The default-information originate always does not produce a static route in the routing table of the local

router on which it is configured but it will generate a default route and advertise it into the ospf domain

OSPF FILTERING
 On the ASBR
o Use route-map
 On the ABR
o Area < > filter-list prefix < prefix-list name> [in | out]
 On any router
o Distribute-list < > in [This command will only prevent the filtered route from entering
the routing table but the route will still appear in the ospf database]

EIGRP considers the load (k2) of an interface only when sending an update for some other reason. The
load is a five- minute exponentially weighted average that is updated every five seconds

The neighbor command is used in EIGRP to define a neighboring router with which to exchange routing
information. EIGRP stops processing multicast packets that come inbound on that interface. It also stop
sending multi casts to that interface. No dynamic neighbor can be either discovered or continue to work
if already discovered [over a network with more than two routers in the same subnet running EIGRP].
EIGRP exchanges routing information with that neighbor via unicasts whenever this command is used.

One difference between DHCPv4 and stateful DHCPv6 is that IPv4 hosts send IP broadcasts to find DHCP
servers, whereas IPv6 hosts send IPv6 multicasts. IPv6 multicast addresses have a prefix of FF00::/8,
meaning that if the first 8 bits of an address are binary 11111111, or FF in hex.

When using link local addresses as the next hop address when configuring IPv6 static routes, the
outgoing interface has to be specified in the configuration.

Reliable EIGRP packet types
 Update
 Query
 Reply
Unreliable EIGRP packet types
 Ack
 Hello

OSPF Frame Relay Interfaces
1) Physical - Non Broadcast
2) Multipoint subinterfaces - Non Broadcast
3) Point to Point subinterfaces - Point to Point

Show ip route ospf | begin IA
show ip ospf database | begin Summary
Show ip ospf database | include 172.16.4

The maximum number of LSAs learned from other routers can be limited by a router using the max-lsa
number OSPF subcommand. When configured, if the router learns more than the configured number of
LSAs from other routers (ignoring those created by the router itself), the router reacts. The first reaction
is to issue log messages. The router ignores the event for a time period, after which the router repeats

layer 3 switching is done in hardware (in an ASIC) instead of by software and the central CPU. Then the neighbor is transitioned to the Exchange state The Master is the router with the highest RID Sequence Number begins with 0x80000001 and increments by 1 whenever the LSA changes RouterA#debug ip ospf events OSPF events debugging is on RouterA# 04:43:16: OSPF: Rcv hello from 172. transition to an Exstart state.1.1.0.0 host 0. and then starts adding neighbors again.16. and the Dead C is the local Dead Timer. and the number of times to ignore the event.1 area 0 from Serial0/0 10. Hello R 30 C 30 The Dead R is the Dead Timer of the neighbor that in this case is 120 seconds. use "ip prefix-list z permit 0.1.1 04:43:16: OSPF: Dead R 120 C 10. can be configured with the max-lsa command. The Master/Slave relationship is established in the Exstart state.0.0.0.0” 3) prefix-list.the warning message. With Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF). discards its LSDB. (The ignore time.1 04:43:16: OSPF: Mismatched hello parameters from 10. if they have the same ASN.) If no DR is required: When sending the first DD message.1.0. This ignore-and-wait strategy can proceed through several iterations. they redistribute automatically else redistribution needs to be manually configured The redistribute command also tells the router to redistribute connected routes on interfaces enabled with that routing protocol including passive interfaces Tool command language (tcl) syntax for ping & traceroute Tclsh . It is off by default on all Cisco routers To match a default route with a: 1) Standard ACL.0.0. the outgoing interface will have to be specified because these addresses are are not routed and are not in the routing table.1.0. ending when the router closes all neighborships.0/0” When redistributing IGRP into EIGRP. use "access-list y permit ip host 0. Also note that the full interface name must be specified without spaces. When pinging a link local IPv6 address. use "access-list x permit 0.0” 2) Extended ACL.

e. Neighbor commands configured on spoke routers will not appear in the running config if the router's OSPF priority has been set to 0 on the interface which would be used to communicate with the designated neighbor. use the tclquit command. $ } { ping | trace $address} To quit tcl. This is done before it sends an ACK to the transmitting router of that LSA The metric of an OSPFv3 summary route will be the worst (highest) metric of its subordinate routes Question: what technique should be used on BGP edge routers to prevent a multi. Using this command on high-speed serial links would be less of an issue When a router receives an unknown OSPF LSA. . it would create additional overhead on these slow links and could result in flapping adjacencies if the link begins to experience congestion. .A. Although you can use the "ip ospf dead-interval minimal hello-multiplier" command on serial links.A $ . it will first of all flood the LSA out all interfaces except the interface it learned that LSA from. It takes you straight to privilege mode "Bit bucket" . .including passive interfaces.homed AS from becoming a transit system? Answer: Use an outgoing distribution-list to filter all networks not originating from inside the AS The BGP Synchronization Rule . i. 1) All routes in the routing table learned by the source 2) All connected routes of interfaces on which the source routing protocol was enabled Delay is configured in tens-of-microseconds Bandwidth is configured in kilobits per second The OSPF Type-E2 metric is simply the metric value listed in the type 5 LSA To defeat the RIP-OSPF domain loop problem using AD. just configure the AD for OSPF external routes to be higher than the AD of RIP on the same router.A. Foreach address { A.Do not use or internally advertise a route until the route is learned from a source other than BGP The redistribution command tells the router to take not only routes learned by the source routing protocol but also connected routes on interfaces enabled wit that routing protocol .A term used when a router discards a route that matches the null0 interface of a summary route N/B: for default frame relay networks.

.A....... However when advertising a route to an iBGP peer..64.. the advertising router lists its own update- source IP address as the next-hop address of the route..] N/B: 1) the next-hop IP has to be in the same connected subnet 2) with the default keyword used. address 2. Using route-maps with PBR.534 Private Use 65.495 Assigned by IANA for public use 64.When configuring per-router AD..65..... the IP address referenced is that of the neighboring router that advertises the route RIPv2 does not allow summarizing to a mask length that is less than the class full network prefix... create a static route to summarize the routes then redistribute the route using the " redistribute static" command. the advertising router does not change the next-hop IP address. To get around the " ip summary-address rip" command issue... The 4 set command options are 1) Set ip next-hop [address 1.. the set command defines the action to be taken...A.. the IOS applies the normal destination-based logic first (excluding default routes) To make the IOS process locally generated traffic using PBR logic. NOTE: this is not a limitation of RIPv2 but a Cisco IOS implementation issue You might need to issue the " clear ip route* " command on the route you wish to see changes in its routing table when using RIPv2 The administrative distance for a specific routing protocol is locally significant... the IP address of the neighboring router as referenced in the distance command in OSPF configuration will be compared to the RID of router that owns the Type-5 LSA With regards to RIP and EIGRP.. The "neighbor [A...64.... . you have two match options to use 1) Match IP address [ ] 2) Match length [min max] When a route-map (with the permit action) matches a packet..511 Reserved for use in documentation 64.. the " ip local policy route-map [ ]" global config command should be used 16-Bit ASN Assignment Categories 0 Reserved 1 .512 ..] 2) Set ip default next-hop [... when a router advertises a route using eBGP..A] next-hop self" command changes the default iBGP next-hop behavior .....496 .] 3) Set interface [ interface-type interface-number....] 4) Set default interface [ interface-type interface-number...535 Reserved BGP Operation 1) Only advertise the best route in any BGP update 2) Do not advertise iBGP-learned routes to iBGP peers By default..