to see the connection between these notions and the Thomist doctrine of actus whereby the world becomes real. seven Maruts. character for both the Aryan and the Semitic cultures. `ideas' or `people' can be significant. A recent. in the Dramatic Universe.The death of Nicholas II deprived the event of its final act and with the treaty of Paris. to deserve the name. Indeed. Significance can be ascribed only to the concrete event which stands out from the general stream of happenings. and so on. and very significantly. Without events neither people nor ideas can rightly be called either significant or insignificant.sense does not mean transformation into something different. it reverberates through time and space. seven colours. Such abortive events do indeed frequently occur upon all scales and their occurrence is evidence of the real distinction between hexad and heptad. but do so within a world that is wholly his own. We sometimes make the mistake of supposing that abstractions like `things'. but we must know more of the character of the seven terms if we are to find the right word to express the systemic attribute. It can do this only if there is a certain correspondence between its own character and the character of the historical environment. even sacred. is called ableness- to-be. is not matter in motion within a limited region of space and time. In passing from the pentad to the hexad it acquires just that significance that I have taken to be the systemic attribute. Starting as potentia it becomes actus. seven planets. sound a note of warning. Now it is well known that the number seven has had a special. An event. seven Pleiades. I propose to use the word significance to designate the systemic attribute of the hexad. the same can be said of the Crimean War as a whole . seven virtues. seven tones in the musical scale. As it recurs it gains in concreteness. history slipped back to the status quo of 1848. The charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava reverberates as an event. which only became significant in the context of the Reform which was an event. seven metals. Only events-or as Whitehead called them actual occasions-can be said to exist concretely. major and minor planets. and seven sins. Failing this an event. however. Throughout all the septenaries there are also notions of an inner structure : primary and secondary colours. The belief that there are seven primary qualities that attach to every important group of entities or powers is almost universal. For reasons that cannot be fully discussed here. The event asserts itself. Even an idea can be at the heart of an event. very interesting study of the septenary is Alice Bailey's Treatise on the Seven Rays. half. There are the further notions of the self-contained field and of the completed Being who can not only create. The distinction between abortive and integrative events throws much light upon the nature of the heptad. however remarkable in its own right fails to play its part in history.

in a word nearer to reality. Innumerable representations of the human body in art and in literature depict man as a septenary structure. The hexad gives us creativity realised in potentiality. It has also been shown in our preceding analysis that the sequence: Universality. it is probable that behind it all are genuine insights that could be brought into focus if we had the key to the systemic attribute of the heptad. The last sentence suggests that the progression of systems continue beyond seven terms. integration is the binding together a two acts of will and hence a heptad. It seems to me that this expresses the systemic attribute that is beyond integration. The integrated self becomes a source of free initiative-a creator 7 This was a favourite notion of Herbert Spencer who took it as the furthe stage beyond co-ordination.sufficing completeness that we find in our experience. The integrated system is an `integral' part of the entire historical realisation by which existence itself acquires essential qualities that are not exemplified in the lower systems. more concrete. A different approach is that of Gurdjieff who combines the notion of seven qualities with that of a seven-fold progression from the event in posse to the event in actu as characteristic of all true history. namely its connection with structure. 34. We have intuitions of a realisation that is deeper than history whereby the finite event acquires a limitless significance. There are attributes that we can understand only in limited partial or specialised instances. than the primitive diversity of mere happenings lacking in direction or meaning.the septenary correspond to the seven main types of historical activities divided into three primary and four secondary characters. I pp. No doubt much of fantasy and misunderstanding mars these schemes and the closely allied notion of microcosm and macrocosm linked by a common seven-fold structure . It seems to me that we can best describe this step as integration7 with the implication that it operates both within the system and to complete its own structure and without it to bring it into harmony with its environment. Representations of the human body as a septenary are to be found in almost all the traditional systems. There remains another indispensable step and that is to connect a multitude of separate acts into a structure that is more significant. and therefore a hexad. nevertheless. For reasons more intuitive than rational I took Individuality to be the eighth category of fact 8. Relatedness. Potentiality and Significance takes us to a concrete situation where we can describe events in all the wealth of form and function. Dramatic Universe Vol. Traditionally. Reciprocity. These often depict the proportions and also the arrangement required in order to achieve harmony. freedom and self . of creativity. 8 Cf. There is another feature of the seven-term system. If we take co-ordination as the juxtaposition d two triads. The notion of Individuality is beyond history and even beyond the integration of the heptad. urination. The only sound approach to the question is to see if there are any notions that cannot be expressed adequately with less than seven independent terms. men have believed that every harmonious structure has seven co-ordinated segments. The notion of individuality is associated with that of self-deter. It is known from mechanical science that a completely stable structure requires seven independent supports. 45-46 . Complementarity.

dyad and triad. In no simpler way could we reconcile the Infinite Omnipotence of God with His Personality on the one hand.in its own right. It will be elaborated as fully as I am able in the 38th Chapter of Vol. Systematics can be looked upon as the complete development and . The first eight systems with their attributes and some of their terms are given in the following table: TABLE OF SYSTEMIC ATTRIBUTES System Attribute Term Characters Monad Universality Unity in diversity Dyad Complementarity Positive and Negative Affirmation Triad Relatedness Receptivity Reconciliation Unity Tetrad Reciprocity Quantity Quality Diversity Inner Higher Pentad Potentiality Centric Lower Outer Hexad Significance Heptad Integrality Completeness Octad Individuality Transcendence The First Eight Systems I shall not carry the present discussion further. Most discussions of this central problem fail because they remain within the relatively abstract systems of the monad. Individuality is the systemic attribute that initiates a fresh cycle of realisation in which there is full co-operation between part and whole-or `in the human situation' between man and God. and with the reality of human freedom and responsibility on the other. Meanwhile my purpose is to introduce Systematics as a new fundamental discipline of thought and action and the key to an in formed understanding of many problems that at present issue in contradiction and confusion. III of The Dramatic Universe.

upon many of the apparent contradictions of our daily lives. for discovering hitherto unsuspected regularities in nature and for the better ordering of our affairs. There is no standing still in systematics. so to speak. The idea of the correspondence between systems in nature and in thought is well expressed by Cassirer. if by this we mean the study of a group of natural phenomena. Systematics is not a science. Translation J. the further development will come spontaneously by reflecting upon every kind of situation that can arise in our experience. 10 Ibid. by research and experiment.generalisation of the doctrine of the "principle of formal purposiveness" first proposed by Kant in the Critique of Judgment 9.. p. . it may be possible to show that mathematics is that branch of general systematics which deals solely with one. 26. meets it half way” 11. richer and above all more concrete expression of the Reality in which we all share. It is the instrument required for historical criticism and can help us even to understand more of the subtle yet concrete dogmas of religion. It is nearer to mathematics than to any other discipline. If systems are constituents of Reality and if we can..two. Complementarity and Relatedness are probably all the a priori notions required for deriving all the postulates and operations of mathematics. which . Bernard 1892 pp.' 11 E. it is rather an instrument applicable to all problems. I. and. Universality. H. It seems to me that once we have grasped the notion of systems and have seen that every system constitutes a legitimate way of looking at the world and even of understanding it. 126. to psychology.. As a system takes shape for our understanding and begins to disclose its systemic attribute. then systematics will prove to be an instrument of great importance for testing the validity of theories. "We find that nature `favours' the effort of our faculty of judgment to discover a systematic order among her separate forms.. but an inherent dynamism that leads on from system to system and yet leaves nothing behind. 24-27. 5. it also compels us to look beyond itself to a fuller. `The judgment has in itself a principle a priori of the possibility of nature . by applying the systemic attributes. Systematics is applicable to Art by adding the systemic attribute of reciprocity. come to understand them better. each of which penetrates more deeply into the reality than its predecessor 10. Indeed. Cassirer The Problem of Knowledge Yale 1950 p. This principle means that there is something to be understood-as I said at the beginning of this paper-and further that understanding itself is capable of unlimited progress. Introduction. 9 Cf. because there is no limit to the series of systemic attributes. I have not touched upon practical systematics: but I have verified in my own experience that light is thrown. In this paper. it assumes on behalf of a natural order cognisable by our understanding. Kant Critique of Judgment Werke Vol. by invoking the notions of field and potentiality.and three-term systems.

each moment of which is only seemingly motionless. Erst sich gestalten. each moment of which is only seemingly motionless. Das Ewige regt sich fort in allem: Denn alles muss in Nichts zerfallen Wenn es im Sein beharren will. There must be a dynamic self-creative preparation for further transformation. Nur scheinbar steht's Momente still. must be a dynamic self-creative preparation for further transformations." GOETHE Gedichte : Eins and Alles. . The dynamism of Reality pervades all and whatever seeks fixation in static being is condemned to disintegration and nothingness. dann verwandeln. "Es soll sich regen. The dynamic of Reality pervades all and whatever seeks fixation in static being is condemned to disintegration and nothingness. schaffend handeln.