E ENGRAVED GEMS

OF CLASSICAL TIMES

./ H. Middleton

THE ENGRAVED GEMS OF CLASSICAL TIMES. .

A. BROCKHAUS. got*: MACMILLAN AND CO. . J. AVE MARIA LANE. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE. BELL AND CO. : DEIGHTON. JUipjtj: F. CLAY & SONS. Emrton: C.

1891 [AH Kigali reirmii. CAMHRIDCE.K.THE ENGRAVED GEMS OF CLASSICAL TIMES WITH A CATALOGUE OF THE GEMS IN THE F1TZWILLIAM MUSEUM. sl. AND FF.AIir PROFESSOR OF FINE ART." CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.I. 'HENRY MIDDLETON. AUTHOR OF "ANCIENT ROME IN 1888.LIAM MUSEUM.} . DIRECTOR OF THE FITZWII.LOW OF KING'S COLLET. I1Y V J.

M. AND SONS. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. . CLAY. J.A. ambrfogc : PRINTED BY C.

MEMORIAE VIRI CARISSIMI CAROLI WILHELMI KING. .

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VII TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page 4? to 58. CHAPTER VI. Page 17 to 34- GREEK GEMS. CHAPTER V. CYLINDERS AND OTHER EARLY SIGNETS. . Page ix to XV. CHAPTER VIII. Page 97 to 102. CHAPTER I. CHAPTER VII. INSCRIPTIONS ON GEMS (CONTINUED). GREEK GEMS (CONTINUED) AND ETRUSCAN SCARABS. Page 66 to 83. Page 84 to 96. I'KKKACE AND LIST OF AUTHORITIES. Page 59 to 65. CAMEO GEMS. CHAPTER III. ROMAN GEMS. INSCRIPTIONS ON GEMS. CHAPTER II. Page 35 to 46. CHAPTER IV. SCARABS. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANCIENT GEMS. Page I to 16.

Page 140 to 157. CATALOGUE OF THE GEMS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM Page i to xxv. THE MATERIALS USED FOR ENGRAVED GEMS (CONTINUED). CHAPTER XI. CHAPTER XII. TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER X. Page 129 to 139. APPENDIX. CHAPTER IX. INDEX. GEMS IN MEDIAEVAL TIMES. THE TECHNIQUE OF GEM-ENGRAVING. THE MATERIALS USED FOR ENGRAVED GEMS. Page 121 to 128. . Page 103 to 120.

The various tools and technical processes used by the ancient gem-engravers have been discussed at some length. very frequently. and has been written with the hope that it may in some cases lead the reader to a more detailed and practical study of this most fascinating subject. the following pages I have attempted to give a brief INaccount of the engraved gems and other forms of signet which were used by the chief classical races of ancient times. With regard to the Appendix containing the catalogue of the gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum. The book is intended for the general use of students of archaeology. since a close attention to these points is specially desirable as a much-needed help the frequently difficult task of dis- in tinguishing between gems of different origin and date. with very few exceptions. on the whole. The gems which are described in this catalogue were. have attempted to I indicate the period to which each gem seems to belong. in attaining to anything like certainty on this point. in spite of the great difficulty there is. in giving the reader a notion of the general style and character of the gem in question. the attempt to distinguish periods of workmanship has its use. IX PREFACE. yet. Even though in many cases my judgment may be erroneous. collected by Colonel Lcakc. the .

however. 1866. gems. and his widow died in 1863. Colonel Leake bequeathed to his will. the whole collection should be offered to the University of Cambridge for the sum of ^5000. coins. with the provision that at her death. the well-known author of many works on antique gems. and its value has largely increased since 1864. by a vote of the Senate on Feb. bronzes. his wife for her life his whole collection of books. 1864. Senior Fellow of Trinity College.A. At this Mr King's eyesight had time. Mr King's chief works on gems were the following Antiqiie gems. 1887. begun to fail. illustrated by a photographic process which gives the actual character of each gem better than the woodcuts in Mr King's work.. 1866. 17. Colonel Leake died in 1860. The actual value of the whole Leake collection was probably double of the sum paid for it. It was then decided. Precious Stones and Metals. re- printed in Bohn's Series in 1883. enlarged edition. vases and other antiques. that Colonel Leake's testamentary offer should be accepted and that 5000 out of the funds of the Fitzwilliam Museum should be devoted to this important acquisition. which are full of interesting matter illustrated by the widest reading and the most copious learning. 4. 1865. 1859. 2 vols. and in consequence of that a certain number of inaccuracies crept into his descriptions which make it de- sirable that another catalogue should be prepared. 1872. The Gnostics and tlieir remains. The coins alone are now worth considerably more than the 5000 which was paid for the whole collection. And also a large number of articles on gems published in the . In1870 a catalogue of Colonel Leake's gems was pub- lished by the late Charles William King. They came into the pos- session of the Fitzvvilliam Museum in the following manner. distinguished author of valuable works on the Topography of Athens and other kindred subjects. By dated Jan. Handbook of engraved gems. Antiqtte gems and rings.X PREFACE. Cambridge. M.

LF. XI Archaeological Journal. PREFACE. Of his loss as a friend it is impossible to speak ' acternumque Nulla dies nobis maerorem e pcctorc dcmet. written by Mr King in 1878. T." J. consisting of 330 examples of various dates. CAMBRIDGE.OK. All these works are full of valuable matter. KING'S COI.. who presented the whole collection politan Museum in New York City. MIDDLETON. HEN. In 1881 it was sold to an American gentleman. A descriptive catalogue. Mr J. and arc written in the most interesting style. was formed by him between the years 1845 and 1877. to the Metro- Johnston. . Mr King's own collection of gems. was published by the New York Museum in 1882. Mr King died suddenly in London on the 26th of March. XIX.. XVIII. 1888. Vols. and others.

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King. Gemmc anticlic di Dom. one of quite modern production. 1 747. with the names of which classical students will be familiar. 1761. Roma. Maffei. Gemmaeantiquae caelalac. W. Museum Florentinnm. Amsterdam. XIII WORKS ON ANTIQUE GEMS'. 1731 1762. DC la Chausse. Roma. 1700. 1724. sive tlusaurus gemmarum.. 1751. Rome. showing. Flo- rence. Maffei. at least. Zanctti. Germany and Italy. France. and the same collection described by Winckclmann. Trait/ des pierrcs gravt'es. and Museum Odescalchum. 1686. 1750. Pierres gravi'es dit feit Baron de Stosch. de Rossi colle sposizioni di P. Dactyliotheca. Roma. Trait/ des pierrcs gravt'es. 1760. Rome. Gori. 2 vols. list . Gcmme anticlit figitratc. 1707. Gcmme anticlic di Michelangelo Causeo dc la Chaitsse. little in certain cases. A large number of the most valuable monographs on gems arc scattered through the volumes of the chief archaeo- logical periodicals of Kngland. Florence. that a special gem is not. Natter. 1 The most important worki in Knglish on cngrmed gemi we thotc written bjr C. 1'arjs. a of which is given in the Preface on pgc x. London. Stosch. Maricttc. Hooks on gems of the i/th and iSth centuries arc now of but value except for the records they supply. A. The chief works of this class arc these : Agostini.

Panofka. St Petersburg. 1866. Vol. Manyother large and costly works with illustrations of antique gems were published in the i8th century. Berlin. London. folio. Erklarcndes Verzeichniss der antiken verticft ge- schnittenen Steine. Vol. Raspe. Akad. dealing with the same subject. and new edition. Paris. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. pp. 2 vols. II.. 18501853. Compte-rendu dc la Commission Impcriale Archfologique. Gottin- gen. Gesammclte Schriften. Abhandlungen der Konig. 3855I9- Brunn. Berlin. Drawings of too gems in the Marlborough Collection. pp. the main object of the artist being to give a pretty picture rather than a faithful copy. 1889. printed in. and. 303433. Kohler. 1851. Stcpliani. St Petersburg. 1767. London. II. hcrausgcgcben von L. Gemmcn mit Inschriften. Stephani and others. Muller-Wieseler. 1859. 1768. engraved by Bartolozzi. Worlidge. Catalogue of gems cast in paste by James Tassie. Chabouillet.. PP. Antiquite's du Bos- phore CimmMen. Brunswick. 1791. Among more recent works the following are the most valuable Toelken. 1858. Antique gems.. 1854. but the engravings of that time give little or no notion of the real character of the gems they represent. Denkmaler der alien Kunst. Gori. 1780 1791.xiv WORKS ON ANTIQUE GEMS. 1860 to the present time. Theil II. Geschichte der Griechischen Kilnstler. 444 637. 1835. Venice. Dactyliotheca Smithiana. 1869. . St Petersburg. Gerhard. Gesammelte akademische Abhandlungen und kleine Schriften. Catalogue des camees et pierrcs gravdes de la Bibliotlicque Impe"riale. Cipriani.

. 78 to 90. Catalogue of gems in the Uritis/t Museum. N. Other works arc referred to in the following text. Milchhocfer. 1888. London. 1886. Catalogue of the Marlborongh gems. Mykenische Vasen. H. Die Anfdnge der Kunst in Gricchenlami. Merlin. S. 1870. London. Leipzig. Story.Maskclync. A. 1883. XV H. WORKS ON ANTIQUE GEMS. Murray. with an Introduction by A. privately printed. Smith. Furtwiinglcr and others. pp.

25 . XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Page 41. 14. king of Per- gamus. Jewish signet with owner's name . Page 107. 17 .th century B. 23 . 2600 B. 2 to 12. 18. Hero with bow and arrow . fig. i Babylonian cylinder of c. Satyr and wine-cup . Roman gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum. fig. xxvf. Page 19. Page 105. fig. PLATE I. Page 1 1 o.. Page 30. showing the use of the diamond-point. Page 25. 20 . 24.C. Lenticular gem showing the use of the wheel. Portrait head of Eumenes I. Greek scarab of finest style. fig. Page 108. Page 19. APPENDIX.C. . Various forms of "Hittite" signets. 16. Phoenician scarab of mixed Egyptian and Assyrian style.C. with rude drill-work. Page 14. Lenticular gem. Etruscan scarab. Page 26. Gem showing a man working with the drill and bow. Lion and stag: fine Greek work of the 5th century B. 22 . gth or 8th century B. fig. Glandular gem with rude figure of an ibex. Pages 7 to u. Head of Zeus . . Greek gem of the 6. 19. fig. 13. fig. fig. fig. Lenticular gem. fig. fig. to face p. Page 112. PLATE II. 15 . fig. fig. Greek scarab of the finest style. showing the use of the tubular drill. fig. Greek gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum. figs. 21 .C. with two goats of heraldic style. Page 66. Page 4.

l. 42. the impression of which gave that authenticity and authority to a document which in modern times is more usually conferred by a written signature. for example in ancient : Egypt. SCARABS The earliest class of signets which now exist. : Sfants with the exception of some Egyptian rings made wholly "ings. In the same way a duplicate of Augustus" signet was entrusted to a friend in Rome for use during the Emperor's absence on military expeditions . and put it upon Joseph's hand. sec below. The signet of a king was commonly L'uaf regarded as an authoritative symbol of his power. the symbol of the Sun-god Ra. I . AND OTHER EARLY SKJNKTS. of gold. about the 4th century li. SCARABS.lll. hard stones or jewels engraved with a name or a device were of special importance from their use as signets. It was not until a comparatively late period. CYLINDERS. with permission to use it as. At first they were made and used simply for the practical purpose of signets. which he could delegate to a subject by entrusting to him the royal seal. . page 49 and cf. the Fertilizer of M. when writing was a rare accomplishment practised by few except professional scribes or members of a priesthood. when the Pharaoh of the time invested Joseph with " vice-regal power over his kingdom. Dio Cass. are in the form of the sacred scarabaeus beetle of Egypt." GCH. CHAPTKR I. xli. Revised Version. Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand. I\ early times. 30.c. that engraved gems were commonly treated as personal ornaments.

is cut on the flat underside of the scarab. the World 1 . 2 The great bulk of them. like so many of the Egyptian scarabs. in which it encloses its eggs. . f of an inch to i inches long. were made for many other purposes besides that of signets 2 . 1 The scarabaeus beetle (Egyptian Kheper) was adopted as this symbol on account of its moulding large balls of clay. a vitreous glaze being applied by the maker both to steatite and clay scarabs 3 . which appears to have been one of the earliest ways of wearing any kind of signet.device. CYLINDERS another very early class of signet is the : cylinder of Assyria and Babylon. when required be revolved. Some of the signet-scarabs which are too large for setting in a ring were worn on a string round the neck a method . and its for use as a signet. The back of the scarab is cut into the beetle form.C. In later times the scarab form of signet was adopted by the Phoenicians. but arc cut out of hard stones. especially those made of were sacred pottery. and the signet. charms or amulets rather than signets. hole drilled A longitudinally through the scarab allowed it to be set in a Revolving simple ring (8a/cTi>\io<. swivel passing through the perforation. In point of date the oldest scarab-signets of Egypt go back to a very remote period examples have been found with the : names of kings of the 4th Dynasty. measuring most commonly from. and about half an inch to an inch in diameter. the Greeks and other races. Cylinders. clay or other soft plastic substance. and the majority of them are not cut in hard stone or crystal. round like the world. who either directly or indirectly came under Egyptian influence. and the beetles young burst forth from the clay ball. SCARABS AND [CHAP. 3 The Fitzwilliam Museum possesses a good collection of this class of scarab : they are described in the forthcoming catalogue of Egyptian objects in the Museum by Mr Budge. dating about 3700 years B. but are moulded in clay or worked out of the comparatively soft steatite. i. These are not made of clay. usually a hieroglyphic inscription. the scarab could flat side brought outwards and pressed on wax. The heat of the sun hatches the eggs.) of gold or other metal. with a wire or mounts. Materials should however be noticed that the scarabs of Egypt It of scarabs. so that.

carnclian.] CYLINDERS. chaps. where the device is mentioned as being repeated again chemUm. diameter to receive a woollen or linen cord instead of a metal wire. especially among the earliest cylinders. and again in various materials under the name of " the palm- tree and the winged cherubim*. 1 The Phoenician tcarab illiutratcd in has example* of the fig. they appear to have been used by all the " except very poorest classes. The sacred tree (Hum) between two guardian beasts or winged figures of human form occurs very often.. or else- 1 strung round the neck Though used primarily by the . and vii. powerful races of the Kuphrates Valley. together with figures of various deities." mentioned in Genesis xxxviii. accompanied frequently by attendant genii or worshippers. These . such as the Semites of Phoenicia and Palestine. The signet and the cord. A very favourite subject. as we read in I vi. rock crystal." A very large number of these Babylonian and Assyrian cylinders still exist." 1 In few cases the cylinder is mounted on a metal pin with a bou at each end to hold it fatt. 13. and even in the early island " colonies of the Phoenicians. So also in Canticles viii. chaps. chalcedony. I.. winged Cherubim of Anyria. page 14. is a deity or a king slaying a lion. 18 and 25./ cylinders are drilled longitudinally with a hole of sufficient '"^. or more rarely amethyst and lapis lazuli. Revised Version (or "signet and bracelets" of the Old Version) are examples of this use of the cylinder. This very early and widely popular design was largely used by the Tyrian builders of Solomon's temple."^.CHAP.IA-AW. but this in quite exceptional. and in 2 Chronicles. iii. This latter is the most characteristic of the designs used by the inhabitants of the Kuphrates valley from them it was . haematite. They arc usually engraved /><M<C' with the name of the owner in cuneiform characters. Kings. 3 such as green jasper. the phrase occurs "set me as a seal upon thine arm. Paim-tnt tov. and thus spread over an area as wide as the whole range of Phoenician trade. 12 . 6. adopted by the Phoenicians. these cylinder signets were not unknown among other nations. and they were worn as a bracelet on the wrist. that is through- out the whole of the shores and islands of the Mediterranean.

the servant of the god Martu (Rimmon). between two repre- sentations (reversed) of the same subject Gistubar strangling a lion : real size. Sargon I. i. son of Nur-Martu. Some of them are very fine examples of ancient Oriental designed with much spirit and executed with art." Dates of Examples of these cylinders exist extending over a very cylinders. for example.. The equally fine cylinder of Sargon I.C. wonderful minuteness and delicacy of touch in the highly decorative and conventional style which is common to all the best Assyrian sculpture. on which is cut a very noble figure of the deified hero Gistubar strangling a lion 1 see fig. a fine haematite cylinder in the British Museum which " is inscribed thus. On the fine cylinders of this early period the most frequent subjects are 1 Gistubar and his companion Hea-bani slaying lions or bulls. from about 2600 B. owner standing by in the attitude of worship. whatever its scale may be. The very decorative treatment of the hair. as. like Heracles and lolaos in early Greek art. sometimes separately and sometimes together. with the name of theowner and his deity in cuneiform characters. The inscription usually gives the name both of the deity and of the owner . and seems to be the work of the same engraver. dating about 2600 B. BABYLONIAN AND [CHAP. is specially noticeable. : FIG. the signet of a scribe. (in Paris) is closely similar in style to this. Impression from an early Babylonian cylinder of the finest style. to 200 B. as.C. The cylinder signet of a private person commonly has a and often a representation of the figure of his special deity. .C. Those of early date arc the finest and most powerful in style. Abum-ilu the scribe. i. i. for example. wide period of time. or even later. a magnificent Babylonian cylinder of jasper in the British Museum. both of the heroes and of the lions.

but inferior in spirit and vigour to the engravings of earlier elate. most clumsy workmanship.C. 1 iti u " described ai being changed as clay under the teal" . and at the same time received the impress of the cylinder". Lastly. I would probably be two centuries earlier than is suggested above. as a rule. The fine clay used for scaling not only with cylinders.CHAT. in Kgypt. and with the cuneiform inscription. the date of the cylinder shown in fig. where Heaven. According to some archaeologists his reign was as early as about 2800 H. but hieroglyphic in- scriptions. with night ami morning. not large figure subjects.. The cylinder form of signet was also used. the cylinders of the 3rd century H. the signet of Darius is Hystaspes. The Kgyptian cylinders arc. arc very rude in design and of the coarsest. exactly like the scarabs on them are cut : or moulded. In later times. 5 The date of Sargon I. not made of crystal or jasper. but of pottery or steatite covered with a blue glaze. The custom of wearing the cylinder-signet as an orna- ment appears to have led to the use of plain uncngraved cylinders. which was thus flattened out over the surface destined to receive the seal. I. great A many of these in rock-crystal and glass have been found in the tombs of Camiros in Rhodes and elsewhere in the Greek islands and sea-port towns. This also is in the British Museum. the Great King" thrice repeated in the Persian.C. a jasper cylinder engraved with the king in a chariot hunting lions. The most remarkable example of this. though not Egyptian commonly. If so. Habylon produced cylinders of very minute and delicate workmanship. dating from the end of the 6th century IU'. Median and Assyrian languages. strung on necklaces like large beads. "I am Darius. xxxviii. They appear to have been usually worn round the neck. 14.] ASSYRIAN CYLINDKKS. When used as a signet the cylinder was rolled over a soft Uutf lump of wax or clay. showing the influence of Greek art. is not known with any certainty. under the Persian conquerors Darius and /'<< Xerxes. but also with other forms of See Boat of Joh.

Stamps on The method of sealing by rolling an engraved cylinder pottery. magnificent vigour of the figures on the early Assyrian . with the device sunk on the broad end. Cones. used for many different pur- poses. I. Many of the so-called Hittite signets are conical in form. [CHAP. not in the form of cylinders. engraved gems. The mediaeval system of sealing was similar pendant seals of wax being fastened to to this. but before it was fired. still exist. often very similar in design and style to the sculptured reliefs on the architrave from the Temple at Assos. Herodotus (II. 6 CYLINDERS AND CONES. was called y>j arr]/j. The subjects on these bands are rows of animals. These cones. were pressed on rounded lumps of clay in which a piece of string was embedded for the attachment of the seal to a document. and therefore the pattern repeats regularly at that interval. : signets of conical form. but of truncated cones. both religious and secular sec page 37. by rolling along a cylinder or disc. Many examples of these clay seals have been found in Egypt. figs.C. oyer SQ fa c j ay a pp ears o h ave suggested a form of decoration. 38) describes the Egyptian priests using this clay to mark with their signets the animals which were accepted for sacrifice. were sometimes used. The patterns on these were moulded in relief on the plastic " " clay. These belong to a period of artistic decadence. mostly dating from the 6th or 5th century B.. on the edge of which the design was sunk. The later Persian signet-gems. Tritons and the like. parchment deeds by a cord embedded in the wax. were also very commonly cut. now in the Louvre.ai>Tpl<i (erqpalva) to seal). and are usually poor in design and coarse in execution a great contrast to the . These discs were usually about 9 or 10 inches in circumference. after the jar was thrown on the wheel. CONICAL SIGNETS in Assyria. (- which was largely used by the potters of Etruria for the shoulders of their colossal jars (pit/wi). see pages 7 and 8. . 2 and 3. of the same materials as the cylinders. even at an early period. of which a great number of examples. from about the time of Alexander downwards.

marbles and serpentine of various colours black. i. and the fur- ther change from the cone to the hemispherical or annular seal. Rude cylinders of the Assyrian shape. belong to the class of gems as they are mostly cut out of the softer stones. so-called. Fin. such .c. at a very early period.c. 2. 1 For an account of cylinders and other Oriental gcm. sec fig. butnone of them appear to have been set in rings all .] "HITTITE" SIGNET& 7 cylinders of about 2600 H. 2. white. perhaps fifteen or sixteen centuries li. " The variety of the shapes of these " Hittitc gems is very great. I. were suspended in some way by a cord. as steatite and fine limestones. The following are the chief forms of these signets: i . probably round the neck of the owner. which appear to have been made by some powerful race. strictly speaking. " The name Hittitc" has been given to a very remarkable lliititt" and primitive class of signets.EMS. with the principal device on the base. whose influence extended throughout a considerable portion of Northern Syria and Asia Minor. red and brown: a few are on an inferior variety of pale green jasper.C. and also to the delicate minute- ness of the Persian cylinders of the 5th century B. and the hole or groove for suspension near its smaller end . MC DC Vo|. These signets do not. They are however of very great interest to the student of early gems..CHAP.' " HITTITE" <. since many ' of them appear to be prototypes of the lenticular Island gems .ue . Cones." and others of various forms seem to show the gradual Change* oj modification of the cylinder into the cone-signet.

Paris. Another variety of the cone is very short in proportion to its diameter. Melanges (f Archeologie Orientate . Some of these its axis. not only on the base. but also round the sides of the cone. A further development of this shape. i. 5. . almost hemispherical in shape see fig. 3. and Menant. Cone cone is pierced the hole is drilled at right angles to If the signets. Levy. glyptiyue Orientate. Paris. VARIOUS FORMS [CHAP. A ring-like stone. Siegel und Gcmmen mil aramaischcn &c. with its hole for suspension enlarged. it must therefore have been suspended in the usual way by a cord . This variety. FIG. 1868. 4 . conical signets are engraved with figures. thus forming a link with the cylindrical shape of signet. 3. see fig. Breslau. Inschriften. Recherches sur la. in which the perforation is not large sigiuls. King 3. leads to the annular form of signet. which rarely occurs. enough for the signet to be worn on the finger. 4. 1886. 1869. FIG. FIG. . not longitudinally as in the cylinders.

A great many of these signets have the bean-like. circular.Me on the lower side where the device is cut. but sometimes. allowing a cord or wire to be securely wrapped round the signet. class no. 9 is an actual finger-ring cut out of stone. The perforation runs longitudinally through the tablet. 7. 2). and thus giving four or more surfaces for separate devices. Another less frequent variety seems to have developed out of the cylinder by slicing its round sides off. making it square or polygonal in section. oval. Out of this form the handled signet was developed. the latter being rounded off. described below. 5. only sufficient to receive the perforation for the suspension of the seal. with a groove cut all round the rim of the disc. 5. instead of the continuous band of the cylinder. and Jorm ' tablet. Handled signets . 6. 6. 4. . in some cases moulded into ornamental forms at the place ." usually with ' a longitudinal perforation. flat shaped like a low-pitched roof on the other side. 7. Others have tall handles. sec fig. giving in section a triangle with one obtuse and two acute angles. a large proportion of these signets arc cut into various shapes with handles worked out of the same piece of stone. instead of that. I. but by a groove cut round the smaller end of the cone. The handles too vary greatly in shape. sec fig. />>>/ " lenticular shape of the so-called Island gems. with one side- flattened to form the bezel for the signet device sec fig. 6. some being short projections. A few of the conical signets also were suspended in the same way (sec fig.CHAP. Km. rectangular or lobcd. square. Another form among these signets is a rectangular t. 7.] OK "HITTITK" SIGNETS. The flat surface where the device is cut is of many forms. not by means of a hole drilled through them.

1887. Journ. 9 and 10. The pierced handle is elaborately moulded. 347 to 350. FIG. . in a fashion which suggests metal-work rather than hard stone. FIG. with minutely engraved figures of deities on five sides of the cube. and now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Though resembling in general form the handled signets of the " Hittite" class. pp. FIG. the most important in the world. IO VARIOUS FORMS [CHAP. 1 It has been described and illustrated by Professor Sayce. 2 to 12. where the cord passed through the handle : see figs. 9. formed by the Rev. Arch. 10. XLIV. The workmanship of this remarkable signet is and very delicate skilful. Chester Like the seals shown in figs. 7. it is most probably the work of a Phoenician it was found in or near Antaradus on the gem-engraver : 1 coast of Phoenicia . i. the finest and most collection. This a large cubical signet cut out of a fine piece of is black magnetite. a striking contrast to the " " usual very coarse figures on the Hittite seals. 8. elaborate of these handled signets is among the very fine collection of "Hittite" gems. Vol. Grevillc Chester.

] OK "IIITT1TE" SIGNETS. like the sixes on ordinary ivory dice. Animals. see figs. and others too coarsely drawn to be distinguished." very like the heraldic eagle of mediaeval Austria. I. 11. hatched border is a double-headed eagle "displayed. This double-headed eagle was adopted as his badge by the cele- brated Moslem conqueror Saladin.. with a rounded handle cut out of hard whitish limestone. I I " " The devices on the Hittitc signets are usually extremely f)tfi(ei OH llittile rude and coarsely cut. together with very rude human figures frequently occur. large drills and wheels. n. It certainly was copied and introduced into Western Europe by the Crusaders of the 12th century A. Some of these signets have no more elaborate device than rows of drill-sunk holes. who may possibly have taken it from some of these early reliefs. 5 and 10. designed with much spirit and decorative power.. Kic. most of the sinking being done with iignrts. (see figs. which have been attributed to the same "Hittitc" race. 1 and 12) closely resembling the seme patterns which fill up 1 J} Kit. Within a circular. Museum) one remarkable circular signet. Other signets have simple geometrical patterns.CHAP. such as goats and stags. or more probably by one of his successors. It is to be seen over one of the gates of the citadel of Cairo. the backgrounds of early Greek pottery of the so-called " " " Oriental and " Uipylon types. formed mainly by combinations of wheel-cut straight lines. .O. There is however in the Chester collection (Ashmolean Kagle sigittt. which is said to have been built by Saladin. the device on which is a much more skilful piece of work. with but little help from subsequent re-touching. The same device occurs on some of the rock-cut reliefs of Asia Minor.

for ample opportunity examine the gems at Oxford. These imitations of Egyptian work were probably made by Phoenician settlers 2 . Evans. and to in his own very valuable private collection. keeper of the Ashmolean Museum. the name which was given to this class of objects at their first discoverymay be provisionally retained. are found in Rhodes. from its having the general outline without the detail of the true scarab. Egypto. A large number of scarabs made of pottery or steatite in Phoenician . yet they district inhabited are also largely found in regions with which. in the by the Canaanites of Cocle-Syria. instead of being shaped like the sacred beetle. and primitive signets. and have the back simply rounded.11 i scarabs. and thus the familiar "displayed eagle" of Austria may have originated in the device used by some chief of the once 1 powerful eastern race which used these very interesting . In some Phoenician copies are made o{ paste cases these or glass. until further researches have led to more accurate information on the subject.i_ -r? *_ r i '. 1 I have to thank Mr A. a form which is usually called the scarabaeoid." as applied to signets and sculpture of uncertain date and origin. and also for many useful suggestions on the subject. since although monuments of the people who are so called have been found in the country of the Hittites. as far as is known. Nevertheless. the true Hittites had no connection. but with almost meaningless copies of Egyptian designs with blundered hieroglyphic inscriptions. Cyprus and other islands of the Mediterranean some of them apparently are . 3 The Fitzwilliam Museum possesses a good collection of these "Island scarabs. coarsely executed. both those in the Museum. that is." . it should be observed that the name is a somewhat misleading one. " " 12 HITTITE SIGNETS AND [CHAP.C. PHOENICIAN GEMS. J. I. as early as the I4th to the loth century B. The name With regard to the word "Hittite. tne Egyptian form.

These gems.CHAP. both for their own use and for purposes of trade. not with any special meaning. such as jasper. arc commonly found in Phoenicia itself. however.c. from Camiros in Rhodes. In other cases Phoenician gems arc either wholly Kgyptian or wholly Assyrian in style. and in the islands of the Mediterranean. In later times. with very little admixture of any forms which are of purely Phoenician origin. 13 No. from the 8th to the 4th centuries It. have a longitudinal perforation. throughout Syria. I. chalcedony and carnelian. engraved in the harder stones. it is a characteristic specimen of Phoenician art. not in a handled setting. Some of these scarabs have engraved devices of great beauty and most delicate execution.SVA>/// of Assyria and of Kgypt. have Kgyptian deities and sacred symbols arranged. the Phoe- nician scarabs which. Their minute workmanship and very high finish is as re- . though small in scale. which most commonly combines the types . and even when Phoenician deities arc represented. like those of Kgypt. I.. and. were set in a swivel mount.] PHOENICIAN SCARABS. very much like a form of seal which was commonly used in the last century. One or two examples in the Ashmolean Museum arc among the finest which exist : they were brought from the coast of Phoenicia by Mr Grcvillc Chester. is a good example of this class (see I'l. but simply so as to fill up the space in the most decorative and graceful way. The finest of these. arranged and treated with that remarkable decorative skill for which the Phoe- nician artists were so celebrated. In most cases. they are usually treated to some extent after the fashion of cither Kgypt or Assyria.). and probably arc considerably earlier in date than the scarabs from Tharros. such as Haal-Mclkarth or Baal-Moloch. 3 in the Catalogue of the Kitzwilliam gems. a large number of scarabs and scarabacoicls of very superior workmanship were made by the Phoenicians. cut in chalcedony or sard. One remarkable signet in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford consists of a steatite scarab of Egypto-Phocnician style. set in an open bron/e frame with a small ring for suspen- sion. fusing them into one design.

influence having turned during the days of Phoenician de- cadence. came from the cemetery of the Phoenician colony of Tharros in Sardinia. in addition to the earlier designs borrowed from Egypt and Assyria. purely Egyptian origin and the whole character of the scarab . between two winged cherubim of Assyrian style : orb of the sun. and most delicately worked in all its details. One ami a half times the real size. with the result that Phoenician art was modified by that of the Greeks whereas some centuries earlier . the symbol of the sun-god Ra. Fig. The . It is however more than probable that in some cases the scarabs arc much older than the date of the tomb in which they were buried. arranged. it was Greek art that received the influence of Phoenicia. 4 in the Fitzwilliam collection is a specially interesting *tida"' example of a scarab of this later type it was found in a . Scarab of No. Tharros o f the finest collections.C.c. without regard to meaning. design on the sacred beetle with outspread wings. 13 shows one of the FIG. Phoenician scarab of exceptionally delicate workmanship. with devices of Egyptian and Assyrian style arranged in a very decorative way. The device consists of various sacred Egyp- tian and Assyrian symbols. in most cases associated with objects which range in date from the 5th to the 3rd century B. I. These later Phoenician scarabs frequently have. dating probably from the 8th century li. markable as their graceful design. Greek tomb in the island of Aegina. page 67. is of it. other subjects and forms of purely Greek origin the tide of . simply as a decorative device. now in the British Museum Qne (nos. and is inscribed with the name of its owner Kreontidas see below. I 4 PHOENICIAN SCARABS [CHAP. finest of these. In the centre is the Egyptian god Horus seated on a lotus at the top is the winged flower. 13. 155 to 221).

Nothing is more difficult than to attain to any certainty cither as to the date or the origin of works of art of this class. A on the large thin di- similar giiilloclie border occurs Rttrdtrs on coins. this gMilltxhe pattern was once commonly called the "Etruscan border. closely resembles some examples which are certainly of Phoenician workmanship. forming in a scries of circular loops. and even technical peculiarities and details of style remain unchanged for very long periods. which have an incuse design on the rrserse. Both as a painted and as a carved pattern it occurs very frequently the architectural fragments of prc-Persian among date. when used as a border for scarabs or scarabaeoids.C. mainly owing to the technical difficulty of cutting a curved as compared with a straight line on a hard stone or jewel'. very frequently surrounded by a peculiar border usually called " the cable border. It survived in Greek on painted vases. which is one of the commonest patterns used in the early sculpture. In most cases.] OF LATER STYLE. the pattern has lost its curved lines.. those.CHAP. which have been recently discovered on the Acropolis of Athens. and as a sculptured decoration art throughout the whole period of Greek autonomy. city of Naukratis in the Delta of the Nile. where many objects of Greek workmanship but of Kgyptian style have been found." or in French the gtiil/M/it: This orna- ment evidently originated a sort of plaited design. and has degenerated into a band with a succession of straight or sloping cross strokes. As is usually the case with the art of Oriental races. I. for buildings. painting and jewellery of Mycenae and other primitive Hellenic sites. the same hieratic forms survive for many centuries without any serious alteration . In the later class of Phoenician scarab-gems the design is Cuiilof/i. It is however possible that it was Craeto- the work of a Greek engraver settled in the Hellenic trading Egyptian uvrt. drachms of Mctapontum. that is. It is not however a design of Ktiuvran origin. Sybaris and other cities of Magna Graccia during the 6th century H. Among the Sardinian scarabs found at Tharros and others of that type a great many have been found in their original 1 Owing to ill frequent occurrence on the scaral* found in the tomb* of " Mtruria. .

De Vogue's Melanges d'ArckJologie Orientate has been already referred to. II. and was presented by him to the Biblio- theque Nationale of Paris. of course. pierced for suspension through the smaller end of the cone.C.. II. cylinder form. art in the 4th and 3rd centuries B. pages 251 to 280. Vol. Collections With regard to collections of Phoenician gems. Vol. a remarkable contrast to the very beautiful engraved scarabs made by the Phoeni- cians some centuries earlier.-jtJsh Museum and in the Ashmolean Museum have been already mentioned. Cypnts. The device engraved on the base of these cones is usually of the rudest and coarsest workmanship. History of Art in Clialdaea and Assyria. In some cases the scarab itself is fixed in a gold mount or border of very delicate workman- ship. PI. signets of In the 6th and 5th centuries B. . allows the scarab to revolve on the wire which passes through the longitudinal perforation. A very fine collection of scarab gems from tombs in Phoenicia and Syria was made by the Due de Luynes. crystal. those in of scarabs. revolves with it. p.. which. Later during the extreme decadence of Phoenician still. 227260: see also Cesnola. 1884 (translation). or chalcedony. the 13. signet-gems of conical form. Mounted mounts this is usually a simple gold swivel-ring. chiefly published in Germany and France. and even later. 1877. which .C. were made by the Phoenicians. Many Phoenician gems are illustrated by Perrot and Chipiez. In the main the literature of this subject is scattered through the pages of many different archaeological period- icals. A good description of Oriental cylinders and cones is given by Perrot and Chipiez. and engraved with figures of Assyrian style. usually in magnetite. 1 6 LATE PHOENICIAN GEMS. xxxi XLI. [CHAP. 1885 (translation). were commonly used. I. History of Art in Phoenicia.

AMONC the earliest signets found on Hellenic soil. at which one of '^'c the hunters aiming an arrow.. On one is cut a hunting scene of very Assyrian character . 2 . and it is most probable that these gold signets were not the productions of native artists. they do not (strictly speaking) come under the class of gems. two women and a girl present flowers to her. The field is filled up with various scattered devices. which have figures of Oriental or Kgyptian type deeply cut on the broad gold bezel of the ring. and weak and spiritless in design very M. and may possibly be earlier. Xingt two men in a two-horse chariot pursue a stag. In style they are very different from the gems which were found with them.C. GKKKK GEMS. Another of these rings has a is battle scene. and for the complicated and pictorial character of their devices. in which the figures resemble those on the elabo- rate bronze daggers inlaid with gold from the same tombs within the Acropolis of Mycenae. '7 CHAPTER II. The whole is bad in drawing. are the massive gold rings found in the tombs of Mycenae. A third is quite different in style. but were Oriental imports. They are re- markable for the great size of the gold bezel. not on hard stones. The date of these is certainly not later than the I2th century H. The subject is this a female deity in Oriental costume is seated under a tree. very unlike the simplicity of early Greek gems. though Gold "s"t{ clearly not of Greek workmanship. being more like mediaeval or modern Hindoo work than the production of any classical country. As they arc cut on metal.

196) when writing of the favourite shapes for gems. Nat. dcinde quae vocatur Plate I. with characteristic animal devices see also fig. Stones of this form arc usually " " called glandular gems from their resemblance to the ordinary lead sling-bullets (glandes). but in many cases they are too large to be set in swivel-rings." Their chief peculiarity is that "/ems they are engraved on rounded pebble-like stones. like the scarabs. this . "ISLAND GEMS:" examples of the earliest class of engraved gems of Greek workmanship have been found in great numbers. and were probably worn by a string round the neck. namely. cut on various hard stones and crystal. and hence called " " lenticular gems . hence their usual " Forms designation of Island gems. These two forms appear to be referred to by Pliny (Hist. instead of on soft. sunk on a gold bezel. exactly as if the work had been on a hard stone. like a bluntly pointed oval. II. unlike the vigour of the figures of Assyrian style on other works of art from Mycenae. 1 8 MYCENAE SIGNETS [CHAP. and i 2 in the Fitzwilliam catalogue are examples of the glandular form. Pebble These shapes seem often to have come naturally from the form of the nodule of chalcedony or the water-worn pebble. less frequently they are of oblong form. Museum. within recent years. is a valuable piece of evidence with regard to the probable date of the gems and other objects found in the Acropolis of Mycenae. unalloyed gold. . gems of lenticular form.C. and had the signet device engraved on it. Recent discoveries in Egypt have shown that pottery of exactly similar type to that found at Mycenae was imported into Egypt about 1400 P. " Figura oblonga maxime probatur.. mostly shaped like a circular bean (lenticula). and more especially in the islands of the Aegean Sea. the design is sharply cut Though with gem-engravers' tools. on many early Hellenic sites. Mycenae In addition to these gold signets. They are always pierced with a hole drilled longitudinally through them. a considerable number IV///S. of engraved gems were found at Mycenae.. engraved or plain. which was polished. xxxvil. lenticular Nos. 14 from a glandular gem in the British . These were of the class described in the following section.

deer. very frequently arranged in a sort of heraldic way two similar animals being set face to face or back to back. or Kic. Xnt. \fr!j<f>o<. cut in rock crystal. Die Anfungt tier Knnit in GrierhenlaitJ. " " sculptured over the Lion gate of Mycenae (sec fig.] AND "ISLAND (JKMS. which inhabited the mountains of Crete ami oilier inlands. such as lions." |Q with very little cutting away of its natural surface. iHHj. No.CHAP. 12) is wrong in arguing that.representing the long-horned goal or il>cx. therefore they were unknown among the Greeks of the Homeric cigc. dolphins and others. pp. 7890. Somewhat similar animals of heraldic character occur very commonly on the round shields of 1 See Milchhofer. eagles. 15. XXXIII. Gems must have been common during the of this type 1 Homeric period. The use of the <1rill is evident in forming the Inirder. The devices cut on these early Greek gems consist chiefly of animals. which ap|>ears to IK. 1 5 and fig. cut in steatite. bulls. II. forming a stiffly conventional design like the beasts Fie.23 at page 108). 57 : riai tiu. with two goals on their hind legs. very skilfully designed MI as to occupy fully the whole area of the gem . Characteristic example of an early glandular K 1'"'. goats. and I'liny (Hist. and the hair anil horns of the animal. lint. dead or wounded: rail >i it. This is suggested by a common Greek word used for engraved gems. 14. because lomcr docs not mention the use of 1 signets. Characteristic example of a lenticular gem of heraldic type. Mus. .

II.C. is being cut out of the fine green feldspar or basalt from Mt Taygetus in Laconia. but their designs are frequently very decorative and well arranged to suit the shape of the gem. Oriental harder stones are also used. judging from its material. have recently been discovered in a .C they are most commonly cut in steatite. The earlier examples of the lenticular and glandular gems seem. probably of local fabrique. but . 55. as it is very improbable that a piece of basalt from Taygetus would have been exported for use at any far-away place. at Oxford. like the pottery of Mycenaean type. " These " Island gems are obviously of various dates. 20 '. which was so largely used for decorative purposes by the Romans of the Empire the marmor Lace- daemonium of Pliny. probably owing trade and artistic influence of the Phoenicians. In many cases a very distinct influence Assyrian appears. which. The device on this remarkable signet. and. was probably cut in the Peloponnese. in the basalt. spartan One of the finest lenticular gems of this class. from the Bronze Age of Mycenae and Tiryns down to the 7th or 6th century B. to have been produced not only in the Greek islands.'ISLAND GEMS" [CHAP. The British Museum possesses three or four gems of similar style cut in the same stone. Nat. some of the lenticular gems having which are rude copies of those on the figures to the cylinders of Babylon and Assyria. The exceptional material in which this gem is cut is strong evidence in favour of its being the work of a Laconian artist. Hist. and coarsely worked. but also all along the extensive coast- line of Hellenic territory. behind it. J. where a certain unity of artistic of the wide extent and design seems to have prevailed in spite scattered position of the different portions of these maritime colonies and settlements. is a bull. In style they are usually rude style . collection of Mr A. warriors on Greek painted vases of the 6th and 5th centuries B. A large number of fine gems of the early lenticular class. xxxvi. that curious monster resembling a sea-horse which frequently occurs on works of art of this early type. remarkable from Evans. showing little artistic refinement.

which is shown in fig. p. . 15. mostly in the form of scarabs. A large number of the existing gems of this time. 23 is of carnelian see Hrit. at Mycenae and elsewhere on Hellenic soil: sec 'K<.. II. but some of them are engraved on much gems. Greek gems were usually Greek icarats. only for signets. and 1889 90.c. of Gems. The commonest material used for the "Island gems" is . by Greek and Phoenician traders. p. have been found in the tombs of Ktruria. The very bold and spirited character of many of the designs which are cut on very hard materials shows a complete command of the most effective tools. evidently was not. on account of defective technical skill that the softer steatite was so often selected by the earliest Greek gem-cutters. It is noticeable that scarabs were used by the Greeks. 21 bee-hive tomb of the Mycenae type at Haphion. 175. 57 and 106.C. Deifti. 48 ad fin. in his Boeotia (quoted by Athcnaeus. Mits.. PI. cut out of rock crystal of very good quality.\px<u. '. Cat. a town which appears to have been at the height of its prosj>crity during the 6th century B.jt. harder stones. XI. no doubt.) mentions the or scarabacus beetle as a woman's ornament "Ort .] AND GREKK SCAR A US. which was fostered by the Greek settlement at Naukratis in the Delta. Nos. on account of the commercial intercourse with Kgypt.CHAP. as was the case with It the Hittitcs. not SfaraJis as ornaments. such as rock crystal.C. In the 6th and 5th centuries H. an Athenian dramatist of the 4th century B. The fine lenticular gem. Antiphancs. 10. PI.Materials steatite (soapstone). '888 9. cut in the scarab or scarabacoid form. partly. whither they must have been exported in large number. 10. 163. such as the engraver's wheel and drill instruments which in skilful and patient hands will work even more refractory stones than rock crystal or carnelian. for example. near Sparta : Hapkio* they arc identical in design and technique with those found in the Greek islands. carnelian and chalcedony. but as personal ornaments. and that is shown in fig. LATKR GKKKK GKMS.

57) who Law of states that one of Solon's Athenian laws (about 600 r>. is borne witness to by Diogenes Laertius (l. i 1 On this use of the word a^/j. And again when he forwarded the rest of the money he sent a letter with another seal from his signet to testify that he was concluding the transaction. Se Kal yvvaiKeiov Koa^'ipiov ecni itdvOapos. Statuette That the scarabaeus was an ornament worn also by men is shown by a fragmentary statuette in marble about ten ''scarab. Aul. The importance of the signet-gems of this period.a6>]<reTai*. as a security against it the letter being opened and re-sealed. It is a draped male figure of the Asklepios type . 614). 53 and IV. see Pseud. Ip/t. 155. 22 THE IMPORTANCE OF SIGNETS. as a means of securing property and giving authenticity to docu- ments. when buying a slave-girl. now in the British Museum. in his Pseudolus. with long outspread legs.) forbade gem-engravers (SaKTv\ioj\v(f)or) to keep an impression of any gem they had sold.a for a signet device see the inscription on a scarab given at page 67. for fear of another being made exactly like it. Among the Greeks it appears to have been the custom for men to send impressions of their signets to give authenticity to messages. T&58' eiruv /j. mentions how the Macedonian soldier Harpax. round the neck is a cord or necklace from which hangs a pendent in the form of the sacred beetle. II.typayi&os epxei. ii. Seals as Plautus. o /celvcs evades 'S. . ii. from Cyrene. Among the later Greeks and also among the Romans itwas not unusual end for the writer of a letter to state at the of it what device was sealed with. or as pledges for a bargain. The former use is mentioned by Sophocles (Trachin.fagcu. 44. inches high. deposited with the first instalment of money an impression of his signet (symbo- lum). 'Avriffxivris eiprjKev ev Botom'a but no indication is given of the material of which the scarab was made. II. Kai rawS' rtvroi'cret? ff!j/jJ'. [CHAP.C. Cf. Compare also Euripides. as a pledge for the completion of the bargain.

] SIGNET AND TAUSMAXIC GEMS. with devices of magical curative or protective power. were not so largely used among the less superstitious Greeks . Thus we find on the celebrated inscribed bronze plates from . In one Trajan written from of the letters to the ICmperor Istunt Nicomedeia by I'liny the younger while he was I'ropraetor of the province of 1'ontica. which would protect him against the venom of the public informer Ov&tv irpoTifjiaj ffov' tftopta yap irpta/icpov Toi> Sa<TV\ioi> Toi/St Trap' KvBdftov &pa%fi. when he mentions the Just man's ring. no.. king of I'arthia. whose slave Callidromus had been. and that the packet is sealed with his own signet.. lifts. III. 23 An example of this is quoted in the Appendix. iii.CHAT. the device on which was a quadriga sec I'liny. II. 1'acorus. 96 (123)) the miser says 'Kdv S' tipa i:Tpe<j7 pe Trepi rtjv yaffrtp'. Aristophanes (/'////. not real gems. set with fasU. a sort of heraldic charge which was used to distinguish between various individuals of the same name. 74 (16). nugget of ore. Many Greek signet-gems bear the badge (tiricijfjiov) of the owner. Catalogue of I'itz william Gems. The gem was engraved with a portrait in royal robes of its former owner. 17 TOV llapa ( l>tpT<irou aCTi'\to? tcni pot These which only cost a drachma.I). I'liny states that he delays sending to Rome a certain prisoner named Callidromus in the hope that a gem may be found which. but such things were not unknown. said to have come from a mine in I'arthia. Again in a fragment of a play by Antiphanes (quoted by Athenacus. I'liny concludes by saying that he sends with the letter a /'//'!'. X.ui alludes to signets which were a safeguard against poisonous s w fl >- reptiles. had been stolen from him.t)<. we have another instance of this precaution. the prisoner asserted. 883) 7Mim.. 2 p. : The ttilisinanic rings. which the Romans were so fond of. Deifn. 103 to 104 A. must have been rings.

Subjects The subjects on Greek gems of the 6th to the 4th century on gems. Aeschylus. and p. instead of by an inscription or monogram. Roman So on the early Roman denarii of the third century B. Hell. The principal band on the vase has a row of fighting warriors. B. which was given to the British Museum by the late Malcolm Macmillan. Some very beautiful and exquisitely minute examples of these heraldic shield-devices are to be seen on that wonderful little vase from Thebes. to the usual device either on the obverse or reverse of the coin. Heraklaea inMagna Graecia (Tabulae Heraclaeenses) each magistrate's name is followed by the name of his distinguish- ing badge.C.. con. Theb. and 427. Great skill and taste are frequently shown by the way in which the badge of the individual is combined and blended with the main design on the coin. XI. on Creek coins.. downwards. Dionysiac subjects also frequently occur Satyrs. each bearing a device on his circular buckler. especially those of the 6th and 5th centuries vases. It is probable that in some cases the name of the artist who engraved the coin-die is represented by a symbol of this kind. magistrates' names are very frequently by the indicated addition of their eTr/cr^/xa. have countless examples of warriors bearing on large round shields their personal heraldic badge cf. II. Maenads and the god Dionysos himself. HERALDIC BADGES. Fauns. Sept. before the actual name or monogram of the Mint official was used. Plate I... placed in the field of the reverse by the side of the usual figures of the Dioscuri on horseback. are very largely scenes from poems of the Homeric cycle. Vol.C. but no ex- ample of this can (as yet) be pointed out with any certainty. B. such as a dolphin. denarii. Theseus and Perseus.C. and also athletes in various postures. [CHAP. See Jour.. Heads or . Greek Greek vases. Stud. a bunch of grapes or the like. Badges On Greek coins. an ear of wheat. and the achievements of divine heroes. the identity of the magistrate was indicated by some object which he used as his device. 384. 167. 1890. such as Herakles. from the 4th century B.C.

289. I. representing a bearded Satyr dancing. Fig. no. Anhai. sec fig. (iri-ek scarab of the 6lh century H. 5 (described in the appendix) illustrates a Crystal fine scarabacoid in the Fitzwilliam collection. cut in rock "ara /" atotd. K) has given it rightly in an upright position. but there can lieno doubt that Mr A. 25 busts on gems appear to have been rare till about the end of the 5th century H.uu ini. is now in a private collection in Scotland . skilfully designed to fill the whole field one iinJ a half tuna the real siu. Plate I.] ARCHAIC GKEKK GKMS.1 salyr <!.c.c.c.so as representing . in spite of its archaic stiffness. Smith (in his Catalogue of tht Hritiik Museum (jtmi. ifi. No. page 63 ami I'l. The use of a large drill for the body of the amphora. dating about 500 B. itJu. II. is very spirited and sharp in treatment. and of minute drills for the hair is plainly visible. 1 6 shows one of the finest known gems of archaic Kl<>. The workmanship.C. crystal. 17.. The tail of the Satyr is put in with delicate strokes of the diamond point". with .CHAP II. dating from about the middle of the 6th century H. is The design of this gem is a good by the Greek engravers to example of the pains taken occupy very fully the whole field. dating from about 460 H. The figure is bent to bring it within the oval field of the scarab: at his feet a large amphora. within a "cable" border.1 wine-cup in his ban. with a wine-cup in his hand.C. No.- This isa large scarab of striped chalcedony in thr Mritish Museum. One of the finest gems which has ever been discovered. . : style. of the finest archaic style. with a rigurc of a nude hero fitting on his greaves. . The design is a nude figure of 1 Thin Satyr has previously been published as a recumbent figure.

but treated in the most skilful way. As an example of largeness of style combined with extreme minuteness and accuracy of detail. nothing could surpass this wonderful scarab. arrow. 17. but. tied up behind his head like the marble statues of athletes. as if the whole figure had been slightly pushed out from behind. Greek scarab-gem of the best period of art. more correctly. II. The figure is not treated like a statue sawn in half and then applied to a background. In some cases " sinking. suggested." that is to i say the intaglio or relief outline is bounded by a flat rim at right angles to the ground. the edgeg of the Design are> w h at s called stilted. is modelled with a peculiar delicacy of surface. like the best Florentine reliefs of the I5th century. hand. flatness of relief (French meplat) is one of the characteristics of early Greek intaglio and relief work of the best period. . so that the depth of sinking at the outline is nearly as deep as in the central part of the figure. with admirable spirit and delicacy of touch. Style of In both the last-mentioned gems the relief. as it were. Scarab a youth with a bow he holds in his right hand an . 26 GREEK GEMS OF [CHAP. and tries the sharpness of its point with the other FIG. combining truth to nature with nobility of treatment in a way that could hardly be surpassed even in work on a much larger scale. and more relief Shallmo than actually exists is. The general design of the figure and the modelling of the nude flesh arc magnificent in style. He wears long hair. and of the finest work- manship : <><. as is usual in work ' work of this period. is rather shallow. which have recently been found on the Athenian Acropolis among the debris caused by the Persian sack of Athens. and a half times the real size. This shallowness or.

Among the most notable are these and noble bearded head of /ens'. The lower part of the This is a work of extra- gem is missing. no./>/A.. In the British Museum collection which.] THE FINEST 1'EKIOl). inscription must be a later addition. apparently authentic and fine in execution A painted vase of the fifth century.. is on the whole the finest in the world..U. as well as in no. ami later times./</. 10.CHAP. In front of her. found in Athens... on a pedestal is a lyre: the word 6PQC is lightly scratched on the pedestal. judging from the rounded forms of the and the C (1) and its slight.. A more skilfully drawn design is on a fragment of a very . is This gem page lit. II.C. 1 is illustrated in fig..m cylinder.c. Another gem of very great beauty. Work as fine as that on the most beautiful Greek coins is extremely rare on gems of contemporary workmanship. 556). 464. Gems of the 3th century H. I'.< brilliant j<ir</(\o. the finest period of Greek <""' are very scarce in comparison with those both of earlier art.. a very beautiful //w. the number of of this period gems is comparatively small. from its widely representative character. The general design and motive of this gem arc very beautiful. playing on a lyre of triangular shape. very similar in design to the gem. which seems to date from the middle or latter part of the 5th century . but the nude part of the figure is badly modelled and the general proportions defective. but none are Several M as that in the British Museum. though not the largest. 15 at ' gems with copies or reflitas of this design exist. has a seated figure of a man draped below the waist.. be later than about 400 li. . No. cut no.. 555. 5 of the Fitzwilliam Catalogue.'/. with a female draped figure seated in a chair reading from a scroll.C. has a picture of Sappho reading one of her own poems from a scroll.i. possibly a representation of the poetess Sappho. cut on the section of a sard Musi. ordinary grace and refinement of detail it appears not to ./ on a scarab of great jasper within a 'cable' border a work of the finest style with a slight trace of archaic stiffness or rather dignity.V. 2/ This delicacy of treatment is to be observed in gem //. the very faintly scratched . careless 1 execution.

with a slight trace of archaic flatness of execution. which is of special interest from its design bein. rather later date) have been found in the cemetery outside the Dipylon Gate in the outer Cerameicus. but with the most skilful modelling of the nude form.C. II. a work of remarkable ' ' a stag. has a figure of a wounded centaur. Lion and a scarabaeoid of rock crystal (No. is also engraved with a subject which occurs very often on the Athenian sepulchral stelae. Careful work by areally skilful artist on a gem of this time is rarely to be seen. very like the beautiful sepulchral relief of Hegeso from the Dipylon cemetery. On all these very beautiful gems the use of the diamond- point rather than the drill is clearly visible see page 1 1 1. . with a lion devouring stai*. S. man's most faithful animal companions. as Mr A. with an attendant girl assisting to complete her mistress' toilet. delicacy of execution see : fig. Murray has pointed out. In style this gem is of the noblest type. which. The Fitzwilliam collection possesses a very noble example of this class (No. namely. The subject on this gem. of which so many (though in most cases of stelae. This very important gem is described in the Cata- . Sepulchral Another gem in the Fitzwilliam collection (see No. is a nude on his staff and caressing his dog figure of a youth.j similar to that of some of the finest Athenian Attic sepulchral stelae. 125). of Pheidias and his pupils some are slight and even almost rude in execution. 557. u) of subject . Age of Among the few gems which can be attributed to the age I'keidias. of special interest from its resemblance to the centaurs is on the metopes of the Parthenon. Plate I. 18 on page 30. a lady seated. and remarkable grace in the whole design and pose of the figure. leaning the dog and horse. 10). No. but when it docs occur it is an object of very great delicacy and dignified beauty. a large scarabaeoid of clouded chalcedony. a fragmentary gem cut in chalcedony. with the signature of its engraver. [CHAP. and probably dates from about the same time. Dexamenos. rather later date. within a cable border . ATTIC GEMS OF THE BEST PERIOD. being of frequent occurrence on the sepulchral reliefs of the 5th and 4th centuries B. Plate /.

The same gem-like treatment is visible on the obverse Ctm-likt of another Syracusan tctradrachm with an almost full face of Athene. on which is engraved in microscopic letters the artist's name. 125. Head.CHAP. In style many of the finest coins of these districts show clearly the touch and minute execution of detail which come naturally to a man who is accustomed to work in a harder material than either bronze or iron: as. V. and also a valuable monograpli by A. on the n~vrsi. for example. Kuainetos.] (. EYAINETO. Horsemen" of Ttircntinn. This design occurs on silver didrachms of Velia. 1887. One of the peculiarities of this most beautiful class of coins is the frequency with which they bear the name of their artist: see the given by H. the already mentioned gem. on whose helmet is cut. where cither examples of gems signed by the same artist are mentioned . 18. sec fig. Some of the most beautiful gems of this period. Die Kiinstlerinsf/triflen Munztn. 1889. EYKAEIAAZ. 785 . tier Sicilisclifii Herlin. sec page viii. that wonderful tctradrachm of Syracuse with. with EPCON understood. p. The subject of signatures on gems and coins is further discussed in Chapter VII. 356 in the same collection. 443 has the man-headed bull crowned by a Victory. <t>IAIITIONOZ. in Lucania. in the British Museum. a signed quadriga and above it a flying Victory holding a small tablet or f>inax. repro- duces a coin-reverse of Hcraklaea. A good monograph on the signed coins of Sicily is that by Rudolf Weil. where it appears to have been common for the same artist to be an engraver of gems and also of coin-dies. J. in the most inconspicuous way. No. for example.'. 29 loguc below. A good many exist which reproduce various fine gems Coin-types coin-types of Magna Graecia and Sicily.(. anj'"'mt.EMS OF SICILY AND MACNA ORAKCIA. with the signature (more or less contracted) of the die-engraver 4>IAIZTIflN or.. the signature Hucleidas. see page 90. it. . Kvans. 1884. as. A more recent ' paper by Mr Kvans is mentioned below. and Magna Graecia. also in Lucania. with Heracles and the Ncmcan lion. Ifistorin list Ninnorinn. and No. with a lion devouring a stag. No. 5th and Engrm-tn 4th century were produced by the engravers of Sicily .

during the best period of Greek art. 199 this is the coin mentioned above as : having the signature of the die-engraver Eukleidas. . while the gems were objects of private luxury. Smith points out in his cata- logue. 97. to the service of the State. Coins of It should also be observed that the art-development of was many years in advance the Sicilian and Italian colonies of that in the mother country. 1 8.. 646. may possibly be due to the fact that the coins were intended Gems for public use. [CHAP.C. during the great period of Athenian supremacy. H. not of private individuals. 30 COMPARISON OF COINS AND GEMS. Cat. which. of Coins of . The usual superiority of the coins. illustrated No. 7 in the FitzwilHam Catalogue. painting and sculpture. So in of architecture.: one and a half times the real size. which occurs on the well-known didrachms of Neapolis (the modern Naples The same connection between gems and . p. we the case ltuntry\ find that all the chief efforts of the greatest artists were devoted.C. No. are in style quite as advanced as the work of the artists of Attica fully half a century later. executed several years before the close of the 5th century B. as compared with the gems of Greece proper. Copies coins is by a paste cameo in the British Museum. II. the description of gem No. as Mr A. on the other hand. Cf. The magnificent Syracusan decadrachms of Kimon and Euainetos. Syracuse. In Graccia and Sicily. personal Magna pomp and luxury were developed at an earlier time and . is moulded from a tctradrachm of Syracuse with the front face of Athene see Brit. this may explain the frequently superior quality of the gems of those countries. FIG. Mus. Very fine work of the fth century B.

Me says that they were not uncommon among the Romans of his own time. pure gold. In fact rings wholly of gold are among the earliest known examples of signets. but his statement that they were first used in the reign of Claudius is obviously incorrect. a massive ring with a large flat bezel. a marvel of spirited design and minute workmanship. which was preserved /'</*<. a copy of the quadriga on the silver decadrachms of Syracuse. dating about 3730 H. the ring of "Cheops (Chufu). XXXII. Kxamplcs of these gold signets signed with the artist's name are mentioned below. for example. According to Pliny iffist. riding at full speed.c. give some interesting examples at of gifts of gems. cut with as much sharpness of touch as if the material had been a hard stone instead of soft. rings and other jewellery about the time of the Pcloponnesian war. and those found in the tombs of Mycenae.l Manila Graccia during the 4th century H. as. engraved in the gold.C. 231 the use of signet-rings made wholly of gold originated in Samothracc.r. A splendid example in the British Museum has. A very magnificent kind of signet was a'." who </'// built the great pyramid.] SIGNETS OF C5OI. from tombs in Magna Graccia (Castellan! Collection).Mi much used in c. and the almost realistic treatment of the victorious quadriga on the reverse. do not at all accord with the usual notions of Greek art before 400 B.I).CHAP. II. described at page 17.. on which is cut a very beautiful female heat! of about 400 ii.ol. The lists cut every five years on marble stelae. all of gold. Nat. in the Parthenon Athens.C. The wife of an Athenian called Kimon and a lady named 1 K-xill..i dedicated many articles of jewellery . as inven- tories of the sacred treasure of Athene. 31 The soft beauty and richly decorative treatment of the noble heads of Persephone and Arethusa on the obverses of these coins. The gem-room Museum also contains two of the British extremely beautiful engraved signet-rings of gold. engraved like a gem with designs of great beaut}'. One of these has a bezel of pointed oval form. Another has a figure of a youth on horseback. see page 73. among them .

. &c. Kleito the daughter of Aristo. two signets with paste gems of various colours [probably imitations of onyx].ov e-%ov\a-a. seven engraved gems of paste. and set in a golden stand.Dexilla dedicated. 1851. [cr<j)p]ayis ^pvaovv &a/CTii\iov e^ovcra' AeftXXa dvedrj/cev. "seven signets of stone in gold rings. The 1 See Bockh... o K\eiT(o 'ApicrTo.." Votive in the Greek Anthologia (v. SO. va\iva 7TOL\Ki\a.. two signets in silver rings [probably the device was cut on a silver bezel]. 263.. [CHAP. Vol. an engraved jasper set in gold [or set in metal plated with gold]. civev SaKTv\t. an engraved onyx set in a gold ring. PI I.KTV\]- "In a many-coloured (enamelled?) casket. n. the plain jewel being called \ldos*." " an onyx. an engraved jasper in a gold ring." its great weight suggests that it was possibly an oriental cylinder..ovv% (T<f>paylf f^pvaovv &a. an engraved gem made of paste set in gold and mounted in a gold ring. 32 PARTHENON TREASURE. were various gold and plated rings set with onyx." Gems and j n si m jl ar lists of other years the following gems and rings.. 2 In Greek of the best literary period the feminine r/ \t6os seems frequently a poetic form : in later times it was more uniformly used to denote a precious stone.. The inscription runs thus 'Ey KifSwriw 7roiKi###BOT_TEXT###lt;f. e^ovcrai . BaKTv\ioi aiBrjpot PHI. 205) we read of the Sorceress Nico's gem being dedicated in the temple of Aphrodite.. weighing 32 drachms.. Kfawvos yvvrj dvedrjicev. a signet plated with gold... It is described as an amethyst (e' dpeQvaTov yXwrr/) strung on a cord made of purple wool..." %pva-:a a(f>payl&e ||. \pvaovv SaKTV\[i. fivewithout rings..cov p.KTV\toi> SCIKTV\IOV e^ovcra. or else mentioned simply as " a jasper. a(ppayl<. . Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener. p. is used for an engraved gem. "two gold signets.. the wife of Kimon dedicated (the following). acfrpaylSes &vo dpyv[pov-.iov. jasper and Votive coloured paste. In the Parthenon inventories the word cr<f)pajl<. Berlin. II.. A seal-ring of gold. rings occur ovv% ytteya? Tpaye\d<f)ov " AAAhh a large onyx engraved with an ithyphallic antelope." meaning rings in which both hoop and bezel were of gold. "eight " iron rings cr^pcfytSe? \i6ivai ^puaou? 8a/cTv\iov<.

Contm.50) and that "the gem- engravers there were a marvel. M.c. The recumbent figure on an Ktruscan tcrra-cotta sar- cophagus in the Louvre has four rings on one hand. even the poorest person wore a gem of the value of 10 minae (about . Hist.40 to ." an interesting testimony to the importance of this branch of art*. v. no less than ten rings were found upon the fingers of the skeleton- all of Greek work of the 4th century n. hut revolved in the other If direction it caused hatred to be developed in the heart of the victim of the magical spell." though whether for their number or their skill he does not explain.c. large collections of engraved gems (faxTuXioOf/Kai} were made by wealthy Greeks.. 381 and Pliny. For example when the tomb of a Queen of the Kinpfro Chcrsoncsus. sec Co>np. 47. 1 1 The high estimation of Greek gems during the later period of art it borne witneis to by the number of epigram* on engraved gems which occur among the collection of poems in the Greek Anthokgia. XI.p.CHAP. and enormous prices were sometimes paid for the work of a celebrated engraver. A'. Pindar. Arch. II. ill. It was pro- bably a large scarabacoid or perhaps even an Oriental engraved cylinder. at Nicopol in the Crimea. Pylh. Rend. 107. 27) who was probably a Jew of Palestine. and PI. men- " tions. from the reign of Alexander downwards. two of them with very small hoops only reaching to the first joint of 1 of the Ivyt was a wheel on which a bird of ihc wryneck iril* wa One form fastened. among the craftsmen without whom cannot a city be " inhabited. them fine . 1. was opened. see Xcnoph. spun in one direction it inspired love. 159 138 n. King of I'ergamus. In later times. Mim. <. tvyl-'./> / XII. //. and are diligent to make great variety. In some cases large numbers of rings were worn by ladies of rank. The wearing of costly gems seems to have been very common in certain Hellenic districts." the they that cut and grave- makers of signets seals. Aclian (Var.'. 30) c. us that in the Greek colony of Cyrene in tells O"'- Northern Africa. IV. 17. The writer of the Apocryphal Hook of Kccltsiastictis (xxxviii. 1864.] GREEK LOVE OK GEMS 33 device on it was the magic wheel. 182. The phrase flUcw l\rr>* Iwl TII meant "to set the wheel in motion in order to produce the magical effect upon some one". such as Attains II. 3 .

a<j>pa'yl<. . [CHAP. Bezel. Professor Jebb suggests. or common seal. where two different classes of sealing appear to be referred to. while the word collet is popularly. The gem itself is i|o7<o9. 33. The Voting-urns (vSpiai). SaKTv\. In a similar way. itbe noted that. Voting.ev rfa-av VTTO TWV irpirrdveeav. but were also countersealed by each of the seal.Tecr<f)pa'yia'fj. or ?) Xi'00? . the name afav&ovrj. Athenians who were eligible for the office of Judge in the dramatic contests at the city Dionysia.iKrj T/r?.<o?. With regard to the names used for the various parts of a signet-ring. the fingers. Choregi with his own private signet (a-Qpayki). Nat. : and Pliny. mean- ing. Chaton. whether on metal or on a stone. Latin funda. were placed under the charge of the racial -TU>V leprav jfpr/ftaTtov or Temple-wardens for safe keeping on the Acropolis of Athens. was given to that of the ring which borders the gem. xxxvil. Hist. to sign important documents with his great seal of office and also with his secre- tum or personal signet. most probably in the treasure-chamber of the Parthenon. 34. Or. is called the bezel: the rest of the ring being the hoof. gemma. With regard to the Greek use of signets. frames its scarab. In modern English the part of the ring which bears the device. Hippol. 116 and 126. 34 THE PARTS OF A SIGNET-RING. such as a bishop or an abbot. that the urns were not only sealed up by the Prytanes. but not technically. XVII. perhaps with a sort of corporate Counter. used for the funda or metal border which frames the gem. 876. during mediaeval times. Professor Jebb has kindly pointed out to me and explained the following inter- esting passage in Isocrates.ev(u 8' VTTO rdav %opriyd)v.This explains the very small size of some ancient rings both of Greek and Roman workmanship. it was usual for an official. For the sake of security each urn was sealed both by the Prytanes and by the Choregi aea-rj^aa-^evai. II. In French the chaton is the whole bezel. fj. containing the names of the urns sealed. and its thickened part near the bezel the shoulders. owing to the manner in may which the gold wire of a swivel ring frequently encloses and Fitmla. /ca. in Latin. on account of part itsresemblance to the stone in a sling see Eur.

THOUGH the Greeks highly appreciated the beauty of engraved gems. rose to the highest pitch of extravagance. while I'liny tells us (//. and. which according to Clemens Alcxandrinus was a lyre the ring being the royal signet of I'olycratcs and therefore necessarily having an engraved device . 32 . A'ut.' Moreover the gem of Theodorus was engraved with a device. gave large prices for the works of celebrated engravers. for a further account <>f (he grin -engraver Theodora*. Many of the wealthy Romans formed cabinets of engraved gems. LATI:K GKM.K GI:MS AND ETRUSCAN SCAKAP. XXXVII. at least from the time of Alexander. engraved by Theodorus of Samos. in vain threw into the sea to appease his Nemesis : older records however tell us that this celebrated stone. XXXVII. 35 CHAITKR III. 4) mentions the dedication by King*/ the Kmpcror Augustus in the Temple of Concord in the Roman Forum of a gold horn containing a sardonyx. but in either case the gems which were thought worthy of the dactyliotluca were probably the work of Greek not Roman artists. III. N. page 69. yet it was among the Romans of the Imperial period that the passion for collecting ancient gems. popu- larly supposed to be the original gem which Polycratcs Tyrant of Samos. 39 scq. was an emerald ." The Temple of Concord contained 1 Sec Mow. I'liny (/fist. containing examples both of antique and contemporary workmanship.S. 8) that the sardonyx of Augustus was plain " intacta inlibataquc cst. like that of buying other costly works of art. sec Herod.

[CHAP. Their real use was for long the purely practical as locks. and was dedicated in the Gems of Temple of Capitoline Jupiter by Pompey the Great. Cacs. xxxvi. . Gems in Marcellus. was brought about by the conquests of L.). the stepson of Sulla a man of . III. Nat. Scaurus. Nat. or else. Pliny says. that of signets.C. tells us. XXXVII. either to give authority to a document. was M. Pliny says (Hist. built in Suetonius also us (J. an important collection of gems. Mummius (146 B.. xxxvu. one. 50. Caesar's Pliny mentions that Julius Caesar gave a collection of gems. Hist. ring gems (dactyliotJicca) to the Temple of Venus Genitrix. among which the so-called " " ring of Polycratcs made. enormous wealth. Scipio and Cn. according to Pliny (foe. Gems of The earliest gem collector. cloth of gold and bronze couches. see Hist. Manlius. box-lids and the like. was one of the costliest and largest buildings in Rome 1 . 11. Aemilius Scaurus. 47) that Julius Caesar was tells always ready to give high prices for gems which were the work of any of the famous old Greek engravers. 113 and 189. dedicated the Temple another collection of gems in the Temple of Apollo on the of Apollo. so that they could not be opened without the knowledge of the owner who had affixed his seal see page 34. victory and its consequent spoils created. COLLECTIONS OF GEMS IN ROME. 12)". the favourite nephew of Augustus. such as embossed silver plate. fit. a In the same way. Palatine the most magnificent of the many public Hill buildings with which Augustus enriched the city of Rome . built during his aedileship in 58 B. which he the centre of his new Forum Julium. and the taste for other luxuries. see Pliny. 428) has an amusing passage Aristophanes (Thesmo. till comparatively late times that engraved gems were regarded as objects to place in a collec- tion of works of art or even to set in jewellery as personal Seals used ornaments. 36. however. whose Pompey. to secure doors. The next Greek gems in Rome was that collection of which had belonged to Mithradates.) the rage for pictures was the result of the capture of Corinth by L. the taste for gem-collecting in Rome (Hist. Nat. Pliny but a poor figure. xxxi v. XXXVII. 1 1). 424 referring to the custom of securing doors with a seal 1 The splendours of the Theatre of Scaurus are described by Pliny in many different passages . It was not.C. whose temporary theatre. Nat. . instead of a lock.

XXXIII./ seals." that he did not go wild with passion even if he found that the seal of a wine- jar had been broken. because no two would be exactly alike and the pattern made by the worms was too complicated to allow of imitation. Votive offerings dedicated in temples were in some cases . During Mr Flinders 1'etric's recent excavations in Upper Kgypt examples of this were discovered as. the knot of which was sealed with a clay impression of a scarab. adze tied round with thread. 37 iev ovv >)i> d\' vTrol^ai Tt}v Bvpav.ileJ o/erin^i. e. Thf aicrv\K)i> Tpi(oj36\ov' vvv ovro<.g. who both signed and sealed their edicts by the single act of pressing the inked palm of the hand on the document.w. forming a device which no forger could possibly copy. a bronze votive . With regard to the use of signets in the wine-cellar. Horace mentions as the test of a good-tempered house- master " Signo fracto non insanire lagcnac. 26). eaten bits of \VO(K! used as rude seals. Pliny. though it has since been partly modified into a sort of complicated mono- gram of the Sultan's name. Nat. sealed with an impression of a signet in clay. The elaborate device on modern Turkish coins is derived from the old hand- printed signature of the mediaeval Sultans. Many examples of these with the seal unbroken have been found in the Delta and elsewhere in Egypt. and Romans were also commonly employed to seal the plaster stoppers of amphorae full of wine.CHAP.'if. refers to the same custom when he " " says nunc cibi quoquc ac potus anulo vindicantur a rapina . early Ottoman Sultans of Turkey. in his treatise on finger-rings (Hist. H'. The scarabs of Kgypt and the signet-gems of the Greeks StaleJ wint-jart. An analogous contrivance was adopted by some of the sealing. ai/Toi)? yxorpi^ li/piiri&i)f t'SiSafe dpnri'/Bfa-r' e^ftv a-<f>payi&ta The 0pnrt'j?KtTTa <T<f>payi?>ia appear to have been worm. so that the lines of the skin printed off on the parchment or paper.] PRACTICAL USE OK SIGNETS. III.

rather than one of any classical period. Greek gems were usually cut in the scarab or scarabaeoid form . especially when made of chalcedony. convex the plain back being flat. on which the design was cut. making it more transparent and effective. should be beautiful. and it was often used for stones the colour of which requires an extra thickness of body to bring out the full richness of tint. less A common shape. was to have the side of the gem. Scarab As has been already mentioned. The main object was that the impression from the gem. is very common among Roman gems of Imperial times. cases among ancient Greek gems very beautiful work is engraved upon an ugly stone. of sard or carnelian became the gem to work upon. the custom came in of having gems en- 'J'hinncr graved on a thinner slice of stone and the brilliant varieties . This form . chalcedony was never given up either by Greek or Roman gem-engravers. was the reverse of the last. Convex Another common variety of shape. in spite of its style. were frequently of the latter large size. DIFFERENT SHAPES AND MODES [CHA1>. III. the markings of which interfere with and obscure the design. a fact which is evidence in favour of the antiquity of this beautiful gem. This rule is not without many exceptions . as in the case of carbuncles and reddish sards. which looks poor if cut very thin. whereas the older scarabaeoid shape was best suited for the pale bluish or milky chaccdony. which is cut on a very opaque and much mottled chalcedony. which certainly suggests the hand of an artist of the Renaissance. used mainly by the gems. Romans. until about the middle of form. in which case the old method of wearing the signet strung on a cord round the neck still survived. now in the British Museum. Work This practical use as signets explains why in so many on ugly stones. rather than the stone itself. namely a convex back.C. the 4th century B. with a flat . After that. favourite For the sard the thinner body of stone was an advantage. form of Sent. from the time of Alex- ander downwards. This is notably the case with the celebrated head of Medusa from the Strozzi collection. thin sard gems occur of date much and the use of anterior to Alexander's time. largely used for mediaeval and modern gems.

In many cases the old rounded dans in ' form gives much greater beauty to a gem. if any. forms is especially suited to the carbuncle. especially to one in which the chief beauty is colour rather than brilliance or "fire. 1 'Carbuncle' and 'garnet ' are different name* for the %amc gem according to the thapc in which they are cm the "carbuncle" being the Hone en tabockon. on the other hand. transparent gems being almost always cut with many facets. and the modern system is applied. namely the diamond which was too hard to cut. to many stones which are quite spoilt by it. injury to a stone cut in the cabochon form. The cabochon shape was used for all gems throughout the middle ages. and it was not till the 6th century that the 1 faceted form was much used. N. GKMS. with great want of taste on the part of jewellers. if not cut in facets. in many cases do little. such as the amethyst and the garnet. The only antique examples of faceting were those gems fiayi and in which the natural crystalline form was preserved. have great decorative mttho<it beauty when cut in the older fashion. Hither of these. of very great beauty and decorative effect is often made with gems. would be almost valueless. Stones. turquoise it is and carbuncle. which. 'Cabocbon' i* derived from the I'ortugucK cabo. H. such as opal. 76. Pliny. . In Oriental countries the old method of shaping gems OrUittal still survives. xxxvn. in the hands of a Huropean jeweller." The diamond. which often <>/. in.] OK CUTTIM./<. 39 face. which are destructive of the beauty of a faceted gem. modern name for this rounded form is en c<ilh>i'/wn : Gem Tile en now only used for a few stones.' a head.ciiAi 1 ./ look poor and tawdry when faceted. and the beryl which in some cases had its natural hexagonal crystals polished . and the "garnet" cut with facet*. which looks glassy and poor in colour if not 1 convex on one side . The emerald also was often used in its natural crystalline form. Another advantage of the old system of cutting is that flaws. and modern Indian jeweller). has little more beauty and effect than rock crystal.

III. and it is only the feeble archaism of the pseudo-Assyrian relief on the front of the seat which betrays the later origin of the whole. Seleu- cus I. Gradco. sent six gold staters to buy an emerald engraved with a figure of the sea-nymph Amymone. changes very much the type of figure becomes softer and more feminine . 6) tells a story of how the flute- boughtby Ismenias. ear ij ei . King of Syria. as Mr King remarks (Handbook of Gems. Period of During the Alexandrine period and later the character of Lr ' Greek gems. who lived in the time of Alexander the a Jy er Great. . like that of other works of art. 2 A striking example of this is to be seen in the reliefs on the throne of the High Priest of Dionysus in the great theatre of Athens. With regard to the prices paid by the Greeks for fine gems. Portraits With the time of Alexander portraits appear for the first on gems. Emerald Pliny (Hist. 40 LATER STYLE. XXXVII. with subjects relating to the theatre or musical contests. Lysimachus 1 Ismenias was the author of a work on precious stones. become the favourite motives for representation. Greek musicians were specially given to the extravagance of collecting and wearing many gems. In this case however. we have little or no information. [CHAP. Greek gems of this later period and good Graeco-Roman ems'" work of the time of the early Roman Empire are usually almost indistinguishable. on the ground that an insult had been offered to the emerald through its price being beaten down. than the introduction of coin-portraits. and was disgusted to have two staters returned to him with the gem. which commence with the Diadochi. that is.. a ij tt i e . 196). in beauty. The figures of Eros with fighting cocks on the arms of the throne and the two Fauns on the back look like the best Greek work of the 4th century B. mc Qn g ems . Nat. either in workmanship or in subject. Homeric scenes are no longer represented. p. it is harder still to arrive at any certainty. and deities such as Aphrodite or Dionysus. t. pi > Ismenias'. of Egypt. This is frequently the case even with large sculpture in marble 2 and with work so minute as that of the gem-engraver . According to Pliny. so that we have no indication of what the value of the work on it may have been.C. the stone itself may have been worth the greater part of the money. and Ptolemy I.

f" rfra ''- coin-portrait c.. 263 241 li. 90 B. it/ Very noUe example of a (ireck |x>rtr. Hi.iil gem of llic. i) ridicules the Epicureans for their habit of using their master's head as a signet. he employed the celebrated Pyrgoteles to engrave it upon gems using that purpose an emerald. In Roman Imperial times portraits were very frequently ronrai cut on gems. instead of his own portrait. seems to have been taken from a large group of sculpture in bronze. especially that of the reigning Emperor.. rerganunt ^' r Fig.CHAP.. . rial silt.] PORTRAITS ON OEMS. .. Though Alexander never committed the impiety of placing his own head in the place of that of a deity on his coins. cut on mottled chalcedony. III.C. 41 of Thrace used on his coins.jnl century B. again. Heads of Socrates are specially common on gems sec No. . drachms of Demetrius 1'oliorcetes and of a King of I'ergamus. 8 see below.style to the finest silver letrailrachms of I'ergamus./ traitof the noblest type. XXXVII.C. which was commonly worn by his courtiers as a compliment to him. 1530 in same collection is a copy in paste of the the Coin on tetradrachms of the great Mithradates. an idealized jxjr. Xat. very similar in . The Museum possesses two very fine portrait- British gems 1526 and 1529) copied respectively from tetra- (Nos. 19 shows the latter. V. No. according for to 1'liny. Hist. Portrait heads of Greek philosophers were also very largely worn by the Romans in their rings: Cicero (De Fin. page 71. 65 in the Fitzwilliam catalogue.C. probably a quadriga driven by Mithradates. a magnificent head of the deified Alexander. probably a portrait of Eumenes I. hence the eager expression of the face and the hair blown back by the wind. which. rortrait ..

The later Greek and Graeco-Roman gems arc in many cases of exceptional value and interest from the fact that their device represents some important work of Greek sculp- ture in some cases one which can be identified by descrip- tions as being some celebrated. p. has . for example. 2S3 . of which several ancient copies exist both in bronze and marble and No. 1 Vol.C.C.been restored differently. Nat. Courtiers Pliny (Hist. 41) tells us that a portrait of Claudius in a gold ring was worn as a sort of entrance ticket by those privileged persons who had the right of access to the Imperial presence. Valuable evidence with regard to an important work of art given by the impression in wax from an ancient gem. XXXIII. xi. J. 42 COPIES OF SCULPTURE [CHAP. A docu- ment still exists sealed by the Prior with his signet-gem on Laocoon which was engraved a copy of the celebrated Laocoon group. Soc. is which was used as the private signet of Thomas Colyns. The true position of the lost arms of Laocoon himself and one of the sons is shown on this seal though the group itself . . . now in the Vatican. Evans at Oxford. 722) has a representation of the Apollo Sauroctonos of Praxiteles. Mus. Another gem (Brit. III.or Kanachos of Sicyon. is Mars and Aphrodite and Ares with Eros at their feet a noble Greek design of probably the 3rd century B. of which more than 2 one Roman copy in marble still exists . 720) appears to be copied from the famous bronze statue of Apollo of Apollo holding a stag by its fore-legs at Branchidac by the Kanacios. scu [p^. who worked in the early part of the 5th century li. Prior of Tywardreth in Cornwall from 1507 to 1539. Ant. cut gem of late Roman interesting for its group of date. now lost statue or Thus. in which the heads of Ares and Aphrodite are replaced by those of Hadrian and his wife Sabina. No. 790. a badly . 2 This is the motive of the group to which the Aphrodite of Melos is sup- posed by some writers to have belonged. The Capitoline Museum possesses a rather ludicrous copy. but group. 2nd series.. in a way which very much 1 The finest extant representation of this celebrated statue is on an engraved paste gem in the collection of Mr A. a gem in the British Museum (No. see Proceed.

now lost.CHAP.v/. of coins which illustrate ancient sculpture belong to a late period of decadence. /. of course. xxiv. than by all the other forms of these that remain to us combined. and are too coarsely executed to give an accurate notion of the statues they represent a large number . be observed that gems which bear siaiuts designs copied from important works of sculpture are in most cases productions of the Imperial period. It is. Maskelyne in his preface to the Catalogue of tlte Marlborongk " Gems. p. see Arch. spoilt outside the proper bounding line of the composition. Journ. . p.*. 111. Numismatic Commentary on Pansanitis: first published in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. 1870. when the Roman decay of good taste and judgment allowed designs to be cut on gems which were quite unsuitcd for such a purpose. ""^.</</ reverse types of coins but unfortunately the greater number . we should have a more complete representation of the objects that stirred the minds and ruled the hearts of men through all those many ages and changes of circum- stance. XXIV. as it were. possible that Prior Colyns' frauf- signetwas copied from the then recently discovered I^aocoon group during the early part of the i6th century. The same sort of evidence is frequently given by the ." It should. of examples are given in a valuable work by Professor Gard- ner and L)r Imhoof-Blumcr. if we could but assemble in one collec- tion the still extant gem-signets of the different ages and fami- lies of man from the days of Urukh to those of the latest Sas- anian kings.] ON ANCIKNT GEMS. 43 1 injures the general lines of the composition . A great many other instances might be quoted of antique gems which are of value for their record of important works of Greek art. which straggle. but on the whole it appears more probable that it was an antique gem. The reasons for this unsuitability arc obvious. The importance of antique gems as giving us the designs /mfvrt- of lost statues isclcxmently pointed out by Professor Story. 45. however. than would be afforded by any other single form of their arts indeed we may perhaps with justice say. 1885 to 1887. in the first 1 The tchcme of composition in the Laocoon carefully devised pyramidical group b by the petition of (he restored arms.

a gem design. mostly in the form of sard or carnelian scarabs. either of Phoenician or Greek workmanship. Requisites place a design of high merit must be specially suited to the of a gem scale on which it is meant to be executed.C. Jewelled Many of these sard scarabs from the tombs of Etruria are necklaces. last of . Etruscan This is a very large class and embraces gems of many scarabs. 22. In some 1 cases the original beetle form has been sliced off for conve. . should Again. and therefore no design. Scarabs These engraved scarabs were not used by the Etruscans used as ornaments. strung rows on necklaces. all. different kinds. in copying a statue it was usually impossible to make the design occupy the field of the gem in that complete way which was thought so desirable by the engravers during the best period of Greek art. page 107. but were also employed in large numbers as personal ornaments. with the head and wing-cases of the beetle carefully shaped. merely as signets. must have been very great among the wealthy and luxurious people of Etruria. 44 SCARAB-GEMS FROM [CHAP. " " Almost all have some form of the cable border. in. found in all true scarabs. perforated. but the greater number fall between the 6th and the 3rd century B. 1 The gem shown in fig. or diminished without a design could be greatly enlarged serious loss of beauty and fitness. of bas-relief. whose gold jewellery is of extraordinary beauty and magnificence. . quite unlike the natural composition of a piece of sculpture in the round and. GEMS FROM ETRUSCAN TOMBS. imports. is an example of this form. which is commonly called the "cut scarab". The demand for engraved gems. in combination with the most exquisitely deli- cate gold work. being a variety be most strictly kept to one plane. nience of setting. or used as pendants for bracelets in and ear-rings. and the majority are cut in the scarab shape. occasionally leaving traces of the horizontal perforation. Foreign Among the earlier gems a large number are foreign imports. extending over a long period.

336 and 1870. 99. in almost Suhjtrii all cases. 1839. harpies. Kama. or occasionally athletes of contem- porary times sirens. heroes in council or battle. Ctr. we 1863. 1831. 280 B. p. 5 cf. a certain number arc evidently the work of the Ktruscans themselves.C. inxrif- can characters. The wholesubject of Ktruscan art has (more recently) Iwcn treated in a rery learned manner by I)r Heltrig in various numbers of the Ann. 105. In the same way we ire Etruscan ami I*atin inscriptions rudely cut on the 1 lieautiful engraved bronze tiilat of purely Hellenic workmanship. i ifi p. Arch. most commonly names to explain the subject or person represented.] ETRUSCAN TOM IIS. . A : large numlicr of Ktnucan scarabs are published in the Hull. From the middle of the 5th century to c. /ml. In some cases these names have been added by the Ktruscans on imported gems of Greek workmanship".ili 1866. p.C. KMtr Abhandlung tibcr Kaftr-gemmcn nnd Etruskiscfu Ktinst. 45 In addition to these imported Phoenician and Greek scarabs. 1834. in which Ktruscan scarabs are divided into three classes. II. Atn. favourite subjects being Homeric scenes. with very little power of original design. and single figures of legendary Greeks of the heroic age. There is an interesting treatise on these gems by Kohler. 441. mythical subjects are not uncommon. Krom the 7th to the middle of the 5th century H. frequently taken from the mythical stories of the Trojan and Theban wars. dell* Intl. with heroic subjects. gems of good engraved on sards and other stones of style very fine quality. not only in style but in subject also. especially during the present century. I. who appear to have been the most skilful of craftsmen in all the arts. centaurs and other Greek- . usually names to explain this class inscriptions arc the person or the scene which is represented. Cor. as on the Greek vases of the 6th century HC. III. p. .CHAP. Scarabs with Ktruscan subjects very rarely occur. p. p. Not unfrcqucntly these scarabs bear inscriptions in Ktrus. but endowed like the Romans. On common. Ank. and theirmanufacture still goes on with much skill in Rome and other places in Italy. they are copied from Greek gems. Brunn. No class of gem has been so extensively forged as these Ktruscan scarabs.

Late III. III. 280 B. This classification is not wholly satisfactory. scarabs with similar subjects. . 1 To this class Kohler would assign the drill-cut scarab shown in fig. c. and without inscriptions. cut on less fine stones. 46 ETRUSCAN SCARABS. rudely cut figures. page 107. Period of decadence. and Kohler does not sufficiently distinguish between imported gems and those executed by native Etruscan artists.C. [CHAP. Caesar. to the time of Julius scarabs. some almost wholly executed with 1 the drill and cut on stones of poor quality. . 22.

in some cases probably slaves or frcedmcn. ROMAN GEMS. 1 ThU historical ring was inherited. in the Fitzwilliam collection. owing to its having been found in the great fcpcrino sarcophagus (now in the Vatican) of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Harbatus who was consul in 298 If. on account of sumptuary laws. The same figure treated in a similar way occurs on a very large number of Roman gems No. There arc however a very large number of gems of inferior style which can be called Roman in a fuller sense of the word. like those which so strictly limited the jus annnli aurci during the early days of Rome. with the rest of Ixinl Beverlcy's Rcm. or else by Romans who were Greeks by training. wiry manner. 47 CHAPTER IV. if not in both.c. As is the case with the other arts.C. winged and holding a palm-branch. at Alnwick Castle. in a dry. Under the Republic the use of engraved gems by the Romans seems to have been comparatively limited partly. no doubt. and of the style of the early Roman gem-engravers generally. This is a gold ring set with a sard on which is cut. A very characteristic example of a Roman gem is that in Taring a signet-ring (formerly in Lord Hcvcrley's collection') which "/^'f - can be dated about the year 300 li. written and unwritten. liy Mr lleber Percy. Komt. and has since been purchased by the Duke of Northuml>crln<l . it is preserved. 31 : riate II. is a good typical example of the design. a standing figure of Victory. the best "Roman gems" a "" (s '" arcGreek cither in design or workmanship. . engraved on chalcedony. with the rest of the Percy collection. The finest gems under the Empire were produced by Greek- engravers.

as. 3 For example the head of Juno Sospita or Sispita is a common obverse type on denarii struck by moitelarii of the Papia and Roscia families. who were specially worshipped in Rome and arc represented on the earliest of the Roman denarii 1 . both in the Fitzwilliam collection. with a bust of Victory. the great triad of early Latin worship. who sometimes occurs upon gems and coins of the Republican period". and No. for example. which cannot now be identified. tetradrachms of Lysimachus with the head of the deified Alexander on the obverse. IV. Greek Most of the Roman deities are represented in forms typ "' taken from Greek art Jupiter. cut on a great variety of stones. the finest class is on the whole that with portrait heads either of the Emperor or some member of the Imperial family. Portrait Apart from the Graeco-Roman gems. . O f t hi s c \ ass a re figures of Jupiter enthroned (see Nos. or else that of the private owner of the gem . wearing a head-dress made of goat's skin the special cultus-deity of Lanuvium. Hera and Athene and it only rarely happens that : any deities are represented in a more native and un-Hellenic Latin fashion. Fitzwilliam catalogue) Minerva. Another very favourite subject is the goddess Roma. Juno Sospita with a serpent by her is side. 1 No. which had little or nothing about them that was really Roman. were extremely common. with a standing figure of Minerva. 27. deity. Juno and Minerva. judging from the frequent occurrence of well executed portraits. One of these exceptional cases of a native Italian deities. a large number of this latter class must have been engraved for wealthy Romans. gems of all kinds. Under the Roman empire. have the dress and the symbols of Zeus. Even these portraits of Romans are in many cases evidently the work of Greek artists. 26 and Plate II. 33. Juno and other deities such as the Dioscuri. Deities The most frequently recurring subjects on Roman gems on gems. en- throned a type which was adapted from certain Greek that on the representations of Athene. and with every degree of excellence of workmanship. they are illustrated on Plate II. 49. as their noble and refined treatment clearly shows. 48 SUBJECTS ENGRAVED [CHAP. are good examples of Roman gems of the Republican period.

CHAF'. IV.] ON ROMAN CEMS. 49

One of the finest that now exists is the portrait of Julia,
Titus' daughter, by the engraver Euodos; sec below, page 74.

Among the recently acquired Carlisle gems in the Hritish c-triiiit

Museum there is a magnificent intaglio on chalcedony with the
pH
portrait head of an elderly, close-shaven Roman, with
closely
cropped hair, somewhat similar in style to the so-called head
of Scxtus I'ompcy, signed by Agathopous, in the Florentine
collection. This wonderful example of iconic art, though
noble and dignified in style, is treated with much minuteness
of detail and vivid realism. Even a pimple <>n the chin is

represented suggesting that the sturdy Roman, whose portrait
;

the gem shows us, had similar views to those held by Oliver
Cromwell with regard to the desirability of realistic truth in
!>ortraiturc. The Carlisle gem, like all the finest Roman
|>ortraits, is thoroughly Greek in style, and is probably the
work of a Greek engraver of the first century Ii.c.
It may however be earlier than that, as the work t>oth in

design and execution is quite equal to the finest |x>rtrait
heads on the coins of the Sclcucid and Attalid Kings struck
between about 300 and 50 li.C. 1

In addition to the Roman taste for gems simply as works Grmi a<

of art, their old
importance as signets still survived. 1'linv
records (Hist. Nat. xxxvn. 10) that the Kmperor Augustus
used for his signet the figure of a Sphinx mainly on account
;

of the accident of his having inherited from his mother two

exactly similar gems with this device. Thus when Augustus
was abroad he could intrust the duplicate signet to his friends,
and so give them authority to issue any necessary edicts in
the Emperor's name. The Sphinx, cut in a very gem-like sphinx of
manner, occurs on the rnvrse of a silver coin of the cistofi/wrns
standard struck in Asia by Augustus and this coin very
;

probably shows us what his signet-gem was like.
The British Museum possesses a fine gem with the Sphinx
device (No. 476 in the Catalogue), which seems to have been
derived from the early coins of Chios. After a time, owing,
Pliny says (Hist. Nat. xxxvn. 10), to jokes made on the
Sphinx-like obscurity of Augustus' edicts scaled with the
Sphinx signet, the Emperor changed the device of his seal,
M. 4

50 THE SIGNET-RINGS [CHAP. IV.

and used instead a head of Alexander the Great, probably a
contemporary portrait by the famous Pyrgoteles.
imperial Suetonius (Aug. 50) says that Augustus used, at different
times, three different signets, first the Sphinx, secondly the
head of Alexander, and lastly his own portrait engraved by
Dioscorides. This last signet was used after the death of
Augustus by subsequent Emperors, down to the time of
Pliny's writing his Historia Naturalis, with the one excep-
tion of Galba, who preferred to seal with his own signet,
on which was cut his family device a dog standing on the
prow of a ship see Dio Cass. LI. 3.
;

Frog Maecenas used as his official seal a gem engraved with a
frog, a device which was, as Pliny says, well known and
much
dreaded on account of its association with edicts for the

imposition of taxes.
This device of a frog occurs on more than one of the
scarabs which have been found in Etruscan tombs. good A
example is in Museum, No. 474.
the British
A very interesting account of Roman signet-rings' is given
Pliny
on rings.
by p inv j
^ sf Na{
8 to 35)
_ xxxm
Hc repe ats the legend
about the earliest ring being that which Prometheus wore
after his liberation by Zeus, with a bit of the rock to which he
had been chained, set in a ring made of iron from his fetters,
thus saving Zeus from perjury, who had sworn that Pro-
metheus should remain for ever bound upon Mt Caucasus;
see Catull. LXIV. 295298.
In early times (Pliny thinks) rings were but little worn

by the Romans among the statues of the kings on the
;

Capitoline Hill, those of Numa and Servius Tullius were the
Jus only ones which had rings. The right of wearing gold rings
aurti.
was very sparingly granted at first only to Ambassadors
:

while abroad on state affairs, to whom a gold signet was
given at the public expense on his return to Rome the
;

Ambassador surrendered his gold signet and again wore the
usual iron ring of a Roman citizen.

By degrees ihejus annuli aurei was granted to one official

1
On ancient rings, see the very learned treatise by Kirchmann, De Anitlis,
Sleswick, 1657.

CHAT. IV.] OK T1IK ROMANS.

after another ; Senators and Consuls being the first to enjoy
nltirkl of
the privilege. It then became the mark of the
Kquestrian rant.
Order', and finally, under the later Roman Kmpire, the gold
ring became the mark of any man of free birth, a silver ring
being the badge of a frecdman, and an iron ring that of
a slave.

Pliny remarks (Hist. Nat. XXXIII. 23) that in his time riatoi

the iron rings of slaves were sometimes plated with gold.
" "
fcrrum auro cingunt a form of signet of which a g<x>d
:

many examples have been found, owing to the protection
against rust which is afforded by the gold otherwise iron
:

rings have usually perished from oxydization*.
With regard to the Roman names for rings, in addition to N&mti
fur rin^-s.
annnlus, Pliny says (Hist. \x\lll. 10) that the Sa*Tt''X<ov
i

Related Interests

at.

of the Greeks was called in Old Latin ituffulns, and in later
times symboluin ; the latter word (ffvpliaXov) referring more
strictly to the device on the signet: see Plaut. /'sfu</. II. ii.
53
and IV. Another early Latin word was conilalium,
ii.
44.
from KovSuXoi, meaning the same as Sa*Tt'X(ov sec Plautus, ;

Triniimmns, IV. 3, 7, where the word is not used as meaning
specially a slave's ring, since it was probably his master's
ring that the slave in the Play lost. Comedy of Plautus A
entitled Condalium was so named in imitation of Mcnandcr's
Drama called Aa*Ti'\io.
The clay or wax impression from the signet was called
sigillum as well as symboluin: e.g. Cicero (Acad. II. 26, 85) lipisli.
uses the phrase "sigilla annulo imprimere." The word signarc
is used for the act of scaling, e.g. Ovid, Mctam. IX. 566,
" Protinus
imprcssa signat sua crimina gemma."
Many ancient gold rings, both Greek and Roman, arc
made thin and hollow, so as to make the most show at the
least cost: they are unfortunately very liable to be crushed.
This is the kind of ring which the Roman Flamen Dialis
1
Hence the moditu of gold rings tent to Carthage by Hanniltal after the battle
of Cannae, in 116 B.C., or according to other writer* three moJii ; iee IJvy,
XXIII. II.
'
'
The u*e of iron wiih-mt any gem for betrothal ring* iill wrvivcd in Pliny

time; Iliit. Nat. xxxm. u.
42

HOLLOW RINGS. [CHAP. IV.

The was obliged to wear, in accordance with the curious and
Flamcii s
mysterious list of restrictions and duties which are recorded
ring.
by the celebrated mural painter and historian of Republican
Rome, Fabius Pictor (quoted by Aul. Gcllius X. 15, 5). He
"
says Item annulo uti, nisi pcrvio cassoquc, fas non est."
These light rings of beaten, not cast gold arc mentioned by
Ovid (A. A. in. 221)

"Annulus ut fiat primo colliditur aurum."

Poison The
cavity in the ring was sometimes filled with poison,
rings.
so that the wearer could at any moment commit suicide :

a method adopted by Hannibal (Juv. Sat. X. 164),
"
Cannarum vindcx et tanti sanguinis ultor
Annulus."

In calling the ring "Cannarum vindcx" Juvenal is pro-

bably alluding to the modius of gold rings, which Hannibal
collected from the slain equitcs at Cannae.

Pliny records (Hist. Nat. XXXIII. 14 and 15). that the
guardian (aeditnus) of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter killed
himself with his poison-ring, to avoid being tortured, when the
Theft of public store of gold, 2000 pounds in weight, was stolen from
gold.
its secret depository inside the throne of Jupiter. This hap-
pened during the third consulship of Cn. Pompcius Magnus,
whose colleague M. Licinius Crassus is supposed to have
been the robber. See also Hist. Nat. xxxili. 25, where
Demosthenes is said to have killed himself with a similar ring.
In the same passage Pliny says that some people preferred
to have a valuable gem set in a light, hollow ring, so that it
might be less liable to injury from a chance fall.
Heavy Others, whose wealth was of recent date, prided them-
gold rings.
selves on the massive gold of their rings. Martial (XL 47)
ridicules an upstart, who wore on his fingera sardonyx
set in a ring which contained a pound weight of gold ;

cf. Mart. XIV. 123.
Subjects on As a rule subjects from contemporary history were seldom
gems. used for Roman gems, even during the later Republican
period, when such subjects were common on the reverses of

according to Plutarch. the kee|>er of AV<yvr</ the Imperial Signet. was sometimes used by I'ompey. London. an office which was held in the time of J. which Julius Caesar showed to the incredulous Roman Senate as a proof of 1'ompey's defeat and death. see Uion Cass. 58. used a gem with three trophies in allusion to his triple victories: this device also (xrcurs on the rci'frsc of one of his denarii. however. of the Numidian King Jugurtha. It is interesting to note that the reverse of a rare gold coin struck by Marc Antony about 39 i. Among them arc some magnificent examples of signets with 1 Thii curious coin is illustrated by Stevenson. Another design." Another official wa-. The Roman Kmperors seem to have had special curators Cunuan "/ s'' of their gem cabinets. to pay the expenses of the war with the Marcomanni. In the Columbarium of the Imperial frcedmcn. namely a holding a sword (\ui> lion f-i<f>npn<. outside the Porta Capcna.//. Pliny. The same signet device of three trophies was cut on the /. tells us (Hist. p. Sulla also. IV. the whole collection of gems Imtviial formed by Hadrian was sold by Marcus Aurelius. a sepulchral inscription was found over the ashes of "Julius Philargyrus libertus a dactyliotheca Caesaris. XI.VICKS OK T11K KMI'IKK. that formed by the celebrated naturalist Waterton.] SIGNKT DK. citstus iinniili. One of the most interesting collections of ancient rings is s.s//. Diilitmary / Kama* Cfiiu. according to Dion Cassius. 18./* ring of I'ompey the Great. Nat. 33 the denarii. 5): "annul! curam habuissc is the phrase used by Trogus. According to Capitolinus. III. by public auction in the Forum of Trajan. . possibly copied from the famous signet of Pompeius Magnus who was one of the earliest Roman 1 .c.c. collectors of engraved gems. 1 1. xxxvu. 8) . bears the same subject a lion holding in its upraised paw a short sword or dagger. the greater part of which is now in the South Kensington Museum. Caesar by the father of Trogus Pompeius " (Justin. 1889..r.). that Sulla used as his signet a gem engraved with the surrender in 106 Ii.CMAI'. together with other valuable works of art. XI.

Bonus . ivory and even enamelled pottery. A Greek ring of the finest period of art. In many cases the bronze and iron rings have their gem backed with bright metallic foil. Thefollowing are among the most remarkable a large . Cheap Under the Empire. Egyptian gold ring of Ptolemaic date. amber. all of gold.. 400 B. is remarkable for its fine patina and perfect state of preservation.C. Hist. in order that the dark metal might not diminish the brilliance of the stone : cf. Greek and Etruscan workmanship. Figures of Salus with her serpent. seated figure of Isis suckling the infant Horus. Nat. One curious ring is cut out of a piece of amber . Waterton the bezel in gold. Fdicitas. most ex- quisitely cut on the gold bezel. which the Romans invented very freely. Indulgentia. most ancient rings which now exist have engraved gems of rather poor design and workmanship. Pliny.C. Another Greek ring of c. and also adapted from the Greeks. xxxvn. Among the commonest subjects are single figures of the various deified abstractions. 5th century B.. such as rock crystal or chalcedony. It is unfortunately very rare to find a really fine gem in its original setting. IV. stone. 106. an enormous quantity of cheap gems seem to have been engraved. glass. bronze. engraved with fine designs of Egyptian. iron. being intended only to reach to the first joint of the finger: such rings have often wrongly been taken for the rings of children. silver. has a very beautiful female head with no dis- tinguishing attribute possibly representing Hera. which has a vcsica- shaped bezel with a minutely cut. 54 RINGS AND GEMS [CHAP. Variety of Among the Roman rings are examples in a great variety of materials. in it is fixed a fine yellow paste intaglio with a head of Jupiter Ammon. Fortuna with cornu- copiae and rudder. gold. which is wholly of bronze. On the bezel is cut a seated female figure with most gracefully designed drapery. as the old restrictions with regard to wearing rings gradually passed away. Several of the rings are of very small size. lead. Abundantia.

A. and have the same close relation to the rrccrst tyjK-s of coins.D. the fashion came in to Rome of wearing gems engraved with a figure of 1 larpocratcs or some other Kgyptian deity. Another favourite Roman device for signet-gems is some </'>//*. 20 in the same collection is a good example. in exactly the same forms as on the rmerscs of the Imperial denarii and aurei. In the first century Pliny says (Hist. Roma and others are no less common. Figures of Horus or Harpocrates. 90 in the Fitswilliam Catalogue. were much used for signets. I'liny says. I.

Related Interests

<if. Mithraic and Gnostic 1 A mediaeval analogy U the common type of seal engraved wilh Ihc worJt "Iccta lege: tccta tegc. and even as early as the time of Augustus it was an important cult in Rome. probably as a hint for discretion and silence with regard to the contents of the letter or other document 1 that it was used to seal . In the second and third centuries A. Among the many new sects which flourished under the Roman Kmpirc.Kgyptian gems now and 105 in the Fitzwilliam Catalogue. It is still used in modern Italian for fanciful and grotesque figures. a composite monster made up with much ingenuity by joining together masks and various animals : see No. Hence. . The word also means a grasshopper or a cricket." . engraved with a lucky horoscope.l>. such as Jupiter. that of the worship of Isis and Serapis was the most popular.] OF Till: ROMAN KMI'IKK. According to Pliny (Hist. the name grylli was given to pictures of that comic class. the god of Silence. of which No. were Attniogi also very largely used under the Roman Kmpirc. Minerva. exist: see Nos. 55 Ki'cntus and many others arc constantly repeated on the *<>< inferior Roman gems. 114) the famous Gracco-Kgyptian painter Antiphilos. The older deities. Astrological gems... who executed a number of fine pictures which were brought to Rome to adorn the l###BOT_TEXT###gt;r- ticns of 1'hilip and that of 1'ompcy in the Campus Martins. when super- stitions of all kinds were specially rife. Nat. also painted a ludicrous figure known as the (iryllns. XXXV. 104 riat. XXXIII. Juno.CHAP. large A number of Romano. 41). form of what is usually called a gryllns. IV.

Hence arose. if not by Greek artists. in the reign of Septimius Severus. as a rule. which came to a rather sudden end about the close of the second century A. partly on the stone it was cut upon. talisman depending partly on the device. continued without intermission. in the Paris Biblio- theque. Mns. Fit z. in the time . It is notice- able. were produced under Greek influence. during the Augustan age. whereas during the best Greek time the designs on gems were specially devised for glyptic purposes. . both engraving. IV. there was a remarkable revival both of good taste and of technical skill. 118. This would naturally be noticed in those not uncommon rings which have the bezel made of one metal and the hoop of another. [CHAP. This may possibly have originated in the accidental discovery of the mysterious galvanic effect which is produced when two adjacent metals arc touched by the tongue. like that of the other arts. 1 06. the finest.aKiTai. 56 ROMAN GEMS. Coins set After that. and lastly on the season or planetary hour when the gem was engraved. inferior in style and coarser in execution 1 but a few years later. Nat. is a remarkable exception to this rule. Hist. in the third or fourth century. or (f>apfj. I' 1 some cases metal have a Metallic signets of this class little dot or pin of gold or silver let into the field the union of two . that in many cases fine gems of the Roman Imperial period are engraved with copies of statues. mystic sun-god Abraxas and the Demiurgus Cnoubis : see No.D. These and many other devices were highly valued through- out the Imperial period as having talismanic or magical powers of protection and good luck the power of the . m intaglio and in cameo. see Pliny. XXXVII. metals giving an additional talismanic virtue to the device. as has been already remarked. the decadence of gem engraving. and aimdcta by the Romans. Cat. the not uncommon fashion of wearing in rings and other ornaments fine gold coins 1 The portrait of Julia the daughter of Titus by Euodos. During the Flavian period the work was. styles With regard to the style of Roman gems. Tails- types were very common especially gems engraved with the . of Hadrian. Such gems were called by the Greeks Tere\ea^evoi.

p.I). xxix. A very fine Christian gem worked with exceptional yi.D. p. a custom which was imitated by people of Celtic and Teutonic race in much later times. instead of a badly engraved conteni[)orary gem. xxvin. The Christian monogram ifz . IV. 111. 57 (anrei) of the earlier Kmpcrors.ii. at the beginning of the 4th />. a design copied from a not uncommon rci'crsc on a goldsolittiis of Honorius. seem not to have very largely developed the glyptic- art. * Dr Kortnum has written at various time* many valuable pa|>cn on the subject of Christian gems anil rings. This gem is in Dr Drury Fortnum's collection. both in technique and design. 1 It i* interesting to note thai the usual mediaeval representation of nn angel appears to have been derived. xxvi. By the time of Constantine. This however did not bring the engraving of gems to an end the art still was largely practised. gem engraving in Koine had. The commonest subjects are Christ the good Shepherd. 412 A. and xi. one of the finest in the world for its 1 Christian gems and rings . and other symbols of this kind were very often cut on gems of the 4th and 5th century. especially in the A rdiaeologifal Journal . in the early part of the 6th century A. like all the other arts. skilful as enamelling and working in the precious they were in metals.CMAI'. 159- .///. c. lowest ebb. as a rule.ivry 1 delicacy has a standing figure of a winged Victory holding a tall cross. represented the old pagan types of Hermes 1'sycho- after ]M>mpos or Orpheus playing to the listening beasts subjects which frequently occur among the early Catacomb paintings. p. Christian gems of the Roman period are. p. xxxin. even during the wonderful outburst of technical skill and artistic excellence which took place in the time of Justinian. 166. through many stages. *" century. 137. of very Christian poor workmanship.] 1'KKIOI) OK DKCADKN'CK. sunk to its and the craftsmen of Byzantium. the dove and olive branch.. 305. nee Vol. though the old skill : was lost. from the winged Victory of the Greeks. p.

especially when the material employed was chalcedony. conquered the degenerate successors of the warlike Achae- menidae. In most cases the gems are convex. a supposed ancestor of Ardashir. SASANIAN GEMS. The name Sasanian is derived from name. Both these magnificently coloured stones of very fine quality arc largely found in Persia. No. In later times the Persians adopted a modified form of the Moslem Faith. LATE PERSIAN GEMS. the king on horseback attacking lions. frequently a Shapur or a Hormizd. down to the Moslem conquest of Persia in 632. Sasanian During the lowest period of artistic decadence in Rome. A great part of their beauty depends on Materials the fact that usually they are cut on carnclian. to a large extent. Alosltm In the year 632 A. such as turquoise and lapis lazuli. as it is also of a favourite Sasanian class of subject that of hunting scenes. a man calledSasan. . in Persia under the successors of the Achaemenidac. from the third century A. 24 in the Fitzwilliam Catalogue is an example of this. stags and other animals.D. IV. though poor in the details of the design and coarsely cut. boars. owing to the precept of the Koran which again introduced the old Mosaic law forbidding the likeness of any living thing to be represented. have ignored this prohibition much to the horror of the orthodox Sunni sects.D. and forms ofgans. amethyst or carbuncle of very fine and brilliant quality. and thenceforth the signet-gems of the Persians have been mostly engraved with names or pious sentences. the fanatical disciples of Mohammed gems. who began to reign about 212 A. Persian lapis lazuli is the finest in the world. the first king of this dynasty. The Persian gems of this period are frequently large and decorative in style. or of the Queen. even at this late period. The finest of these have portrait busts of the King.D. [CHAP. a great many large but feebly cut gems were executed Dynasty. The conical and the scarabaeoid forms were used occasion- ally in Persia. either in front or at the back. Some large Sasanian intaglios are cut on unusual materials. and. rock crystal. with name and titles Origin of in Pehlevi characters.

XXXVII. were applied to reliefs in metal and other materials as well as to cameo gems. l/ell. ramaul. 59 CHA1TKR V. 185 : ice also Brit. but for use as ornaments. and were called by the Romans cctyfrie words. IN addition to the usual signet -gem with its device sunk GV/J</ (intaglio di cai'o). ' with a Gorgon's mask or other figure cut in very slight relief. frequently on the back of a scarab instead of the usual beetle form*. 173) describes certain stones as being especially suited for cameo cutting "Gemmae quae ad ectypas scalpturas aptantur. rkamaJi. as being signed by its engraver. A. VI. This is what is meant by the modern word cawiv'. 26).///W." The oldest existing examples of cameos (not including Eariitit Egyptian work) arc some curious gems of the 6th century H. vol." One of the earliest examples of the mention of a ring-cameo by a classical author is in a passage of Seneca (l)e Kcneficiis. An example of this rare class of gems is mentioned below at page 88. CAMKO GEMS. 1 Two characteristic examples of early cameo* arc illuilraled in the Joum. 58. 1 In mediaeval documents ipcll alio cama/iutum. StuJ. . a certain number of gems cut in relief. p. lamakieu and in many other ways. there were. who speaks of a man " wearing a cameo portrait of the Kmpcror Tibcrii Caesaris imaginem cctypam atque cminente gemma. Pliny (Hist.C. III. especially under the Roman Kmpirc. however. Mm. which. Such works in relief were included by the Greeks under the name TI/TTOI 177*7X1'- pii'ui. .. which were intended. a name which is probably of Arabic origin.Vat. not for impressing seals. p. Cat.

One of the most important classes among the Roman cameos are large. bold relief on a very p. Both are elaborate 1 The Vienna collection is specially rich in Roman cameos of great size: a large circular cameo of an eagle is specially magnificent. and is now in the possession of Dr John Evans. dating about 400 B. see Proceed. Large A few Roman cameos exist of very great size. . with a lion cameo on the back. and be set off by having its background of another colour.A. and used to Phalcrae ornament the phalerac in the middle of the bronze cuirass of an emperor or general of an army. V. A very beautiful example of this was dredged up in the Tiber in Rome in 1886. The Medusa's head was often inlaid in the aegis which formed a principal ornament on the Imperial cuirass. 396. much as from 10 to 12 inches square. Nos. has on the reverse a trophy of arms sec Ant. which measures about 3^ inches across. Another ring from a Kertch tomb is set with a cameo head of Athene cut in deep red carnelian. XVII. in order that the design might be cut in one stratum. vol. but having the back cut in relief. into the form of a sleeping lion : the flat side has a running lion. These early cameos are mostly cut in sard. It was found on the skeleton hand of a lady who wore eight rings. . such as the onyx or sardonyx. PI. which was probably a similar ornament. carnelian or some other stone of homogeneous colour.S. or rather earlier for : example a gold swivel-ring with a scarab-shaped carnclian. Soc. The most famous are 1 the "Coronation of Augustus" at Vienna and the "Apotheosis . 8 and II. full-faced heads of Medusa or Jupiter. It is cut in thick piece of onyx. Ant. 60 GREEK AND ROMAN [CHAP. measuring about 9 inches in diameter.C. P. 1887. and very noble in design. : Cimmcricn an Muscc dc VErmitage. some as cameos. The British Museum possesses a very fine Gorgon's head cut in high relief in a brilliant amethyst. but the later cameos of Roman date are mostly cut on some stratified stone. of Augustus" in the Paris Bibliotheque.. Greek Some very fine cameos of this kind were found in the tombs at Kcrtch. Another similar scarabaeoid. carved in a thick piece of onyx or sardonyx. du Bosph. XI. in intaglio.

the usual Roman way of representing the Apotheosis of an Emperor or Prince.CHAP. according to a probably "C'imtt correct tradition. Uiuim pulchcrrimum camant cujus circuitu stint plurcs reliquiae." it is In 1343 Philip VI. for a sum equal to 10. but in 1684 the monks sold it to Louis XIV.Kvrc. when a party of burglars broke into the Hibliotheque and carried off many of its most precious objects.Roman artist. closed with plates of rock-crystal. V. shortly before the middle of the 13th century. sec Revue Arclu'o. In a Latin inventory of the precious objects in this treasury dated 1341 it is described thus: "Item. but in 1379 Charles V. with many figures in two or three tiers. evidently r/>.antinc style. Another historical cameo the Bibliothcquc is the so- in Camsoo '"""' called "Apotheosis of Gcrmanicus". The A/>f>t/it-<>sis f>f Augustus was. but unfortunately this beautiful frame-work was lost in 1804. in which various relics were pre- served. but its setting and the other objects in the precious metals perished in the melting pot. This magnificent cameo had been mounted in an elaborate frame of gold and ena- melled work of Hy/. including a priceless collection of large Roman medallions both in gold and silver. restored it to the Sainte Chapelle. lent it to the Pope. v. given to the Treasury of the Sainte Chapelle in Fan's by Louis IX.r """rt> designed and executed by some very skilful Gracco. The cameo itself was rccovcrctl. The Vienna cameo was bought by Rudolf II. containing cavities. . 186.000 in modern money." in In later inventories called "le grand camahicu de !' ranee. p. for his collection of gems. with a figure crowned by a Victory anil Ixirnc up to Heaven on the back of an eagle. which he was then transporting from Versailles to the Palace of the Louvre.000 gold dcus for this cameo equal in modern value to more than double the number of pounds sterling.] CAMEO GEMS. 1X48. f>l compositions. This large sardonyx gem was for many centuries in the possession of the Abbey of Saint. The King gave the monks the enormous sum of 7.

the sovereigns of France at their Coronation-Mass continued to receive the sacrament in both kinds. It was given to the Cathedral of Chartres in 1357 by King Charles V. Cat. page r. This very remarkable cup was given in the Qth century by one of the Carlovingian Kings to the Abbey of St Denis. 1 considerable historical interest . " " Cameo The so-called cup of the Ptolemies is also now in the Paris collection. . and covered on the outside with cameo reliefs of various Dionysiac figures and symbols. the eagle being taken for the Evan- gelist's symbol. though not designed with very good taste. Cameo A third cameo in the same collection in Paris also has Jupiter. of rich decorative effect. no. though the cup itself was restored to the Bibliotheque. as one of the inscriptions on the gold is recorded in enamelled frame which still surrounds the gem. Paris. V. Till the Revolution in 1789 the cameo remained in the Cathedral treasury at Chartres. withheld from the laity. in the Museum of Naples. 2 Long after the consecrated wine was. account of which the cameo was venerated in mediaeval times as representing St John. 8 inches in diameter. Like the "Apotheosis of Augustus. as a rule.dacamees et pierres gravces dc la Bibliothtquc Impfriale.D.. and then lost its elaborate gold foot. This cameo. when the burglars were arrested in Holland. cut out of one immense nodule of sardonyx. whither they had escaped with the non-meltable portion of their spoil. has a standing figure of Jupiter holding a sceptre and thunder-bolt at his feet is an eagle. 1858. which is cut in sardonyx. It has 1 See Chabouillet. This is a large two-handled cantliarus. It is a purely Roman design of the first or second century A. 4." this cameo-encrusted cantliarus was stolen in 1804. on . Naples On the whole the finest Graeco-Roman cameo in the world is in the form of a large circular patera of translucent agate. At the coronation of the Kings and Queens of France it was an ancient custom for the Queen to take the "housel- " sip of consecrated wine from this cup 2 . 62 GRAECO-ROMAN AND [CHAP. where it was occasionally used as a chalice at Mass. an interesting survival of very primitive times when the offices of King and Priest were held by the same man.

II. It has unfortunately been damaged by having a hole clumsily drilled through its centre . One of the finest in the British Museum is a profile bust c. however. in a very good style. It is cut boldly. The British Museum possesses a very noble |x>rtrait-bust //<-. This cameo may.!. be the work of one of the very skilful gem-engravers of the last century. ap- 7 lia - patently copied from the celebrated intaglio signed by Kuodos. one in the British Museum from the Blacas collection (No. and on the reverse side is an allegorical subject representing the Nile as the source of the fertility of Egypt. No.imt* of of Julia. like that in I)r Evans' collection. dating probably from the early period of the Roman Empire. one relief is a magnificent head of C. Cat. as. caprices of the Roman engravers. are portrait-heads of Emperors. 1568) which has an intaglio portrait head of the Empress Livia in the character of Ceres. V.] ROMAN CAMEOS. but somewhat coarsely cut bust of Juno in onyx. They were also used in a lavish and often tasteless way for many other ornamental . On the breast an aegis is represented with central phalerac with the Medusa's head.. for example. the daughter of Titus (No. which are usually of much smaller si/. which combine intaglio and cameo. 63 a cameo on both sides. they were also made to ornament the massive fibula or brooch which fastened the Emperor's cloak (Jxiludamentnni) on one shoulder. but without much minuteness of detail. Mus. Smith's Catalogue.>m./ / of Augustus in A "-< u '""- profile (No. Besides the use of large cameo heads for the f>lialcrae Bnock of Imperial armour. surrounded by a border with the symbols of the other chief deities cut in relief.e. 1607 Brit. far superior in treatment to the more famous cameos of Paris and Vienna. in a sardonyx of three layers measuring 5 inches in height. 43 in the Fitxwilliam Collection is a well designed.<of Medusa. 1560) illustrated as frontispiece to Mr A. The most beautiful Roman cameos. Empresses anil other members of the Imperial family.). otherwise it is perfect. Afew gems exist.CHAP. Both in design and execution it is a work of remarkable beauty.

Cameos PASTE CAMEOS remarkable skill was shown by the : of glass. executed without . Without these final touches tooling. of M. and that is what Roman taste seems to have preferred in all branches of art. the uppermost stratum. No. so as to partially reduce the thickness of the translucent gem. 3rd and 4th century A. Cameos on purposes by the purse-proud Romans. However. A large number of cheap paste cameos. sometimes show the cuirass studded with five or six big cameos as. A few of these large cameos have additional life and transparency given to certain parts of the relief by having a cavity cut out at the back. executed in pastes of different colours fused together so as to resemble the various strata of the onyx and sardonyx. and perhaps a wreath round the head in a fourth. and necessarily a com- plete want of graceful modulation in passing from one plane to another of the relief. one of the finest plialcrae gems known. or four layers of different colours. This is the case with the Medusa head in chalcedony in the MarlborougJi Collection.D. cameos such as these arc showy and highly decorative at a distance. On the whole the Roman love for cameos cut out of stratified gems had a degrading influence on the glyptic art. Caclius in the Museum at Bonn. 100. the monument . 64 CAMEO ENGRAVING IN STONE AND PASTE. the hair a third. Tomb reliefs of the (ir/noitr. executed with the various tools which Final were used in cutting real onyx. but he was usually seriously hampered by the exigencies of the thin strata and work of this elaborate kind . the relief was liable to be blunt and spiritless in effect. has an awkward flatness of modelling. for example. The finest of these paste cameos have usually received. after the glass was cold. Roman glass-workers in their copies of large and elaborate onyx cameos. [CHAP. Method It was rather a tricky sort of ingenuity that was fostered by nf cameo the wish to have gems with the design worked out of three cutting. the flesh of the head another. The difficulty of securely fusing the relief in opaque white paste on to a ground of differently coloured glass must have been very great. a good deal of finishing work. Great skill is often shown by the way in which the artist has designed his subject to suit the successive layers of varied colour. V. the background being one colour.

to decorate that magnificent painted and ntfJiafral ihrirtti. with glass of two or more colours to imitate the stratified gems such as onyx and sardonyx. Almost every mediaeval shrine or reliquary of any im- portance was more or less enriched with antique gems. In beauty of colour and in excellence of finish it is quite as fine as if it were a real stone cameo. not is in a stratified material with differently coloured layers. and even rings. seem to have been made under the later Roman Kmpire. It is Greek in style.This magnificent slab or tablet has in high relief a nude figure of a youth. 1 Thi* cameo i> described below at page 76. The British Museum |K>sscsscs a large fragment of a paste cameo (from the Townlcy collection) of quite a different class not a copy of an engraved gem. One of the most important cameos in paste is in the Vienna collection a fine head of Augustus in blue glass. 5 . This mediaeval use of antique pastes and also of real stones was very common. incised on the field 1 . and formed. Several antique examples of these paste cameos were used.CHAP. some of great size.were among the numerous antique gems which lenry III. and is still preserved in the south ambulatory of the choir. Camtffi i>n about the year 1300. but in fine blue paste. which must have been (when complete) seven or eight inches in height. with the signature of Hcrophilus the son of Uioskourides. speckled to imitate lapis lazuli. exactly in the same way as if it had been a real piece of lapis lazuli. reliquaries. both in cameo and intaglio. Many fine cameos (fama/iuta). M. and many other gems were hung round the shrine as votive offerings. especially for rctal>les. but rather of the nature of Canifo lahlel. V. which was made for the high altar of Westminster Abbey. representing I {onus Evcntus. and has It has afterwards been worked with the ordinary gem-engraver's tools.] CAMEOS IN PASTE. I Wot minster used to decorate the magnificent gold shrine of Kdward the Confessor. modelled with great skill anil taste. first been formed in a mould. enamelled retable. any final tool-work. a relief for mural decoration.

the Phoenicians and the Jauish people of Moab.C. dating from a time when the same alphabet was used in common by the Jews. 1 7 to 21). cut in two lines on a small gem found near Samaria by the Palestine Exploration Society. Assyrian cylinders and a certain class of Phoenician gems very com- monly have on them the name of their owner. of this interesting signet is about the Qth or 8th century B. One of the earliest of existing Semitic inscriptions (shown on fig. with no device except the owner's name in Phoenician or Hebrew characters of the earliest form. specially records that its gems were engraved with the name of each tribe "like the engravings of a signet. The cut is nearly double the real size. of Phoe- nicianworkmanship. the Phoenicians and other neighbouring Semitic races. ." but these stones were. and in the last in the early characters. 20) is the name Haggai ben Shcbaniah. INSCRIPTIONS ON GEMS. in the first case in hieroglyphs. 1 The owner was probably a Jew . THE OWNER'S NAME: Egyptian scarabs. The date FIG. Many Phoenician gems 1 The Book description of Aaron's breast-plate in the of Exodus (xxviii. i. 66 CHAPTER VI. in the second in cuneiform characters. as was the whole Temple of Solomon with all its decorations and fittings. 20. Signet of Semitic type. prototypes of the Greek and Latin Alphabet. which were used in common by various Semitic races. such as the Jews. most probably.

r>. 19. An earlier example of this class of inscriptions is on a Stani-e/ very remarkable little scarab of the 6th century H. 1883. form date from before the introduction of writing arming the Greeks. No.. With these inscribed gems it is interesting to compare siaitr / that very curious clcctrum stater probably struck by a Persian Satrap named Phancs. 1888.C. about the end of the 6th century B. 31 seq. which is published in an interesting paper on early Greek gems by Rossbach. No. p. 1 On the underside of the scarab is the following inscription.. the agate scarab of /'late I Phoenician type which is mentioned above at page 14 in . KPEONTIAA EMI. " Gardner) I am the device or badge of Phanes . In the Hcrlin Museum is a fine scarab in black jtisfvr. 4 in the I-itz-sillMm Catalogue. This very fine example of archaic work was found in the Troad its date is probably a : little earlier than the gem of Kreontidas.] OWNKRS' NAMKS ON r. c. I am the badge (or signet) of Kreontidas." ZHMONOZ.CHAP. An early example of a gem with the name of its Greek owner is No." . in characters of Ionian style. On it is cut the owner's name " Semon. OEPSIOS MI SAMA " Mfc MK A/^OIft for H'p<7uv fiV< <r/ia - ^ pe nvoiye. At the end of the inscription is the 'device' a very small dolphin. VI. Xtarakef with a kneeling figure of a nude girl holding a hyiiria under the jet of water which issues from the lion's head spout of a fountain." the word 0-tjfj. ig feeding and the legend in coarsely cut retrograde charac- ters d^A/^NO^ UMI $BMA meaning (according to Prof. on the obverse. with. sec Jaltrbnch Arc/i. Owners' names rarely occur on Greek gems of the best On-neri period and the earliest Greek gems those of lenticular . which occupies nearly the whole of the fitlti. with the owner's name have been found in various far distant places one was even discovered a few years ago on the south : coast of Ireland." 1 1 Profenor Gardner ii inclined to attribute this remarkable tiller In a Satrap 52 .c. p 116. and Plate 16. and Plate 3. and therefore have no sort of inscription.C. the field is cut.KMS. I am the device of Thersis do not open me.) being understood. 6. Archaol.a (or o-<f>payi<. in characters of the early part of the 5th " century H. fust. 600 B c. Zcit.

Vol. 1890. Names on On Roman gems both of the Republican and of the Vfms Imperial period owners' names are very common. 1890. . which has the word adfia. see Head. page 45. or rather earlier. Names on tombs. as well as Except the gem of Thersis. as. Fitzwilliam Catalogue) bears the name MIKHZ. clearly earlier in date than 525 B. 11. The relief is illustrated by Miss Harrison in her valuable work. The very fine 4th century Plate I. and the type a stag would suggest that the coin was struck at Ephesus. scarabaeoid by Dexamenos (No. and later the owner's name is rarely inscribed. revolted against the Persian king Cambyses and joined the army of the Egyptian king Amasis.. written in the peculiar Cypriote syllabic characters : see Jour. now in the Central Museum of Athens. that is.a r^ii. Not unfrequently the Roman name is cut in Greek letters. "the of Halicarnassus (where the coin was found) named Phanes. 67. 68 GEMS WITH NAMES OF OWNERS [CHAP. At the sides of the relief are small figures of a male and a female worshipper . page 28. The form of the letters of the inscription is. possibly the name of the lady who 1 owned the gem see above.C. On Greek gems of the 4th century B." seated in a throne. who in 525 B.. . for example. cut in about the middle of the fourth century n. as the lady represented on the scarabaeoid of Dexamenos in the Fitzwilliam Museum. Hist. This unusual female name Mike or Mika occurs on a votive relief. as in the case of the celebrated Diomede with the Palladium by Felix. some found in Cyprus with the name ot the dead person in the genitive followed by TO a-d/j. however. described below at page 75. the Mythology and Myths of Athens. in which case Mike may be the name of the deceased lady who is represented on it. 4. judging from the sepulchral cha- racter of its design.C. see Herod. A similar phrase occurs on many Greek sepulchral inscrip- r c . and above them is the following dedicatory in- scription-MANHI MHTPI | KAI MIKA MHTPI 0EHN. page 526. . Num. . . no ' ' word for gem or signet is added after the owner's name. The only known example of this stater is in the British Museum. Hi.c. tions. 1 It is possible that this is a memorial gem. VI. which represents the goddess Cybele. Stud.C. Hell. The nominative and possessive cases are both used for the owner's name on Greek on Roman gems. "the mother of the gods. XL. probably letters of the same date. ' ' A head of Athene on a sard in the Barberini collection in Rome has the inscription AITOAAOAOTOY AI00[I]. London. p.

xxxv. tyrant of Samos.] AM) OK GEM-ENGRAVERS. not only in larger letters than that of the artist. gciiiinaruM scii//>h>r). torinis (lathe). see also Pliny. 14 5 . when the name is in very small characters. 57). I. in. The list is a short one. and probably near blood-relations of Thcodorus. who is frequently mentioned as working in partnership with Khoecus. ARTIST'S NAME. In mo*t case* they are olivioiuly crroncou*. X. According to Pliny (Hist. libflla (level). 12 8. 38 3 . The whole story of the ring of Polycrates is told Pliny's statements as to the inventor* of pruccue* in the art* mutt alwayi be 1 received with caution. Till. As a gem -engraver the fame of Thcodorus rests chiefly R'*g/ upon the celebrated engraved emerald. who was crucified in 522 ac. though in what precise degree is very doubtful. and one which has been dis- cussed by various writers with very different conclusions. Nat. set in a gold ring (a<fprjyi<i xpuaoStros). it is uncertain whether that of the engraver of the gem it is or of the owner: the latter is. Nat. 152'. which was one of the most valued possessions of Polycrates. Thcodorus was the inventor of various tools for working in wood. VII. who were also Samians. namely the norma (set-square). but is also placed in a more conspicuous position." but this gem is of very doubtful authenticity. First comes the celebrated ThtoJarm Theodonts of Santos. Thcodorus appears to have been specially skilful in metal work. or with Telecles. To decide which are genuine Artisif among the many so-called artists' signatures on ancient gems is a very difficult problem.at.C. 2. and darts (perhaps a vice) all of which tools were certainly in use long : before the time of Thcodorus. and is mentioned as the inventor or improver of various processes in the manipulation both of bronze and iron sec : Pausanias. one of the most distinguished architects "/ Sam s - and sculptors in bronze and the precious metals of about the middle of the 6th century H. In some cases. Hist.CIIAK VI. . In the first place it will be well to consider what record we have in classical writers of the names of gem-engravers. as a rule. vin. 69 gem of Apollodotos. (Sa*TuX<o7\i></>ov or X<f7o-/\i'><os-..

Another Samian gem-engraver of the first half of the 6th c/tus. Laertius. VIII. IV. about whom almost nothing is known. 43) another Quadriga covered by a fly's wings. Most probably there was more than one distinguished Samian artist called Theodorus. page 35. the work of Myrmecides possibly a similarly distorted statement. Nat. as the common Greek custom was to name a son. and the blunder would easily be made . Nat. namely. XXXVI." The real meaning of this impossible statement was pointed out by Ur Benndorf (Zeitschrift fiir Oestcrreich. 83) Scarab of Pliny describes a bronze portrait statue by Theodorus of him- Thcodorus. XXXIV. possibly a grandfather of the later artist. holding in one hand a file or scraper (lima) the symbol of " his craft. and 4) with reference to an uncut 3 sardonyx in the Temple of Concord in Rome. Nat. Nat. Pyrgoteles. Most of Pliny's information comes at second or third 1 hand. 1873. century. since he represented himself holding a scarab-gem. self. Pliny (Hist. . and Aristotle quoted by Diog. tends to show that Thcodorus 2 regarded gem-engraving as an important branch of his art . so minute that they were covered by the wings of a fly. I. vi. Gymnasicn. so that the various inventions which are attributed to this name should be referred in part at least to an earlier Theodorus than the contemporary of Polycrates. rightly read. which was popularly supposed to be the gem of this dramatic story see : above. THEODOKUS OF SAM OS [CHAP. and was (according to the above passage) the only engraver who was allowed to cut the 1 Pliny mentions (Hist. and is mentioned by III. and in the other a quadriga and driver. that it was simply a scarab-gem engraved with a quadriga that the artist's statue held. not after his father. 38 seq. was Mnesar- chus the father of the celebrated philosopher Pythagoras see . but after his grandfather a very fruitful source of confusion in the literary records of artists. as a specimen of his skill.). Herod. 401 sq. . XXXVIL 8) are these Pyrgoteles. p. xxxvil. 95. 2 The art of gem-engraving was called SaKtv\ioy\v(f>la . at length by Herodotus. In another place (Hist. i. who worked for Alexander the Great. Ale. Mnesar. see Plato. 128 c. The only gem-engravers mentioned by Pliny (see Hist. This story.

With these conflicting statements all we can gather with any degree of certainty is that Pyrgotcles was a gem-en- graver. \. IX.. make a marble statue of Alexander " Idem hie Im|>erator (Alexander) edixit. which subsequent emperors used as a signet." In an earlier passage (Hist. and Divscuriiies. more especially as the Duke of Devon- shire bought it from the notorious liaron Stooch. VI. X) IMiny names three oih<>- other distinguished gem-engravers as being subsequent in date to I'yrgoteles ApolloiiitiiS* and L'roiiins. I) tells us that Alexander's edict was retrai " l"' that "solus I'yrgoteles caelamine excuderet a phrase that : "^ could not apply to gem-engraving. A nth. The names of two other gem-engravers are known only from epigrams preserved in the Greek Anthologia. 125) Pliny seems to say that Pyrgotelcs was ( nc on ]y artist who was permitted to . IX. and that he had the monopoly of executing portraits of Alexander in some form or material.C. quam Pyrgotcles.. ne quis ipsum quam Apclles. but must mean hammered. who engraved the \HJT- trait of Augustus.] AND OTHER GEM-ENGRAVERS. Nat. In the same passage (//. who cut on beryl a swimming figure of Gallenc . It has been wrongly described by Dr Brunn and a* a caituo on onyx. . sculpcret . for the sake of the signature of the famous Apollonides. 239.\VI. \. . 71 [wrtrait of Alexander on an emerald " vetuit in hac gemma i^r^-u (zmaragdo) ab ulio sc scalpi qunm a Pyrgotele. Siityrfins who engraved a portrait of Arsinoe of Kgypt on crystal . Apuleius (Florid. 776. The inscription i not above suspicion. . repousse work of some kind. also practised the art of sculptura. in the first century H. to whom he paid the enormous um <>f 1000 guineas. ex aere duccret. but the great majority of 1 In the Devonshire collection there is a fragmentary intaglio on larJ engraved with a cow lying down.V. pin- gcret . Ef>. meaning probably gem-engraving. NIAOY. \nl. Ant/i. probably in the precious metals. XXXV. Pliny states (Hist.thi rs. \. under which (in the txtrgut) the signature ATTOAAf I- i. . The number of existing gems which have what profess to . I lor." cf. lib. VII.CHAP. in incited letters. about whom he tells us nothing. 156) that the celebrated sculptor Pasitclcs. 544. alius. and Tryflion. r be artists signatures is very large. quam Lysippus.

Chabouillet and Furtwangler. and 1889." 1888. and owing to the mechanical process by which it is cut and minute scale. 238. Stephani's. p. real and imaginary. 1859. Brunn. 444 637. W. and 297 to 325. Paris. and therefore unscrupulous dealers ever since the 151)1 century have been Forged in the habit of adding the name of some real or supposed tames. 46. Geschichte der Grie- chischen A'unstler. King. Benndorf. 1849. Stephani. about which there can be no doubt. Any absolute cer- on this matter is practically unattainable. 193 to 224. The best recent treatise on signed gems is Furtwangler's Gemmen mil " Kiinstlerinschriften in the Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts. it is very frequently quite impossible to its decide whether a signature is genuine or not. This rage for artists' names on gems was specially pre- valent during the eighteenth and the first half of the present century. Clarac. Antique Gems. and Brunn's treatises on the subject. 10 and n. glyP tic artist on to the gems they wished to sell. such gems. Cata- logue dcs artistes de I'antiquite. vol. such as Kohler. In many cases the signature has been forged with great skill. pp. The most diversely different conclusions have been arrived at by many archaeologists. 21 1 to where he gives the gist of Kbhler's. VI. see also Brunn. the ancient Panticapaeum. 1866. and his Handbook of Engraved Gems. example. pp. these are certainly not genuine. 246 to 339. and C. is given by Clarac. as the two cranes of Dexamenos. pp. 72 INSCRIBED GEMS WITH [CHAP. 1866. Plates 3. found at for Kertch. and now in the Hermitage 1 A long list of gem-engravers. genuine gems exist on which a signature has been added by a modern hand. pp. Ever since the revival of interest in antique gems and their engravers about the time of Lorenzo de' Medici (1449 1492). II. who have written on the subject of signed gems'. are Gems of those which have been found by some trustworthy explorer and have never passed through the hands of a dealer. 105 to 139. 8. . and almost tainty the only signed gems. In many cases both the and the are but a great many gem itself signature forgeries. the value of a genuine stone has been enormously in- creased by its possessing an artist's signature. whether they were genuine antiques or modern forgeries.

on the other hand. signets which have the engraving on a metal bezel can be trusted far more safely than any engraving on stone' . 1861.] ARTISTS' SIGNATUKKS. J. and may be free from all sign* of wear. where the gems of Dexamenos are described. readily shows signs of * The reason of this is that the softer metal more and. and Comftc Kcndu. The Museum in Naples contains a gold ring which was found on the site of the ancient Capua. and has a large bezel of mixed metal the gold and engraved with a very inlaid in noble portrait head of a clean-shaven Roman of middle age. It is now in the Hermitage collection at St Petersburg: see Antiqu. except in the case of gold. du Jiosf. as is mentioned at page Panticapaeum was a Greek colony in (he Tauric Chenoncsus (modern 1 Crimea): the population was partly Scythian and partly Hellenic by race.f. Apart from the evidence of an ascertained fnn'enancc. PI. n. In the field behind the head. Like most of the other Greek objects from Kertch it is fine work of the 4th century li. . and holds an arrow in his hand. Ciinni. Brutus. PI. . fust. 73 Museum at St Petersburg Sec page vii in the 1 Appendix. vi. 1855. 14. PI. he is seated on a chair. since in some cases gems set in ancient rings have been recut. on the bezel of which is cut a figure of a Scythian noble clad in a tunic and close fitting trousers with ci Phrygian initra on his head . vi. It has been suggested that the head is a portrait of M. XXXI f. 3^. usually takes a surface falina from age. in minute letters. remains unchanged by time. [HPJAKAEIAAC EF10EI: sec Hull. oxydiution which a forger can hardly imitate. is the name s^nei of Atlicnadcs [A]OHNAAH1. Its tombs have been most remarkable for their rich stores of objects of all kinds of the finest Greek workmanship. Like the last men- tioned ring. Even this test is not infallible. Another signet found in a sarcophagus in one of the CoU Kertch tombs has what is probably an engraver's signature. In the field. Herakltidas. is the signature of the engraver.CHAI-. in very small characters. of fine Greek workmanship of the Augustan period. This is a ring wholly of gold. A hard slunc. it is wholly of metal. unless indeed the latter is set in a ring which is evidently antique.

among the many gems which were attached as ornaments to enrich a gold reliquary. of rather coarse work- manship. very inferior to that by Euodos. On 1 In 1875 the whole Maryborough collection of gems was sold for 35. Again we may safely trust those signed gems which arc known to have existed in some royal or ecclesiastical treasury from a period earlier than the date when forged inscriptions began to be cut. vi. though its pedigree does not go back further than the reign of Charles I. 1 Another signed gem in the Maryborough collection (No. It is cut on a splendid hyacinthine sard of which the upper portion is broken away. on the right. where it remained till the French Re- volution. signed behind the head with the artist's It is name Euodos. Nikandct Behind the neck is the signature of Nikander. The history of this magnificent gem can be traced back formore than a thousand years. than the latter years of the 15th century. It a large dark sard. and. 447). and ancient rings with plain gold bezels have had a modern device cut upon them. though the gem lacks the confirmation of so satisfactory a pedigree as that of the work of Euodos.000 guineas to Mr Bromielow of Battlesden Park in Bedfordshire. when it formed part of the Earl of Arundel's collection. It was once in the possession of Charlemagne. 74 GEMS WITH [CHAP. It is now in the Bibliotheque Nationalc at Paris. NIKANAPOC 6TTOEI. exists in the Marl- borough collection (No. portrait of Julia the daughter of Titus on a large and brilliant beryl or aquamarine. earlier. reversed on the gem. 341) certainly appears to be genuine. . is Ulysses pointing to the prostrate body of the Trojan priestess.. one of the noblest glyptic portraits in the world. No. 101. Gem by One of the most notable examples of this is the celebrated Euodos. Another signed portrait of Julia. and was given by Charles the Bald to the Abbey of St Denis. sec page 270 in Chabouillet's Catalogue. 6YOAOC 6110161. that is. of almost undoubted genuineness. engraved with a seated figure of is Diomede holding the Palladium. 2089.

The same may be said of the head of Maecenas. with a similar inscription. In front of him is a statuette on a tall stele. and is clearly a work of Lorenzo's own time by some unknown artistof extraordinary skill see page 125. see JtiltrbuJt Arch. which was published by Fulvio Orsini in 1580 as a portrait of the Athenian Solon. unlike the ancient fashion of filling up the field as much as possible. over Diomede's head. 1256). ancient or one from the collection of modern. VI. first mentioned by Dandelot in 1716. field. with I.AVR. the original now being lost or out of sight . is Lorenzo the Magnificent. in the genitive case. forged artists' names. Few gems have sucha good pedigree as one which is signed by Eutychts of Acgacac. /nst iSSS. 220 and PI. p. No. is the name of the owner Calpurnius Scverus. in the Devon- shire collection. and with various. The name ZOAQNOC on the celebrated chalcedony with sim-. on the cubical cippns on which Diomede sits. 8. 75 the square cippits on which Diomcdc sits is the signature of Gfn ty ftl"' the artist Felix. which may possibly be genuine. now in the British Museum (No. Furtwangler however accepts as genuine a carnelian replica />/*. The signature is in minute letters in the exergue. On the last two gems the name. in Greek letters <t>HAE 00161 and in the . Mi:i>.] ARTISTS' SIGNATURES.i Medusa's head from the Strozzi collection. the son of Dioskouridcs. thus KAAnOYPNIOY CEOYHPOY. Tin's has only the figure of Diomede seated on a cubical cippns with a sword in one hand ami the Palladium in the other. if not a modern addition. : A variety of this design with Diomede rising from his seat is known from paste copies only. It . 26. is certainly not a genuine artist's sig- nature. design. There arc a great many replicas or copies of this gem more or less varied either with the whole or part of the . such as Solon and Gnaios.> of this design which HJ"' is signed AIOCKOYPIAOY.CHAP. Hy far the most beautiful of all the replicas of this noble />/<</<</ larcn '-- figure. in the exergue is the signature of Solon. is probably that of the owner. probably in most cases. It has a very wide margin all round. COA(x)N nOIl.

among the MS. 284. Father Wilhelm in his Luxemburgum Romanian. Bull. Inst. In three vertical lines is inscribed in copied minute characters 6YTYXHC AIOCKOYPIAOY AireAioc enpei]. 81. is signed by Heropldlus. in spite of the unusual spelling of " Dioskorides. with the inscription given in full and a Latin translation of it . a large amethyst. vi.D. Athene by is a very noble full-faced bust of Athene. a description of this very gem written in 1445. HPO<t>IAOC AIOCKOPIA[OY]. II. Handbook of Gems. Story-Maskelyne. in the Vienna collection. deeply cut on Eutyches. The Comm. No. Marl. 76 GEMS OF DIOSKOURIDES [CHAP. Cat. 12). A gem exactly answering to this description exists among the Marlborough collection (see Marl. 1870. and is said to have belonged to a Church in Germany many centuries ago." " of the Apart from internal evidence there is documentary proof genuineness of this gem. Eutyches of Aegacac the son of Dioskourides made (this). This also appears to have a good pedigree gem it : is in a mediaeval setting. de' Rossi discovered in the Vatican library.. writings of Cyriac of Ancona. 1878. evidently of the first century A." Hyllus. Cameo by A large cameo inblue paste with a very fine laureated Hero- head of Augustus in very high relief. Drs Brunn and Furtwangler consider the signature to be genuine. p. . The name of a third son of Dioskourides called Hyllus occurs onsome antique gems. and from a statue. see 40 and King. No. another son of Dioskourides. and is probably the one mentioned by Cyriac: it has un- fortunately lost the last four letters by re-polishing and re-setting. written century. Vol. p. philns. de- in the I7th scribes this cameo as being then in the treasury of the Church of Echternach. see N. Gems. A sardonyx cameo in the Berlin Museum with a finely executed head of a young Faun has the signature thus .

CHAP. In the Marlborough collection there is a very fine front. No. a bull advancing with lowered horns. In most cases this name is //>//< a modern forgery. This gem was described in 1589 by Montjosieu in his Callus Komat lfos/>es.^. cut on an orange sard. 167. which may possibly be a genuine artist's signature. tlu Marlborough gems. VI. doubts whether this gem is the identical one which was known in 1605.] AND HIS SONS. This gem was formerly in the collection of Lorenzo dc' Medici.' A copy by Pichlcr is in the British ' Museum. Above it. as Dr Story-Maskclync remarks in his Catahgtte of It has. in the _/?</</ is the name YAAOY. celebrated portrait on an amethyst of Macconas (or The Solon as it has been called) in the Paris Hibliothequc. tind decked out in Dionysiac ornaments. Among the genuine examples may be ranked a sard in the St Petersburg Museum with an intaglio head of Apollo . 269. 2077. One or two other gems signed by Dioskourides have a />/<"*> pedigree reaching sufficiently far back to. was known as far back as 1605. 77 YAAOC AIOCKOYPIAOY CHOIf. No. MM). is the name YAAOY. the well known Roman archaeologist. It is a very nobly cut head. It is also mentioned by Spon as having previously be- longed to Fulvio Orsini. /'/<<*<< faced standing figure of Mercury wearing the chlamys and pctasus. Furtwanglcr. No. and susjxxts it of being modern. TheBibliothequc at Paris contains a very finely executed intaglio on chalcedony. at least. 2299.AVK. been unfortunately ruined by rcpolishing the field.1 forgery. cut in the usual conspicuous fashion. Another gem which was once in Fulvio Orsini's collection. diminish the chance of either the engraved figure or the name being . and bears his name I. in the field. however. The design on this obviously copied from a statue not gem is unlike the so called Phocion of the Vatican. with the name AIOCKOYPIAOY placed vertically behind it: see Chabouillct's Catalogue. with the signature AIOCKOYPI- AOY in rather large but lightly cut letters. .

executed (with the addition of Dioskourides' name) for Baron Stosch it is . No. been purchased. wearing a short chiton and resting her hand on a cippus. represent a see Gardner figure of different design . in spite a soft stone of an opaque green colour. to whom the production of many forgeries is due. '/. . Plate Y. is a suspicious circumstance that it once belonged to Baron Stosch. j^ j n p resen gpo. which may possibly be a genuine antique of the unusual material it is engraved upon. 705 in Mr Smith'sCatalogue. Behind. Among the other gems which bear the name of Dios- kourides the most genuine appears to be one which was found in 1756 on the estate of the Duke of Bracciano near Rome. and was described in 1589 by Montjosieu (pp. in small letters. Mercury. In one hand Mercury holds a dish containing a ram's head. with the rest t. bears the signature of Dioskouridcs. but the coin reverses of Anticyra. and Imhoof-Blumer. cut on a brilliant sard of fine golden tint. it is certainly a very beautiful gem and is the work of a most skilful artist. a kind of stone which was frequently used by the engravers of the last century for their best works. but without the questionable signature. even if the Carlisle Mercury be a modern production. The samedesign. Neither the engraving nor the signature have a very genuine look it . VI. 78 GEMS SIGNED BY [CHAP. However. The Carlisle gem may perhaps be a copy of this. It is evidently copied from a very fine marble statue of Praxitelean type. It is a very beautiful figure of Artemis standing. in profile. Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias. and page 124. It is a very fine sard with a standing figure of Mercury wearing a chlamys. y ear j of the Carlisle gems. XVII. This was for in Lord Carlisle's collection but ^gem Carlisls long . placed vertically. the design on which is evidently copied from a statue. occurs on another gem in the British Museum. Another gem. which probably show this statue. except the head which is turned to the front. is the name AIOCKOYPIAOY. by the British Museum. Apollo. and in the other a caduceus. Dioskoii. seen in profile. Kohlcr supposes it to be from the colossal Artemis of Anticyra by Praxiteles.) is signed by Apollonios AFIOAAQNIOY. No.

Both have what professes to be the signature of Uioskouridcs. dancing. "(. Griech. It is now in the Museum at Naples. No. on the back of which is cut the sacred Gnostic word IA(x). II.S AND PAMPIHI. The signature AIOC- KOYPIAOY is cut vertically in microscopic characters. 1817. in the field at the side of the head sec Jahrbnch Arch. 497. p.CHAP. worked in gloss Itnenu was found Pompeii. Knnstlcr. Inst. 1888. The British Museum possesses two gems of very minute J###BOT_TEXT###gt;nraits workmanship with a similar front-faced head of Julius Caesar. very pictorial in style. The Blacas gem modern work the modelling is certainly a : of the face exaggerated is and too minute in style. 301. see Brunn. In addition to those already mentioned the following arc among the most important gems with artists' signatures. sec Chabouillct. and Plate II. 222 and Plate 8. and another. 1815. on an amethyst in the Paris Bibliothcquc fam- engraved with a seated figure of Achilles playing on a lyre. A fits.". see Rtal Mtaet Borhomto. A very minutely executed theatrical with musicians playing and scene. 13 and 14. and the name is wrongly s|>elt in two places AIOOKOPIAOZ and has the square sigma Z instead of the rounded form C used by Dioskourides. 25. VI. Xos."" one from the Kiccardi collection on sard. 243. By the lyre is cut vertically the name FTAM4>IAOY. probably a copy of the Paris gem. with the inscription in AIOZKOYPIAHZ ZAMIOZ ETTOIHZE at Ihe top of the picture. and lirit. and of (bout the umc date. Vol. with the same inscrip- tion is in the Devonshire collection . 1888. Catalogue. Aslightly modified replica of this. 2305). with his arms placed around him. Jahrbtuk Arch. but they arc not in all cases free from suspicion. 79 It is a sard engraved with a beautiful full-faced head of a female with long flowing ringlets and small horns over the forehead possibly representing lo. and another on jacinth from the Blacas collection. .OS. was a worker in mosaic. p.. Plate 34. is in the British Museum (Xo. IV. This copy has been engraved on a genuine ancient gem. Cat. : p. 1 Another artist called Dioskourides from Samos.] DIOSKOUKIDF. On the Kiccardi gem the name is cut in the right way AIOOKOYPIAOY . p. 1557 and 1558'. No. Inst. Xos. Pamphilos .

in the style of the best Greek iconic heads. 1850 3. a fine beryl or aquamarine in the Florence collection (Uffizi gallery) is engraved with a very noble head of a Roman. standing in front of an archway. is the signature AfAGOnOYC 11061. supposed to be Sextus Pompey. Vol. such as those on the tctradrachms of Eumencs of Pcrgamus. fig. by Professor Fesch of Basic. the Vienna collection is a fine sardonyx in gem engraved with a nude figure of a hero with a club. and cannot therefore be a quite modern forgery. on paste. The hypercritical Kohler calls this a modern gem. with the signature and in addition the letter L. so it cannot be a quite modern forgery. Mus. with the lion's skin over his shoulder the upper part of the head is broken : away. also Kohler and Stephani. LAVR. Philemon. It is possible that the inscription meant that the design was copied from a painting by the famous Greek artist Pamphilus. p. Philemon. but it has all the appearance of being genuine. I. The British Museum possesses a replica or copy on sard of this portrait. a standing figure of a Muse playing on a lyre. Agathopns . Cat.. Pam. 1552. Behind the head. PI. in which the corpse of . MED. as is suggested by its picture-like style. As much cannot be said of another gem in the Florentine museum with the inscription ONHCAC 6TTOI6I. set in a massive gold ring. .. . Its wide margin and general style suggest that it is a work of some early Renaissance artist. It was known in the I7th century. II. Onesas . This magnificent gem was known in the i6th century. No. 338. Gesammelte Scliriften. in the Florentine collection is a very fine laur- catcd head of the youthful Hcrakles on sard. 8o GEMS WITH [CHAP. in two hori- zontal lines. cient space in the field for Lorenzo's usual mark. cf. 2 and Brit.which is supposed to be a mark of its having once belonged to Lorenzo the Magnificent there is hardly suffi. See Museum Florentinum. In a horizontal line is the signature ONHCAC. Oncsas. Agath. and in 1707 it was published by Maffei in his Gemmc A ntichc : it is said to have been found near Rome. The Paris amethyst was given to Louis XIV. vi.

vi. all that now exists of this remarkable cameo is of extraordi- narily beautiful and minute workmanship. is an nijua- tnarine in the Devonshire collection. more remains than the head of 1'aris wearing a Little Phrygian cap and holding a veil away from his face in a very feminine manner.. The comparatively small portion which is.i collection with the head of an ivy- wreathed Faun has the inscription 4>IAHMQN fnoiffl]. it is A f'listc in the Stro/. but this also is of doubtful genuineness. but most probably copied from some ancient terra cotta or marble relief by one of the ablest gem en- gravers of the6th century.er. 1 The same name occurs on the fragment of a very beautiful Cameo ly onyx cameo now in the Hritish Museum. Hehind Theseus is cut. unfortunately. the inscription mummt. and possibly of the same date as the Hcrakles and the bull. This fragment consists only of the upper part of a subject which may possibly have been the Judgment of I'aris. with.-in/fro:./.CHAP. in the cxcrgnc. Teitkros . It is a very noble and beautiful work. the inscription ANTePGOTOC. probably for ANTEPfiC 00161. about the authenticity of which .. At the right hand side is the inscription in minute incised letters ANT6. Antfros. M. of rather similar style.. certainly not of quite modern date. not without reason : very pictorial in style. and the signature appears to be perfectly genuine. another gem. <t>IAHMONOC. on the other side. 6 . in a vertical line.. The top of the cameo is occupied by the overhang- ing branches of a tree. the head of a female figure. very different opinions have been expressed. is an amethyst in the Florentine collection with Omphalc (or lolc) standing in front of Hcrakles who is seated on a rock. representing Theseus at the door of the Cretan labyrinth. The design represents Hcrakles staggering under the weight of the slain Marathonian bull. among the Carlisle collection. from which a quiver is suspended. 81 the Minotaur is lying.] ARTISTS' SIGNATURES. and. Hoth Kohler and Stephani consider this a modern gem.

even of the late Greek or Graeco-Roman school. In many cases the name is clearly that of the owner. For example an onyx cameo in the Florentine museum 1 This is the view taken by Stephani . In front of on a tablet. real or forged. page 127. see below. quite without reason. on one in the Fitzwilliam collection. but bear the impress of real original power on the part of their engravers. it is very doubtful whether any would be left to prove that there was a gem-engraver named Aulus. used to sign his works. as for example. The name TGYKPOY is cut vertically in very minute characters. It is introduced on a large number of the Poniatowski forgeries. Quintus Alexander. see ill. Gesam. p. So also. 1 1. the name EAAHN or EAAHNOC occurs on various gems of doubtful authenticity. 82 INSCRIBED GEMS [CHAP. I7Q. on a magnificent fragment of a sard in the British Museum with a head of Asklepios. known as il Greco.g. It is also probable that the inscription AAEHANAPOC or AAEZA more or less contracted are other forms of the same artist's signature. the name KOINTOZ AAEEA. The sensuous softness of the modelling of the nude forms is more like the production of an artist of the Renaissance period than that of an ancient engraver. Auliis. Though they can hardly be accepted as genuine. Hdlen. Hellen . e. it. and those on which it stands for the owner. Taikros. Alessandro Cesati. but Kohler in his usual fashion rejects the gem altogether. occurs on gems as frequently as the name of Aulus. great many A copies of this or a similar design exist. . the two last mentioned gems arc among the most skilful examples of the glyptic art that any age has ever produced. Aitlns . Alessandro was by birth a Cypriote and was one of the most famous gem-cutters of the i6th century. forgery. not of the engraver. Schrift. Moreover they are not slavish copies. quite unlike the bold style in which an owner's name was usually engraved on a signet. probably no other artist's name. see page xxv. III. is the name AYAOY in large characters'. 342 . Mr King has suggested that this is one of the ways in which the celebrated gem-engraver // Greco. perhaps. In putting aside those gems on which the name is a fact. p. No. vi.

vi. with a . engraved with a figure of Bcllcrophon mounted on I'cgasus. . name. . supposed to be Germanicus (No. A very beautiful sard- oiiyx cameo in the British Museum with a head of a youthful Roman. contracted to EHI.] WITH ARTISTS' NAMES. It is probably the cameo mentioned by Vasari as one of Alessandro Cesati's finest works. supposed to be Livia. What occurs possibly the same name. and the gem had been known for a long time before 1854 when it passed into the I'aris 1 collection . Gems so inscribed arc mostly portrait-heads. f Hiinui. in the character of Ceres. published in Paii in iHicj. llasc'* Mition of Ix:<m Piacrc. 1 Sec M. but the device itselfappears to be genuine. . gems. 3 Cupid and two female figures. In the field is the contracted name EFIIT. this //". lion. such as Marccllus and Germanicus. is known to have been engraved by Ccsati. No.> . the wife of Augustus.CHAP. which occurs on several important /tflifvNC/HiHHs. has the incised inscription GniTYTXA. signed AAEEANA E. In any case there is no real reason for including cither of the last two names among those which can fairly be assumed to be signatures of artists. may possibly be a genuine artists signature. 1589). 62 . Cttati. at least in some cases. is on a fine cornelian in the Paris Bibliothequc. As possessing an artist's signature this gem is very doubtful. 1575 in the same a fine amethyst intaglio collection is with a front face of a Roman lady.

all such signatures must be regarded with some suspicion. difficulty of deciding. would certainly be a less frequent addition in the case of cameo gems. which was a natural addition to an intaglio-signet. That the name Athenian is that of the engraver rather than of the owner of the cameo is suggested by the minuteness of the characters. INSCRIPTIONS ON GEMS (continued). standing figure of a Roman General. with Zeus holding a thunderbolt and driving a quadriga over the prostrate forms of the conquered earth-born Giants. with a to be Drusus the elder. in minute letters. first whether the gem itself is genuine. the sceptical Kohler throws no doubt upon its genuineness. in a triumphal quadriga. and cannot have been added by a later hand so we are at least spared the double . (. and secondly whether the name may not be a subsequent addition by some forger.j lc namej ijk e th e rest of the design. 84 CHAPTER VII. Cameo of In many cases the signatures on cameos are not in relief. Moreover an owner's name. is we have the in relief advantage of knowing that it must have been cut by the original engraver of the whole design. Signed CAMEOS WITH ARTISTS' NAMES : in judging of these. The same name (Athenion) occurs also on a Paste large fragment of a cameo in blue paste in the Berlin col- cameo. In the exergue is the nameAOHNIQN in relief. '""' but are incised. supposed lection. if cameos. Among the most authentic signed cameos is a large sardonyx in the Museum at Naples. The name . The whole design is work of a talented artist of the Augustan clearly the period and even . like the name on an intaglio .

p. Another very fine signed cameo was in the collection (/<. an ancient copy of a work of the same engraver who cut the Destruction of the Titans by the thunderbolts of Zeus. \. cut in relief.is/. of which ancient replicas are now in the Vatican Museum and elsewhere.i is not that of the engraver of the cameo. In the exergue the signature in relief nPSiTAPXOl EFIUEI. especially noticeable in the head and in the modelling of the chest and ribs. 84) as being the sculptor of the boy struggling with a goose. In the Florentine collection there is a very good cameo Camto . fkas. 85 AOHNIQN. within a cable . but that the gem was copied from an embossed relief in silver by the celebrated sculptor and caelator named lioetlws. It is a sardonyx with a nude figure of I'hiloctetes in Lemnos. Mr King has however suggested that the name Hoetlws T*ti'.CIIAI'. in exactly similar letters to those on the Naples cameo. Nat. N. and the details arc cut with great minuteness anil naturalistic truth. which is. and is now in the possession of the Duke />WM<"- of Northumberland at Almvick Castle. 1881./ of Lord Beverley. who is mentioned by Pliny (Hist. is which even Koliler admits to be genuine. this cameo bearsall the marks of being a genuine antique work of the Augustan age: see Annali Inst.. In spite of Stephani's opinion to the contrary. using it to fan his wounded foot. and (H. However this may be. The design of this cameo is very skilfully contrived to fill up the surface of the gem in the most complete way. 266. seated on the ground: in his right hand he holds a bird's wing. is placed in the exergue of the Berlin paste.] CAMEOS WITH ARTISTS' NAMES. no doubt.'J /"r.. is It occurs on an intaglio of the scarab type. 155) as being one of the principal Greek workers in the precious metals. placing it among the five examples of signed gems which are the only ones he accepts as ancient gem signatures.\iil. XXXIV. which is bound round with bandages. VII. the motive of this cameo an early one. In the upper part of the field is the name liuct/ws. BOHOOY.-tar- in sardonyx with Cupid riding on a lion and playing a lyre.

the paste head of Augustus signed by Herophilos. Cat. the name AIOCKOYPIAOY. 27. Milo di Filotete. it cannot be said that in all cases such incised names are modern forgeries. Cellini tells us that during his first stay in Rome (from 1524 to 1527) he was in the habit of buying from the peasants large numbers of ancient gems. border. II. Mus. In the Berlin Museum there is a magnificent sardonyx cameo with a figure of Hercules dragging Cerberus by his chain. VII. see Brit. The finest of them all was. More than one is accepted as genuine by Dr Brunn 2 . as is remarked above. mentioned above at page 76. Gesammelte Schriften. 1859. The cameo of Anteros (p. 1850-3. Incised Although. in which work almost all gem signatures are taken to be forgeries. Si) is also an example of undoubted genuineness. in the British Museum. fig. 86 CAMEOS INSCRIBED WITH [CHAP. Kiinstler. and Annalilnst. which he showed to Michelangelo. Among these was the emerald with the dolphin's head. cameos on which the engraver's signature is incised must be viewed with suspicion. a most exquisitely modelled and minutely finished Dioskou. who remarked that it was the most wonderful piece of work he had ever seen. in the exergue. With regard to the motive of this cameo. and PI. 1857. a cameo with figures of Hercules subduing Cerberus.. der Gricch. 455 . as. I. 2 In his Gesch. This cameo certainly was known in the i6th century: part of the field is broken away and is now replaced in plain gold. 3 It need hardly be said that Kohler refuses to accept this gem as a genuine . cap. for example. Dr Brunn discusses and modifies the conclusions arrived at by Kohler and Stephani. Vol. 86. p l. an interesting passage occurs in the Autobiography of the Florentine artist Cellini. 6 '.H. It is not impossible that the cameo described by Cellini is the one now in the Berlin collection 3 . p. Benvenuto Cellini. work. lib. No. 1 Both the cameo and the British Museum intaglio are described by Milani. II. mentioned below at page 135. Cellini says. and a mag- nificent head of Minerva on a large topaz. which they found while digging in the vineyards in and around Rome. with.

intaglios. as is the case with the above-mentioned namu Sostratos. is a fine onyx cameo with for the Cupid leading a chariot drawn by two panthers. In the txerguc the name CQCTPATOY is incised in minute letter*. engraved on a very beautiful oriental carbuncle: it has TAIOC 00161 on the collar*. p. The gem once belonged to Lorenzo de' Medici and has l. 1 ThU gem publUhcd by Tauic. Both these appear to be undoubtedly genuine examples of an artist's signature. as. antique: in fact he deni the authenticity of all the lignatam of Diatkourida : ice Giiamm. recently pur- the chased Hritish Museum. over ' which is incised the inscription CQCTPATUY. MEI>. The same name occurs on a small. cut on raft crytlal by lx>rcn*o Mauini for Itaron in the Ik-rlin Sloich. If the truth could be known it would probably be found ihiiim' that a large proportion of so-called artists' signatures on gems of all sorts really are names of owners. it is Gem signatures. for example. There arc however one or two possible excep- tions to this rule.Virgiii. the full faced head of the dog Sirius. III. we may fairly assume that the genuine signature of an engraver. 187.v In the Museum at Naples there is a very fine sardonyx Camew ''' cameo engraved with a figure of Victor).] THE ARTIST'S NAME. Plate XLV. Among gems of the Carlisle collection. are rarely cut on part of the engraved device usually they are placed . in the field. ha* the modern ^mature MACINOC (Manini) ETTOIEI. in very small characters'.driving a biga. ' The Mgnaturc on the Siriiu gem in the Marlborough collection. more especially in the case of signet gems. 270 in the Marl- : borough collection. . The name CQCTPAToY is cut in the f. 7760. If however the same name is found to be repeated on several gems of similar date and style. with a collar round his neck. on which she rests one knee.CUM'. Artists were much more likely to introduce their own names on cameos for the reasons which are indicated at pages 92 93. Stkri/l. vii. Several replicas and siri*i 1 copies of this exist one of the finest is No. No. unlike artists' names on coins. is ' One Museum.AVR. and even . en- graved under the horses of the biga. with a figure of a winged Victory sacrificing a bull. delicately cut intaglio in the same collection.

Inst. H. what is possibly the artist's name ONATA[I]'.C. Museum (Brit. Gem of It is one of those curious scarabaeoids which have on the Syrias. In fact signed gems were very exceptional through- out the whole of the autonomous Greek period by far the . i. 196. 8. There is however in the British Museum (No. see Jahrbuch Arch. see Furtwangler. frequently received the signature of the artist. 1115 and 1 1 1 6). Cat. but as Dories. and PI. curved back a design carved in delicate relief in this case a Satyr's head the earliest form of cameo. p. Jahrbuch Arch. Dates of With regard to the dates when engraved gems most signed gems.C. are without the signature. The two similar gems in the British Museum. Inst. 1888. in characters of somewhat indistinct form. 1888. not as Surias. 479 in Mr A. H. has. and is round the edge of the field is the inscription which Mr A. 204. 2 Others read the name of the artist. but Furtwangler and other good authorities accept it as a genuine Greek work of the early part of the 4th century B. Smith gives as $VHA* the gem itself is by no means above the suspicion of being the work of Natter. Victory of A very beautiful and large chalcedony gem in the British Onatas. it may be remarked that this was very rarely done before the 4th cen- tury B. Mus. The genuineness of this noble gem has been questioned. majority of those which now exist are the work of Greek engravers during the time of the Roman Empire. 1161). the name is probably a blunder for FNAIOC- 1 Furtwangler is inclined to read the inscription ONAIA. . No. on the ribbon-like folds of a long flag attached to a spear. AOP 1 15$ . a somewhat similar design to that on a Syracusan tetradrachm of Agathocles. 88 ARTISTS' NAMES ON [CHAP. The device sunk on the flat or signet side of the scara- baeoid a standing figure of a bearded harp-player. from the Payne Knight and the Blacas collections (Nos. especially the Augustan period. mentioned above at page 59. engraved with a figure of Victory erecting a trophy.C. p. No. Smith's Catalogue) one very remarkable signed gem which apparently is not later than the middle or latter part of the 6th century B. vii.

The great decadrachms of Syracuse. and till about the middle of the 4th century. On Roman coins artists' signatures arc unknown. The name usually in the nominative. or on the band which binds the hair of Persephone. as if before EPI~ON and it is cut in very small characters .J GEMS AND COINS. so as not to rival the importance of the type legend. the coins on which artists' names occur arc those of Sicily and Magna Graecia during the 5th and 4th centuries lie. On Greek vasts painters' names were most common during the 6th and 5th centuries lie. though in some cases the genitive is used.. Velia..As some guide to forming a judgment with regard to signatures on gems it may be well to consider the somewhat analogous case of coins which bear the artist's signature. especially coins of Syracuse.CHAI'. for example. under the main head on the otnvrse. Camarina and a few others. Thurium. Kimon signs on a dolphin . . With very few exceptions.c. For this reason it is frequently introduced on some detail of the design thus.. artists' signatures were not uncommon during the latter part of the 5th century lie. After the time of Alexander artists' names on pottery soon totally disappear. . the word EFIOIEl is being understood. arc among the chief glories of numismatic art. Catana. sometimes of microscopic minuteness.. VII. Tarentum. Metapontum. As a rule the artist inserts it in a way that makes it as little conspicuous as possible. but the greater number belong to the first half of the 4th century. In the case of Greek coins. . signed by Kimon and liuainetos. Sy This a quite exceptional gem almost no others occur is : with an artist's signature till the 4th century n. Hcraklaca. to which period the various signed gems found at Kertch evidently belong see page 73. ARTISTS' NAMKS ON COINS.

in the pos- session of the writer. the same coin- engraver seems often to have worked for more than one city . vii. 1 20. on the cornice of the altar. but in a contracted form or with an initial only. as that of the same person. The name EYKAEIAAZ occurs among the ornaments of Athene's helmet on a Syracusan tetradrachm and in many : other cases the signature escapes all but the most minute examination. J. page on signed coins. isthe signature KIMON. when a coin has the same name repeated twice. Several examples of hitherto unpublished coins with artists' names. which have a tablet inscribed EYAINETO held by a flying Victory possibly a sort of pattern or trial- piece by this wonderful engraver. but as the up^vpoKoiro^. ARTISTS NAMES [CHAP. On many coins the artist's name is not given in full. as it usually is on gems.. and will shortly be printed in in the Num. probably. Chron. Air Evans Mr A. This very ingenious suggestion satisfactorily explains what was previously a very puzzling problem. for 1890. in the other case. in letters of microscopic minute- Kimon ness. not in his quality of artist. A very interesting paper on the signed coins of Sicily and Magna Graecia was recently read by Mr Evans before the Numismatic Society London. The remarkable thing about the elder this unique coin is that its style shows it to be not later . and. As Mr Evans has pointed out. were described in this paper . the signature in the one case was. the nymph Himera sacrificing at an altar. Evans. introduced as that of the engraver of the coin-die. among them were the following a tetradrachm of Himera with the usual reverse. Vol. as on some Syracusan reverses. Eitklcidas. In some examples the name is more con- spicuous. in his Horsemen of Tarcntum. coins of different colonies both in Magna Graecia and Sicily occurring with the same signature. yet It may be possible to discover some definite reason for these names being sometimes in the nominative and sometimes in the possessive case. very frequently. or actual striker of the coin. 1888. though cut in microscopic characters. was the first to point out that. as a guarantee for its being of the requisite weight and purity of metal.

hitherto unpublished.. The artist who signs himself KIMON may po. perhaps for Ei/#t>/io<. VII. was a Syra. whose name occurs on a dolphin under the head of I'ersephone on one of the cele- brated Syracusan dccadrachms which were struck towards the close of the 5th century. Kaoul Rochcttc and (more recently) Furtwanglcr and Mr A. Evans have accepted this theory 1 . not cut on the exergual line. 4. grandfather of the later KIMfiN. has an apparently authentic artist's signature 0PYHAAOZ and that . "Jakrlnuk dti Kau. who signs himself EY0. 8.C. but on a double fiitax or diptych (TTTU/CTOV TriVaf held by a flying ) Nike over the victorious quadriga on the reverse. Another signed coin. A new signature of EEAKEZTIAAZ occurs on a tetra. for example. with a seated figure of Kros playing with astragali.] ON GREEK COINS. cusan tetradrachm with the artist's name EYAPXIAAI. as. M.c. it is worth while to notice that one very beautiful gem.c. As a commentary on the gem-like style of the coins of Sicily and Magna Graecia during the and 4th centuries 5th U.vsibly be the A'/." 1888. Instil. J. a die- engraver who worked in conjunction with the Syracusan Phrygillos. Berlin. No. rhr\x illoi. l-:\akt>- drachm of Kamarina. A> f It is quite possible that the gem with the figure of Kros may be the work of the same 1'hrygillos who engraved the Syracusan coin obverse . The reverse type. 1884. . Die /CtiintUriiu<knfltn Jer SiciliicluH Munun. the same artist's name occurs on several very beautiful coins.CHAP. On Sicilian coin* with artists' names. 197. ice Rudolf Weil.-. and therefore it supplies an example of a signed coin nearly half a century earlier than any which had previously been known. 91 than about 470 to 465 ii. I have not been able to ascertain who a now the possessor of the Eros of Phrygillos. /. with a head of Persephone. The very few artist* names that occur on coins outside of Sicily and Magna Graecia are sometimes treated in a different 1 See Furtwanglcr'i Gemnun mil Kuiutlerinukrifttn. and also on other coins of the same city. a quadriga.. PI. p. Deult. Dana III.. on the obverse of a Syracusan tetradrachm of a little before 400 li. who is mentioned below. has the signature of another artist.

vii. 1 The sacred character of the types on coins was the reason why portraits of . The most notable examples are the about the middle of the 4th century fine silver staters issued Coins of B. but without the word eVotei. Both these remarkable coins are of about the middle of the 4th century B. is the engraver's signature OAYM. On the rock. near Cydonia. or more rarely XAPI. SIGNED COINS. page 373- Signed It may at first seem strange that artists' names should be vases. so rare on gems and coins. which is by no means hidden away. in cases.C. head of Zeus Lycaeos. Again. which only occurs on the two last mentioned coins.. and. way. a figure of Pan seated on a rock. The reason the coin-type was is probably this. and in the field the signature NEYANTOI ETTOEI. The position of the head on the die is arranged so as to give ample room for this inscription. On the obverse is a noble Arcadia. in minute characters. Num. having. and by it. see Head. Thcodotos. a thing of public importance and had a distinctly sacred character. on the reverse. with the pcduni or shepherd's crook in his hand.two the word ETTOEI (sic) after them. doros. A beautiful tetradrachm of Clazomene in Ionia (near Smyrna) has a full-faced head of Apollo on the obverse. A similar inscription occurs on a much less beautiful tetradrachm of Cydonia in Crete. [CHAP. being cut more conspicuous characters. which has on the obverse a profile head of Ariadne. has the signature PY00AQ[POI] in large letters. and so common upon Greek vases which belong to an inferior grade in the rank of the lesser arts. Hist. Neuan/os. so it may usually have been thought presumptuous for an artist to introduce his name in such a place 1 . of the city of Aptcra. like most of the former class of signatures. Coins struck in the mainland of Greece very rarely bear an artist's signature. in the field. by the Arcadian Federation. Pytho. and in larger. A third Cretan coin. the signature 0EOAOTOI ET70EI. in two straight lines.C.

] INSCRIBED (JEMS.. on Graeco-Roman and Roman gems which re- living persons were not introduced till comparatively laic times. it may (if . such as the Julia of linoiios. after the death of Alexander the Great. dition) be considered to be the name of the owner. but not usually in minute in the characters such as engravers used. . . not of the en- graver of the gem. but there may possibly be some antique Roman examples in which a gem has a copy of some piece of sculpture together with the name. and was.. EXPLANATORY WORDS: on many Oriental cylinders. page 14. a very common practice on the painted vases of the same period.. but of the sculptor of the original statue.CHAP. So also Greek scarabs and scarabacoids of the 6th and 5th WorJion century B. in no way interfering with the painted pictures on the vase. case was different a maker's or painter's name could offend : nobody. With painted pottery the I'asts. or still more if it were a cameo. 93 thegem was meant for personal use as a signet. 3. In cases where the name on a gem cut in large O-. in addition to the owner's name. artistof such fame that his signature materially added to the value of the gem.rntr? letters. VII. Again.SYv>/Vu : in most cases these are obviously modern forgeries. as appears to have sometimes been the case- in the Roman Imperial period.. genitive. A certain number of gems exist which have the name of some distinguished . there would be less reason to object to an artist's name being inscribedupon it. have in some cases names cut by the side of the figures on them to explain the subject. and most UH of men probably would have objected to another name than their s"" : own being set on their seals unless the engraver were an. . is not a modern ad- rtilfflfi. such as Phcidias or . of quite insignificant size. all and .the is in .V<-w//vor/ sculptor. both those which arc imports of Hellenic workmanship and those which arc native Etruscan imitations of Greek designs sec above. an inscription explains who arc the gods or heroes engraved upon it.. . If however the gem were large and not intended for use as a signet. Owners' names nominative also occur.C. proportionally. This is specially the case with the scarabs found in Etruscan tombs.

and the artist having sufficient skill to do so in a sufficiently intelligible manner. Cat.) Pliny expresses his for the superstitious belief in the magical power contempt of gems. A great number of other mysterious combinations of letters were cut on these talismanic stones. so large a collection of abstractions. 20 and 105. The Paris Biblio- theque contains a large and varied collection. Words of This was specially necessary with the crowd of deified explan. especially when one of the favourite Roman cults arose out of a combination of the 1 The meaning of the word Abraxas is explained in the Appendix. Magic 4. 282 seq. King. In several places (H. CABAQ are of specially common occurrence. W. 1887. with- out ambiguity. A profession of the Divine Unity (like that of a modern Moslem) is of frequent occurrence on gems of the second century A. . Fclidtas. Gnostic and other mystic sects. The Gnostics and their remains.. . ation. and C. or the like. abstractions which appear so often on coins and gems of the Empire since in many cases it would be impossible to know . . Inditlgcntia. 20. Gems. VII. London. xxxvn. 2 For information on this curious subject see Matter. and other similar phrases : see Nos. of Fitz. N. see Chabouillet's 2 Catalogue. Fitzwilliam Catalogue. Histoire du gnosticismc. IC 060C CAPATTIC. the symbols and attributes used by the Roman artists being not sufficiently numerous and varied to indicate. TALISMANIC INSCRIPTIONS occur frequently on the later Roman gems used by the Mithraic. No.D. IAQ. Paris. COAOMON. 124 &c. On the finest gems both of the Greek and the Gracco- Roman period inscriptions of this class rarely occur the device being intended to tell its own story. Munificentia. 1850. p. present some god or goddess the inscribed name of the deity is frequently added. but nevertheless these mystic devices were very popular under the late Empire. and the names of the three Gnostic Aeons. what subject was intended without a word of explanation. 94 INSCRIPTIONS ON [CHAP.. The magical word Abraxas^. such as Concordia. 2nd cd.

your pretty love. built in the i6th and 1 7th centuries . Sophronios.CHAP. iQubat snn then ? Int ttianu SAP. MNHMONEYE (sec : No. 643) appears tohave been a love gift from a lady. the following Philosophical maxim is s|>ecially common A e'"y o vu t v <i tf(\ov(Tii> AfyfTWffai' Of fn

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i fin i A translation of this phrase is inscribed over the free doors of various houses in Scotland. on a dark ground.). 4>IAEI ME. Good luck to you. A curious onyx cameo in the Marlborough collection (No." . for example. An example the Paris Bibliothequc has the following in addition at the end of this phrase CY<t>IAM CYM4>EPICOI meaning " Love me : it is for your advantage (to do so). {Tljcn fjaif snfo. and occupy the whole field of the stone they usually have the : letters cut in relief in the white stratum of an onyx. WORDS OK CKKKTING (t/tt/ tlie like: these are common H'orJs f on gems of the Roman Imperial period. 95 Gnostic philosophy of Alexandria with the mystical Mithraic worship of Persia." Inscriptions such as this are frequently cut in cameo. Fitz. ZHCAIC HOAAOIC fTfUN and the like. Proverbial phrases sometimes occur on late Roman gems. It is engraved with a hand pinching an ear and the inscription MNHMON6Yt MoY THC KAAHC YYXHC 6YTYXI CCO<t>PONI "Remember me. XAIPE. no. VII. usually written in Greek as.] ENGRAVKD GEMS. 5. EYTYXI. Cuf.

6. In the excrgiie\s cut AMMQNIOZ ANEGHKE ETT AFA0Q. No. VII. [CHAP. during the French Re- volution. perhaps by a husband and wife . with a male and female portrait head facing each other. This is probably a votive inscription. has. with Astartc on a lion and the Dioscuri. this venerated cameo was carried off and sold to a Russian General. "Ammonios dedicated this for a blessing. 256 a very large nicolo. An example is in the Marlborough collection. smooth with the kisses of thousands of pilgrims. in incised letters. who presented it to the collection of the Emperor of Russia. 1 Some archaeologists explain this inscription as being the signature of two joint gem-engravers. 96 VOTIVE GEMS. the names AA<t>HOC CYN APH0CONI. The Vir. but the inscription seems to be later than the cameo itself. between the two faces. In the middle ages this gem was preserved in the treasury "'s ' of the Abbey of St Gcrmain-des-Pres." It is a gem of the late Empire. and is larger and more conspicuous than is usually the case with artists' signatures on gems. where it was revered as having been the betrothal ring of St Joseph and the Virgin Mary it is worn . the cameo having been 1 dedicated in some temple. When the Abbey was sacked. A sardonyx cameo of the Roman Imperial period. probably of North African workmanship. in the Hermitage Museum at St Petersburg. . DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS on gems are rare.

They combine noble design and exquisite.NK Greek or Gracco-Roman engraved gems arc among Ktiiuiy of A '"' the most beautiful works of art that exist. Small as gems arc the Greek artist possessed the in scale.milky lustre. which is exhibited in the same cue. iml cd. CHAPTER VIII. but not too minute. Murray. Fl. and the device engraved upon them comes out at once soft in effect. and the figures arc occasionally bent into somewhat strained This grandeur of effect produced by work on the smallest scale is well exem- 1 by the wonderful "Siri* bronze*" in the British Museum. 1890. such as the rich. TlIK CllAKACTI. with a sort of beauty which hardly can be rivalled in any other branch of art. leaving the least possible quantity of empty margin. page 346. this principle is sometimes carried almost too far. where the latter statuette is illustrated under the title "Bronze from Tarentum. brilliantly coloured sard or the sapphirine chalcedony with its exquisitely soft. S. UraaJeur rare secret of giving grandeur of effect without the aid of great si/c and some of the most minute gem engravings . As a rule the general design or composition of an antique gem is very" skilfully contrived to occupy as fully as possible " the field or flat surface of the stone. In the gems of the 6th century B.C.. Hist. and clear in outline. ice A. finish with the greatest beauty of material." M. of Grrtk Stulfture. II. seem to have all the dignity of a large group or bust in marble or bronze'.KISTICS OK A NCI K NT CiKMS. and by the itill plified more beautiful heroic figure from the Lago Hi Bracciano. The more brilliant varieties of sanl glow with a sort of internal lustre when held up to the light. 7 .

composition so as to fall easily and gracefully within the necessary limits see 1 fig. VIII. to the design. fig. 98 CHARACTERISTICS OF [CHAP. device by no means invariably fills up the whole field. . and making the border an essential part. especially the reverses of aurei 1 In Greek coins of the best style we see the same fully occupied field. Skilful But in work of the 5th and 4th centuries B. Thus we find that in the best class of gems with a guilloche border the most projectingportion of the composition is often allowed to Borders.C. No. and the same wonderful skill in suiting the design to the space. attitudes in order to bring them within and yet close up " to the curved limits of the field. The Poniatowski have the same modern peculi- forgeries arity . being copied from an antique. for example. style. Modern Gems. not a mere frame. In the finest gems with a border in the Fitzwilliam collection this is the case : see Nos. the the best co tn posi- highest amount of skill and taste is shown in designing the tion. 17 at page : 26. thus giving a look of freedom to the whole. In the early Greek painted vases of what is called the Oriental style the same dislike to unoccupied spaces is to be seen the so-called horror vacui. see. One of the most obvious differences between antique and modern gems is this absence of margin or unoccupied space in the former class. On Roman coins these points are much less attended to by the die-cutters. crosses and fill other ornaments. The same remark may be made with regard to Roman coins. is very unlike an ancient gem in the wide extent of margin all round the figure. Far less skill and taste are shown in adapting the design to the shape and size of the gem. though in some respects very Greek in style. 1 in the catalogue1 of the Fitzwilliam gems in the Appendix. 10 and II on Plate I." An example of this is illustrated in 16 at page 25. Roman In the case of Roman gems this rule does not apply the . 5. Modern Thus the exquisite Diomede with the Palladium from Lorenzo de' Medici's collection. encroach slightly upon the border. which leads the painter to up his ground by a seme pattern of rosettes.

strictly on one plane. with very few figures. with an excessive roundness of form. not tu the intaglio itielf. Apart from the details of the treatment. a man who has carefully studied and is copied the characteristics of genuine antique gems. those of the ancients are rather ". The skilful treatment of the 'relief with a certain monotony of surface. but to the imum- iton frum it. owing to the hardness of the material 1 ' Relief' i here usol as referring. because. gives no patina to a hard polished gem . seldom more than three during the best periods .SY///V//> gems are pictorial in style. The fact is that in no other class of art is it so difficult to distinguish the genuine from the false partly because age . 72 . makes no alteration. Another noticeable point is that.'. and still less like a reproduction of a statue. avoiding excessive projection. In many cases this excessive amount of projection suggests that the design is a copy of some piece of sculpture in the round. VIII. the whole design (*// of of some gems of Imperial date shows that the gem-engraver has copied some statue of large scale.''. the design is exactly suited to the very stone it is cut upon. ' For examples of thi. the scale of which is frequently small in comparison to the whole circular field of the coin.] ANCIENT GEMS. All these rules arc however quite useless for distinguishing Taiiftr between ancient and modern gems when the work of a clever forger in question. on the contrary. is one of the chief characteristics of good Greek work. with a single standing Koman ""'"' figure of some deity or deified abstraction. seldom looking like a reduced copy of some larger work. In gems <>( the Roman period the relief is often much ' exaggerated. very un- like the flat relief of the 5th century n. 99 and denarii of the Imperial period."'' of a sculpturesque character simple in composition. like the relief-sculpture of all good artists. leaving a large proportion of unoccupied space on each side of the figure.'. and the whole design is treated.c. and secondly. On fine Greek gems. while many modern . regardless of the fact that the design was quite unsuited for reproduction on a minute scale*.CHAP. ice |>agc 78.

for ^Q recognition of genuine and forged gems but the . which diminishes the prominence of the artist's personal peculiarities and touch. and give the requisite clouded look to the work. arc often quite indistinguishable from antiques. Copies of Moreover many of the cleverest forgeries are copies of '"ems'" some antique gem or paste. much. . es- pecially when \vc remember that a highly polished. This unfortunate habit was specially prevalent in the i/th and iSth centuries: many of the best gems of the Marlborough and Devonshire collections have been sadly spoilt by this reckless treatment. has been slightly dulled. such as Natter. and the laborious method of working it. Proofs of antiquity have " been said to be these extensive use of the diamond-point. though once complete. Tests for A great number of different tests have been suggested forgeries. Copies made by the most skilful engravers of the last century. there is necessarily something mechanical in the process of engraving a gem. 100 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANCIENT [CHAP. to the injury of the work. of course." complete internal polish of the details of the design and . imitation of none of these criteria presents any real difficulty to a skilful and intelligent forger. Pichler and Burch. fresh- looking surface is not always a proof that the gem is modern. again internal polish which. so there is nothing in the design to betray a modern origin. and there are often no means of deciding whether a wheel cut or a drill cavity in a hard gem was made yesterday or more than two thousand years ago. With a little extra trouble any modern engraver can polish the whole of his design and a drawing-stump with . as if clouded by the human breath. And again. which have rested undisturbed in a tomb. A large number of genuine antique gems have had their flat field rcpolishcd in modern times. many gems. some diamond or emery powder will readily take off the apparent freshness of the polish. Field re. VIII. still Original have their original polish as fresh and brilliant as when the stone was first cut. The skilful forger is careful to use only such tools as were in use among the ancients.

and the original setting remained as a false witness to the antiquity of the work. and secondly by the use of a mixture of iron filings in acid. Even the fact that a gem is seen to be in its original antique ring-setting no absolute security against fraud. The more obvious signs of age. is The present writer has seen in the work-shop of a Roman intagliatorc a skilful engraver at work on an antique gem which had been found set in a massive gold signet-ring on the skeleton hand of the occupant of an Ktruscan tomb. and produced another much more imposing intaglio. The result of all this is that in many cases no archae- ologist. which rapidly gives to the white layer of an onyx the dead. covered with fine scratches. " "sand-blast which sometimes used on a large scale to drill is or carve stone for building purposes. and leaving it for a few days to be shaken up with the bits of stone and gravel which arc contained in the turkey's craw. carefully copied from a Syracusan coin : the subsequent treatment of the gem with emery and diamond powder entirely removed its obvious look of freshness. can attain to real certainty about the age of a gem a quite trustworthy criterion has yet to be discovered. The most deceptive appearance of long wear is produced by cramming the newly cut gem down a turkey's throat.CHAP. VIII. Without removing the gem from its setting the engraver rapidly drilled out the very slight and shallow original design. such as a worn surface. first by the use of the ordinary rubbing and scratching processes. Fortunately in most cases imitations of antique gems arc not the work of a forger who combines sufficient knowledge . Freshly cut cameos readily take the marks of age. however learned. A shower of diamond dust is blown out of a small tube against the sunk- part of the intaglio a method which was suggested by the . IOI A still better method of clouding the original polish has Trickitf ''" been recently adopted by the Roman forgers. with a very beautiful head. glosslcss lookwhich is frequently the result of great age. are given to modern gems in many different ways.] AM) MODERN CKMS.

especially in the very case of cameos. this autobiography are published. dragon which is still used on the English sovereigns and crowns a very happy contrast to the dies produced by more recent artists. fraudulent intention)executed much work of this kind for the Roman dealers. 102 CAMEOS RE-WORKED. St George He the author of the fine group of St George and the is "dragon. Gems Among the most difficult cases to distinguish arc those have been partially or gems. who sold it for 1 500 to Payne Knight as an antique Greek gem Pistrucci . A very large cameo on a magnificent sardonyx. and even more recently. was the last of the really distinguished gem-engravers of modern times. with the requisite skill. was wholly reworked early in this century by Benvenuto Pistrucci. this was a common trick of the Italian dealers. In the last century. and William IV. now in the St Petersburg collection. who (without any ristnicd. when he was a young man working in Rome. The gem was originally very late Roman work of the rudest execution. 147 Dr in which extracts from of Billing's Science of Gems. [CHAP. wrote a very interesting autobiography. Pistrucci was employed as a die-cutter in London under George IV. It is now well-cut work. though originally antique. Pistrucci. in which he gives an instructive account of how this and others of his early gems were passed off by the Roman dealers as antiques . which he executed for a small sum for some unscrupulous dealer. see p. which. wholly re-cut by a modern hand. VIII. which appears to be of the style of the early empire. The St Petersburg cameo represents Emperor standing and being crowned by a female personifica- tion of some city. a work of purely modern design on a fragmentary onyx. He was the Cameo artist of the famouscameo head of Flora. Payne Knight's taste and knowledge are exemplified by the fact that he tried 1 hard to prevent the purchase for a comparatively trifling sum of the Elgin marbles on the ground that they were inferior works of art. 1867. who was born in 1784. and of Roman Imperial date! . about a Roman the year 1804. and a careful study of ancient gems will save the student or collector from being deceived by any except forgeries of the most skilful kind.

an assistant worked the 1 The word y+tm U tued by the Greek* for the process of engraving gemi: hence the modern phrase "glyptic art.. to the word tntlprrt. in some cases. that is. who usually works in the reverse way. Tin: TKCIINIOUK OF GKM-KNGRAVINC. but it U also used for other processes. (8a/crv\toy\v<f>ta or \ldovpyiKtj). The tools were held in the engraver's hand. and the gem loose in his hand'. . '03 CHAPTKR IX. and so directed the point to the right place he could . TlIK DKII. such as carving in marble.I. thus it means both the drill and the wlieil of the gem-engraver.. the U'/icel and the J. namely the drill. Italian drepand)* The drill. its It is only long practice that enables a workman to manage successfully the difficult task of carrying on simultaneously a distinct movement with each hand so . hold the drill by revolving part." In 1-atin ualftrt ha* the same meaning. The butt end of the drill revolved inside a cap or tube."'" "diamond-point? In using all these the gem itself was firmly fixed in a bed of cement made of pitch and pounded pottery (testae tiinsac). ec I'liny. H. xxxvi. as well as the lalkt used in many different crafts. not. which the engraver held in his hand. N. hence mod. I. * The word riprot (l-alin larnui) appear* to be used for any revolving I. espe- cially when working larger sculpture. which still survives in the Hast: the string of a small bow was wound round the stick of the drill which was made to revolve by moving the bow rapidly backwards and forwards. THK tools used by the ancient gem-engravers were mainly Twlsfoi of three different sorts. equivalent. ij. having his drills and wheels fixed. of course. who thus had a greater freedom of touch than a modern gem engraver.L (rpvTTawii'. was worked in the old fashion.

stick in the soft metal under the pressure. with rows of drilled holes in them. This is indicated in some of the reliefs found in Egyptian tombs which represent sculptors at work on statues of por- phyry or granite. bow. the rpurravia of Pollux. Fin drill. 220. but by a cord which a boy assistant is pulling backwards and forwards. The oil. The word rpviravov also means an 'instrument used in " TpiTn-ai'oJ kindling fire the primitive method being to get a spark by . and varied in size from Tptirwov. " " Many of these fire-sticks have been found in Egypt. materials of such hardness that they could only be worked by drills and emery. mixed with was kept constantly smeared upon it. O f an ordinary pin to a good-sized knitting needle or even t h at larger. Sculptor's A Roman sarcophagus. has a very interesting relief showing a sculptor at work on a lion's head which is one of the ornaments on a flutedsarcophagus which he is carving. not by a bow. who work the drill both with and without the bow. Naxium) which. worked with the bow so as to bore a hole in a piece of softer wood cf. published by Bliimncr. Gem-ait. Frag. Soph. Exactly similar bows arc commonly used even now for drilling both in the East and elsewhere. usually bronze. If hard steel were used the emery powder would not adhere to the drill. Drill In 1889 90 Mr Flinders Petrie found in tombs in Upper Egypt several examples of the bows used to work small drills. the friction of a drill of hard wood.\K(VTi>v stone. . and have near each end a square hole in which the cord was fastened. 146. leaving the engraver free to direct the point of the drill. was of soft metal. p. which is a form of corundtim. ix. They arc of hard wood. minute particles of emery. about 14 inches long. Technologic. which cut into the xa. X. 104 U SE OF THE DRILL [CHAP. The same method of getting fire by friction is still em- ployed by various savage races. In gem-engraving the point of the drill. but by the fine emery powder (cr/uvpt?. each charred by the friction of the drill. He holds in his hand a pipe-drill which is made to revolve. not by the metal. 640. slightly bent. III. and the cutting would go on much . The actual cutting of the drill was done. and so give a steady cutting surface.

Nat. row or table-diamond. The Naxian emery at the present day affords lo the Greek government a revenue of more than 30. or Emery. Nat. using the bow to make the drill revolve. 305) a Greek scarab of the 5th century H ('. bat a copper wheel for forming the facets when they are cutting brilliant. XXXVII. he says.. using the bow-drill on some small object fixed upon a table. 200) an interesting list of the different tools used in gem-engraving. IX. as being the best for cutting and polishing gems'. has a well executed figure of a workman (shown in fig. slmwinu a man working with the bow anil ilrill : lieuUe the real iin. aliae non nisi rctunso. 54) speaks of the Niixiiim. A very interesting gem in the British ov/ < Museum 'No. 21). Drills on a large Otr/VH- scale. as is described by Homer (Oii. Pliny (Hist. IX. The drill and bow-string were not tools peculiar to the gem-engraver. . KlG. such as augers for boring planks. emery of the island of Naxos. He gives (Hist. Kven wood or bone in connection with emery will /('*/</ Jr '"' make an excellent drill.c. 11.CHAP. 105 1 slower . but were used in all the arts of carving and sculpture from the ship-wright upwards. omncs 1 It is for this reason that modern diamond-cutters use.] AND HOW. probably a gem-engraver. not * steel. Some of the Hill-tribes of India even now drill quartz-crystal with a piece of bamboo and emery or sand and water. xxxvi.000 a year. (ircck scarab of the sth century ii. Speaking of the varying hardness of stones. were worked by a cord held by a man at each end. "tanta differentia cst ut aliac fcrro scalpi non possint.3X2 3X6) in the passage about Odysseus destroying the eye of Polyphemus.

ol Se r y\VTTTol KaO/nrep e\e^dt]. " The phrase non retunso" is clearly Pliny's rendering nisi of Theophrastus' o-tS^p/o*? /j. metal drill (used with emery). which appears to be given by Pliny from a more perfect codex than any which now exists. It is possible that the text of Theo- phrastus might be amended and the lacunae partly filled up by the help of this translation. he adds. "phrastnl. ical -ropvevrol Tvy-^dvovai.f" Kai TrpHTTOt:' Ttav oe ovoe oX<y> dirreTai (rt&rjptov' eviwv Se KaK(a<. H N. Kal rdf roiavTas eviat. graver some require the (comparatively) blunt point of a . which is unfortunately full of lacunae. ej^ovai StW/tieis. short curly hair of men or animals is often 1 In this passage the word fieif&vui/ is probably corrupt. autem adamante : plurimum vcro in iis tcrebrarum proficit fervor. . et? TO firj -jrda-xeiv. and further on. some are not even scratched by iron. 'AXXot TrpiffTol yap. wa-nep fiTropev. IX. 106 THEOPHRASTUS ON THE [CHAP. ol Se cnS?7p/oi? /j." Pliny i'n His meaning appears to be this " only the softest signet- gcm-ait. Theophrastus wrote his short treatise on gems about the year 315 B. he says Se \iQot. xxxvn.ev y\v(f>ovTai a/i/3Xe<rt 8e. olov TO /j. since the size of gems has nothing to do with their relative hardness. In most of the archaic gems.C. which is the most effective of all is the rapidly revolving drill. Again at VII.ei>. Kal ropvevrol lt ". I." Thcophras. In this passage he probably means to say that gems are engraved either with the diamond-point (<y\vn-Tol) or with the wheel (ropvevrol) or arc cut with saws (irpiOToi). 2 The archaic glandular gem in the Fitzwilliam collection shows the use of the drill clearly all over the body of the eagle : see Plate I. 2. "OX<a9 fj. All stones can be cut with the adamas-point. stones (such as steatite) can be engraved by J the unaided iron ting. .rj <y\vfyea-6ai cri- Oijpioiv. This paragraph. No. and again in those of the period of Roman decadence. DC lap. the use of the drill is very 2 conspicuous . d\d \l0ois erepoK y\v<f)ovTai. o^/3\eo-i Se. seems to be the one from Pliny which Pliny is quoting in the above mentioned passage. 2OO. Kal /AoXt?. Theoplirastus makes the following statements with regard '" s : ~ to the engraving of gems 7X1171-7-01 yap evioi. (that is by diamond or sapphire) but the tool .ev rj Kara T? epyaatas Kal TWV fuei^ovoiv 1 \iOtav 7ro\r/ oia(j)opa.

The same use of the drill can frequently be seen in Greek coins. bring the sign of a rote of acquittal. the work being coarse In execution. curly sort liy drill-holes seems lo hare influenced the Greek vase painters of the liexl "red-figure" period. Ktruscan K<'"i in red j. The inscrilied names [ArAlw'u run. and look unfinished. and then lines were cut joining the pairs of drill-holes*. . ^ifrof rtrpvr^ni. giving a fine effect of texture and gloss by the slight relief of the enamel dots. i^fm Xi>pirt. There arc many of these among the 6th and 5th century scarabs in the British Museum . IO/ represented by a scries of close-set drill holes even in work of a good period.KM-F. as is mentioned above at page 104.<>/ been mainly done with the bow-drill.CHAP. The hair of heroes on jth century |>ottery is often represented liy close set dots or pellets of the fine creamy black enamel. the work of some dealer. 22. 447. see Aeschin. the undrilled -i. XI 34. A pebble with a hole drilled through it.ind TTAT/nnXot arc probably a modern addition.u. the legends. Some ancient gems have never been carried further than the initial drill work. especially for the hair of and very commonly in men 1 .|>cr. The general blocking out of the figures seems to have . The emery drill on a larger scale was a very imjmrtant masons' and sculptors' tool in ancient Kgypt and among the early Greeks.f details being put in afterwards with other tools. was used by the Athenians at their judicial ballots for a vote of condemnation... AAENfVaoj . a red jasper l-Hi.NC. which represents a standing hero between two seated figures see fig. . 1 This haliil of representing hair of a crisp. the letters of which were formed by first drilling in the iron die a small hole at the end of each straight stroke. in order to enhance the selling value of the gi-m rtal nit.I/. such as No. the final modelling and "" "J^'. IX.*/. : scarab. *For example the legttttit on ihe later tetradrachms of Athens with Magistrates' names are very obviously formed in this way. u.RAYKR'S TOOLS. wilh three figures rudely blucked out with the blunt drill (thr "rrtunsiim" of I'liny). In letter work the drilled terminations are less conspicuous.] r. ne.

Without it. In this interesting gem (No./rp(s. which has a pillar-like object. a . probably a tall fire- altar. Tube-drill For such minute work as gem-engraving the tubular drill was rare ly employed.) the eyes of the lions and the terminations of the pillar are sunk with minute tubular drills. Within recent years its use has been revived for blasting and quarrying hard rocks. The rest of the work is with engraved the solid drill. 23. 1888 9. which shows clearly the use of the wheel and of two kinds of drills the tubular and the solid drill . According to Pausanias (i. 26 ad fin) Kallimachus. between two rampant lions very much like the relief over the well-known "lion-gate" of the Acropolis of Mycenae. a bronze tube. Plate 10. of course. for example on one. FIG. in the. with loose emery powder. but clear marks of its use arc to be seen on some of the archaic Greek lenticular gems. 108 THE TUBULAR DRILL [CHAP. and for many other similar processes. the inventor of the Corinthian style. Cat. it would have been impossible to work the basalts and granites of Egypt. and with the little wheel. This tubular drill was known in Egypt as early as about 4000 n. 106. . The tubular drill was also used by the Greeks for such purposes as hollowing out their alabaster perfume bottles (d\a/3dcrToi). If this tool had not been re invented the Alpine tunnels would have been practically impossible. Alatmsii. Kailima. Mas. gems in 'E0r. or the con- intensely hard glomerate of Mycenae and Tiryns. Cf. THE TUBULAR DRILL: for work on a larger scale a tubular form of was used that is. either drill . real size. was the first to use the drill for stone \l0ovs TrpaSro? erpinrrjo-e but this is.C. or else with minute crystals of corundum set along the working edge of the tube. as. Brit. Early lenticular gem in carnelian. IX. cut in carnclian. 23). British Museum (see fig.

. sharp sand and water were used instead of emery. For the softer marbles.CHAP. . In the early lenticular gems its use is specially visible. 2 and the scarab of Krcontidas. According to the direction in which the workman moved the little wheel it could cut either a long line or a broad sunk surface*. : this was a minute disc Thtw of bronze which was set on a lung. 10. wheel is largely used by modern gem-engravers in Italy. 109 mistake. TlIK WHEEL (ropi'n^. 24. whose golden lamp in the temple of Athene Polias on the Acropolis must have been made after the Persian invasion in 480 It c. which shows an early . Plate I. lenticular gem cut in rock crystal. not in the same direction as the drill did.C. On a large scale this sort of wire saw (scrra) was used by the Romans in cutting the thin slabs of coloured marble (cnistac) used so much under the Empire fur wall decoration. were used in Egypt for hard stone nearly Drills 4000 U.' Another instrument used for straight cutting or slitting n'/n. l-. slender shaft of wood or metal and worked with a bow and tube like the drill emery . / was a wire strung on a bow. Plate I.] AND THE WHEEL. The wheel cut. 1 For further information about Kallimachus sec Vitruvius.arly and indeed to use the wheel any other purpose than for ^rt' blocking out the design requires exceptional skill on the part of the operator otherwise it produces a very coarse and . . IV. No. at right angles to the shaft. ' This wheel and the drill arc liuth the mix! im|x>rtant instru- tort of among ments of the modern dentist but he use. 4. The . * The word tarnut is also used fur a lathe. IX. Examples of obvious wheel-work among the Fitzwilliam gems arc the wings of the eagle on the glandular gem. who call it il rotellino. instead of copper and emery. having a leu refractory tubstance to deal with. and oil being applied to it in the same way. rotnlif}' 1 2. The spring of the bow kept the wire taut while it was being drawn backwards and forwards with the usual supply of emery and oil. clumsy style of work sec fig. Greece many centuries before the time of and in Kallimachus. No. of course. thus cutting like a saw into the gem.hard steel. i.

when covered with powdered haematite or ochre. the "wheel" Polishing and the "drill. IX.or diamond-point." The tympanum probably means. not by the metal of the wheel. in diameter. like the circular saw of the modern timber-merchant. which was fixed as it revolved. namely for cutting slices of gems. . real size. :-i Rudely worked lenticular gem. Pagnitifs and in one version of the Latin Bible " opera tympanorum Version. tuorutn toraminum tuorum. not the cutting wheel. which.C. IIO THE WHEEL AND [CHAP. followed by the words (translated in the Revised Version) "the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes". the stone being pressed against its edge. 13) gives a long list of precious stones. the drill and the adamas. This gem and that shown in fig. Another. which illustrates the use of the wheel. was used to polish the surfaces of gems. Another kind of wheel was used in later times for quite a different purpose. the Due de Luynes has made the interesting suggestion that the tympana and foramina of Ezechiel are really the ordinary tools of the gem-engraver. quite different sort of wheel was used. p. but by the emery and oil with which it was kept constantly charged. et In his A/ umismatiquc dcs Satrapies. the process called \idoTpi/3iKr) by the Greeks. i 527. Ezechiel The Prophet Ezechiel in his lamentation for the doom of the king of Tyre (xxviii. ." shaped and fitted and supplied with . 1$ date possibly as early as 14 or 15 centuries B. such as the black " Lydian jasper. but a sort of revolving drum made of wood.. 71. the actual cutting was done. Stone wheel. as with the other wheel. but merely for shaping roughly the stone. This was a wheel made of fine whetstone. not for engraving the designs on gems. In this case. Whcddisc. \i8o- This was a very thin disc of metal. several inches Fn.

chips) scalptoribus. Many arrows tipped with these stones have been found in Upper Egypt. see O. formed with this instrument. xvii.t. I I 1 water exactly like an ordinary grindstone for sharpening CoUs. have the best cutting power. TTfTroirjufvoi Tip xal T(j? ff(f>pi)-fl&a>i y\i'<f>ov<Ti. It consisted simply of a natural crystal of adtimas. The of a signet gem and its flat field rounded edges were probably. knives. The steatite scarab-signets of Egypt are soft enough to be cut by obsidian or flint. ferroquc includuntur null.is the bow. I. or like the **""'' " " dry-point of a modern etcher. T. It was probably worked with a treadle. which comes next to it in hardness. 69) speaks of the Aethiopians pointing their arrows with the same sort of hard stone or flint that was used for engraving signets Xt'tfov dfr? . "The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron. /'"'' times in the same way. not crnstac.] THE DIAMOND-POINT. and the gem was pressed against it as it revolved. but on a much smaller scale. and it is probably these that were mostly used by gem-engravers'." I'liny describes this tool in his paragraph on the iidanias {Hist. 60) under which name is in- cluded both the true diamond and the white sapphire. set in a bronze or iron handle. He says "expetuntur hae (crustae.CI1AI'. with the point of a diamond. 3. Most of the details and all the artistic finish of a well Fimiik engraved gem was given by the use of the diamond-point. Till-: DlAMoND-roiN r : this tool was not used with . Nat. the polishing being done afterwards with dry powdered ochre." The trutli is that whole crystals. as a rule. which allowed an amount of freedom of touch in the artist's hand far beyond what could be got with any of the other more mechanical tools. It was however much more laborious 1 The modem glazier's diamond U always a natural crystal.wi. like a lathe. . but was held in the hand like a pencil. tut would not make the deep ilit which U neccuary to divide a sheet of glau neaily. IX. tin non duritiam ex facili cavantcs. Less hard substances than the addiitiis were used some. Herodotus (VII. and even in the tombs of Thebes. XXXVII./. Jin HI. a splintered or cut bit of diamond will readily scratch giant.

Head of Another very beautiful gem in the British Museum (No. This is a scarab of green jasper from the Blacas collection. with a head of Zeus of most noble style. and even the hydria in her hand arc all executed with the point thus giving a sort of sketchy look to this : very beautiful design. though at a sacrifice of high finish. 562). The delicate lines cut with the diamond-point are specially visible in the working of the hair and beard of this head. 25. inscribed EE : the use of the diamond-point in working the hair and beard is very distinct. within a cable border. of very noble style. diamond- point. 6. 112 DIAMOND-POINT USED FOR GEMS [CHAP. but on some of the gems of finest style and period the artist has not troubled to do this completely. 1 Among the Fitzwilliam gems. This is a point in which the mediaeval or modern forger is specially liable to fail he is usually too careful to leave no trace of the actual . . 25. which probably dates from the time of Pheidias 1 . and has left some of the original lines in a way that adds to the spirited beauty of the gem. By working over and over the same place with the point its scratchy lines could be got rid of. 464) illustrates the use of the diamond-point. the long straight folds of the drapery. Mus. standing and holding a hydria.C. engraver. FIG. Gems in The use of the diamond-point can be clearly traced in Brit. The lines of the hair. Plate I. dating from the first half of the 5th century B. IX. Use of to use and required great technical skill on the part of the it. 12 and 19. Zetts. which has a figure of a girl dressed in a long chiton. the use of the point is most visible on Nos. one of the most graceful gems in the British Museum (No. Greek gem with a head of Zeus. see fig. tool-work.

and indeed in all the incised lines of such miniature work as that on Mr Malcolm Macmillan's little vase from Thebes. level surfaces on gems. were niamtn ^" actually executed with the jewel-pointed tool of the glyptic artist. p. It would 1 The modern method it to mis melted thell-lar and diamond dust. 113 Sec also above. Practical experiments on fragments of Greek pottery have convinced the present writer of the great difficulty of producing a perfectly clean line on the hard enamel with any point of metal even one of hard steel. which was a familiar tool to the ancient Greek. in which the hairs of the Satyr's tail are scratched in with the same instrument." Anth. The diamond-point on the other hand. used for working in metal and also for cutting the softer stones. M. pro- duces the cleanest lines with case. such as the flat field of a signet. 413. mentioned above at page 24. 8 . Something very similar to the style and touch of gem /aduJ engravings is to be seen in some of the finest Greek vase paintings of the late black-figured style. This is probably the tool that Maecenas alludes to in his letter to Horace " Ncc quos Tliynica lima pcrpolivit Ancllos. This is specially noticeable in the delicate wavy lines of the hair both of men and animals.TlIE KH. 16 at page 25. not unlike those which arc now used. was made by a mixture of emery and melted resin when hard 1 . The inner markings with incised lines on these black- figures arc in cases executed with a gem-like delicacy many and minuteness and it is very probable that the fine lines. fig. such as the Greeks did not possess. IX.] AND THE FILE. was probably a file made of iron. Lat. One formof lima. I.C. As is mentioned above (sec page 70) the lima was the tool held by the statue of the bronze sculptor and gcm-cngravcr Thcodoros as a symbol of his craft. ncquc jaspios lapillos. . this mixture has a very keen cutting jxnvcr. sharply and clearly cut through the hard black enamel. A very useful tool for smoothing rht fi/f . 4. dating from the middle or latter part of the 6th century H. such as steatite.CHAP.E (lima).

both stone and setting. the Greeks and the Romans. mentions the use of the lima and Ring of the tornus by the Sophist Hippias. both for the sake of its beauty. 5. fine deep colour was the first requi- 1 site. in a curious passage near the beginning of the second book of his Florida. a bird's quill. and still less those of more refractory kind. who wore a gold ring set Hippos. where a table of the relative hardness of is gem-stones given. or some other yielding and slightly elastic substance. was made with great skill by most classical nations especially by the Phoe- nicians. which is only another word for the finest sort of glass. the internal sunk part. THE TECHNIQUE OF "TASTE" GEMS. N. see page 153- . as completely as possible. The revolving drum (tympanum] already mentioned was used for this purpose. the object being to increase the fire or lustre of the paste.H. entirely the work of his own hands. IX. to polish. though at the expense of its hardness and durability. Paste. the ancient pastes are very superior to those made in modern times. however be of no use for working the harder stones. in luminous texture. such as those of the quartz class. THE FINAL POLISH. and sparkle or lustre was but little regarded . The flat of a gem was polished with much field greater ease by rubbing it on the surface of woollen stuff sprinkled at first with emery and then finally with the finer powdered ochre. w j t ^ an en g ravecj g C m. and also to prevent the wax or clay of the seal from adhering to it (see Pliny. In splendour of colour. 104). see page 157. into all the depressions of the work with a soft point of wood. In ancient times. it was necessary. before the modern custom of faceting jewels had been invented. p Owc j cr of some metallic oxide such as haematite. One reason is that modern pastes or false jewels are largely com- " " posed of oxide of lead. in hardness and durability. Method of This was done in a laborious way by working the finest pohshmg. Apuleius. 1 The materials used in making ancient pastes are mentioned below. or ochreous earth. After the sunk design of an en- graved gem was completed. 114 TECHNIQUE OF GEMS [CHAP. XXXVII.

J. and then a red-hot lump of the glass or paste. One of the finest examples of this kind of paste 1 An account of the making of paste gems is given by Heraclius in his treatise Dt Artibui Ktmanerum. These arc simply lumps of clay on which. Among the fine collection of terra-cotta objects from clay Tarcntum. IX. in the library of Trinity College. Museum there is a large colourless paste In the Hritish (No. Kvans to the Ashmolcan Museum in Oxford. by a skilful glass-worker. arc included a number of clay moulds for making paste gems.S. was gently pressed upon the mould till it received the complete imprint of the original gem. If done carefully. A M. written in the i>ih century. just as it came from the mould 1 . the result was an almost exact facsimile of the original intaglio. was very carefully baked in a potter's kiln. 1518) with a portrait head of Aristippus.CHAP. till it was ready for setting in a ring. 115 In making a paste signet the process was this a mould Moulding was made from an engraved gem by pressing it against a mixture of clay which had been ground in a mortar. The clay mould. an engraved gem has been impressed. which has never had its edges cut smooth it is still surrounded by a ragged : border. and more than one of Eros. its ragged edges and the rough back it '<*/ were cut smooth and polished by the lapidary's wheel and emery powder. In some cases antique pastes have been made. was published by Kaipc. 82 . together with a proportion of finely powdered pottery. Whenhad cooled. but by using the ordinary tools of the gem- engraver treating. large till it was a perfectly smooth. plastic and homogeneous mass. Among these moulds arc two standing figures of Dionysus.] AND PASTES. 1783. while soft. giving the device in relief: this relief of course would be again reversed when the soft glass was pressed into the clay mould. in a soft pasty state. Cambridge. of this work. London. a real jewel. not by any moulding process. that is. which were presented by Mr A. the paste exactly as if it had been . thus forming a paste intaglio. two of a winged Victory writing on a shield. with the impression of the original intaglio in relief.

Paste of is No. The quality of this paste. Nat. have been found within recent years in Cyprus and elsewhere in Greece. is very obvious in these two pastes. The same method of setting was often adopted for real stones Pliny (Hist. Nos. ix. Many paste. xxxvn. which once belonged to Pope Clement VIII. As a rule they were not mounted in gold rings. 106) speaking of one sort : of sard. says " argenteis bratteis sublinuntur " while sards of . even by experts such as the gem-engraver Natter. by reflecting the light through the paste. both among the Greeks and the Romans of the Empire. 8 and 9 in the Fitzwilliam collec- tion are examples of these: the combination of moulding in the device. large rings. Foil Paste gems very frequently were set with a backing of backing. the paste being first cast and then its device worked over and sharpened by the use of tools a somewhat analogous process to that employed by Greek and Roman moneyers. u6 PASTE INTAGLIOS [CHAP. set in bronze. Paste Sca. with the name FNAIOY. . but in silver. Paste signets (atppaylSes va\ivai) seem to have been made in great numbers for the poorer classes. 1870) engraved with a standing figure of an athlete of the Diadumenos type. probably that of the owner of the gem. Catalogue. it was usual for the jewellers' guild in each town to have a rule prohibiting its members from setting paste gems in real gold.. who fre- quently first cast and then struck coins in high relief. is so fine that it has usually been described as a jacintli or beryl of exceptional beauty. which. Nat. during the 14* and 151)1 centuries. scarabaeoids of colourless too for rabacoids. signets which cost only 3 obols (Aristoph. T/iesm. or with a backing of gold-coloured 1 In England and France. Pliny describes two methods of setting gems. polished metal foil. gave it increased brilliance and depth of colour. with cutting on the edges and back. partly obliterated by repolish- ing. Occasionally a combination of both processes was used. 621 in the Marlborough collection (Story-Maskelyne's Gnaios." At Hist. 37) were probably paste copies. bronze or iron in many cases the inferior metals were plated with gold The 1 . or real gfms in plated metal. a different colour " brattea aurea sublinuntur. either with an open bezel. xxxvii.' 126. p. 424 see .

In most cases.] AND CAMEOS. made by cementing together three slices of different coloured stones so as to produce the three layers of the natural gem. all of which qualities are greater in a real stone than in a paste: see Hist. but have a plain convex surface. cctcris subicitur auri- chalcum. Tile hoop of the ring is usually of colourless glass. however. like the signet or intaglio paste. hardness and apparent feeling of cold- ness. In Roman times paste cameos were very frequently made. IX. the commoner sort being merely casts. I 17 " foil hac funda includuntur pcrspicuac. The collec- tion of glass from Cyprus in the Fit/william Museum contains many fine examples of these rings. Xat. both from the sharpness of their impression and from the splendour of their colour. engraved with any device. In it and similar glass vases there was no moulding the whole : work was done exactly as if the artist had been cutting an . and the bc/el is filled witli a large paste brilliantly coloured green or crimson to imitate an emerald or a carbuncle they are not . The Portland Vaseis the most magnificent example of what may be called a paste cameo on a large scale. Many other tricks were known to the ancient jewellers. These rings are very decorative in effect. owing to the magnificent deep colour of their imitation jewels." A paste or crystal was sometimes made to colourless false i<v" imitate a carbuncle by backing it with a crimson foil. XXXVII. In thetombs of various parts of Cyprus a considerable King* number of large rings have been found made wholly of glass. but the finest arc all worked over and finished with the gem engraver's tools. and Pliny {jives various directions how to tell true from false gems by testing their weight. 98 and 128 and 198. At 197 I'liny warns his readers against sham sardonyxes. paste gems must have been sold as honest copies : as works of art they frequently have great merit.CHAP. which in many cases has perished little fine and allowed the coloured paste to fall out. especially one with a large paste emerald still in its place. These were fixed in the hollow prepared for them false jewels with a cement.

. all cut out of the solid glass. in a ruby red layer. Portland onyx. an open net-work of linked rings. like that on the Portland Vase. the engraver set to work and cut and drilled away the white upper layer modelling his figures in the white layer and cutting down to and exposing the blue body of the vase to form the ground of his reliefs An excellent description 1 . and in some cases shows almost miraculous skill in the way the workman has undercut his design in the brittle glass. which have. are some elaborate glass cups. when it was quite . completely covered and the blue surface hidden by an opaque layer of white glass and then. it was usually very beautiful both in design and execution. ix. Signed Among the many examples of Greek art of the 4th ylass. 94) mentions this kind of work. 225 seq. vase. of the Portland Vase is given by Mr A. cold. Amazing examples of this skilful use of the gem-engraver's tools are to be seen in some cups of greenish glass. on the outside. Usually they have the owner's 1 Martial (xiv. it vase. Several cups of this pattern have been found at various places all of . GLASS VESSELS [CHAP. with the exception of a few slender pins of glass.C. p. so that. when the Romans took pleasure in seeing the most lavish waste of an artist's labour. century which have been found in the tombs of Kertch B. and under-cut. followed by the word enoiei. It is essentially gem-engraver's work. to the time of extreme artistic decadence. which are specially notable for their having the artist's name on them. owing to his working in some material which was utterly unsuited to his design. Smith in his Catalogue of the Gems in the British Museum. Feats of The most wonderful feats of skill in this direction belong skill. H. Late Ro- man glass. which he calls loreumata vilri. That is was first completed as a deep blue to say. Cameo work on glass vessels. the inner cup is quite free from its net-work covering. or -even obsidian and rock crystal with other costly absurdities of that kind. that is glass worked with the gem-engraver's tools. course more or less broken. Hence the Roman love for statues in porphyry. was not uncommon in Egypt during the later Ptolemaic period and in Rome under the early Empire.

." a ornamented by simple pattcmi deeply cut with the lapidary's stone wheel on the hard clay. after it had been fired in the kiln. some of the glass is formed by blowing. et aliud flatit figuratur.] CUT IN RELIEF. The British Museum (Romano. Others. aliud argent! modo caclatur" that is. Among the gems in the Fitzwilliam collection. usually in the form of bowls of coarse "Saroian ware. it bears the name of the Emperor /. are described above at page 73. ing account of the glass-maker's art. and some of it is -Corked in rtlicf like silver plate. in paste skilfully coloured to resemble a fine golden sard. The best preserved of these wonderful cups is in the Cup of Strasburg Museum.CHAP. some of it is cut on a sc/ttY/.British ilvparlim:nl) possesses many examples of these wheel-cut bowls from various British sites . This gives the date of these goblets covered with the wheel and drill-cut net-work. . signed by the artist. cast from a well-executed head of Hermes. 37 /'late //. The finest have the design cut with tools in the same way as if they had been of stone. IX." (he says) ''ex massis rursus funditur in officinis tinguiturcjue. 190 to 199) a very interest- 1'liny gives (Hist." Examples of ancient glass shaped with emery on the gem-cutter's wheel or lathe are not uncommon. and adding the colouring matter. 119 name large letters along the top in each letter in red glass being under-cut and joined to the pale green cup beneath only by two or three of the slender pin-like supports. Examples of these. after remelting in the furnace. No. especially the gold Etruscan rings." who was put to death by Constantine's orders at Massilia in 310 A. is a good example of a gem. " Maximianus Hcrculeus Augustus. At 193 he mentions the three principal methods of /'liny on * ""' working ornamental glass.IJ.. After the materials were fused together into a "frit. and the term caclatura would naturally be applied to work in relief such as the 1 Portland Vase . A'<//. have the device 1 One curious class of Roman |x>ttery. aliud torno " teritur. METAL SIGNETS (SaKivXtoi it\frrj<J>oi or d\i0ot): those rings which have the device sunk in a tnctal bezel were formed in various ways. XXX VI. but they are probably of Gaulish workmanship.

On the whole Natter was perhaps the most skilful of all copyists of antique gems. 1 On the technique of gem-engraving as practised in the first half of the eight- eenth century. used for the cheaper class of bronze rings. IX. he signed his own work YAPOY> 'Natter' meaning a 'water-snake' in German. A third method. left the impression blunt and spiritless. 120 METAL SIGNETS. stamped from a die on a thin plate of gold. see Natter. but not unfrequently. . which was then soldered by the goldsmith into its place on the ring. Cast rings. In some cases he certainly forged the names of ancient arli>ts. was to cast the bezel in a relief mould but this plan . Traiti! de la mcthode tie graver en pierres fines. unless afterwards 1 touched up by tooling . [CHAP.

Some of these impressions are from gems of very fine workmanship. was used as the royal signet of Odo or Eudcs. King of Syria. p. Impressions exist of a signet of Lothaire I. from Charlemagne downwards. XI.. but we have im. such as Ofta King of Mercia and several others. GEMS IN MEDIAEVAL TIMES. . Thelegend on these seals is added on the gold border which frames the ancient gem. The same practice was adopted by various English kings before the Norman Conquest. 261.D. dating from as early as the times of the Diadocki. OWING to the extreme decadence of the glyptic art during the early middle ages man)' of the Erench kings anil Emperors of the West. One of the finest of these gems. fre- quently used antique gems for their royal signets. who was King of Erance from 888 to 898 A. known from its impression on a charter in the BritishMuseum. It isa noble contemporary portrait head of Scleucus IV. charters.Journ.. who reigned between 187 and 176 B. has imprinted as his seal a head of Antoninus Pius. on a document of 816 A.. (840 . but more frequently they are inferior works of late Roman date. There were however a certain number of large signets Crystal and other intaglios engraved on rock crystals by artists of the Byzantino-Rhcnish school for the early Emperors of the West. 121 CHAPTER X. Louis I.. Slali "" In most cases the gem itself is now lost. pressions of them on countless early charters.C. see Arch.I). Charle- magne himself sealed his edicts with a portrait head of Marcus Aurelius.

" from its device. centuries. episcopal signets were in the form of a gold ring set with an ancient Greek or more commonly a Roman gem." At the same time large intaglioswere cut in rock crystal for various decorative purposes to ornament gold shrines or reliquaries. xvm. Papal During the mediaeval period the use of seals or signets was no less important than in classical times. Jonrn. Part of the ceremony during the consecration of a Pope. and for . grylliis monster used as his signet by Archbishop Roger. It and round the rim of the crystal itself is engraved the inscription XPE ADIVVA HLOTHARIVM REG. The British Museum possesses one of the finest examples of this a large circular intaglio cut in very brilliant crystal. Melanges tf Archeologie : see also Arch.D. It is minutely engraved with Biblical subjects and is inscribed LOTHARIVS REX ME FIERI FECIT. cut. such as the head of Jupiter which was used by the Benedictine monks of Durham as a portrait of St Oswald . when the art of gem engraving was almost extinct. a figure of St Peter fishing from a boat. has a profile portrait of Lothaire in a helmet. it was set in a gold mount on which was inscribed CAPVT SANCTI OSWALDI REGIS another example is the three-headed . 122 ROYAL SIGNETS AND [CHAP. which was worn as a morse or cope- brooch by the Abbot of Vezor. 1 It is illustrated in Vol.. a cardinal or a bishop consisted in investing him with an official ring. Bishops' These were frequently selected with a device to which a fanciful Christian meaning might be given. I. Signet of 855 with a full-faced bust of the Emperor. set in the gold foot of an altar-cross in the Cathedral of Aix- la-Chapelle. of Cahier et Martin. That used at the installation of a Pope has been for many centuries known as "the fisherman's ring. . X. personal jewellery. Another of the same Emperor's signets still exists. very rudely A." In many especially during the loth to the I3th cases. p. cut on the gold bezel. Hence the heading often placed at the beginning of " Papal Briefs and other documents Sub Annulo Piscatoris. 222. "O Christ help King Lothaire'.).

CHAP. X.] EPISCOPAL RINGS. 123

with the legend added * CAPVT NOSTRV TR1NITAS
EST ; see Vctitsta Monnmcnta, Vol. I., PI. 59'.

For many centuries after the fall of the Western Empire Magical
the belief in magical signet-gems survived, and, to some
extent, it Middle Ages. Even the most
lasted throughout the
orthodox Prelates of the Church did not wholly disbelieve in
the magic of gems. Many Bishops used for their episcopal
ring of office an Abraxas gem; as for example Seffrid, Bishop
of Chichcster from 1125 to 1151, whose gold ring, set with
an Abraxas jasper, was found in his coffin, and passed into
the Watcrton collection; see Arcli. Jour. XX. p. 224 238.
In the present year 1890, when the tomb of Hubert Walter,

Archbishop of Canterbury from 1193 to 1205, was opened,
his gold ring was found set with a plasma on which was
cut the Cnoubis lion-serpent *, like No. 106 in the Fitzwilliam
collection.
In the 1
5th century, together with the revival of classical />'<//<//

learning, there was a fresh outburst of superstitious belief in
the magic efficacy of engraved gems, even among the most

enlightened scholars of the age, such as Lorenzo the Magnifi-
cent, Pico della Mirandola,Pope I.co X., and many others.
Gems on
Throughout Middle Ages, as is mentioned above,
the
s/innes.
great numbers of antique gems, and especially cameos, were
used to decorate the most costly of the gold reliquaries. The
celebrated beryl intaglio of Julia by Euodos, mentioned at
page 74, was for many centuries one of the many gems which
decorated a gold shrine in the Treasury of the Abbey of
St Denis, near Paris. This magnificent gem was set face
downwards on a backing of brilliant gold foil, and thus pre-
sented the appearance of a translucent relief. This method
of setting engraved gems was frequently practised by the

1
For further information on this clou of signet, ice Arch. Journ. Vol. XX.
p. 114 ; and FrtcttJ. Sac. Ant. Vol. Xlll. iml Scries, 1890, p. 45 : cf. also King,

Attiiqtu GtnuanJ Kingt, 1871, p. 386.
* The
crozicr of the same prelate had its
knop set round with four antique genu,
of late Roman work, coarsely cut. The three which still remain in the cro/.icr arc

these I, a scaled figure of Ceres on reJ jaiptr ; i, a hand holding three can of
wheat, on <anulian ; and 3, stag, also on canulia*.

124 ANTIQUE GEMS AND [CHAP. X.

mediaeval jewellers, and if the stone is a very transparent
one the effect is very soft and beautiful.
Several of the numerous antique gems which studded the
famous cliassc of the Three Kings of Cologne were set in this
manner on foil, face downwards.
In spite of the great decadence of technical skill the art
of gem-engraving never wholly died out, though for many
Meted centuries was but rarely practised, partly owing to the use
it

of signets made wholly
of silver or bronze If an engraved
1
.

gem was used, it was usually an ancient Roman one, set in
a metal collar on which the necessary inscription was cut.
Mediaeval There are however a few gems engraved in the i/|.th century
in existence, of very fair workmanship; as, for example the
signet of Charles V. of France, a minutely cut full face on a
spinel-ruby, set in a gold ring, on which is inscribed Tel il nest,
"
there is none such as he." This very signet is described in
the royal inventory made in 1379. It ' s now m tne Marl-
borough collection, No. 583: it is illustrated by King, Hand-
book of Gems, p. 128, No. 2, but is wrongly named in the text.
In the same work (at page 122) King quotes Scipio Am-
mirato (Hist. Flor. p. 741) as mentioning the forging of the
signet of Carlo di Durazzo in 1378 by a clever engraver of
"
gems Peruzzi, il quale era singolare intagliatore di pietre."
Revival of The great revival of gem-engraving did not, however, begin
^ the time of Lorenzo de' Medici in the latter part of the
1
5th century.
So also with regard to collections of ancient gems, although
our mediaeval forefathers showed considerable powers of
ap-
preciating their beauty, yet it was not till the iSth century that
gems were studied or collected with any real enthusiasm.
Donatdlo. Vasari tells us that the
great Florentine sculptor Donatello,
who died in 1466, was an ardent admirer of ancient
gems and
coins,and that he took antique cameos and coins for his
models when he carved that noble series of medallion reliefs
which still exists in the Palazzo de' Medici (or in Riccardi)
Florence.

1
See Chabouillet, Glyptique du Moyen Age, Rev. Arch.
1854, p. 550.

CHAP. X.] ENGRAVERS OF THE RENAISSANCE. 125

The earliest example we have recorded of a real collection
of ancient gems, since classical times, is that of the Venetian
Paul II. (Harbo), who was Pope from 1464 to 1471.
He is have paid large sums for Greek and Roman
said to

gems of all cameos and intaglios both for his
kinds
cabinet of gems, and also to set in the numerous rings with
which he used to load his fingers.
Picro dc" Medici, who died in 1469, formed a small col- ritn> .if'

AftJtfi.
lection of gems, which were inherited by his son Lorenzo the

Magnificent, who also acquired the collection of Pope Paul II.,
thus obtaining the nucleus of what afterwards became the
large and important dactyliotheca Mcdiccana, which un-
fortunately was dispersed in the century after Lorenzo's
death.
When Lorenzo de' Medici himself began to collect gems, Lorenzo tit
MtJici.
soon after 1469 when he became ruler of Florence, he showed
a special love for cameos and intaglios of large size, and was

eager to buy, not only antique specimens, but also the works
of the very able Italian artists of his own time.
One of the most beautiful gems that any age has ever
produced is the copy, on a large sard, in intaglio of the
Diomcdc with (mentioned at page 75), which
the I'alladiiiw /)ioitJt af
forenze.
was executed Lorenzo de' Medici; the mark LAVR. MED.
for
is cut on the ciffus upon which Diomcdc is seated.
This magnificent gem, which is a more perfect work of art
than any of the antique examples of this subject, is obviously
the work of a 15th century artist, having a wide margin
round the figure and other signs of post-classical date.
Whether they were cameos or intaglios, ancient or con-
mark.
temporary, Lorenzo the Magnificent had all his most im-
portant gems engraved with his own name in large letters
thus, LAVR. MED.
Many gems, especially cameos, with Lorenzo's name
exist in various collections: most of these, if not antique, arc
executed in a classical manner, but one or two fine gems arc
in the style of contemporary Florentine art, and look as if
they were the work of pupils of Donatcllo, while others
resemble the style of Antonio Pollaiuolo.

126 GEM-ENGRAVERS [CHAP. X.

Delle Car- One of the ablest engravers who worked for Lorenzo dc'
nhtole.
Medici was Giovanni, surnamed "delle Carniuole" for his
skill in cutting camelian gems.

The fine intaglio portrait of Fra Girolamo Savonarola,
now in the Uffizi collection, one of his most celebrated
is

works, very noble in style, and full of life-like vigour and
realistic truth.
Lorenzo's Others of Lorenzo's gems were engraved by Francesco
engravers.
Francia the famous Bolognese painter and goldsmith, by
Marco Moretti, by Domenico (called) de' Cammei, and by
Leonardo da Milano the last two were both natives of
;

Milan, and were greatly famed for their portrait heads.
Camillo Leonardo, in his Speculum lapidum, a work on gems
published at Venice in 1502, mentions four artists as being
the chief gem-engravers of his time these were Anichini of;

Ferrara, Giovanni Maria of Mantua, Tagliacarne of Genoa
and Leonardo of Milan, who worked for Lorenzo.
X. Lorenzo
/.co dc' Medici's love for gems was inherited by his
son Pope Leo X. and also by various other Popes of the
i6th century, most of whom were liberal patrons to all skilful

intagliatori a very numerous class in Italy at that time.
Vasari.
An interesting chapter Vasari's Vite del pittori &c.
in

(Part II. Vol. I. page 285 seq. in the edition of 1568) is devoted
to the gem-engravers of the Renaissance. Vasari specially
praises the works of Piero Maria da Pescia, who engraved
both coin-dies and gems for Leo X. 1
, Valeric dei Belli (il

Vicentino) famed for large crystal intaglios, who lived from
1468 to 1546, Giovanni da Castel Bolognese, 1496 1553,
Matteo dal Massaro, who died c. 1548, Alessandro Cesati (il
2
Greco) a native of Cyprus Giov. Antonio de' Rossi and
,

various other engravers who lived and worked in Milan. In
Foppa. another chapter Vasari mentions Ambrogio Foppa
(il Cara-

1
See Archiv. Star. Ital. 3rd Series, Vol. III. Part I.
p. 221; and Fitz. Mus.
Cat. page xxiii, No. i.
2
See page 82, for an account of the way in which Alessandro Cesati signed his
gems.
For a general account of the gem-engravers of the Renaissance see Mariette,
Pierres Gravks, Vol. I.
p. 114 seq.

medals were mostly struck and so came naturally within the scope of the gem-engraver's craft. like nearly all those of the 151(1 century. In the i6th century. especially in the soft.] OF TIIK RENAISSANCE 127 dosso). perdue process. is a work of extraordinary skill. astically admired by Michelangelo. or even by a painter such as Pisancllo. Most of these artists were also cutters of dies for coins and medals. but were cast from a H'a* tailing. The earliest anil on the whole of I 'tri the greatest of this class of Medallists was the Veronese painter Vittorc Pisancllo. and he had therefore no need to learn the difficult artof sinking his design in a hard material such as a steel die or a gem. skilful engraver of gems and coin-dies as well as a sculptor and a goldsmith. who died about 1451. After Cellini's time the art of gem-engraving in Italy shared in the general decadence of all the arts from painting and sculpture downwards. whereas under the older system the large cast medals could be produced by any sculptor in bronze. His medals. Like most of the Italian gem-engravers of the 6th century he devoted himself to the cutting of cameos 1 rather than intaglios. The portrait of Pope Paul III. Cesati. and strongly classical feeling in the modelling of the nude. quite equalling in merit the best productions of the ancient Greek engravers of coin portraits. Alcssandro Cesati. both cast and struck by Medals of Italian artists of this time and during the previous century. with a nude figure of Ganymede pouring water on a lily plant. melting contours of the flesh and itsdelicate grace of pose. is a very beautiful work it was enthusi- . . (Farncsc). The celebrated Bcnvcnuto Cellini (1500 to 1571) was a Cellini. and workers in gold and silver. on a medal by Alets. as being also remarkable for his skill in gem engraving. X. arc works of thevery highest artistic excellence. The reverse of this medal. but he docs not seem to have practised the art of gem-engraving. Italy. a famous Milanese sculptor and goldsmith. In this respect it curiously resembles the figure of Kros on the celebrated gem signed by Phrygillus.CHAP. if he could model his design in wax. Many others of the medals. were not wax model by the cire struck from dies.

those of the Dukes of Devonshire and Marlborough. if not intentional forgers of antique gems. X. works which were so carefully and skilfully imitated from ancient examples that they were frequently sold for very high prices as being genuine antiques. There were many engravers who possessed great still technical but their designs rapidly deteriorated in point skill. which were formed by various wealthy collectors at a great cost during the i/th and iSth centuries. [CHAP. usually contain a large proportion of professedly antique gems which really date from modern times. owing to the low standard of archaeological knowledge and criticism which was then prevalent a state of things which lasted till the early part of the present century. Forged Thus there gradually grew up a class of clever engravers gems. such as tions. 128 DECADENCE OF GEM-ENGRAVING. of style or became mere servile imitations of the gems of classical times. Thus Old collec. At present the more advanced state of the science of engraved gems enables collectors to buy with greater judgment and with less risk of being deceived by unscrupulous dealers. ithappens that most famous old collections of gems. yet produced who. . Deception of this kind was then easier than it would be now.

though it is hardly of sufficient value to rank as one of the so-called " precious stones. On the whole the sard is the most beautiful material which is commonly used for ancient engraved gems. 9 . in his Catalogue of Quality of the Marlborough collection. Greek /l<i/is'. " unconqucrcd ". which is mainly a compilation from Theophrastus and various other authors. Lap. it is described by Theophrastus.S usi:i> FOR ANTIOUK GKMS." A well engraved design on a clear orange or golden-tinted sard combines beauty of nature and beauty of art in a quite unrivalled manner. and by Pliny. MATKKIAI. irepl \id<av.. Nat. XXXVII.i'. that if we have to decide which of two gems is the original. The following arc the chief stones used in ancient times for engraved gems and other decorative purposes. Mr Story-Maskelyne has remarked. and the 3/th Hook of Pliny's Xatnrat History. Hist. and which the copy. it will usually be found that the modern one is on the finer stone of the two. and we usually find that more than one kind of gem is classed under the same name. As a rule antique gems arc rarely engraved on really fine and costly stones. 19. First of all in value comes the AUAMAS. Neither the Greeks nor the Romans had any really scien- tific knowledge of precious stones. M. written about 315 i:. 55 to 60. I2Q CHAPTER XI. OUR chief knowledge about the precious literary sources of stones known to the nncients are a treatise by Theophrastus.

Ancient Sculpture. Minute natural Diamond crystals of diamond are fixed in the pupils of the eyes. art. With one hand the lady holds up her long chiton in the . The word adamas is certainly used both for the diamond and for the white sapphire. it is the only gem that is combustible. xi. True It is fairly certain that in ancient times it was considered diamond. of the finest archaistic work. outstretched. p. Kunz. probably of the latter part of the 5th century B. In one place (H. is about seven inches high. unworked by the lapidary. and. 130 WHITE SAPPHIRE OR [CHAP.C. not break struck by a hammer on the anvil. 280. he is certainly speaking of another and very different stone. a wonderful look of life and spirit to this masterpiece of Greek plastic art. Adamas.. . 56) Pliny seems to describe the double pyramidical shape of the natural crystal of the " true diamond when he says the adamas is formed ut si duo turbines latissimis suis partibus jungantur. N. other hand. and that it if will stand the test of fire. giving eyes." Tests for But when he goes on to say ( 57) that the adamas will Adamas. among the broken fragments resulting from the Persian sack in 480 B. 1 Recent examples of newly found diamonds being destroyed in this way in the United States are given by G. New York. F. The mistaken application of these two tests has caused the destruction of a great many newly found diamonds even 1 in the present century . The diamond is easily broken along planes of cleavage parallel to the natural faces of its crystal. In those rare cases in which a true diamond occurs inan ancient work of art it is in its natural crystalline form. probably unique in Hellenic statuette.C. was a bud or flower. similar to the which have been found on the Acropolis of Athens. 1890. see Mrs Mitchell. The most remarkable case. being composed of pure carbon. Examples of its use are very rare. The motive of this figure is numerous marble archaic female statues. XXXVII. impossible to cut or polish the true diamond on account of its excessive hardness. Gems of North America. a very beautiful bronze statuette in the British Museum.

92 .D. but it appears to be of the finel Attic workmanship. that the discovery was made that a diamond could be cut and polished with its own powder. colourless stone: Apocalypse of St John. as it was in classical times. sapphire. 1 ThU wonderful statuette u uiil to have been fuuml at Verona. diamond. by the word adamas is meant the white sapphire. " like the engraving of a ?'<('. throughout the Middle Ages. 10 13). a stone which comes next to the diamond in point of hardness.] DIAMOND (AI)AMAS). as on Awn's it was engraved the name of a Tribe.I/. sur- rounded with a border of pierced open work. The ada>n<is of the Vulgate is translated "diamond" in the Authorised Version of the Old Testament (/:. In most cases. where the list of the twelve gems on Aaron's breast- plate is given.D.v./ diamonds arc those in a few rare Roman rings of a late Imperial period. topaz.tW//. even the skilful Phoenician who probably cut and engraved the gems on the Jewish High Priest's " rational." a feat which was quite beyond the power of any ancient engraver. emerald. onyx.CHAP." I lerc again the word "diamond" is probably wrongly used for some other hard. The well known badge of the Florentine Medici family is . The Waterton collection of rings contained one of these. Perhaps the only other known examples of antique /><<<./ an example of this it consists of three ostrich feathers passed : ***'' through a ring in which is set a natural pyramidical crystal of diamond. it seems probable. gives the following list of gems Kzcchicl. beryl. xxi. the natural crystal was used uncut. Till that time. 13. 131 The crystals are so minute that without a close inspection 1 they might easily pass unnoticed . jasper. It was not till the latter part of the Ijtli century A. xxxix. dating probably from the 4th or 5th century A.//. cf. Euc (Knglish Version) "sard. 19 to 21. XI." xxviii.' signet. with a diamond octahedral crystal set in a gold ring. . Hut this stone cannot have been the true diamond. carbuncle.

Solinus truly says that only the diamond will scratch it. a Medusa head in full face. shows inside sapphire. No. when held in a strong light. 132). It is very rarely used for ancient gems. Cat. an Indian gem which he describes thus " huic intus a centro stella lucet fulgore pleno lunae. N. 126. Greeks. N. It is doubtful whether any ancient examples exist of the use of this stone for engraved gems. . The modern SAPPHIRE is probably the HYACINTHUS. 98. The Marlborough collection contains one of the most beautiful engraved sapphires in existence. The star-sapphire. The true sappliire is a pure crystalline form of corundum. xi. 60) may have been set either with splinters of the true diamond or of the sapphire.//. This is probably the astrioti of Pliny (Hist. No. Pliny says. as is mentioned below. The finest ruby appears to be one of several precious stones which were included under the name avdpa% and carbunciilus. xxxvil. an oxide of aluminium. of classical authors. XXXVII. Pliny. no doubt. Marl. Sapphire. of the first or second century A. Pliny. partly. H. except as an ornament for jewellery. The examples have the tint of pigeons' blood. 132 SAPPHIRE [CHAP. 485 in the same collection is a good contemporary portrait of Caracalla on a large sapphire of good quality. the result of its peculiar _ i crystalline structure. Nat. The sappirus is quite a different stone. A1 2 O 3 of a fine blue colour. N. on account of its extreme hardness. j t ^ fig ure o f a s x ra y ccj s t a r. The RUBY is chemically the same as the sapphire." A variety of this was the asteria (131) found in Carmania and India in the latter kind. 92 to 98. only with different colouring matter.D. is difficult to : cut or engrave. vaKivffof. a red-hot coal . Star.. Ruby. XXXVII. XXXVII. finely cut on a pale blue stone . The few really antique examples of work on the sapphire arc mostly of the Imperial Roman period it appears to have been very rarely used by the . which makes it very difficult to engrave. The jewel-set tool mentioned by Pliny (H.

engraved gems on the true ruby arc cither of mediaeval or modern date. . 400. tmeralil. 133 Thcophrastus speaks of quite a small fivQpa). according to Bcnvcnuto Cellini. Naxitim. The gold tcudo wa then about equal in purchasing value to a modem sovereign. ruby.] AND RUBY. Pliny's '\r0pa*.. Emtry. i. 800 gold ncudi. Thus. even ////<//<< more so than engraved sapphires... Nearly all that Pliny writes under the \czd\ngcarbunculus seems to refer to the garnet or carbuncle. XXXVII. 6th century. so he is probably speaking of the ruby. i/iamftiJ. a In the 1 ruby of one carat was worth eight times as much as a diamond of the same weight 1 . 99) where he mentions nnthracitis. 10. The same gem has frequently many different colours and . with very few exceptions. but. for example. is an impure semi-crystalline EMERY. tapf kin. XI. gives the follow ing value fur fine ttonr* of one carat weight. very different gems have almost the same tint in some cases. o>t/p?. cap. like a red-hot coal. Again the ruby and the carbuncle may be of almost exactly the same tint. That from the island of Naxos was 1 Cellini in his Tratlato del? Orifieeria. of which the ruby and sapphire are the purer crystalline forms. red. In the Devonshire collection there is a %-ery late Roman figure of Venus Victrix cut in intaglio on a ruby of very great beauty. ruby. not of the carbuncle. giving to the gem the names respectively of sapphire. published in Florence in 1568. method of classifying gems according to their colour makes it specially difficult to be certain what stone he is describing in each case. Possibly Pliny means to describe the ruby (//. variety of corundum. the <iv6pa% of Thcophrastus. N. yellow or colourless. but it was occasionally used in Roman Imperial times for small cameo heads. 100 . Oriental topaz and white sapphire. Antique gems engraved on the ruby are very rare.CHAP. At the present clay a fine large ruby is worth much more than a diamond of the same size whereas rubies and diamonds : of less than one carat in weight are of about the same value.int as much as 40 gold staters. the pure crystalline form of corundum may be blue.being worth i'.fossilis carbonibns simi/is.

evidently including several different green stones under this name. not as a lens to look through. the adamas coming first. xxxvu. 62 to 75. 54. The sea-green variety is the aquamarine of modern jewellers. hence the name which Pliny gives it " (H. but were more probably of green glass as. N. H. EMERALD. large and yet quite flawless emerald is never to be seen. Quoting Theophrastus (Lap. the emerald is specially liable to defects in the form of flaws and cloudiness in fact a . as a rest for their eyes during the intervals of their trying labour'. refreshing to the eyes that gem-engravers were in the habit of keeping an emerald by them to look at. Naxinm. paste emeralds. Judging from the context the emerald was used. but it is difficult to understand what is the precise meaning of Pliny's phrase. see also H. In point of value Pliny ranks the emerald third. Its Another variety of corundum from Cyprus. 23 and Pliny . As Pliny mentions ( 67). Hist. N." . use for gem-engraving is mentioned above at page 104. xxxvi. called Cyfrium. Varieties The emerald is the bright green variety of the beryl. which were said to be made of smaragdus. xxxvu. 23) he mentions ( 74 Large and 75) various columns and obelisks of considerable size. 109. Pliny also states ( 64) that the Emperor Nero used an emerald in some way to help him to see the gladiatorial fights "gladiatorum pugnas spectabat in smaragdo". 38) Pliny says that a green scarabaeus beetle was used by gem-engravers for the same purpose "gemmarum scalptores contuitu eorum (scarabaeorum) acquiescunt. 54) signis e marmore poliendis gemmisque ctiam scalpendis atque limandis Naxinm diu placuit ante alia" .dpaySo<. . Kmerald. which of beryl. and t\c pearl (margarita] second. Lap. but as a mirror in which the scene was reflected. [CHAP. for example. xi. Nat. consists of silicate of aluminium and glucina. Relief to Pliny tells us ( 63) that the green of the emerald is so the eyes. Pliny mentions a great many varieties of the smaragdus. 1 In a previous passage (xxix. XXXVI. N. 134 CORUNDUM AND EMERALD. " was used for grinding down and polishing gems ita vocan- tur cotes in Cypro insula genitae". Theophrastus. considered the best. a-/j. the column in the . crystallised in hexagonal form.

44. but it was chiefly valuable for the beauty of the stone. Hist. Most of the ancient engraved emeralds which now exist arc stones of poor quality. that in the great Kgyptian labyrinth (in the Fayum) there was a statue of Scrapis made of smarayiits. probably about the time of Hadrian. . chiefly Gretk Small emeralds J cttxllery- for pendants. 27.] ANTIQUE EMERALDS. If engraved with an eagle or the scarabaeus beetle. When set in a ring it was sold for a very high price. nrtiifs. Antique gems on emerald arc not common. One of the finest examples of the use of the emerald is a cameo of Medusa's head in the Devonshire collection. cut on a large stone.CHAP. see Pliny. lib. forming a most beautiful combination of colour. several hundred scudi. but some Antique . dating from the time of the Roman Kmpirc as a rule. Pliny also tells us. but Benvenuto Cellini tells us of Cfllim's one. At 6. if not quite unknown. 64. fine examples do exist. cap. n. 124. N. I. xxxvn. which he bought from a peasant. which was about fourteen feet high. emeralds. which must have been a stone of remarkable beauty see : Cellini's Autobiog. dug up near Rome. 135 Phoenician temple of Baal at Tyre. yet it was often used. to decorate gold jewellery. frequently occur in the form of necklace beads. and nothing is done to the gem except that a hole is drilled through its axis for the insertion of the gold wire which holds it. H. the emerald was worn un- : cngravcd. In many cases these emeralds are not cut. which is also described by Herodotus. engraved with a a figure of Amymonc. he mentions Greek emerald gem. Pliny says. however.c. Though the emerald was so rarely employed for the engraved gems of the Greeks. . in modern value equal to as many pounds. XI. Nat. (sec above. XXX vu. emerald was supposed to possess certain magical virtues . mixed with beads of amethyst and rock crystal. the natural hexagonal form of the crystal is preserved. but engraved emeralds of pre-Roman date are now almost. on the authority of Apion. the Magi' . This emerald was engraved with a dolphin's head. page 40). which was sold for four gold staters in the 4th century H.

76 to 79). they are as deco- rative in effect as if they were of the most flawless and costly kind. 136 EMERALD AND BERYL. but was set between two bosses of gold in which . /3/7pf AAo?. but with a tinge of leek green. case. If the stone were of the finest quality it was not drilled. but very beautiful and magnificent in effect. Greek A very beautiful gold sceptre of the most elaborate work- aneraUs. which consists of a large rounded emerald or perhaps a paste not fine in quality. [CHAP. Etruscans and other classical races : the most beautiful results were gained by the old goldsmiths even when they had to use gems which would now be rejected as valueless. sometimes used uncut. the beryl is usually not free from flaws. Pliny tells us ( 79). not set in gold. As a jewel it was. No modern art is in a more hopelessly degraded state than that of the jeweller. golden. of the same nature as the emerald. and next to that the chryso- of a brilliant golden tint. rather than the usual shape used for gems. Most of the emeralds used by the Greeks are very full of flaws. which would have little beauty if cut in facets. are told. when cut in the old caboclion form and set in the exquisitely delicate pure gold-work of the ancient jewellers becomes a gem of the highest decorative value. The most valued variety was the aquamarine " qui viri- ditatem maris puri imitantur". The Indians." Like the emerald. Nat. he tells us. xxxvii. prasus. The same remark may be made with regard to all the jewellery of the Greeks. The BERYL. is. used with the wonderful skill an d g d taste of an ancient gold-worker. but perforated and strung upon an elephant's bristle. mans jp n t he gem-room of the British Museum. the Indians " preferred beryls of cylindrical we form. has its }1 ) j top formed in the shape of a flower with outer gold petals and a central boss. Indian According to Pliny ( 78) the beryl was a specially favourite gemin India. Beryl. as Pliny rightly states (Hist. had discovered a way . clirysoberulli. and would be despised by a Skill of tasteless modern jeweller. but. where it was frequently worn. the natural hexagonal faces of its crystal being simply polished. A stone pale in colour and full of flaws. and the chryso- beryl. XI.

98. The finest example known is the celebrated portrait of Julia by Euodos. still commonly used. Another clever trick. which is still practised. Many other tricks of the lapidary were practised in ancient times. This trick is stillpractised. The paste so treated is sold ready set in a ring. 137 to imitate various gems and especially the beryl by staining . but it is far less rare than the sapphire or emerald. 79.i/. and was one of the most valued gems of the treasury of the Abbey of St Denis. f'aJie """'' tatcd by boiling cluilicdony in honey and water. stone with layers of two different colours is formed. The beryl is not a common stone among ancient engraved Ancient Roman *"7/'- gems even during the period. describes a different sort of fraud. . layers.. so that a suspicious purchaser finds the back of the suspected paste will stand the test of a file without being scratched. The honey. In tint magnificent beryl approaches that of the this aquamarine : it is a stone of special purity and most brilliant lustre. that of a sardonyx. especially by the German lapidaries. thus forming a whitish opaque layer on the heated surface. the manufacture.s/. and so stains even the interior of the crystal. which has soaked into the pores of the cliakedony to a certain depth. by fastening together slices of three different stones. . The sudden change of temperature fills the crystals with minute cracks into which the colouring matter soaks. is the backing a paste gem with a thin slice of genuine stone. is permanently darkened by the acid and thus a . such as heating the pale yellow topaz and thus changing its Onyxes and agates are imi- tint to [>ink. now among the collection in the Bibliothcquc of Paris sec page 74. Tritksof Nat. so that the junction of the true stone and the paste is concealed. Siin/s can be turned into sardonyxcs simply by laying the stone on a hot iron. and first then treating it with acid or with heat. 195. though in an imperfect and uneven way. xxxvil. XL] JEWELLERS' TRICKS./ rock crystal. with beautifully even is. and 197): in the last passage he \Ualfrs. Various tricks of this kind arc mentioned by Pliny (Hist.CHAP. who heat the crystal red hot. and then plunge it into a bath of cold dyeing matter.

The CARBUNCLE or GARNET is one of the stones to which Pliny gives the name carbuncnlns : Hist. g rave(j on i ar g e and very fine Oriental carbuncles. At present the name "carbuncle" is given to the gem when cut en caboclion or rounded . which give its colour it varies in tint from a deep ruby red . 6. xxxvii. see page 116 117. is convex. and it often bears very fine work. where the design is cut. XXXVII. The carbuncle is not anuncommon stone among the en- graved gems of the Roman Imperial period. Sasanian Gems of the Sasanian class are not uncommonly en- irbundes. and the design seen by the transmitted rays. 128. 138 CARBUNCLE [CHAP. n. and are less cold to the touch. False Pliny remarks ( 98) that the carbuncle can be very (arlinncle. Beryl. sicut aliac gemmae. Nat. surface of the carbuncle. Carbuncle. often with a faint bluish tinge. can be distinguished by their inferior hardness "cote dcprchenduntur. if cut in facets it is the " garnet. see Hist. The carbuncle is also largely used for Greek and Etruscan jewellery. XI. like paste copies of other gems. 2 On the use of foil-backing." This fine flame-coloured stone is a silicate of aluminium and calcium together with small quantities of iron. but very pure and lustrous. but the imitations. see Vitruv. vi. so that the work on them has a specially beautiful effect when the gem is held up to the light. to give greater brilliance and transparency to the stone. 92 to 98*. When found in its original setting it is frequently backed by gold or silver foil (brattea aurea vel argentca) which much increases its beauty 2 Foiled As a rule the . to a pale pink. successfully imitated in paste. Nat. fictis enim mollior matcria fragilisque est". bracelets. carbuncle. Gold necklaces. and in some cases the back of the gem is hollowed into a concave form. probably brought from India. As a rule antique engraved beryls arc very pale in tint. the pastes also arc lighter than the real stones. . ear-rings and the like are studded with plain cabochon-cut carbuncles backed with 1 The word carbunculus is also used to denote a red variety of sand (arena) .

] OR GARNET.e.f .CHAR XI. were found in Etruscan tombs. The gem-room of the British Museum contains some of the finest known examples of this elaborate kind of jewellery : many of them. from the Castellan! collection. Oriental carbuncles are often of very great si/. but the most magnificent example came 1 from Olbia in Sardinia . 95) that drinking-cups holding one scxtariHS were sometimes cut out of an Indian carbuncle. XXXVII. 1 Small pieces of garnet rut into thin slices ami hacked with ytM foil are very commonly used in the cloisonne jewellery of Saxon and other '1 eutonic rtux-s. . Examples of such cups from India still exist: the Hope collection of gems (now dispersed) contained a cup of considerable size hollowed out of a carbuncle of great beauty. and the deep red of the gem give a very effective ana beautiful contrast of colour. carbunrles. . and another is preserved in the Mayer collection in Liverpool. 1'liny Oriental tells us (Hist. . Nat. 139 brilliant gold-foil the bright yellow of the surrounding gold Greet .

leek green is called prase : other varieties are called rose quartz or smoky quartz according to their colour. MATERIALS USED FOR GEMS (continued). By far the greater number of antique gems. which is then known by different names. and common flint. Silicon Gems of tlie SILICON family. which makes them comparatively easy to work. orange yellow Cairn- gorm or Scotch topaz. pale yellow is citrine. are engraved on some one of the many forms of silicon which exist in great abundance in almost every part of the world. Slight traces of metallic oxides give various colours to quartz crystal. coloured by various slight in impurities. according to its tint purple crystals are : called amethyst. These silicon stones are specially suited to the gem- engraver on account of their toughness. absence of grain. . The silicon minerals may be divided into the three following classes according to their structure Quartz I. especially oxide of iron. and at the same time but little liable to injury from wear or fracture. Aventurine is quartz crystal filled with minute specks of mica. and sufficient but not excessive hardness. looking like gold dust. sometimes known as Brighton or Irish diamonds and other similar names. which is the same substance an amorphous form. a pure form of silica or oxideof silicon. 140 CHAPTER XII. especially those ofpre-Roman times. The most familiar examples of this mineral are rock crystal or quartz. CRYSTALLINE stones: such as colourless rock or quartz crystal.

One curious use of crystal is mentioned by Pliny ( 28) : who says that a crystal ball. The coldness of IMinycryst. KOCK CRYSTAL. 141 II. by the name of "blue Juhn. such as Seurce. where it is largely found.000 sesterces were paid by a Roman lady. heliotrope. ROCK CRYSTAL the purest form of silica. XXXVII. while cups of amber were best for warm drinks. it is abundant in the . such as the face and hands. N.>/ Cyprus. bloodstone. crystal was used some for thenude parts of sculpture on a large scale. Nevertheless IMiny mentions various places. 29) a single bowl for which 150.CHAP. where snow and extreme cold arc little known. SiO. crystal.il. STRATIFIED stones: this class includes all the varieties of agate. plasma. CKYPTO-CKVSTALLINK or AMORPHOUS: the most important varieties of this class arc sard. at Milan weighs no than 870 pounds less Cups and other vessels cut out of large blocks of crystal Crystal were specially valued by the Romans of the Empire. . carnclian. 23) rock crystal is simply a form of ice. and opal. as being among the principal sources of crystal. 717) to mean crystal. XII. I. jasper. in his last moments of despair. XXXVII. onyx. Greek name tcpva-ra\o<. and is only found where there is abundance of rain-water and snow hence. is the best instrument for surgical cautery. p. 1 \turrkima was prubably the beautiful purple translucent form of fluor spar. known in Derbyshire. The largest block of crystal known to IMiny was one weighing about 150 pounds. In modern times much larger blocks of crystal have been found one in the Museum . it is only used by late writers (e. its is /'""6 . he says. means in the first place ice. chalcedony. and Nero. which has been permanently frozen by excessive cold. IMiny mentions (//. Strabo. tells it us made specially suitable for iced drinks. shattered to pieces two crystal cylices. >Va(. III.g. under the later Empire.] SILICON GEMS. and murr/iitu* cups were equally suit- able for both. ( 30). used as a burning glass. in spite of its being remarkably unsuited for such a purpose. In cases." . Alps. sardonyx and nicolo. According to IMiny (Hist. which was dedicated by Livia Augusta in the temple of Capitoline Jupiter in Rome. in order that no one else might jxjssess them.

gems. 25. not for signets.0v<TTov of Theophrastus. 1 Examples of these crystal jugs. it is frequently used for large coarsely cut intaglios. 121 to 124. and in the Treasury of St Mark at Venice. Crystal Crystal also occurs among the lenticular so-called "Island gems. with a warrior putting on and most brilliant crystal. D." and occasionally among gems of the finest period. The Fitzwilliam Museum (Catalogue. Phalerae. Amethyst. and early scarab gems. 142 CRYSTALLINE SILICA [CHAP. XII. . For Greek gems of the best periods amethyst was very rarely used. probably intended. Crystal In the gem-room of the British Museum there is a large sculpture. Lap.D. 5) possesses a very Plate I. a natural glass of volcanic origin. are to be seen in the South Kensington Museum. Its name was derived from the supposed power of this gem to enable its wearer to drink freely without the usual consequences (a priv. The AMETHYST. but under the later Roman Empire. is the dp. No. The translucent obsidian. Hist. and fj-edvcro*. 30 to 31 : it is described by Pliny.. especially for the cylinders and cones of Assyria and Babylon. and are very magnificent in effect. a purple variety of rock crystal. the Bargello Museum in Florence. especially during the 4th and 5th centuries A. Nat XXXVII. fragment of a crystal hand from some life-sized statue. dating probably from the 8th or pth century A. fine scarabaeoid gem of about 500 B. but for decorative purposes.). cut in the purest Among Greek gems of a later period rock crystal is not common. especially wine-jugs. Phalerae cameo heads of the Imperial period are often cut out of large amethysts.C. was also used in the same way by late Roman sculptors.. his greaves. almost identical in design. . Under the Byzantine Emperors crystal vases of great beauty were made. also sometimes used for the large heads in relief It is which ornamented t\c fhalcrac on the cuirass of the Emperor or some high official see Suet. Aug. a superstition which Pliny derides ( 124) as an idle invention of the Magi. used for Assyrian cylinders. but it is not an uncommon stone for gems of the Roman period it is also sometimes . In early times rock crystal was not unfrequently used for signets. covered externally 1 with decorative foliage and animals in relief .

in a convex form (en cabochoti) and is set with a backing of highly polished metallic foil. "nee fuit alia gemma apud antiques usu frequentior.CHAP. rrase. especially the yellow citrine. 113) derived from Trp<ia-ti>u<. Nat. especially for necklace beads of various forms. Among the second class of silicon gems. Rock crystal of other colours was sometimes used by the Citrine. 30 (Latin sarda) is described by Pliny.william gems is an example. its effect is best when the stone is cut Amethyst. of which No.. According to him it was so called from being largely found near Sardcs in Lydia but it is more probable that it is .. 105 and 106. ranging from the deepest to the palest tint of purple antique gems .] ANI) CRVPTO-CRYSTAI. those which are erypto-crystalline in structure. It is probably the chrysolithus of I'liny. The />rase is not uncommon. 106. . II. Nat.\vn. "' As IMiny says (Hist.' ' The sard varies in colour from a pale golden yellow to a reddish orange : the name cornelian is frequently given to a Cornelian. but which arc less perfectly transparent and of a deeper red in colour. XXXVII. 29 among the Fit/. in that respect approaching nearer to clialcedony. xxxvu. The amethyst varies very much in depth of colour. Romans for engraved gems. the prasiiis of IMiny (Ifisf. In early jewellery the amethyst is largely used. by far the most common as a material for ancient gems is the SARD. \x. the anpSiov of Thcophrastus. class of gems identical in chemical composition and closely resembling the sard. are usually cut on one of the pale varieties. derived from a Persian word meaning yellow. //. XII. N. work of the Imperial period. while the cornelian is more completely amorphous and its fractured surface is more smooth and glistening than that of the sard. especially portrait heads of Emperors and Empresses. 126. In point of structure the sard differs from the cornelian in several respects it is both tougher and harder and its fracture : shows a slightly crystalline structure. N. Lap. leek-green: fine specimens are very beautiful and often bear good in colour. XXXVM.LINE SILICA. 143 Like the carbuncle. //." The sard.

such as No. 10 in the same catalogue. The best examples are brilliantly transparent. especially the Assyrian cylinders and the early lenticular and scarab gems. had the advantage that the wax did not adhere to them when an impression was made : see H. when held up to the light. XXXVII. when appears of a deep translucent red. but all specimens of chalcedony are to some extent translu- cent. XII. of transparent red tint. It it occurs more commonly among Roman than among Greek engraved gems. Plate called sapphirine clialcedony : gems No. CHALCEDONY [CHAP. Early use Both the sard and the carnelian are very commonly used for engraved gems of all periods. it is sometimes very dark in tint. especially those of early times. 144 SARD. and includes the trans- . The iaspis of Pliny (Hist. He also tells us that certain kinds of sard were usually backed with gold or silver foil. Beauty of No gem shows the engraving on it. unless it is held up to the light. JASPER. CHALCEDONY was also a very favourite stone for gem- engravers of all periods. of a brownish colour. According to Pliny. Sanloine. Jasper. If quite opaque the stone would come under the head of one of the varieties of jasper. It is also common among gems of the later Roman Empire. tacrTn?. XXXVII. the early Greeks and the Etruscans. and very fine in colour perhaps the most beautiful are those which : are of a golden yellow tint. N. is an almost equally common material for antique signets. and the scarabs of the Phoenicians. signets made of sard. According to Theophrastus (Lap. Other kinds of chalcedony are of a translucent brown tint. and the . Choice. I. The latter is now commonly known as the sardoine . 7 and 1 1 in the Fitz- william collection are good examples of this quality of stone. 115) denotes specially the green varieties of jasper. Nat. including the cylinders of Assyria. to as much advantage as does a fine sard. Other colours occur. as well as those of sardonyx. The most beautiful sort of chalcedony is of a semi-translucent milky white or pale blue tint fine examples of the latter are . 30) the sard was of two principal kinds the female. male. almost black. 104 and 105.

118. grey.CHAP. 126.' variety of the green jasper the word plasma is a corruption : of prasina. XXXIII. 20 and 105 in the Fitzwilliam : Catalogue.. leck-grccn. xxxvn. The red jasper appears to be what Pliny in one passage calls haematites (Hist. Nat. XXXVII. that is. but merely " framed in a gold border praestantiorcs funda cluduntur ut sint patcntcs ab utraquc parte. xxxvu. The plasma. on which figures of Horus or Harpocratcs were frequently engraved during the Imperial period sec gems No. was a stratified onyx. 17. The jasper used for gems is most commonly either the Colours of jasftr. sec //. in which one of the layers resembled jasper . XII. Thered jasper used for cylinders and gems is frequently of the most brilliant blood-red tint. The iasponyx. just as the sardonyx was a combination of the onyx and the sard. was used by goldsmiths as a touch-stone. Jasper signets of the finest quality. he elsewhere uses the same word for what is now called red Itacmatite. The same magical qualities AmuMs. an oxide of iron . mentioned above. Roman Imperial gems of very good workmanship some- M. to show the quality of gold by the colour of its streak marked upon the stone: sec Pliny. is a translucent as is /' : '. but it also occurs of many other colours. he says. nee praetcr margincs quicquam auro amplcctcnte. green or the red variety. to . especially when engraved with a figure of Serapis or some other Egyptian or Persian deity. N. they were not backed with gold. as being ACOT" e'fo^/i/ the signet-stone . '45 " lucent kind which is now known as plasma viret ct saepc ** tralucct iaspis." The meaning of the word fnnda (cr<f>(r- Sdi't/) has been explained above. N. 169) but . white and black. 129. In Roman times it was believed to have occult virtues. see page 34. Nat. Hist. " As Pliny tells us Totus oriens pro amuleto gestarc eas traditur.N. known as Lydian stone. were also attributed to the green jasper. sec H. yellow." //. The black jasper." Pliny tells us that one fine variety of jasper was called ff<f>payi<.] AND JASPER. brown. xxxvi. mentioned by Pliny in the last named passage. cot ten la. were set open in rings.

[CHAP. times occur on plasma of a beautiful emerald tint. namely Oriental alabaster .a finger-nail. N. XXXVII. The ONYX. Plasma. usually mottled with markings of a deeper green one of remarkable : beauty in the British Museum is engraved with a bust of Severus. not from the presence of any pigment. and was not used though there are a few Roman for signets. III. sanguineis venis distincta. Enormous prices were paid by the opal. XXXVI. was the cause of its owner the Senator Nonius being proscribed and driven into exile by Marc Antony who coveted the possession of the gem. According to Sudines. examples of its use for cameos. studded with specks of red. Though very beautiful as a jewel. 90 to 91. Cat. but not very commonly. 146 JASPER. 1627. but from its laminated structure. ovv^iov. which gives brilliant pris- matic colours by breaking up the rays of light." Both these stones were used by the late Roman gem- engravers. and of very fine colour No. 165) which is a variety of translucent green plasma with similar crimson spots. Mus. should be observed that the word onyx is also used It by Pliny to mean a quite different substance. The BLOODSTONE is a variety of green jasper. 80 to 84) as being next in Value of value to the emerald. Romans Empire for fine specimens of this gem. which derives itsmagnificent colours. xxxvil. Theoph. : Bloodstone. from owl. the stratified class of silicon stones. very well executed considering its late date. Nat. quoted by Pliny. the most important are the following Onyx. Among the Greeks they were scarcely ever used for signet-stones. the opal was quite unsuited to receive engraving. . Akin to this is the HELIOTROPIUM of Pliny (Hist. com- bined with one or more layers coloured like sard or jasper. xxxvil. A of the large opal. Among the third. Lap. like drops of blood. The opal is described by Pliny (H. "porraceo colore. Opal. xii. 59 to 61. its name was derived from the fact that the onyx had one stratum resembling the human finger-nail. and Pliny. 2 . The OPAL is a very beautiful form of silica. Nat. see Hist. mentioned by Pliny as being valued at two million sesterces. OPAL. Hist. Brit. Nat.

This is probably the Egyptian 1 The OdcsoUchi cameo is now in the Hermitage Museum at St Petersburg: it was formerly taken for a work of Ptolemaic (late. 147 Under the Roman Empire the onyx was a very favourite Onyx. XXXVII. according to the Magi. It has a bluish white layer on a dark brown ground. but in his time had fallen greatly in value. with busts of a Roman Emperor and his wife. six inches high by five wide. As a rule the stratified forms of silica occur in nodules A <*// with more or less concentric layers formed round a nucleus. which was much used under the Roman Empire. smaragdacluites. being cut in the upper layer. 139. it was well suited for cameos. where fine specimens of it were found Hist. A variety of onyx. or Mars and Roma.] ONYX AND AGATE. had some occult virtue. onycolo. Most of these stones. Nat. In the number and colour of its layers the onyx varies very much like other stratified gems . Itacmachatcs. if skilfully treated. armour or necklaces'. each with its special name descriptive of the markings on it. : Pliny mentions a great many different varieties of agate. as is the case with the celebrated Odcscalchi cameo. IO 2 . and it was therefore by no means easy for the gem-engraver to get hold of a sufficiently large piece with fairly level strata. such as iasfac/tatcs. Its name was derived from the river Achates in Sicily. dcndrachates and the like. is the nicolo as it is now called a corruption of the Italian diminutive of onyx. XII. appear in white on a dark background with very good effect.?) was once highly valued. stone for signets.CHAP. The word AGATE is now used in a rather vague way to denote almost any clialcedonic stone with strongly marked layers of deposit According to Pliny the acltatts (/i^art. although an unstratified gem is really more suited for intaglio work. In this case the junctions arc cleverly arranged so as to be concealed by the edges of dress. In some cases large cameos were built up by joining together several pieces of onyx. especially if it consisted of one white stratum on a brown or dark red one : the figures.

85 to 89. XXXVII. and that ever since that time it was very highly valued in Rome. N. gem called Aegyptilla by Pliny (H. round the neck. sardonyx and jasper. 85). especially large Roman cameos. it is described by Pliny. " Sardinian onyx. where. like the sard. as Pliny tells us. caerulea facie. was derived from the stone having one layer like a sard superimposed on the strata of an ordinary onyx. XXXVII. Nat. Antique gems. 3. who " describes it as being formed in nigra radice. the true sardonyx may consist of strata of various numbers and colours. 2. Opal. The sardonyx was but little used for Greek gems. Nat. 88) the sardonyx. 32) who mentions the SapSwo? 6W. Thus. sardonychcs. According to Pliny (Hist. where reference is madeto the fine colours of emerald. not to their value for . in Pliny arra "g es tne principal gems in the following order of value I. XXXVII. is one of the very few gems to which the wax does not adhere when it is used as a signet. Adamas . \ 10 D. Demostratus. of the use of the stone on a necklace. 148). XII. in the form of beads or cylinders. quoted by Pliny (Hist. One of the earliest instances of this gem being named by any Greek writer is in Plato's PJiacdo. XXXVII. This however refers. this stone was commonly drilled by the natives. and worn. Nat." Sardonyx. before it came into the hands of the Roman engraver. the essential point being that one of these layers should be of the colour and appearance of a sard. Hist. Sardonyx. The name aapBovv^. often have remains of a drilled hole through them no doubt on account . like all stratified stonesmore suited for cameos than for signets. [CHAP. The SARDONYX was the most highly valued form of onyx . it is The Romans however used it commonly for both purposes. 5. Pearl. that Scipio Africanus the Elder was the first Roman tells us who used the sardonyx for his signet. coming next to the opal point of costliness. Emerald. Sardonyx The finest kinds of sardonyx and of onyx were imported from Arabia and India. Lucian (Dca Syr. 4. 148 SARDONYX." was probably misled by not understanding the real meaning of crapSow^.

The statue. Possibly under this name IMiny includes the modern chrysolite and the peridot. . 145 " Idco conducta I'aullus agebat sardonyche. vn. 1'liny's topazus was a green stone. improved by being set in gold more than any other stone. Sat. the wife of " " Ptolemy Philadclphus. but as decorative jewels. XII.a fact that is true with regard to all turquoises. which. CHAP. XIII. The CALLAINA of Pliny (Hist. The TOPAZL'S of IMiny (Hist. a gem of a fine yellowish- green tint. Pliny remarks that the callaina is injured by contact with oil. was dedicated in honour of Arsinoe. where it is still very largely used for decorative purposes. to Pliny. according Glass statues. since Pliny speaks of the green turquoise as closely resembling it. loculis quac custoditur eburnis:" Sec also Juvenal. The importance of the sardonyx as a signet-gem is men- tioned by Juvenal (Sat. It is how- ever doubtful whether the name topazus was not sometimes used for an opaque stone. like the "emerald" column in the Tyrian temple of Baal. that and the emerald being his favourite gems. the sard and the sardonyx would probably rank first. was probably an instance of the use of paste or glass. xxxvn. Nat. As stones to engrave upon. and soft enough file and to be injured to be cut with the by wear: 109.] TOPAZL'S AND TURQUOISE. It was specially found in the Caucasus. Nat. gents. \. and is easily counterfeited in paste. six feet high. he says.\VII. It is. This concludes the list of Silicon gems. 107 to 109) is certainly not the brilliant yellow gem which is now called the topaz. appears to be the green variety of the turquoise: The finest examples are said to be of an emerald colour. 138). and in Persia. " arguit ipsorum quos littera gcmmaquc princeps sardonychum." The Kmperor Claudius made the sardonyx specially fashionable. made of toptiztts. no to 112) Gretn lur- ifuaite. in the Golden Temple in Kgypt. The blue turquoise is evidently the stone which Pliny calls Callaii. often of large size. 149 engraving.

It appears also to have been known by the name cyatws (nvavos)." that resembles lapis lazuli in colour. 150 TURQUOISE. 403 in the Marlborough cameos. Nat. sodium and aluminium. Pliny describes cyanus as being called "a colore caeruleo. where it was invented at a very early period. Blue tur. it The turquoise is a hydrated phosphate of alumina. xii. 120) is not lazuli. XXXVIL 119. formed part of the annual tribute paid by the Phoenicians see also Pliny. The former came specially from Scythia and from Cyprus : the artificial kind was a product of Egypt. and contains gold-like specks of iron pyrites. N. consisting of a silicate and sulphate of calcium. It is of a magnificent deep blue colour usually mottled with white. Theophrastus (Lap. H. which derivesits splendid blue or green colour chiefly from copper. Theophrastus (Lap. Probably the only ancient intaglios of turquoise are of Sasanian workmanship. but is as hard as feldspar and takes a very high polish. fine Turquoise A very good example is No. xxxvii. which seems to have been valued by the Romans more than the blue variety. 151) "callais sappirum imi- quoise. Lapis The SAPPIRUS of Pliny (Hist. Nat. collection. tatur. from which the fine ultramarine blue used in painting was manufactured. 23) calls it aaTrfaipos icvavr). Hist. Many examples still exist of Egyptian scarabs and signets . LAPIS LAZULI [CHAP.VO<. XXXVII. and describes it as being speckled with gold. Cyanos. CALLAIS (Hist. 119. but also from iron or manganese it does not occur in a : crystalline form. 55) mentions natural and artificial Kvavos. Lapis lazuli is a compound mineral of the Hailynite class. Theophrastus also records that a certain quantity of KVO. is. It appears not to have been used for Greek gems. xxxvil. what is now called the sapplure. but is the opaque lapis lazuli."and mentions its gold specks inest ei aliquando et aureus pulvis qualis sappiris". with heads of Livia and the young Tiberius cut in relief in a large green turquoise. but some cameos of Roman Imperial date are cut in it. : Nat.

This artificial cyanos. iron. a sesqui-oxide. except in Egypt under the Ptolemies. who says that the best quality came from Egypt. of late Roman workmanship. XXXIII. still exist. but it was not uncommon for the gems of the Roman Empire. . most lapis lazuli having its deep blue much broken up by white. 120. who describes the magncs (Hist. was derived from a shepherd called Magncs. MAGNETITE (Latin magnes) is a hard metallic oxide of MagHttitc. The real sappims or lapis lazuli was not unfrequcntly used lazuli. According to Pliny. on account of its inferior hardness and the great difficulty of finding a piece that is homogeneous in colour. //. as for example in the paintings of Egypt and those at Mycenae and Tiryns. 126 to 128). forEgyptian scarabs and for Assyrian cylinders. Pliny refers to this when he says it is "inutilis scalpturis intervenicntibus crystallinis ccntris. with a strong metallic lustre when polished. A good many well-cut intaglios and cameos in sappirtis.il cyanos.C!IAI>. when used as a pigment. XXXVI. ffiSrjpos. FcOFe. xxxvi. Nat. is called caeruUiitit by Pliny. from its power of attracting iron. it was rarely used by gem-engravers. almost black in colour.N. 161. which is an Artificial alkaline silicate. pierced for suspension. the name tnagius.O. Sasanian gems are occasionally cut upon very fine pieces of Persian lapis lazuli. it was called by the Greeks sideritis. Nat.. XII. where it had been invented by one of the kings. In Camiros and elsewhere in Rhodes and other Greek- islands signets of this artificial cyaiws have been found in the shape of rams' and lions' heads. coloured a deep blue with carbonate of copper : the same compound was used as a pigment from very early times. with the signet-device cut on the flat underside.] AND MAGNETITE. It frequently has the power of attracting iron and then is known as natural loadstone. HAEMATITE is another ore of iron." Hist. During the Greek period. very Hatmaiiu. '5' of other forms made of this artifici. who accidentally discovered it by feeling the iron nails in his boots stick to the stones on which he was walking. according to Nicandcr. though it is not really- suited for the purpose of signets.

Steatite. STEATITE. For the same reason serpentine and limestones of various colours were commonly " " used for the primitive Hittite gems. it was an important material in early times. STEATITE. when polished. GRANITES and BASALTS of various colours were occasion- ally used for some of the same early classes of signets for which the softer steatite was employed. made it a favourite it material for early races who had no harder substance to engrave with than flint or obsidian. Haematite. being very close in grain and 1 Pliny's use of the word haematitis to mean red jasper is mentioned above. 152 HAEMATITE. Both magnetite and Jiaematite sometimes occur in the form of crystals. finely powdered." Phoenician and early The softness of steatite. 129)'. . is a silicate of magnesia . hard greenish-grey basalt of Egypt was very suitable for a signet-stone. The very fine. and not unfrequently for " Assyrian cylinders and signets of the Hittite. and for other signets of an early period. or soapstone. Early\ Magnetite and Jiaematite are both used very frequently signets. Fine specimens are very hard and close in grain. for Assyrian cylinders. and the lenticular classes. it is described by Pliny (Hist. and have. though not ranking among the hard stones usually used for ancient gems. was used by the gem-en- gravers to give the final polish to their work. XII. but they arc not uncommon among the gems of the later Roman Empire. Granite. [CHAP. and does not attract iron . especially for Egyptian scarabs and Oriental cylinders. It was specially used for Egyptian scarabs. Phoenicians and other early Oriental races. consequent ease with which was worked. page 145. similar to magnetite except that it is of a deep red tint like blood. It was also largely used for medicinal purposes. Nat. for the so-called Hittite gems. Amongthe later Greeks these stones were rarely used. Haematite. Magnetite was also used for necklace beads and similar decorative purposes by the Egyptians. xxxvi. almost the lustre and colour of steel.

198 to 200) the chief . Pliny gives directions for distinguishing between pastes Teiii ***" and real gems (Hist. about 70 of silica. XXXVI. Modern pastes are usually made with nearly 50 per cent. when cut in facets. weight and coldness of the true gems. was produced by oxide of tin. A splinter of obsidian (natural volcanic glass) or a file 1 On the preciou* stone* of the Greeks and Roman* tee Coni. 8 of lime. XII. gemmae fictitiae or vitreae. Examples of the green basalt of Mt Taygetus being used for lenticular gems arc mentioned above at page 20. PASTE gems. as easily as rock crystal will scratch flint glass. Nat. 198." a pure alcalinc silicate with the addition of lime. of these tests depend on the superior hardness. The various colours used for glass arc mentioned by Pliny. and small quantities oi metallic oxides. as real gems. in 100 parts. without any admixture of lead what is now called "flint glass. 1 coloured by a minute proportion of carbonate of copper . The chief pigments used to colour the ancient pastes were various metallic oxides and salts. 153 even in texture. 18 of soila. used in making the white stratum of imitation onyx. This beautiful stone is an almost pure form of feldspar. The colours of ancient pastes are often very magnificent. 168 191. hard glass. Hist. yellow was produced by carbon. The material <""' of which they were composed was a pure. the sapphire blue. Ancient pastes in Italy arc often bought by jewellers to sell. Greeks and Romans with very great skill. 184$.] BASALT AND PASTE. Blue. of oxide of lead. futrt a ittub. pp. were made by the />aj/ .CHAP. the emerald green and the orange yellow. 2 of alumina. Opaque white. . Crfcu fasles - especially the ruby red. Manganese produced an amethyst-purple. green and ruby red were produced by different oxides and salts of copper. It was sometimes used for this purpose in li*talt Egypt as late as the Ptolemaic period. Nat. Roman pastes usually contain. Another blue was given by cobalt'. Rome. and they are there- fore much softer and more liable to decomposition than the old ones. Afragment of an antique paste will scratch a modern one. to which the colour is due. XXXVII.

there was always the risk of deception by means of the slice of real stone fitted at the back of the paste. thus making it internally luminous. especially in the form of cups and bowls these. The absence of air-bubbles in modern stained glass is one reason of its being so much less beautiful than the glass of mediaeval times. Pliny says : (Hist. in antique pastes are. Such pastes are very rare . XXXVII. such as that in the Marlborough collection. in which no bubbles are visible 1 . 1 A great deal of the superior beauty of ancient glass is due to the presence of these minute air-bubbles. AMBER: a considerable section of Book xxxvil. . Inpoint of richness and beauty of colour fact. XII. dealers in gems (inangones gemmarum) usually will not allow purchasers to put their stones to the scratching test (limae probationein) . he goes on to say. probably examples of elaborate cutting with the lapidary's tools. he remarks. 29). each of which catches the light and radiates it out from the body of the glass. which has the same peculiarity as the pastes of the classical period. scratch a paste. yet. (30 to 53) is devoted by Pliny to a description of amber. [CHAP. 198 and 195 in the latter passage : Pliny tells us that Nero paid no less than 6000 sesterces for two small cups of glass. on the whole. sucimim. is the presence of air bubbles body of the paste there are however some in the : very fine examples of antique pastes. so that it was difficult to distinguish between the real crystal and the glass . superior to the genuine stones which were used by the gem-engravers. Crystal Colourless paste or glass was made to imitate rock-crystal. and if they did. Another test. Nat. Nat. XXXVI. Amber. 154 FALSE GEMS. see above. the excellence of the imita- tions did nothing to diminish the price of the genuine crystal : see also Hist. were imitated with wonderful skill. he tells us. such as those mentioned at page 1 1 8. described above at page 116. in most cases a careful exami- nation will detect minute bubbles in ancient imitations of " " gems. page 137. mentioned by Pliny. even though in colour and purity of water the paste may be quite equal to a fine example of a genuine stone. not merely transparent. but will not touch a real stone : unfortunately. Tests for will.

42. and more especially the amethyst. which has exuded from fossil *"'"' a tree of the pine tribe an extinct conifer. which was Queen of Syra by a Phoenician offered for sale to the trading-captain.. In Pliny's time amber necklaces were commonly worn by the women of the North of Italy beyond the river Po. stones. 1 At Hitl. but it was also found in the Red Sea and in certain parts of the Mediterranean. as the magnet attracts iron filings. His account of its origin is quite correct. and was much too soft to engrave for use as a signet.. who speaks of it attracting. XII. when rubbed. The name siicinnm was " derived from SHCIIS (arboris). 155 though it docs not properly come under the head of precious Amber. 80 C')". Xnt. Hist. bits of chaff and straw. Tim. Roman finger-rings cut out of amber have occasionally been found. Throughout the Greek period it was largely used as an ornament in all sorts of gold jewellery.CHAP../ XXXVII. XV. According Pliny to ( 5 1 ) amber could be stained to imitate various gems. Homer (O</. Most of the amber used in Kurope came from the shores HalHc of the Baltic. Eluiru it was used in the early prehistoric period by almost all the races of Europe. amber is a gum. for which large prices were given 1 . It was also used for cameos. existence of very early trading routes from the North The to the South of Europe is indicated by the frequent discovery of amber from the Baltic in the prehistoric tombs of various southern localities. * The word ifXdcrpor also mean* an alloy of gold and silver. ." Amber was the t"l\(Krpov of the Greeks (Plato. especially Lydia and Ionia. /. 460) mentions a gold necklace. but these had an engraved gem or paste set in the bezel. Nat. XXXVii. especially for those which were set in honorary phalcrac. 49. which modern botanists call /'i/iift's Succinifcr. tree-sap. The curious electric properties of amber arc noticed by Pliny ( 48). such as was largely used for the early coinage* of Western Asia Minor.] AM1IER. and is found in tombs of the bronze and iron age over a very wide area. with pendants of amber. for drinking-cups and even for statuettes. I'liny remarks that an amber statuette of a man often cut! as much money as would have purchased a living slave.

it may be observed that in Roman times and even among the later Greeks stones of certain colours were sometimes selected by the engraver with a refer- ence to the subject he was about to cut on it. 52. . Magic Other stones were selected for mystic religious reasons . Several of the epigrams on engraved gems in the Greek Anthologia refer to this fitness of colour and material to the subject cut on the stone. ing of certain subjects. such as cattle feeding. xii. viriues. and the green jasper for pastoral scenes. It would not. however. Thus the green beryl or aquamarine was considered suitable for nymphs or deities of the sea. [CHAP. A variety of amber called lyncurium is mentioned by Pliny. Lyncu- rium. for example. as. It was probably quite an exceptional thing for the colour of a gem to have any allusion to the subject which was engraved upon it. 1 56 CHOICE OF STONES. the blood-red jasper. he says that it could be used for engraving like a gem. but that is probably an error. be safe to press this point very far. which was commonly used for heads and figures of the Graeco-Egyptian deities Serapis and Horus. Choice of With regard to the choice of special stones for the engrav- stones.

and feldspar sucli as green basalt and red porphyry . 7$ to 8. such as emerald and the sca- grccn aquamarine . are slightly less hard than the crystalline forms . 5 to 5^. . The following table indicates the different degrees of hardness of the stones used for engraved gems. 9. to/>as . The number opposite each represents its hardness according to the now adopted by mineralogists generally. the hardest of all known substances. sard and onyx. such as clialccdony. 7. amber . such as ametliyst : the other varieties of the silicon gems. 2. 4. 10.] 157 TilK COMPARATIVE HARDNESS OF GEMS. 3. rock-crystal. opal . diamond. lowest degree of hardness . 5i to 6. transparent calcitc and steatite . 7 to J\. carbuncle or garnet . fluor-spar (mitrrliina) . magnetite and peridot . 2^. beryl in all forms. crystals of gypsum . scale 1 . xii.cn. talc. 6J. lapis lazuli . 8. sapphire. haematite. ruby and other crystalline forms of alumina . 6. including the coloured varieties. turquoise.\r. with the addition of some others for the sake of comparison.

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AND FELLOW OF KING'S COLLEGE. SLADE PROFESSOR OF FINE ART. DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OK THE ENGRAVED GEMS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. CAMBRIDGE IIY J. 1891 . CAMIIKIIH. HENRY MIDDLETON DIRECTOR OF THE FIT/WILLIAM MUSEUM.K CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. APPENDIX.

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below arc two branches rude archaic work on gn-cii : chalcedony. sec Joscphus. date possibly 8th century H.C. 5. the la>( in the Catalogue. //.th century B. pp. III. 26 to 28. fiir Numismatik. Jud. IMate 14. 3*. of the . was commonly regarded as an omen of victory sent by Zeus. It was a common practice for the writer of a letter. XII. holding a serpent in his beak and with one claw fine glandular gem. 4. 3. Ill CATALOGUE OF THE ENGRAVED GEMS IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 1 . No.C. M. in. running . The eagle and serpent is also a frequent type on coins of Elis of the 6th and 5th centuries B. of green chalcedony. 1. but of better execution probably . Unless described as cameos.C. Nos. or even earlier. Eagle flying. 23. I. stag with curved horns. what 1 All are from Colonel Lcakc's collection except Nos. pierced . see Head. II . Ant. to mention at the end of it. similar in type to No. 216 and 217: and Numismatic Chronicle for 1890. and the Poniatowiki gem. 41. The eagle bearing a serpent. . Vol. hare or some other animal.. I'l. 2. XII. sec Homer. pierced lengthways . Archaic glandular gem . 218. A similar eagle flying with a serpent in his beak occurs on various early silver coins of Chalcis in Euboca sec Zfitschrift . In his letter to the High I'ricst Onias. Arcius King of Sparta states that his royal signet is an eagle bearing a serpent in its claws. all arc intaglios. Coins of tlie Ancients. 8. both among the later Greeks and the Romans.

At his death it became the property of Mr W. as a guard against forgery and to prevent the letter from being tampered with in any way. Other paste scarabacoids of the same type from Camiros are now in the British Museum.C. Corr. surface corroded. who in 1877 bequeathed it by will to the Fitzwilliam Museum. who described it in a paper published in the Bull. This very interesting gem was discovered in 1840 in a Greek tomb in the island of Aegina. Nos. 1840. probably the tomb of Kreontidas. Plate I. found at Camiros in the island of Rhodes. but is to be read inscription on the gem itself. Scarab of Phoenician style in red agate. pp: 140. which may possibly be older than the date of Kreontidas . 3*. 141. The is not reversed. in letters of thesth century B." Examples of early gems with the names of owners arc mentioned above atpage 67. 4. 3. between them is the sacred Egyptian asp above is the winged sun-disc. Phoenician scarabaeoid of blue paste. This is a good typical example of a Phoenician signet of the 5th or 4th century B. the underside engraved with the sacred beetle of Egypt with outspread wings. within a "cable border. with figures of half Egyptian and half Assyrian type given : by Prof. This is a very characteristic example of Phoenician work. Inst. It is much worn with use. in front is an Egyptian cartouche containing illegible hieroglyphs. Finlay. each holding a lotus-tipped sceptre. also called Nefer-hetcp. emblem of the god Ra. passed at onceIt into the possession of Mr George Finlay. iv PHOENICIAN AND EARLY [APP. two seated figures of the hawk- headed deity Chonsu. The device is a favourite one on Phoenician . meaning " I am the signet or device (a-ijfj. the style of cutting of the letters suggests that the name is an addition by a different hand from that of the original engraver of the scarab. Arch. Middlcton. . the well-known historian of mediaeval and modern Greece. Plate I. behind is the kneeling figure of a worshipper." In the field is the inscription. Phoenician scarab of dark green jasper engraved with a design of Egyptian style. kPEONTIAA fcMI. The design represents an enthroned deity holding up a cup. was the design on its seal. 140 and 141 in Mr Smith's Catalogue.a) of Kreontidas.C.

pierced a Greek hero. Stud. 5.C.. 189 and Plate l.. or possibly archaistic work of later date. and sometimes for the early lenticular gems. Col. broadly modelled and very spirited in design. sec Jour. that is from the pre-historic "Mycenae M 2 . mentions the super- stition that the scarabaeus beetle.xix. vii. pierced for sus- pension. " It is surrounded by a cable border. 6. The stone is rock crystal of great purity and brilliance. engraved on an emerald. v scarabs. Lcake obtained itthe Peloponnesc. now in the British Museum.C. With both hands he bends the bronze apart . and in the other hand a small oenochoc or wine jug. only a Corinthian helmet. of about 500 B. 480 450 H. is about to fit a grcavc (KIIJ/U'S) upon his leg. No.APP. Female figure. probably by a jeweller in setting the gem. 435 in the British Museum has the same subject. which has sprung upon the Plate/. Hell. on which the bronze greavc is carefully represented. p. wearing ." part of which has been ground away at some time. and modelled to imitate the muscles of the leg itself. though treated rather differently. in Gems of this period are rarely cut on colourless rock crystal. had certain magical virtues. Pliny.C.. wearing long chiton and /limation. Fine Greek work of c. stands riatt I. xxxvii. though it is often used for Assyrian cylinders. /'fait i. Hist. very minutely cut on a thin slice of burnt agate. holding in one hand a patera containing some offering. Nat. Vol. nude. In style it resembles the pedi- ment sculpture from the temple in Acgina. is remarkable for its spirited drawing and very skilful treatment of the nude figure. This very fine gem. 7. before a small altar of fire. the Greek greaves having no means of fastening except the spring of the metal. A matte/ess lion or lioness. 124. and is fixing its teeth in the bull's shoulders . possibly from Mount Taygetus in Laconia. back of a bull. A large scarabacoid of fine saffhiritu chalcedony. noble in style. In early Greek art. Scarabacoid. very fine Greek work of the 5th century B. This is well shown on the leg from a colossal bronze statue.] GREEK GEMS.

he records that. 7. . more especially on vases of the so-called "Oriental style" with encircling bands of animals. and now preserved in the Acropolis Museum. VI. Herodotus. like No. 31. soft glass into a mould the edges.. apparently of the 4th century B. VII. see Head. of the 5th century struck at Dyrrhachium in Illyria. 8 were probably pendants of a necklace. which is sucking a fine early Greek design. 8. is repeated in more than one early limestone (poros) group recently discovered on the Acropolis of Athens. Coins of the Ancients. struck at the Thracian Acanthus. tells us that certain districts of Thrace were full of lions and wild bulls.C. and hence. with short curly hair. Anim. A somewhat similar design to that on this noble gem occurs on silver coins of the 6th century B. Astarte. Plate IV. became extinct even in the moun- In later times the lion tainous regions of Thrace. The same subject. 8. on a colossal scale.C. the reason of its becoming comparatively rare in Greek art. Bands with lions attacking bulls are very common. probably. 125. This scarabaeoid and No. period" down to the 5th century B. Both these paste gems have been formed in the usual way by pressing a lump of hot. pierced : the surface of the paste is corroded by decom- position.during the Persian invasion of Thrace. similar to that on coins . many of the camels used as beasts of burden in the army of Xerxes were killed by lions : cf. 9. 126. VII. and in the Island of Corcyra. Large scarabaeoid in almost colourless glass or paste. whom the early Greeks associated with Hera.C. and in the previous section. also Aristotle. Head of Hcrakles. In Oriental cults the cow and calf were frequently used as types of the Nature Goddess. during the 6th and 5th centuries B. the lion occurs very frequently. back and ground of the front were then : cut into shape on a lapidary's wheel. pierced. Hist. Large scarabaeoid of almost coloiirless paste.C.. as they are far too large for rings. A cow with head turned back towards its calf. and elsewhere. bearded.VI GREEK GEMS OF [APP.

minute is the name AEEAMENOZ. A gem of exceptionally beautiful design and workmanship. downwards to caress his dog. II. and the details are most minutely worked. Another subject which occurs on the Attic stelae is en- graved on a gem in the Hritish Museum (No. 473). which looks up affectionately at his master. page 68. seated. she holds in one hand a wreath. This gem is a very large and beautiful example of Athenian work of the 4th century. A scarabacoid of clouded chalcedony. A scarabacoid of fine sappliirinc chalcedony. probably before 350 H. of a yellowish brown tint. of the best period of Greek art. wearing the long chiton and over it the short chitoniskos . within a cable border. 6. Its design. dating a little before and 400 H. probably the lady's name at the side. the middle or latter half of the 5th century B. 1877. Another gem with almost exactly the same design. pierced a "cable". .] TIIK HEST PERIOD. like that of No. In front of her stands an attendant girl. especially examples as large and carefully executed as this. and holding his oil- flask ready for the bath. Plate XXXIX. 10. wearing the chiton podcres and riaie I. cut so as to be read on the stone itself. in very . In the field at the top is the inscription MIKHZ.AIT. and in the other a mirror which she presents to her mistress. vii 10. signature of the gem-engraver. Gems of this date are very rare. Athens. behind the seated figure. A youth. bends Plate I. The modelling of the nude form is extremely skilful. which bears the nude figure of a youth. with one hand she raises a corner of her veil. The design on this remarkable gem is similar to that on some of the sepulchral slclae of Athens. An Athenian lady. No.C. leaning on a jagged staff.c. pierced. but slightly inferior workmanship. and is illustrated in his Cyprus. is seated in a chair with lathe-turned legs . is precisely the same as those on some . border surrounds the whole design sec above. most of these are reliefs of life size or after .c. nude. was found in a tomb in Cyprus by Cesnola. near and were found in the cemetery outside the Dipylon of it. its girdle with the himation across her knees and a veil over her head. the letters.

10. with the name AEHAMENOS alone.C. In addition to its great beauty as a work of art and the comparatively large size of the composition. Essays on Archaeology.viii GEMS OF DEXAMENOS [APP. It very improbable that there should have been is at the same date more than one gem-engraver of the same name and of such exceptional ability as was the artist of the Fitzwilliam and the Kertch gems. Arch. apparently a portrait: see Compte-rendu de la Comm. Both these gems with cranes were found. 1861. Genuine artists' signatures on gems are extremely rare. together with other objects of Attic workmanship dating probably from the first half of the 4th century B.. and the close similarity of the letters in the inscriptions make it highly probable that both the gems from Kertch and that in the Fitzwilliam Museum are the work of the same Chian artist. with the signature AEEAMENOZ ETTOIE. No. PI. Dexamenos of Chios made (me). No. 40. see Newton. sepulchral reliefs from the Dipylon Cemetery of Athens. exists in a private collection in Athens it is a male bearded . The coincidence of date. the fact of its being signed by the artist makes this gem one of the most important examples of the kind in the world. the ancient Panticapaeum. p. and it is a remarkable coincidence that two of the very few other gems. 396. They arc now in the Hermitage Museum at St Petersburg. as on the Fitzwilliam scarabaeoid. have an artist's name of undoubted genuineness. 1865. though forged ones are common enough. and are illustrated in the Compte- rendu dc la Commits. A fourth gem. 1880. Toilet scenes in one form or another are among the most frequently recurring subjects on the tomb-stelae of Attica. like this. with the inscription in microscopic letters AEEAMENOS ETTOIE " XI02. in one of the numerous tombs which have been opened at Kertch in the Crimea. It may be that this beautiful gem was engraved and worn in memory of a dead wife or sister.. One of these is a minutely executed representation of a crane flying. head. and ib. the minute workmanship. . Ill. Plate VI. which." The other gem has a standing crane. are both signed with the same name Dexamenos ..

a seal in a modern gold mount. welland minutely executed on banded cluilcedony . on the other hand. direction. who leans upon his staff possibly Klectra and Orestes of good Greek style.//</. On a convex bluish white cliaktdony with brown patches. 5th or 4th century lie. pursuing a stag with Plait I.. being either Greek imports or native copies of Greek designs. these.. and in the hair of both figures. 199 to 204. H. The hunter wears a curious hood over his head with horn-like projections at the back . It is set as 16. Inst. In point of technique this gem is an interesting example of the extensive use of the diamond- point. especially in the drapery of the female. was in the pos- session of Colonel Lcakc long before the other gems of Dexamenos had been discovered. Man on horseback. 12: it is said to have been found at Kara in Attica. 13. branching horns which is already wounded with another spear. 1868. with spear. Scarabs of this type arc often found in Etruscan tombs. 14. Bull standing . Smith's Catalogue. on . 15. A true scarab in cornelian. Jahrbiich Arch. 12. pierced. fully draped. Scarabacoid: a bull walking : fine Greek work of the /'/. No. The Fitzwilliam scarabacoid. nude youth. a fine orange sun/. but its genuineness is doubtful. tail and wings a similar figure occurs on a curious four-lobed . playing on the double flutes. ix Arc/i. 1888. pendant gem in the British Museum. stands talking with a ruu I.. It was not known till after the discovery of the gems by Dexamenos inthe Kertch cemetery. standing. 549 in Mr A. see Furtwanglcr. No. possibly Greek work of the 4th century H. behind is a cow facing in the opposite Watt I.APP. Forgeries of modern date arc also very common the Fitzwilliam example may perhaps be one of . and its inscription may very possibly have been copied from the one with the flying crane. Plate I. the device on it is a Siren. but careless workmanship.] AND OTHER GREEK GEMS. the rest of his dress is not .c. A female figure. On the various gems by Dcxamenos. The Siren is represented as a human figure with bird's feet. and its genuineness cannot be suspected. p.

added by some Gnostic owner. It is a well executed design. it appears to consist of trousers and a short very distinct. Heon a large fringed saddle-cloth. 20. (as Greek numerals) make up the number 365. in much later characters. and appears sits from his costume to be of semi-barbarian type. It was especially the followers of the Gnostic Basilides who used this mystic word. Cut on a fine orange yellow sard. Set in a modern seal-mount.. X GEMS OF THE [APP. on dark green jasper. or d/3pal. The subject appears to be Pegasus or some other winged horse trampling mi a serpent. cut on a deep orange sard. According to the Gnostic creed there were 365 orders of angels. The letters of dfipacrdl. and in her other hand a bow and two arrows. not unlike some of the figures of Scythians represented on objects of Greek workmanship found in the tombs of Kertch. only the back of the head with its crisp curls remains: probably of the 4th century B. Artemis in long chiton. each heaven being superior to the one below and inferior to the one above it. but only the front portion remains the rider and most of the horse . and in the other hand a flail. engraved on sar- donyx with a raised border in a white layer.C. 19. The horse closely resembles that on coins of various Macedonian kings. probably copied from some statue of Praxitelean type. Good work of the Ptolemaic period of Egyptian style. 17. but tunic.d<. Plate I. Fragment of a large gem of good later Greek style. with agate layers at the back it is pierced for : suspension.C. she wears shoes tied with a knot above the ancle. . is rudely scratched the mystic word ABPACAE. Plate I. possibly of northern Greek workman- ship. is walking. each of which occupied a separate heaven. are wholly lost. with one finger pointing to his lips. 1 8. Work of good style. Horns (the Greek Harpocrates) seated on a lotus flower. Fragment of a large and very fine gem with a profile male head . probably of the 3rd century B. This important gem is a large scarabacoid of clouded clialccdony. with scarf-like drapery float- ing behind her. holding a dead fawn by the fore- legs. probably 3rd century B. On the back.C.

a similar horseman aims a long spear at a wild boar. on a large. In one hand she holds a bird. is probably taken from some cele- brated Greek statue. and also the supreme Ruler of the universe. 22. when cut on the right stone. this type is intimately connected with the sun- god Mithras. riding at full speed. Sec above. Aphrodite.jasper. /'//< //. . 21. seated on a rock. the design occurs very frequently on gems.Roman work on sardoinc. mostly done with a : coarse wheel. and a long staff or spear in the other. The Abraxas deity is fre- quently symbolised by a human figure with a cock's head and serpent legs.APP. The name and symbol of Abraxas were supposed to have great talismanic powers. holds uj) a wreath.D. pierced. like No. accident and misfortune generally.. stands 23. fully draped in chiton and Initiation. with the other hand she raises a corner of her himation very rude work. Aphrodite. as a graceful winged youth. Its medical virtues. she holds a helmet in one hand. probably meant for a dove. were very highly valued. 19. i'late //. Both of the hunters wear a tight tunic and trousers. 24. though of very poor workmanship. of the Sasanian period. and on their heads a hood of Oriental fashion. xi denoting the whole Hierarchy of Heaven. and believed in for many centuries. a horseman. page 123. and their long tails are tied up with a knot 1'crsian work. against the pillar a round shield is set.] GREEK PERIOD. on a large scarabacoid of clouded cltalccdony. is of interest as being probably a copy of some celebrated Greek statue. to a great extent even throughout the mediaeval period. leaning against a short pillar. slightly striated cornelian. about the 4th cen- tury A. scene in . aims an arrow at a lion which approaches him. Instead of a saddle the horses have a large fringed cloth over their backs. protecting the wearer from disease. the collection in the Paris Bibliotheque contains no less than nineteen examples. This gem. Hunting two tiers at the top. Below. It is engraved with groat delicacy and minuteness on black. Eros. his torch is stuck into the ground before him : fine Gracco. \wM nude. minutely executed with much taste and skill. This figure. leaning against a short pillar.

resting rock she points to her face with one hand. half draped. 31. Winged Victory holding in one hand a wreath. in modern ring setting. Roman work of the Republican period on fine chalcedony. This fine gem much resembles the sard set in a gold ring. Winged Victory with wreath and palm branch. Plate II. and in the other a small figure of Victory bearing a wreath : at his feet an eagle. which was found in 1780 on the skeleton hand of Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus. Jupiter enthroned holding in one hand the hasta pura. Roman work on a camelian. Winged one foot on a Victory. a cantharus to his panther with the other hand he holds the .. which is common on Roman gems and on the reverses of Imperial denarii. on a very pale sard : in modern ring setting. bluish chalcedony. as on No. in modern ring setting. of Greek workmanship. in the other hand he holds the long sceptre or hasta pura. 62 and 63 : in the Fitzwilliam collection have the same subject. 30.g. probably of other a : Republican date. 26. 29. minutely cut on nicolo : set in a modern ring. very 25. is derived originally from the celebrated gold and ivory statue of Zeus at Olympia by Pheidias. xii GRAECO-ROMAN AND [APP. Enthroned figure of Jupiter. consul in 298 B. 945 and 946 in Mr A. which is copied on the reverses of various Greek coins." i. Roman work on a pale topaz or citrine with both sides cut en caboclion. Striated. : .C. on which " is engraved the word Epirus. extending one hand over a small fire-altar . This design. holds a palm branch. In modern ring setting. Early Roman work on fine opaline chalcedony : in a modern ring.e. This is a very common design on Graeco-Roman and Roman gems e. and in the other . 30. Silenus mask. Standing figure of BaccJnis. thyrsus rude:Roman work. full face. Leake bought the gem. pouring wine from 28. 27. whose sarcophagus . such as the tetradrachms of Alexander the Great. two gems in the British Museum Nos. Plate II. H. in modern setting. nude. Smith's catalogue Nos. the district where Col. and in the palm branch rude Roman work.

but also as being a dated example of early Roman glyptic art. on a nicolo-onyx. possibly in some cases with a satirical meaning. 32. Profile bust of Diana with a crescent on her head. It is of great value. This fanciful type of design occurs frequently on Roman gems. Nude figure of lionus Erentus. 35. and in the other her . but from the representa- tion on various Greek coins.//< //. This design is common on reverses of Imperial denarii during the 1st and 2nd century A. not directly from the statue. See above. sapphirine chalcedony. p. and is now in the possession of the Duke of Northumberland. each with a star over his head. In a modern ring setting. of Greek Coins of . Lcakc bought it.D. 320. /'/. The design seems copied. between busts of Castor ami I'olliuc. and also among the wall paintings of Pompeii. Very good Roman work on a deep red carnelian. xiii is in This ring passed into Lord Bcverley's the Vatican.D. /'/</< //. on a camelian." where Col. which on this gem is omitted. and a chlamys over the shoulder their . page 47. The original of this design appears to have been the Athene 1'arthenos of 1'hcidias : subject on it is a common Roman gems the extended hand usually holds a statuette of : Victor}-. in modern ring setting. spear and shield. sec lirit. standing with one : hand he pours a libation on to a small fire-altar in the other : hand he holds two ears of wheat. and sword slung . collection. Italy. Cat. 34. who holds the rein in one paw and a whip in the other. not only from its historical interest. in modern seal setting inscribed I-'ine " Morca.APP. heads arc very similar to those on silver coins of Hruttii of the 3rd century it.] ROMAN GEMS. Roman work of early Imperial date. 8.c. Minerva standing. Mus. wearing the long chiton and a 33. 36. in modern ring setting. Roman work of the first century A. which helps to fix the period of other similar gems. No. helmet she holds one hand extended. A clutriot drawn by two ants : the driver is a rabbit. Nude hero with crested helmet. The Dioscuri wear the usual pilcus or egg-shaped cap encircled by a wreath.

Obtained by Col. Leake in the Peloponnese." Plate II. In modern seal setting. In the style of good Roman work of early Imperial date. Middleton bought at Beyrout. kneeling on one knee he works with a graver . very rude work in onyx of two layers . 41. Rather coarse Graeco- Roman work on a fine transparent chalcedony. 39. 1884. a marvel of minute execution: it was acquired by Col. and hammer (?) on a metal cuirass. : 38. Leake at Pella. XIV GEMS AND RINGS [APP. of good Greek style. in very high relief on an onyx of two layers. but coarse execution. Profile bust of Hcnncs wearing a small petasus and chlamys fastened on the shoulder with a fibula. p. Salaminia. with a miniature figure of Eros. opaque white on a transparent chalcedony layer. were found by Cesnola in a tomb in Cyprus. Given by Prof." In his Narrative of a . in fine red jasper. with an exactly similar figure of Eros. round him. Graeco-Roman work of good style. The cameo perhaps modern. wearing a Stephanos. the rest of the ring is of a pale purple paste. on which is engraved " Morea. Profile portrait of beardless youtli with long hair. said to have been obtained by " Captain George Keppell near Kula. In modern ring setting. The other is a pendant. 42. the back is roughly shaped by flaking off chips : in modern ring setting. Paste. probably of Greek workman- ship : the bezel is of orange-yellow paste with a thin layer of white under it to imitate sardonyx . see Cesnola. Portions of tivo gold ear-rings of very beautiful Greek workmanship one is in the: shape of a lion's head skilfully modelled on the shank is a delicate scroll pattern formed : in that minute granulated work. Ring-shaped bead of magnetite: on it is rudely cut a man driving a spear through a lion : Assyrian work of early date. Cameo head of Medusa. Acquired by Col. 37. Large cameo head of Hera. Gold ear-rings. Leake in Thessaly. imitating orange sard in modern seal setting. fi g. which the Greek jewellers executed with such wonderful skill. 43. 39- 41. . Ring wholly in glass. the gem itself may possibly be a modern copy. also is 40.

Vol. XV journey from India to England.c. 434 454 A.Xa? sec Journ. Large ring. with the deified head of Alexander on the obverse. 162.] OF VARIOUS DATES. in sfo/ti. holding spear and shield : orange sard. which rises in the Caucasus and runs into the Caspian Sea . holding Victory in her outstretched hand. in Tartary. mention this cameo. 47. and helmet. Minute figure of Atltenc advancing. which probably represents some important statue. a record of the district where it was bought by Col. one of the earliest Roman conquerors of the Greeks. seated on a heap of armour. pallium. but the name was too common for any certainty as to the ownership of this special gem. Mars in and crested helmet stands. as represented on such coins as the tctradrachms of Lysimachus struck c. however." 44. The goddess Rtnttd.. . On the inside of the hoop some recent sacri- " " legious hand has cut the word Thessaly in large letters. he docs not. Q. Lcake.D. A seated figure of Roma (like that on No.A PP. deeply cut. : IV. No. 46. Hellen. in spite of the spelling '.\TTI>\K instead of the usual 'ArriXas. Stint. the great general of the Huns and Goths. with large oval bezel on which is soldered in relief in gold letters the inscription ATTYAAZ probably the owner's name. Early Roman work on carnclian. 48. MAX. 28) that this was the signet of the celebrated Quintus Fabius Maximus. 300 H.. wholly of silver.. Mr King suggests in his Catalogue (Case II. II.\TT. a fine Greek design. This common type of the goddess Roma is derived from the Greek Athene. This ring is clearly of late date I)r Waldstein has suggested that it may possibly : bear the name of Attila. 226. Captain Kcppcll mentions his visit to an eminence called Kula N'oo. 45) with sword and spear. 1827. near the town of Kuba on the banks of the river Deli.or '. short chiton holding a spear in one hand with the other hand he supports . In the field behind. resting it on the ground. holding a spear in one hand and in the other a small figure of Victory bearing a wreath. cut so as to read on the gem itself. a round shield. p. " In modern gold setting inscribed Ruins near Kula. Coarse Roman work on an orange sard. p. 45.

C. The same design occurs on several denarii of the Republic. the owner's name GPEHTOC. Bust in profile of the winged Victory. with drapery 52. Very fine early Roman work on chalcedony . A cornn-copiae. like M. with the legend C. Plate II. chipped. 54. Agrippa. Coarse Graeco-Roman work on a convex striated agate. Bust of Diana in profile. Female head in profile of the Amazon type. The hair. TER. Plate II. Very fine Roman work of the time of the early Empire on a dull semi-opaque sard . wing and palm-branch are executed in a stiff" but very delicate way with the diamond or corundum point: it is a very interesting example of the best sort of Roman work during the later Republican period. was remark- able for success both by sea and by land. 49. in coarsely formed Greek letters. chipped on one side.. behind her is a palm-branch. possibly the symbol of some general who. xvi ROMAN GEMS. and on the obverse of both gold and copper coins struck by Julius Caesar in 45 B. in front the inscription FELICI S. Good Roman work of early Imperial date on a yellowish chalcedony. A Triton holding a trident. It is probably a Roman copy of some fine Greek design. represented as a male figure with fish-tails in serpentine coils instead of legs. poorly executed on a small carnelian. behind is a double axe. Round the head.. This design is probably copied from some well-known Greek statue. . Fine Graeco-Roman work on grey jasper.. part broken away. cut so as to be read on the impression. 53. Plate If. Nude figure ofGanymede seated on a rock he gives : Jove's eagle drink out of a patera. round the lower part of the body: in one hand she holds a hasta pura or long sceptre. Good Graeco-Roman work on carnclian. 50. 55.. [APP. Graceful design. 51. and in the other hand a helmet. Plate n . Bold Roman work on carnclian. CAESAR Die. Plate II. dolphin and trident grouped crosswise in a very graceful way. Venus Victrix leaning against a cippus. Her chiton is fastened with a fibula on the shoulder. On the ground in front is a cuirass. with bow and quiver slung across her shoulder.

piatt it. holding in one hand a cornu-copiac and in the other hand a rudder. 61. with which he rtau ll. Vukan seated. On red jasf>cr. A Roman design on very fine red jasper. Rude Roman work on carnclian. a frequent design on Roman denarii of Imperial date. 57. in one hand a torch.] ROMAN GEMS. 63. No. and in the other a purse and a cock: in the field is a scorpion and a goat. The same design occurs among the " Marlborough Gems" (No. 28. 64. 58. This is a not un- common type of astrological gem. Roma seated on a heap of armour: very rude Roman work on an orange sard. 62): the whole figure is enclosed by a vine. 142 in Mr Story-Maskelync's Catalogue). a stone which was supposed to give its wearer the power of drinking large quantities of wine without his becoming intoxicated: hence its name from a-fitOvaos. with the caduccus in one hand and a purse in the other very rude Roman work on yellow sard : : a very common subject both for gems and for sculptured reliefs of the Imperial period. 59. XXXVII. and it is repeated on many other gems. Poor Roman work on amethyst. Pliny (Hist. representing its owner's fortunate horoscope: cf. especially during the Roman Imperial period. singes a butterfly held in the other hand: symbolical of the hot fever of love. London. No. Mercury standing. 62. 1870. with the panther at his feet (like No. xvii 56. Minute figure of Fortuna standing. Cupid standing. Mat-thorough Gems.AIM'. Nat. Bacchus with the thyrsus in one hand and in the other a cantharus: at his feet a panther: rude Roman work on sard: cf. Winged figure of Nemesis in stola and pallium. Dionysiac subjects were very frequently engraved on the amethyst. . Minute figure of Hacchus holding the thyrsus and a cantharus.working with a hammer on a helmet placed on an anvil: very rude Roman work on mixed jasper and chalcedony. 172 in Story - Maskelync's Catalogue. 124) expresses his disbelief in this superstition. 60. Mercury standing with the caduccus in one hand.

71. 993 in the British Museum has the same subject. above it. Plate n. very well and delicately executed on the convex surface of a sardonyx. very A remarkable example of minute work. 69. swimming. . she is represented as a winged woman holding a caduceus. Portrait of Socrates. xviii GRAECO-ROMAN AND [APP. Silenus seated on a rock. plays the lyre in front of a small shrine set on a rock behind him is a wreath with long : streaming fillets. 68. the use of the drill-point and the wheel is very evident. 1056. 67. Plate 11. Graeco-Roman work. a star within a crescent : very fine Roman work on carnelian. 72. deeply cut edge chipped. Plate II. On red jasper. Fine Roman work on a convex carnclian. The Romans had no very fixed method of representing Nemesis: on gold and silver coins of Claudius. perhaps representing Apollo Helios : coarsest kind of Roman work on carnclian. The same design occurs on a gem in the British Museum. a lizard. No. Delicate Roman work on sard. on the other side. isa goat. laureated. which he caresses with one hand in the other hand : he holds a river-rush. Head of the youthful Hercules. A horse standing to graze. Profile portrait 66. A goat standing under a tree: in the field. As Mr King . 70. Very rude Roman work on a convex orange sard . On other coins she appears with different symbols. rudely worked. Very rude profile head with radiated crown. of Nero. with a serpent on the ground. No. A hippocamp or sea-horse. 65. if not a modern imitation : broken across : in Mr King's Catalogue the fragments are numbered separately 12 and 46 in Case I. A Faun seated on a crate or basket in front of him . 73. standing holding a caduceus over a conical object like the mcta of a circus. on carnclian. broken at the bottom. is Roman work. the hair executed with the drill-point. bold style on carnclian. executed in a fairlygood. Rude Roman work on orange sard. of the usual Silenus type. owing to the want of skill of the engraver.

Very fine and minutely executed Roman work on white jasper mottled with pink. 75. e. Rude Roman work on a fine sard. holding some object in Matt II. A lion walking under a tree. An ant. dancing face to face behind the satyr is an car of bearded wheat : Roman : work on a sard. 26) this may be the portrait of a favourite race-horse the star and crescent being the owner's . rudely cut on an onyx of four layers. 1958 in the Catalogue. its mouth. Coarse Roman work on olive green plasma. : work. The eagle of Jupiter standing with outspread wings. p. 80. 82. M 12 . No. having. The animal resembles the "wolf of the Capitol" suckling Romulus and Remus: possibly one of the twins was omitted on the gem for want of space or . 79. such as was used to knock over small game. cleverly executed on a very small chrysoprasc or plasma of pale emerald green colour. the colour has been altered by fire.APP. xix suggests (Cat. 78. badge. The design is one which occurs in Pompcian paintings. This design occurs frequently on Roman gems in : some cases the crab holds a fish or a shrimp in its claws. the infant Miletus (the brother of Cydon the founder of Cydonia) suckled by a wolf. The same subject occurs on many gems of Imperial date. 76. A holding in its claw an car of wheat Roman cock. on the obverse. Hound running at full speed in the field above is a . very minute work on sard. No. above them is a flying eagle: rude Roman work on yellow jasper. Crab /witting in its elates a shell . perhaps the subject is that which occurs on coins of Cydonia in Crete.] ROMAN GEMS. 74. Coarse Roman work on a sardonyx with roughly chipped back. About a third of the gem is missing. 8 1. A hound attacking a rabbit . one in the British Museum. which was frequently branded on the horse's skin.g. 77. 83. curved knobbed stick. A giving suck to an infant : above is an wolf or bitch eagle with outspread wings. Cupid ruling on a dolphin : coarse Roman work on cornelian . 14. A satyr and a goat on its hind legs.

92. nude. late 90. or plasma. 95. Pliny. Hist. Cupid with a hound in a leash : very coarse Roman work on dark green quartz crystal. Scarabaeoid with a rude representation of some sort of shrine (?) deeply cut on the convex surface of a fine piece of very transparent chalcedony. Roman work. Profile head of a youth on sard. : 94. 97. on which stands . chipped : cf. 1 14. XXXV. coarsely cut : part broken away. Three horsemen wearing high crested helmets two : riding side by side. 96. 85. a cast of a good gem. Fine Roman work on sard. slightly executed. 89. 86. Seated female figure with one hand extended over a small circular altar placed in front of a rock. sword and shield. A winged male figure. but with regard to gems is used to express any grotesque monster which is made up of several masks or portions of other animals. : design. the small head of Pan on Macedonian tetradrachms. Bearded male head andfemale head. Comic mask : Roman work on a convex orange sard. with small horns :in the field below is his syrinx (pan-pipes) : Roman work on red jasper. 84. 88. 91. Comic mask: Roman work on dark olive-green plasma. uses the word gryllus for a class of grotesque figures first used in painting by Antiphilus of Alexandria. armed with spear. conjoined: Roman work on sard. Head of Pan. A bull walking. possibly representing Jupiter and Juno.XX GRAECO-ROMAN AND [APP. Comic mask Roman work on yellow jasper. the third galloping in the opposite direction. 93. 87. Cupid sitting on the ground with his hands bound behind him a butterfly hovers in front of him symbolical . The word also means a cricket. in crested helmet. Gryllus: a parrot standing on a branch its body is : made up of a Tragic and a Comic mask Roman work on : convex chalcedony. minutely cut on carnelian. on yellow paste. Nat. Coarse work on a pale yellow sard: chipped.

is missing : rude Roman work on orange sard. 104. A nude male figure wearing on his head a pctasus. stands holding in his arms a stag with curved horns below : a small figure reaches up towards the stag. Two male figures wearing tunics standing.Bust of Harfocrates with his finger on his lip very . 98. broken. 103. 101. but the gem belongs to a late period when subjects of that class were no longer selected.] ROMAN GEMS. Case I. holding a caduccus coarse Roman work on dark carnelian : : the marks of the drill and wheel arc very conspicuous. a tree grows out of the rock : rude Roman work on sard. No. On the other side of the tree a female. about a third of the gem. Coarse work very deeply cut. seated figure is missing. the upper part broken : away. 100. Good Roman work on dark red carnelian. 42. but poor infant is : Roman work on carnelian. Subject doubtful a : gem in Museum (No.APP. This design possibly represents the fostering of the infant Zeus by the Nymphs Adrastcia and Ida. holds an infant on her knee : very minutely executed : broken part of the in two places . explains this subject as representing " Diomcde and Ulysses debating about the fate of Astyanax". Female figure pouring a libation (?. the British Full-faced bust of Mercury. which stands at the foot of a column behind her is a tree : and on the other side a warrior in full armour. wearing the pctasus and 102. Profile bust of Jupiter Serapis with the modius on H his head .) on to a small circular altar at the foot of a tree. daughters of Melisseus. rudely cut on chalcedony: late Roman work. in the island of Crete. xxi a small shrine . in the field the letters K . Mr King in his Cata- logue. Very good Graeco- A 122 . with sword and round shield on orange sard . Nude female figure stooping towards a large vase riatt II. between them an kneeling on the ground minute. seated in a chair. The lower part. Ik-hind the principal figure is the word AVCTVS. 1463) has a similar design. 99.

This type of gem is common varieties of the inscription are 6IC 060C CAPATTIC. of Serapis with radiated head round it is the legend 6IC . on red jasper. Z6YC CAPATTIC. On the back is the hieroglyphic symbol $$$ surrounded by the legend XNDVBIL The whole is a common type of Egyptian gem during the Roman Gnostic period. Fanciful . . represented as a serpent with lion's head surrounded by rays of light. from which are hung a hare. xxii ROMANO-EGYPTIAN AND [APP." Good Roman work of the second century A. He is called " Maker of all things that exist. With the Gnostics he was a form of Hor-Apollo the Demiurgos or Spirit which "pervades the universe. Budge. a cock. XNOYMIZ and KNH4>: he appears to be a late development of the early Egyptian deity Chnemu. and a stalk of bearded wheat. 1 08. Plate II. attestations of the Divine Unity. The name of this deity is written variously as XNOY4>I. A. the World-Creator or Moulder. walking with a pole across his shoulder. 107. IX. Roman work on sard: it has been reduced in size to fit in a small ring-bezel. and above. Creator of things that are." Father of He is also the gods. a rabbit and a lobster." In later times Chnemu became associated or identified with the sun-god Ra and with Osiris.D. A cornu-copiae. A cornu-copiae and a small globe : coarse Roman work in banded chalcedony. 109. Med. Eagle with outspread ivings. 1 06. Gnostic scarabacoid on green plasma: on the front the late Egyptian sun-god Cnoubis.D. moulder of men. the father " of fathers and mother of mothers. maker of Heaven and Earth and Hell. "One God Serapis. in the field a serpent and a scorpion. 3rd and 4th centuries A. A human-headed locust. the origin of evolutions. like that of the modern Moslems. page 145. The medical properties of this design when engraved on a green jasper or plasma (jaspis) are explained by Galen. See above." This note I owe to Mr E. W. De Simp. Minute Roman work in brilliant amethyst. and 6IC ZQN 060C. begotten of the gods. a small bust 105. of water and mountain.

A grotesque nude figure. The main design represents 1 Sec above. I 113. Thewas perhaps meant for 'l?. and bearing on his back a dead crane probably referring to . on sard : of doubtful antiquity. The originalwas engraved for Michelangelo by his friend PieroMaria da Pescia. cf. if antique. 117. 1 5. a bead from a necklace with no engraved device. 16. Chabouillct's Catalogue. Male figure standing by a cippus : very rudely cut 1 on a small pink amethyst.] OTHER LATE GEMS. XXIII Roman work of the first century A. a small town of that name in Tuscany. Eel. A man tcitli a mattock breaks up the ground at the foot of a cross. A rude palm-branch : by it the letters : the rest CA of the inscription late Roman work on dark is broken away : camelian. cases the hand is pinching an car. A hand extended : round it the legend MNHMONEYE. - inscription 1 14. Virgil. who worked in Rome for Leo X. I to. MODERN GEMS. Minute Roman work on camelian. I. vi. 1 Scarab cut in a fine emerald-coloured plasma. 2337 in M. A talismanic gem with magical properties. : Coarse late work on camelian. 3 to 4.APP. Cynthius aurcm rellit.. derived from his birth-place. the old story of the battle of the Pygmies and the cranes. and was one of the ablest intagliatori of the Renais- sance The boy fishing in the exergue is a rebus of the 1 . on a banded agate. a common type of Roman memorial gem in many . 111. page 1 16. which the Romans re- garded as the seat of memory . on sard .crot!s />. A dolphin set in a basin on a tall pedestal in the form of a twisted column the whole is apparently a fountain. . walking with a staff. Copy in dark red paste of the celebrated signet of Michelangelo in the Bibliothequc in Paris: No.D. Two fragments: sard and three-banded agate. 112. artist's name Pescia.

holding an urn . The Curator of the Bibliotheque was exhibiting the royal gems to the Baron Stosch. wearing a diadem and necklace. green jasper with red spots. Eagle's head on dark green chalcedony. Female full face. . p. Peasant blowing a cow-horn. 2. 27'. Male Bacchanal with a thyrsus. on a very fine bloodstone . antique and modern. Stosch died in 1757: he is the Annius of Pope's satire "False as his gems. 7. II. cameo on sardonyx.XXIV MODERN GEMS. Lettres sur I' Italic. cameo on onyx. printed at Florence in 1760. [APP. on grey jasper. dancing. including some genuine antiques and many forgeries. a Bacchanalian festival. The original was bought by Louis XIV. with the fortunate result that in a few minutes the gem was heard to fall into the basin provided for the purpose . and cankered as his coins. 9. 8. and forced Baron Stosch to swallow it . 4.e. Profile bust of a bearded man wearing a turban. Female head in profile in the white layer of an onyx. probably meant to represent Agrippina with the ashes of Germanicus. A veiled lady standing. Head of M." The Stosch gems are now in the Berlin collection. 6.. good modern work. after a suspicious movement on the part of the Baron. 1 Baron Stosch. had a large collection of engraved gems. with the rest of the important Lauthier collection. and so it passed into the Bibliotheque Royale. who was a Hanoverian spy on the Pretender's doings abroad. when suddenly the Curator observed that Michelangelo's signet- gem had vanished. see Des Brasses. Agrippa . A poor modern work. which contains more than 5000 gems. an enthusiastic collector of engraved stones. where it is still preserved. The Curator immediately sent for an emetic. and contains no less than eleven figures one of the greatest marvels of microscopic work- manship that has ever been produced. on banded sard. In the last century it had a very narrow escape of being stolen. 3. i. a very interesting catalogue was made of them by Winckel- mann. on sard. 5. A great many paste copies of this wonderful gem exist.

who died in 1833. The fact that they were generally accepted as antiques in the early part of this a striking example of the low state of archaeo- century is logical knowledge at that time. This is an excep- tionally fine specimen of the celebrated Poniatowski gems.. the execution is very skilful and the design is essentially pictorial in character. although. they were really worth far more as exceptionally fine specimens of modern gem- engraving. In the exergue is the name AYAOY on a fine large : cornelian. the name of a supposed ancient gem-engraver this particular name Anlits : occurs on many of them. 11. Ccrbara and others.] PONIATOWSKI COLLECTION. not AYAOY as on the Poniatowski copy. and passed off as antiques by Prince Poniatowski. inscribed AYAOC. The nucleus of Prince Poniatowski's collection consisted of about 50 ancient gems 1 inherited from his uncle Stanislaus. Gem from the Poniatowski collection. but in style they are very unlike ancient gems. cut on a burnt chalcedony. As modern works of art many of the Poniatowski gems have considerable merit. seated on a rock. small cameo on onyx of three one jasper layer between two of chalcedony. Large figure of Venus. cut to an octagon shape and mounted as a ring. a fine gem of the later Renaissance period. strata. At one time single examples of the Poniatowski gems were valued at as much as a thousand pounds. XXV 10. What is possibly the original of this design exists in the Hritish Museum. The whole collection was dispersed in 1839. but after their spurious nature was dis- covered they seldom fetched more than from three to four pounds each. Cupid flying upward grasps at the stick. which were engraved early in this century by various clever artists. in many cases. The forged artists' names were mostly added by one clever engraver named Dies. and balancing a stick on one finger. Head of Ariadne with ivy wreath. Girometti. half draped. 2296. . help of modern engravers the Prince increased his collection to no less than 3000 gems. such as Pichlcr Junr. King of Poland by the . like this gem.API'. Most of them have. No. The very graceful design on this gem seems originally to have been taken from some Roman wall-painting .

. and also because a reproduction of the same linear dimensions in piano of a rounded surface not only appears but really is smaller than the original. together with Roman gems from the period of the Republic down to that of the later Empire. contains other examples of Graeco-Roman work. . to one and a half times its real size. they represent the design as it appears on the seal made by the gem not as it is on the intaglio itself. PLATE I. The following Plates are reproductions by the autotype process of the most important of the gems in the Fitzwilliam Collection. Plate II. yet it must be remembered is that much of the delicate beauty and refinement of modelling in the best of the gems is necessarily lost in the process of reproduction. PlateI. As they are taken from impressions of the gems in plaster. AND II. the greater the loss of visible surface when it is represented in piano. The higher the relief. The numbers on the Plates refer to the numbering of the gems in the preceding Catalogue. contains examples of work of the earlier periods. in linear dimensions. Though on the whole the process employed in these Plates a fairly satisfactory one. ranging from glandular gems of pre-historic times down to gems of late Greek or Graeco-Roman style.XXVI AUTOTYPE PLATES. For the sake of clearness each gem is enlarged.

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AND II. PLATE I. Though on the whole the process employed in these Plates a fairly satisfactory one. In the description Plate I for "Roman" read " Greek .XXVI AUTOTYPE PLATES. Thefollowing Plates are reproductions by the autotype process of the most important of the gems in the Fitzwilliam ERRATUM. The numbers on the Plates refer to the numbering of the gems in the preceding Catalogue. . yet it must be remembered is that much of the delicate beauty and refinement of modelling in the best of the gems is necessarily lost in the process of reproduction. down to that of the later Jimpire.

AIK I. I'l. . GEMS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD.

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. I'l.AIK II. J7 SO f 'OS OEMS OF THE ROMAN PERIOD.

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\ used for manicus. The. Representation ol an. Signed coins of.: Almndantia. 136 Ambassadors. Head of. Aff. it. t. gem-engraver.ysimachus. Kutythes of. 119 iji AjMillo Helios. 61 . The. rings made of.. 143 4ioncd in a letter. Name of. 50 Aptera. on gems 81. 10 Artemis. Antiphilns tin. Aff. Head of. 14.. on gem. 36. Gems in. 75 of. 145 Ariadne. King </ Sfarla. xxv Amymone. 66 note. 58 net found at. xxiv Apollonios Gem signed by. 37 j on magic rings 13 drawn by two chariot ants. 147 . Aff. i. 63 A|H)llodotos. 54 of. xviii Acgina. 50 Arcadia. men- Amethyst.Kgypii. on Ajmtheosis of Augustus. 81 . 91 Amber. 115 40. Coin of. 41. Figure of. in x. Portrait ln-. 141. on the cus- Anichini. name of various Sasanian Anuuadus in Phoenicia. used word. engraved on gems. Aristippus. ISn>n/c stalueof.. Anleros. figure on gems. on emerald gem. Head of. Achilles playing the lyre. xi Acro|>olis of Athens. 13 ornament*. un a gem.. 81 Aff. 6y Agathopus. x Anliphancs. by Kanachus. XXVII INDEX. iii Amulet gems. Discoveries on. 7 I Agrippina. ih. Gold rings worn by. kings. on scarab Ashmolean museum. on modern cameo. Apolln. (Jem of. "llittite" sig. large cameo patera of. Phoenician scarab found in the A|Killo Sauioctoiios. Figure of. Gems signed by. 41 Agate. on gem. 154 156. xix. 68. as a seal by Ixiuis I. Areius. it>. Probable representation Acgaeac. Aff. Ho A|H illonidi's. Ant. 18 i\. Aff. 55 Abraxas the mystic sun-god. 16 copied on gems. Aff. 40. 56 the . Gems on. Antoninus I'ius. ( iem signed l>y. IJ. 78 Alexander. 77 78. 91. Representation of. '3' inventor of the gryllus. AphriKlile represented on gems. 1 16 tom of securing doors with a seal. 94. Island i if. Aaron's breastplate. ib. on gems. xi Anthrax. Archaic glandular gems. 41 Aclamas.Aff. Signet of.Giarni. 7y Aff. 135 Aristophanes. gem-engraver. 10.ui painter. Hj A(|uamarinc. Aff.nl of. Passage from. Head of. iv on gems. of Ger- coins of I. signet liy Augustus. xiii Artaxcrxc*. ll Asklepioi. iii uw in prehistoric times. 91 Alexandras. variety of t>cryl. Aff. Pauage from.

13. Cameo signed by. 81. 82. 135 Basalt. cylinders. 31 Bonus Eventus. Cellini. 57 Bull. G. xxv Capua. xvi Athenion. n Bracelet. 49 Brutus. xiv gem. the possession of. Figure of a wounded. Sphinx on coins of. Eagle of. '39 Babylonian cylinder.. 127 Beryl. portrait bust of. Signet worn as. Afp. 96 on gem. 126 Bacchus. 149 Attalus II. 50 Cannae. head of. Tetradrachm of. 34 Boethos. 78. Sardonyx of. 144 Betrothal ring of St Joseph and the Chariot drawn by two ants represented Virgin. Callais. gems made of. xiii Chersonesus. Portrait of. The. of. 132 Cabochon form of gems. Portrait-headof. 138. xx Clazomene. 3 Chios. 73 Christian gems. xvii Castor and Pollux. iv. Busts of. seum from. cups of. and cow. 84 89 of. da. xxiv of the Renaissance. 136138 Chalcedony. on rings. 85 Cheops.XXV111 INDEX. The. Aless. xv of. Hero with. xii Baphion. App. v. 18 Cesati. 76. on gems. gem-engraver Bacchanal. App. Clay seals. Valerio dei. gem-engraver. Lenticular gems discovered at. 42 attacked by lion. Figure of an early. on Greek Bead. Carlisle gems in the British Museum. Scipio's ring formerly in Charles V. 2 6 Cable or guilloche border. Name of. 82. 146 Chaton. on ring. Gift of ring-gems to the Athenades. 5 Castel Bolognese. 28 Bean-shaped gems. 153. Meaning of. 150 tion of engraved gems made by. 139. King of Pergamus. Assyria. 77 . Signets of. 34 . Meaning of the word. figured. 15 Astrion. Figure of. Claudius. Gold ring found on the site of Austria. xiii Beverley. 86. Devices on. 3 working with. 54. App. Rings found on the fingers Bow and arrow. 63 . Victory on coin figure of. cameo given to Chartres Cathe- Bezel. 61 . Gold rings from. 60. 84. Supposed. 127. 152. 21 gem bought by. the Sphynx. 73 device. 83. Apotheosis Cameos with artists' names. 75 Attulas. glass cylin- head of Alexander the Great. on gem. Lord. App. 36. Julius. App. Signet signed by. Afp. 86. 52 Aulus. App.on gem with name of Hyllus. Figure of. Ring of. 105 Chester collection of signets. 34 dral by. Illustration of a man Cherubim and palm-tree. 59 65 Augustus. 76 . 27 App. 87 and Xerxes. App. 5 own portrait used as signet by. Head of. Gem of. 79. 47. walking. Afp. Cameo signed by. 33 Calpurnius Severus. 91 . 20. 126 126. 55 Caesar. The. Camiros. 74. 10. Belli. 62 Bloodstone.. 49. Benvenuto. produced under Darius 49. 5. on sapphire. 85 Callaina. Signet of. Ring-shaped. 6. Athene.App. App. 26 of a Queen of the. on ring.. Collec. 68 bust . xv Cameo gems. 33 Bow and drill. and his ders found in the tombs of. 39 Astrological gems. 1 1 12 Caracalla. 133 note. xiii 124. ix. App. gem-engraver. head of. 132 Carbuncle. Name of. 65. Gem in the Fitzwilliam Mu- on cameos. Portrait of. 4. 20 Centaur. The. The. xii. App. taken from Oriental the ancient. 73 temple of Venus Genitrix by. King of France.

on a glandular worn as bracelets and necklaces. Figures of. Temple of. 41. 43 lery by. 115 how worn. . materials of. xix. 135. used by . mosaic signed by. i. 4. xx Drill-cut scarab. 59 nian. I'ort rails on. Cameos. Dioscuri figured on Roman gems.t. 140 141 Donatello. in Greek statuette. xvii Cow. Glass rings from tombs of. The. Aff. Dedication of articles of jewel- Signet of. 7 y. '//. Representation of. 71. on gems. gem. 74. 85. The. general use of. 103 109 xvii. 18. xxii . Iirxill. xix 79. Office of. produced under Darius and Egypt. 36 tian gem. Aff. used for gems. figured. in 113 Condalium. i/>. Representations of. Scarabs of.Point. Dactyliothccae. 5. xxii Dionysus. Aff.98. 40. on gem. xxi Comu-copiae. 56. Signed coins of. "xii Darius. 35. on gems. 94 Crystal. 141 141. admirer of ancient gems. Early Babylonian. vii ix Colyns. Aff. 9 Diomeilc and Ulysses. Babylonian cylinders produced C'x-lv. Aff. on Greek colony of. in the 1'arlhcnon. 67. 68. 14. figures of. 107 Custos annuli. Emerald. in. xiii vi Dioskonridcs. Diomede. 6. on Egyp. dolphin on. flying. Collection of gems in the Diamond. 61 . 71. Eyes of. Aff. 1 4 1 of the Renaissance. for cautery. Corundum (emery). Prior of Tywardreth. 1 16 Crystalline silica. xiii. 91 Emperor borne by. 40. Decadence in lime of. \\ 5 . . 119 131 Concord. 151 Eagle represented on jasper. j . 76 69 . clay seals found Camiros. Cydonia. how engraved. Gems signed by. it. Babylo. Aff. cups made of. 48. 74. 57 Aff. 94 Diamond. 114 Aff. 86 . Aff. figured. Figure of. 135. v. used for scaling Cyprus. 75 Crab on a gem. Gems lavishly worn in the Electra. 61. xvi. Dolphin. 27 Cyrcne. xvi Conical Signets. 71 gems. Cologne. Aff. 71. 53 Cyanos. 147. portrait of Alexander crates. 51 Diana. on Cronius. INDEX. 4. 37 . Xerxes. 8996 Dexamenos. 8. Aff. xxiii 137. set in Roman rings. Quartz. Cylinders used as signets in. Gold. The gem -engraver's.41 . Meaning of. Aff. used Domcnico dc' Cammci. jj. Bust of. gem-engraver. found in the tomb* at their materials tA . Jupiter and Cylinder. on gem in Fitzwilliam Museum. and offerings. on gem by Apollonidcs. 5 Coins. xiv 3. xix under. Ear-rings. Tetradrachm of. 36 130. 6. 33. 79 note Crete. ring of Poly- scribed by. 114 Cupid. Aff. xxix Cnoubis. 75. Gems signed by. Aff.-Iff. 71 noli. Thomas. 91 Divine Unity. Drill. Cylinders. xx Diamond (adamas). 1 1 7 bottles. Representation of a. Figure of. 131 Conconlia. 4 the. xxiv . head of. on chalcedony. 133 134 1 15. 150. Ancient gem de. ix Cyriac of Ancona. 33 gem. stained to imitate jewels. 96 on. gem-engraver. Artists' names Dedicatory inscriptions on gems. Figures of. their inscriptions. 31 31 Comic mask. I 16. I'rofcssion of the. 134 136.Representation of a. Aff. Gems on shrine at. real and artificial. Ectypae. 3. Constantine. Aff. Probable representation of. on. 35. 3.

Coin signed by. polishing of. 71 Epicurus. on gem. xviii 24. 35 46 129 156. names on. App. on ear-rings. 38. 5 7 Greece. 98 102 compara. 75 Felix. crozier set Ganymede. Gems from. Swimming figure of. xi . 50 93 . Amb. Euphrates Valley. signatures. used to test gems. 89 Frog engraved on seals. 122 123. Gem signed by. 131 Glandes. 52 Gold. Gems. Explanatory words on gems. 93 on a Babylonian cylinder. Gem with name of. 104 Angels. 18 Glandular gems. of the Silicon family. Glass. 114. 134 by gem. 3 shapes of. Hollow ring worn by among Parthenon treasure. variety of primarily by the races of the. en- Eucleidns. iii Facet-cut gems. Use of. on signed coins. App. 133 Gallene. i.. Coins by. 73. xvi with gems. 41 ments. 41 Galvanic rings. Nero in theatre. 121 Euarchicles. 138. App. 59. Gems signed by. 105. 34 engravers as rest for their eyes. 25. 90 J. Greco. Store throne of Jupiter. App. 83 Exakestidas. Tools used by the Eros. 31. Portrait of Julia by. 63. ancient. The Apotheosis of. best. The technique of. 137 Gnostic belief concerning the Orders of Fire drill. 157. Portraits of on gems. inscriptions on. App. 39 Glass rings. Dr Drury. xviii graved gems in the. 74. 82. 18 21. 126 Granites. Method of shown on fitting. II. 95. A. 60 Foppa. App. Figure of. Francesco. 126 tian rings of. 1 19 Felicitas. iii xxv Gold signets. Emery. Goat. 152 Forgeries of gems. App. Common practice of wearing Fortuna. 140. 127. 117. 54 Gnaios. Funda. Figure of. 91 Gistubar. xvii gems in. Various methods of working. 116. 138 Epitynchanus. 39 Eutyches. of artists' Greaves. Names of the three. 32 the.. 117. characteristics of ancient. Flamen Dialis. 114. Use of the. 104. 56 Episcopal rings. 24. 90 graved gems treated as personal orna- Eumenes I. x. xiv Gem-engraving.. App. 44 46. 30. of stones. on gems. Coin signed by. in Foiled gems. on gem by Phrygillos. the painter. Figure of. ib. The. 154 gem. xi FitzwilliamMuseum. scarabs. Cylinder signets used 66 89. Portrait head of. Minute figure of. 61 . gem-engraver. 103 114 . Head of. 123. 107 108. in mediaeval times. sling-bullets. names of. 83 Gem-engravers. 72 75. Signature of. 91 128. artists' Euodos. 119120. Gems Greek coins. Antique. 126 names on. 123 Garnet. Materials used for. 66 93 91 App. and pastes. strangling a lion. on gem. Evans. with artists' names. no. 99 102 . 87 from Naxos. 107. Figure of. xiv Fauns on gems. Etruscan tombs. 33 Francia. 51. 103 120 scarab with rude drill-work figured. Representation of a. 75 Gnostic Aeons. App. 94 gems. Indication of Magistrates' engraved by. 116 Gorgon's head on cameos. 4 Ezechiel's list of gems. . greetings on. 90 97 102. 75. . . Catalogue of en. 137 tive hardness of. 76 Germanicus. 89. 72. on File. Coins signed by. Gaios. 17. v Fortnum. 49. App. 52 of. Meaning of. 113. XXX INDEX. Gem signed by. Euainetos. Collection of Chris.

131 Romansignet-gems. on devices.?. x and xi on gold signet from . Name of. 136. on a 35. Signed portrait of. 33. Cameo signed by. Aff. x '. engraved n gems. 6. xii . 78. on ring.. 55 . cameo head of. 94 Haematite. Hermes. signet -gems. 54 ist.74. >4 Hound. 91 Aff. 66 kouridcs. Figure of. Representation of the Nymph. Horus. on ring. 146 signs if their material. 145. Representations of. Aff.113. 77 Guillochc border on gems and coins. Gems signed by. 13 34 coin of. Aff. 55 bust of. bust of. it. by F. 117. 66 89 formed by. Aff. A. 14. 77. used for Hyacinthus. MI on Ictradraclim. 151. on gems 55. xviii Jupiter Scrapis. 55 Hea-bani figured on cylinders. 90 Jupiter Ammon. Aff. said to have first drilled Aff. Figure of. 76. their devices. xxiii Iron rings. Kamarina represented on coin. 54 Hadrian. iS. Signet-ring made by the Soph. used in Rome for be- 1 lardncss of gems. 1 08 Horsemen. Possible representation of. 144. jj. their dates. eagle of. I Icllen. 73 Jasper. Hippias. head of.'///. 49. Three.-///. xx . worship of. . Jewellers' tricks. 95 Mycenae. xix use of the Signet. used for signets. xviii Julia. vases Warriors badges on. xxii ilittite Signets. 14 Aff. Oswald. Aff. 86 60 . 86. Hippocamp. 34. 15 Indulgentia. . . 63 . 19 jo Jugurtha. The. Bust of. xviii. 54 . 48. Aff. xxi in Rome. on gems. 40 Hcraklaea. used as a signet by Sulla. 'Hie. Hero with bow and arrow figured. Head of. XXXI Greek gems. 41 . 79 Hand. 6 63. badge of owner on. represented on gems. Figure of. F. bow worn. 7. Figure of a.scarabs. extended. Gem of. 48. Herophilos."37 Herodotus on signet-cutting. 51. on ring. 151 lo. Sj . Running. Table of. on a gem. Aff. 119. 114 Jupiter Capitolinus. 10. Representation of a. xiv Jupiter. . Figure of. of. Head of. liron/c tables 14. 11 1 . Gems in temple of. 11. 55 Hyllus.ngraving of the surrender Hercules and Ccrlxrrus on cameo. 17 Gryllus. Kallimachut. Aff. 51 note Harpocratcs.36 gem. 61. of. Aff. Isis.. representation of. subjects on. Aff. Tnlismanic. 11. i: . 53 Inscriptions. Figure of. 53 head of. on gem signed by Dios- llaggai. vi Jeweller)-. xiv. 50 51 7 . 145 llerakles. 135. 138 Heraldry of ancients. xix stone. 4 note Island gems. 54. figured on carnclian. de- llelio(ro|>e. Greetings inscribed on gems. 1 1 Horse. 10 . xix head of. Knierald Ixmghl by. xx Kanachos the sculptor.uodos. Hera. Sale of ihc collection of gems Inscriptions on gems.Greek. 19 ring. Jus annuli aurei.'. 1 1 1 Juno. 18. Hust of. used as a portrait of St Himcra. I socratcs on use of seals. 19 Hcrakleidas Ring signed by. So. 37 Hunting scenes. xv Ismenias. 17 41. Hermes I'sychopompos on gems. their material. 154 81. Representation of. 157 trothal. xxi. INDEX. Figure of.

150. represented on a gem. Treatise of. Laocoon. of. xvii. on gems. Figure of. imitation of. Portrait head of. 65 Marcellus. 131 representation of a. in the Magna Graecia. 63. App. Collection of Greek gems Maecenas. in struck by. xxiii head of. App. 141 . App. 42. xxiii. cameo of. 64. 30 Medici. as a gem-collector.the name of. 135. v. App. 119 120 Luynes. head of crystal dedicated by. Name of. xiii Mithradates. Matteodal. Gems of. Due de. 42 Marc Antony. 31 . of. App. Head of Alexander used Minerva. True position of the lost arms App. Pref. on scarab gem. 68. 124 127. 86. 24 King. used Lenticular gems. 16 App. Magi. Camillo. App. 17. Magnes. 36 .XXX11 INDEX. App. Lorenzo de'. col- Lima. on scarabs. com. 77 . on the coins of. gems made by the. 28. Glass the Renaissance. as seal by Charlemagne. gem-engravers. 83.. 1 10 Marlborough gems. C. 75. Collection of gems and temple of Apollo by. on cameo. 75 Lothaire I. xxi Louis IX. Badge of the. 36 other works of art of. Ancient gem used as signet Mercury. 152 Man on horseback represented on gem. 43.. Giovanni. Piero de'. ditto signed by their Kohler. 89 91 Magical gems. gem-engraver. 126 cup bearing . 128 Leonardo. viii. W. x Marcus Aurelius. 146 paste. author of a work Mars. 73. 80. Collection of scarab Michelangelo. 150 of. found in tombs at. 119 Letters. 151 67. xiv. Medici Family.. x names on coins. gem-engraver. on cameo. ix. 126 Massaro. 53. 55. 124 Lion. 22 23 . 67 123. 142 60. App. Gems &c. 61 Metal signets. a gem-engraver's tool. 73. 24 Mnesarchus the gem-engraver. on gem. mon in early Greek art. variety of amber. 70 . iv Magnetite. x of. App. Maneless. Kertch. Medici. ditto Maria. Dedication of jewels by.. 30. block Medusa. 151. ix. Head of. 125 126 Lion and Stag on Greek gem. official seal in Rome formerly belonging to. modern Leo X. xxiv Lyncurium. gem-engraver of Maximianus Herculeus Augustus. 77. 31 32 tombs in. gem-collector. Device on gold coin Lapis lazuli. App. on gem. Evans. 121 lection of Mr A. Name of. Coins by. Gem of. App. v vi 77. Superstitions of the.Cameo given by. 73 Kreontidas. 50 coin portrait of. 121.. 126 gems among. Head of. xv on gems. xix. Precautions in seals of.. 18 21 ditto in col- . 33 Kimon. App. 74 note'. 132. 122 Melos. Col. Figure of. 63. Gold signet-rings from Parthenon. 60. 45 engravers. 78. x Magic wheel (iVy). 41 Maenads on gems. Figure of. Forged artist's signature on gem with Locust. 151. vii Lysimachus. Mediaeval use of ancient gems. opal coveted by. natural loadstone. Representation of. 123 List of works Pref. Human-headed. Crystal signet of. 48. J. 126 showing the use of the wheel. 10. Magistrates' Kleito. Dedication of gems in the Leake. 121 inscription on seal of. 40. 156 Mike. 41 figure of. by. 42 note Louis I. Aphrodite of. vi. 126 Leonardo da Milano. 11. Copy of the signet of. 125 Livia. 1 13 lections of gems. xxii. head on turquoise. 38. 121 bust of.

83. Signet of. a mediaeval gem-engraver. 84 Paul II. it. 147 Peru//]. on amethyst. 61 . painter and medallist. Athene of. King of . impressions. Aff. 1 16 Parthenon. in the Perseus represented on gems. forged Offa. 91 Nico. . devices on gem. 91 Calm-branch. ix scarabs. Patera cameo at. Aff. Figure of. Signature of. Collection of gems of. 141 gems. Aff. 8j Orestes. 33 Persian gems. 69. iv Pacorus. Gem signed by. 35. Pebbles. 58 Nicolo. 81 xxv . 14 temple of Aphrodite. 81 Opal. Mead of. . 88 copied on gems. 111 Pistrucci. their 119. 36. /'. gold bubbles in. 67 Odo. Engraved Phrygillos. 65 at Florence. 133 Paul III. Picro Maria da. variety of onyx. xviii used for voting. Signet of. gems. 61. 141. I'astc cameos. Gems deposited in the Motlcm signets 58 treasury of. Sub annulo. 1(4. A7if of Parlkia. 117 Nemesis. 145 on jasper. Aff. XXXIII Moretti. 61. Aff. llcnvcnuto. 31 31 Moulds for pule gems. used for statues. 124 Nikander. Ho Philemon. Gems shaped like. 154. 18 ig. Dedication of gem of. 73 . 11 1 Paris. gem-engraver. Portrait of. on coin. 63. A. Signet used by. to test Phalerac cameos. INDEX. 63. Gem signed by. 70 Aff.. 146. its history. King of Frame. Coin of. xviii. 1 7 real materials of. 91 Persephone. signet! by Onesas. on coin. in theatre. 60. 153 Phanes. Gems of the age of. Passage from. Aff. 114 "9. Polycrates. Portrait of. gem-engraver. 134 x gem. on gem. xxiii Obsidian. on used by. signet at. Judgment of. I in Phcidias. 80 Paste gems. searabacoid. xx Plautus. Antcrot. how to distinguish them from devices. 17. Probable reprocnlati <n of. Coins signed by. made to imitate crystal. Pharaoh's signet. on use of signet - 11 Papal rings. 53 Paris. Marco. 101 Pan. Figure of. signet of Michelangelo in.\fertia. Piscatoris. Gem signed by. Onatas. Gem and coins with signa- on gem. signed cameo at. 146 Philislion. scarab figured. head of. xvii. . 115 Naxium. Signature of. The. 74. Naples. 61. Winged figure of. 1 1 1 name on gems. 106 the Saintc Chapclle at. 77. 14. n 16. The. xxiii Pisanello. rope. on Phoenician gems. cameo signed by Poniatowski collection. on cameo. Neuantos. 7. 107 note Nero. Inventory of precious objects in Pliny on gem-cutting. gems in Poison rings. 153. gems founil in. Proliable representation of. 116. 91 . 61. 13 15. 153. 147 Philoctetes. 74 Pescia. The technique of. it. xiii Onem. Coin signed by. emery. xxlii xxiv Pompcy. gold signets from. Apf. 93.. 114 Mycenae. Devices on the signets of. emerald Pegasus. 64. Plasma. 31.j the Kibliothequc in. sculptor and gem-engraver. 18 . 117 Pamphilos. 71 Muse playing on lyre. 18 .Aff. of. ture of. So. 13 portrait of. Aff. Polish of gems. 115 Pasitclcs. Gem from. Aff. 19 Onyx.

XXXIV INDEX.

Portland Vase, 117, 118 Sapphire, The, 132; white, 131
Portraits on gems, 40, 4 1
Sappho, Representation of, on Greek
Pottery, disc-stamps used on, 6 ; incised gem, 27; on vase, ib. note
lines on, cut with diamond-point, Sappirus, 150
113; ornamented with wheel-cut Sard used for ancient engraved gems,
patterns, 1
19 note i*9> 143144
Prase, 143 Sardoine, 144; gem with Eros cut in,

Prometheus, Legend of the ring of, 50 App. xi

Protarchos, Cameo inscribed by, 85 Sardonyx, The, 148, 149; made up of
Proverbial phrases on gems, 95 three stones, 137

"Ptolemies, Cup of the," 62 Sargon I., Cylinder of, 4; date of, 5

Pyrgoteles, gem-engraver, 41, 70, 71
Sasanian gems, 58 ; App. xi xii

Pythodorus, Coin signed by, 92 Satyr, A, represented on gem, 24, App.
xix; head of a, on cameo, 88
and wine-cup represented on a
Quartz crystal, 140 143
Greek scarab, 25
Satyreius, gem-engraver, 71
Ra, The Sun-god, i, 2
Savonarola, Era Girolamo, Portrait of,
Renaissance, Gem-engravers of, 126
by G. delle Carniuole, 126
Rings, Glass, 117, App. xiv; gold, 17,
Saw, used for cutting marble, 109
73. "9 Scarabaeoids in Eitzwilliam Museum,
Rings, Large numbers of, worn by ladies iv viii
App.
of rank, 33 ; of the Romans described
Scarabaeus beetle, i, 2, 2 note, App.
by Pliny, 50 iv v
Rock crystal, 141 143 worn
Scarabs, i 16; set as rings, i, 2;
Roger, Abp., Signet used by, 122, 123 round the neck, i ;
as charms, 2 note;
Roma, Figure of, 55, App. xv, xvii
materials of, 2; collection of, in the
Roman denarii, Magistrate indicated
Fitzwilliam Museum, 2 note; date of
on, 24 the oldest, 2 used as ornaments by
;

gems, 47 57 ; subjects figured the Greeks, 21, 22; used for sealing
on, 48
plaster stoppers of bottles, 37
names for rings, 5 1
Scaurus, M. Aemilius, the earliest Ro-
use of gems as signets, 49
man gem-collector, 36
Romans, Rings seldom worn by the, in
Sceptre, Gold, in the British Museum,
ancient times, 50
36
Signet-gems of the, used for
Scipio Africanus the elder, Sardonyx
sealing plaster stoppers of bottles, 37
worn by, 1.48
Rossi, Giov. Ant. de', gern-engraver,
Scipio,Ring of, 47, App. xii
126
Scopas, Forged name of, on gems, 93
Rotellino of gem-engravers, 109
Sculptor using a drill, represented on
Ruby, The, 132, 133