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CARDINAL DE UN CONJUNTO (n) . / 0 1 2 \$       " #    ( II.                . #                 4     #                   #     " #        )     " #    (  . . #  %              '  # %    &             .   . CONCEPTO                                    !   " #    \$     #       %     GH¿QLGRDFRVWXPEUiQGRVHDXVDUFRPRVLQyQLPRVGHFRQMXQWRVDODVSDODEUDV        &  \$    #   &  \$   '   '    \$     (    (VSRUHOORTXHSRGHPRVD¿UPDUTXHODSDODEUD©FRQMXQWRªQRVGDODLGHD  '  # %    &      "     )    ' *       %                              ( +       '       . . #  %     #     " #    (  < 3 = ( ( ( ( 2     > / #                      " #    3 \$ ? @ ? A B C D E 3 6 7 F G H G I G J G K L 9  < 3 = 6 M N 6 7 K G K G F G F 9  < N = 6 F ! 6 7 7 F G O 9 G 7 P G J 9 9  < ! = 6 F IV. RELACIÓN DE PERTENENCIA ( ): . #     . + . "   %    >  Q 3 6 7 M  K L  K M  F L  F M 9 M 3 > M %              " #    3 \$    0     *  > K L 3 G F L 3 G F K 3 (      Q N 6 7 F G O G 7 H 9 G M 9 F N G O N G M N G H N G 7 H 9 N 60           .            #     " #    :            . NOTACIÓN 3 \$        " #     # 4                             5      ( 3 6 7       ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (  8 9 III.        !   " #    .  UNIDAD 7 Teoría de conjuntos I.

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      %            . #       " #    :   y  < =    c     #             " #    ( I I 3 G N Q i j u T D m @ j m z D E 2        " #    3     #     " #      3        " #        #           " #    3 ( 61           .   #         #      #    #           ' #                        " #    ( ? g W U V f R E 3 = h               " #         :       ( N = h               " #          . "   %   > 2  > 3 6 7     7  9 9 4 N 6 7     7  9   9  Q 3 N 0     *  >   Q Q 3    c     #      N \$ 7    9 3 G 7    9 N   Q Q 3   %       N \$ 7   7  9 9 3 G 7 3 9 3 3    c            N \$ 3    #     " #      N \$ i D u ? v w x T k l m E I !   :                         . #  q ( VI. RELACIONES ENTRE CONJUNTOS  i K ( k m T C j k l m < = ( 2      . DETERMINACIÓN DE CONJUNTOS: &XDQGRVHGH¿QHDOFRQMXQWR K ( B R S T R U V S W X Y Z [ X R \ W ] R S U ^ _ R X Y ` S a _ ` Z b ^   #        #     c  %   %           #               8                     )     " #    ( F ( B R S ? d ` W X Y Z [ X R \ W ] R S U ^ ` ^ e a f ^ S > . #  #     " #    3 \$    c     #      #     " #    N \$ G                    3 \$ %           N \$ ( . #  K I ( i D C j T k l m n n B R S ? d ` W X Y Z [ X E B R S T R U V S W X Y Z [ X E 3 6 o         # p 3 6 o q r q   #   :     p N 6 o K  O  M  P  s  K O  K M p N 6 o q r q   #   #       %    q t K I p i D u ? v w x T k l m E q r q      > q   #                " #       .  V.

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#    #     " #      3 \$   q   %     . #           " #    N G              #   > Q Q F   K 6 O K F P 6 O    F  6 O F O  6 O    q 6 M O 6 4  K ? 4 6 H q  4 6 s i i i O ( T D m @ j m z D  k @ j m z D ( h      " #           " #      #                        #    ( ? @ ? A B C D E  6 7 F G H G I G J 9 G  6 7 K G O G M G P 9 62           . #        " #         ' #                               (    3 6 N 3 N 4 N 3 ? @ ? A B C D E 2  > 3 6 7 K  O  M  P  s 9 3 6 N  N 6 7 q / r    %   t K L 9 ? @ ? A B C D E 2  3 4 N       " #      ' #      )         2  > 3 6 7 F  K G F P 9 4 N 6 7 O    G O K 9  i v ? D C j T k l m +              3             .        3 \$      J  #     " #     ( / {   2 #     " #       3 6 F | } ~  i F ( j u T D m @ j m z D B v D B k D ( h    #     " #    3 \$  #   #     " #    %   %     3 \$        . #     ' #    *  ( / {   2 #     " #        %      3 6 F K | } ~   i k  j x C  x   ? T D m @ j m z D ( 2      .  ? g W U V f R E 2  > 3 6 7      9 2 #     " #       3 > I 7  9 G 7  9 G 7  9 G 7    9 G 7    9 G 7    9 G 7      9 G .

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 #     " #        5        G %        c        #      #    &  %      #          '    5               ( ? g W U V f R E 3 6 7 q r q   #   '       9 63           .   .   . #       #                               >  3 6 7 q r q G q  L 9  f 3 6 7 K  F  O  H  ( ( ( ( ( ( 9  < 3 = 6 VIII.   . #      " #    . #    %              G      *                 " #     #   (       :     &      #     . #           " #    ( <  3 G 3 = (   6 7 q / r M t q t I 9   )  4 :     %    q \$ I  6 7 9 6  <  = 6 L O ( T D m @ j m z D  k m k z D ( . #          #              (  2 6 7  / r O t  t M 9  6 H 2 6 7 H 9  < 2 = 6 K ? @ ? A B C D E 2  > 3 6 7   I G    G K L 9           (        >  q  G    / i v ? D C j T k l m +   O                     <  ' #     = ( Q  Q   I 6 K L    6 K L   6 K I  q  6 F H  6 H H I I F ( T D m @ j m z D w x T  D < G 7 9 = ( .  #     " #       #                              ( 2  % #              %    q      &  (   6 7 q r O t q t K F 9  6 7 H G M G I G ( ( ( ( ( ( ( G K K 9  H ( T D m @ j m z D k m  k m k z D ( . OTROS CONCEPTOS: K ( T D m @ j m z D j m k w ? v i x C <  = ( . #      " #    . #    I    " #    :   y    #   #     " #       #   .  VII. #      " #    . CLASES DE CONJUNTOS POR EL NÚMERO DE ELEMENTOS: K ( T D m @ j m z D j m k z x v k D ( .

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DIAGRAMAS DE VENN–EULER 2     '      %                   #             ' #          (  #     SHUPLWLUiQUHSUHVHQWDUJUi¿FDPHQWHDORVFRQMXQWRV ? g W U V f R E h           " #     > 3 6 7 F  H  I 9 G N 6 7 O  H  M 9 G ! 6 7 P  J  s 9 G  6 7 K G F G O G H G M G I G P G J G s G K L 9 £   ¡ ¤   ¥  ¢   X. #     c 5       %            #     " #       3 ( 2  > 3 6 7      9 I  < 3 = 6 7 7  9  7  9  7  9  7    9  7    9  7    9  7      9  9 + #  '  >  < 3 =      J           o  < 3 = p 6 F | } ~  ? g W U V f R E ! # c                        " #    %          !   ! 6 7 F  H  I  J  K L 9 v W Y R f a _ Z [ X E !     < ! = 6 M  o  < ! = p 6 F  6 O F IX.   #         >  6 7 q r q   #   :  9   6 7 q r q   #  :          9 F ( T D m @ j m z D B D z ? m T k x o  < 3 = p ( h    #     " #    3       " #    %          3 o  < 3 = p    . DIAGRAMA DE CARROLL !     4   #        %       " #              ( x B C k T x T k l m E . #   .  #     &    s L   #      O M     # "      I F      %          4 K F     # "         %         ( ! # c     )              %           64           .

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#      # 4        (  !   " #     3 4 N < N 3 = 2  >  < N = 6 q 4  < 3 = 6 q   h    >  o  <  = p  o  < N = p 6 K K F  . 6 O M  6 M M h  % ( 6 I F /  h  % ( 6 F J K F  /  h  %         > s L K F   6 F J  6 K I PROBLEMAS RESUELTOS  K ( h    > ! 6 7   O r  G   t s 9  !    #       #                    " #    !  2  >  8 4   t s p p  F H  K K L L K K F H 2  > . #  %          " #    . #     .  v W Y R f a _ Z [ X E .         > <   O = ! 6 7 K G F G O G H G M 9 ? 6          > K M F ( 2             " #          #      c     #            G     5                          #     " #     %           K K F (     .                .

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F  ¦ F  6 K K F 6 K I ( P |    F ( < F | K = 6 F § ( < F K =   65           .

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 !   " #    3             %    q      &     > 3 6 7 K K G K F G K O G K H G K M G K I G K P G K J G K s 9  .       " #    N      < ©  K M = 3 © K L t  K M t F L  M t © t M  © 6 L  K  F  O  H %   . #  4 4 6 L  K  H  s  K I  + #  '  > N 6 7 M G I G s G K H G F K 9 ? 2 #                N 6 M M 66           .  + #  '  >  6 H 4  6 O ?  < N = 6 H 4  < 3 = 6 H  O 6 P  O ( 2  > 3 6 7 q r q K L t q t F L 9  ¨   N 6 7 4  M r 4 < ©  K M = 3 9  ! # c       #                   N   .

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= K O F M G I 9 4 N 6 7 L G K G H G I G P G J G s 9 ( 2   K K ( 2    F    " #        %         \$    . = 7  O G L G O G I 9 ¿ À Á À Â Ã Ä Å Â Æ Ç ¬ È Å É ¸ Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Å É « Ê Ñ µ    O ( 2  3 6 7 < q  H = r q  H t q t I 9 ( 3 = F P L N = K F L ! = F L L         < 3 = h = K J L .   #     " #    K L ( ! #        #                  #        ( . = I J (            " #     >  ° ± ² ± F ( h          %    q      &      d d « ¬ ­ ® ¯ ³ ´ µ ¶ · °   ' #         " #    >   d d 3 6 7 < O q O = r q / L q H 9   ¹ ° ² º º  d 3 = 7 L G K G F G O 9 N = 7 K G F G O 9 ¸ ¬ ­ ¯ ® ³ » ¼ ½ ¾ · ! = 7 L G O G I 9 h = 7 L G O G I G s 9 . 6 7 H   K G F    G O   H 9       " #    3    > 3 = K N = F ! = O  3 6 7 F q r < O q  K = / 4 H t q t J 9 h = H . #     .        #     " #        # 4                 5         :        3 .     3 = P N = P ! = F F h = F H .  PROBLEMAS PROPUESTOS K ( h         " #    P (      ª         %               y                #  %        ( I N 6 7 K H G 7 F 9 G G 7 P G K M 9 9 !    #  )   #       %    #  &    :     7 F 9 N 7 K H 9  < N =      y  #  '  # %    5       ( 2   I% 7 P G K M 9 N             K L %        ( 3   I % ^I` N        #       y        c . = F I 67           . = M 3 = O I N = K I M ! = K K I I ( h           " #     3 6 7 K G F G O G H G h = K I L . = J h = K O . = F I L 3 = H N = M ! = I s ( h          " #      ' #     > h = P . = J 3 6 7   F G   K 9  N 6 7   K G   K 9    H ( 2  N 6 7 < q  K = r q / O q t q  K H 9 ( h          % #                 ! 6 7 P   G J   9 4 h 6 7   F G   O 9 (       z N (        \$       c    3 = H N = M ! = I 3 = K L N = K K ! = K F h = P . = K H M ( !    #    <    =   . #        " #          O (           5             N 4  \$     c   '    N  3 (                       #     " #        \$ %          K K F (     . #    K H N K H N    :                  #  '  # %   7 7 F 9 G K H 9  < N =   %       ! # c     %   %              3 = K L N = K K ! = K F 5       h = K O . = K H 3 = O N = K ! = M h = H .

.

  .

= K K I h = M . = J   K F  3 = F F L N = F F H ! = F K J K J ( h      #                    h = F K I . = L K I (          " #    > F F (          #                > I^`^`^I` 3 6 7 H G J G  é ² ` ê h           # c           d ¸ ¬ ­ æ ç è Å Å  Ó » Ö ½ ë ·   ' #       %   %             ê :          >   7 F G P 9 3 7 7 H 9 9 3 I \$ ^`\$ 3 = O M N = O I ! = F P 7 H G J G 9 ^`\$  ^^I``\$ h = L . = P K M (          #                   F K ( 2   3 6 7    G H 9 #     " #     #        4 N 6 7 F   F  G    9      ±  . = s h = K K . #      # 4        ( 3 6 7 O   O   F G    G K H 9 G 3 = M N = H ! = P h             .       h = I . = I 68           .     " #    3      K H  #     " #      ã ² ä           c  . = K F J K H ( . = F O   d d « ¬ ­ Ò Ò Ò ² Ü Ó Ô Õ ´ Ö ·      ¸ ¬ Ò Ò ¬ Ò Ø « Þ ²  ³ × ¼ Õ × · K s ( 2   6 7 q   K r  I t Ü Ý t I G   Ò Ù ¬ ­ Ò Ò ¸ Ò Ð Ó ß · Ú ½ Õ ½ Û · )         #                 h             . #          (   F L (   > à ¬ ­ á â Ò Ó ´ ½ å ½ Õ » ³ · ! # c        " #     #               3  )         #                 3 = M N = I ! = P 3 = O M N = K M ! = K F h = J . = s  #     " #     %   %      N 6 7  G F  G  G F   K 9 K F ( ! # c      #     " #               3 = P N = K M ! = O K      #     " #     # 4          h = I O .             " #    !  #     " #     ( 3 = F N = O ! = M 3 = K I N = I H ! = O F h = J .     *       . = F M I  3 7 7 H 9 G 7 F G P 9 9 3 3 = M N = H ! = P h = O . #  %          " #    K P ( h         " #    #        > . = K K h = J . 6 7  r / G  t P O 9 ¯ #           ' #    K (         :     °    r  ( 3 = K K K N = K K O ! = K K L 3 = O N = H ! = I h = K K M . = F L L 3 6 7 F q r q / G K L t O q  F t K J 9 3 = K s N = K J ! = F H K O ( h           " #     > ² h = F I .

.

  .

= K F L 3 = H N = J ! = s h = K I .  F O ( 2          " #     > F P (   '       \$   '      #  ²  « ¬ ­ Ò Ò Ò      #           #      :   I ¼ Ó » Ö ½ ½ ¾ ·  ì %               4 %         N 6 7 r q 3 9 å ' #          %           :   °      y     F %      4 M      ° í  c q    \$ h   # c               ! 6 7 r 4 N 9 ® ¯  % #        '     '       \$  3 = I H N = M I ! = O F                    < ! = h = F I . = F J F s ( !               " #     >  d  3 6 7 q r q G Ò F M ( ! # c      #     " #     %   %      Ö ´ Ö · ×   3 r <  r O = 3 ¸ ¬ ­ Å       . = O F F J ( 2  3 4 N       " #     #         ! # c                   !   F H (          " #    > 3 6 7   F  G K P 9 N 6 7 O    G K I 9  3 6 7 q  H r q / G q  t K I 9 º  d d ! 6 7 q r q / G Ò     #       #                µ · 3 = M N = I ! = P   3 ( h = H . = I ü ý þ ÿ                . = F 3 = K L N = K I ! = K s h = F P . = I H F I ( h         " #    > O L ( h           " #     >  î  d d ² 3 6 7 q r q G ù Ò  d å ¯ « ¬ ­ Ò å  ´ ¶ ·   Ó » Ô Õ ½ ´ ·   N 6 7 4  H r 4 / G É Ê « í ¯ å ¯ å ¼ Ô ´ · ð ú ö ö Â ö ó Ã À À ö À Ã À Å Á ò ó À ö ! # c       #                  ô µ µ µ µ û û ð ò Å õ Å Á ò ¸   3  3 = O M L N = O P s ! = K F s 3 = F N = O ! = H h = F M F . = O H K h = M . #      " #    . = M K K h = O F . #       O M º ô ¼ · Ù ð ñ ð ð Å Á ò ó ó ò Å õ Å Á ò ó Á Ä À Å À À ö ï  #     " #               ô ð ò Å õ Å Á ò ÷ É ¸ Ê ø 3 = K F P N = I O ! = O K 3 = K I N = H ! = J h = K L F O .

                                .

                                  .

                    69           .