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Laing O’Rourke

Civil Engineering

INTRODUCTION

Laing O’Rourke plc is the largest privately owned

construction firm in the UK. It has offices in the

UK, Germany, India, Australia and United Arab

Emirates and over 31,000 employees worldwide.

It has a truly integrated capability, allowing their

people to take a holistic view of construction. It

specialises in delivering ambitious and innovative

construction projects that deliver to both clients

and the communities who use them every day.

IMPORTANCE OF EXEMPLAR IN REAL LIFE

Structures such as buildings and bridges consist

of a number of components such as beams, Figure-2: Bridge Beams

columns and foundations all of which act together

to ensure that the loadings that the structure

carries is safely transmitted to the supporting

ground below.

Normally, the horizontal beams can be made from

steel, timber or reinforced concrete and have a

cross sectional shape that can be rectangular, T

or I shape. The design of such beams can be

complex but is essentially intended to ensure that

the beam can safely carry the load it is intended

to support. This will include its own self-weight,

the weight of the structure it is supporting and

what is often referred to as “live load”, i.e. the

weight of people and furnishings in buildings or Figure-3: Reinforced Concrete Beams

the weight of road or rail traffic in bridges. In addition to the requirements for the beam to

Examples of beams can be seen in figures 1 to 3: safely carry the intended design loads, there are

other factors that have to be considered including

assessing the likely deflection of the beam under

load. If beams deflect excessively, then this can

cause visual distress to the users of the building

and can lead to damage of parts of the building

including brittle partition dividers between rooms

and services such as water and heating pipes and

ductwork.

Beam design is carried out according to principles

set out in Codes of Practice. Typically, the

maximum deflection is limited to the beam’s span

length divided by 250. Hence, a 5m span beam

can deflect as much as 20mm without adverse

effect. Thus, in many situations it is necessary to

calculate, using numerical methods, the actual

Figure-1: Steel Beams beam deflection under the anticipated design load

and compare this figure with the allowable value

to see if the chosen beam section is adequate.

Alternatively, it may be necessary to check the

ability of a given beam to span between two

supports and to carry a given load system before

deflections become excessive.

In this case. it is obvious that the deflection L w ⎡ 2 will be maximum at the centre. you have been given the task of assessing the maximum deflection that will occur Hence. Hence. These formulae form the basis To use the above formula. x : say from LHS (m) In this case again. it is convenient to LOADING convert all lengths to units of mm. substituting this value in equation (3). force are usually expressed in kN and. when x = L / 2 . i. i. when x = L / 2 .SCENARIO 5 ⎡ wL3 ⎤ As a graduate engineer working in a structural = ⎢ ⎥ 24 × 4 × 4 ⎣⎢ EI ⎦⎥ engineer’s office. all the terms have to of the calculations that would be undertaken in be converted to a consistent set of units. CONCENTRATED POINT LOAD BETWEEN THE 4 below: SUPPORTS A simply supported beam carrying a single concentrated point load at the centre is shown in Figure-5 below: Figure-4: Simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load The standard formula for finding deflection y at any given point x from one end. the maximum deflection y max = δ at the centre is given by: L2 w 4 ⎡L2 + L ⎤ 2 = 1 wL3 ⎢ ⎥ δ = … (4) 24EIL ⎣⎢ 4 ⎥⎦ 48 EI PLEASE NOTE: If the beam is carrying a wL ⎡ 5L2 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ combination of uniformly distributed load w1 and 24 × 4 × EI ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ a single point load at the centre w 2 . where all the terms are as previously described. A simply supported beam carrying a uniformly BEAM SUPPORTED AT BOTH ENDS WITH distributed load over its length is shown in Figure. say. the maximum deflection y max = δ . the maximum deflection occurs w : Load (N or kN) at the mid-point. is given by: Figure-5: Simply supported beam with concentrated wx (L − x ) 2 y= 24EIL [ L + x (L − x ) … (1) ] point load between the supports This situation may occur when one beam is supporting another heavy localised beam in the where: building structure. then the . 2 L2 ⎤ y max = ⎢3L − 4 ⎥ Substituting this value in equation (1). as BEAM SUPPORTED AT BOTH ENDS WITH UNIFORM deflections are relatively small. In this exemplar. at in the steel beams of a steel-framed structure and the centre is given by: ensuring that they are not excessive. Units of real life for many routine design situations. say from LHS. we get Since the load is uniformly distributed throughout the Span Length L .e.e. you will apply standard deflection 5 wL3 δ= … (2) formulae to solve some typical beam deflection 384 EI design problems. we get 48EI ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ w L⎛ L⎞ ⎜L − ⎟ 2⎝ 2⎠ ⎡ 2 L ⎛ L ⎞⎤ = wL 48 × 2 × EI 2L2[ ] y max = ⎢L + ⎜ L − ⎟⎥ 24EIL ⎣ 2⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ Hence. the standard Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material formula for finding deflection y between load and E : from which the beam is fabricated (N/m2) support points is given by: Area Moment of Inertia (m4) [ ] I : wx Total length of the beam measured between y= 3L2 − 4 x 2 … (3) L : centres of support (m) 48EI Some distance from one side of the beam.

e.0 100 calculated term (deflection.0 span/250 calculated sandwich panels. In all L3 ⎡ 5w1 w 2 ⎤ cases take E =210 kN/mm2 and I = 45730 cm4 δ= ⎢ 384 + 48 ⎥ … (5) EI ⎣ ⎦ Span L Distributed Concentrated Deflection Load Point Load EXTENSION ACTIVITY – 1: (m) (kN/m) (kN) For a simply supported steel beam carrying a To be uniformly distributed load. span length or loading) for each material. Maximum Span to 50mm be calculated 100 (An axis in the cross section of a beam or shaft is a fictitious line where there are no longitudinal stresses or strain. or span length or loading) for each of the three 384 EI 48 EI design situations shown in the table below. beams and record your findings. The deflection of a beam under load depends not only on the load. is a property of shape that is Maximum Span to used to predict the resistance of beams to 50mm 15.0 15. Taking this Limited to Maximum load to be rationale still further leads to I-section beams and 10. since a circle has a larger To be proportion of the section near the neutral axis.0 100 Deflection calculated (m) (kN/m) To be calculated 10. In all cases take E =210 kN/mm2 and I = done by using sectional shapes for which most of 45730 cm4 the sectional area is remote from the neutral axis Concentrated (read below). etc. δ = + . E fixed. span length or loading) for each Maximum load of the three design situations shown in the table Limited to 10. This is below. I- shaped. . For example. annular.0 to be span/250 below. a beam of square Span L Deflection Point Load (m) cross-section is stiffer than a circular beam with (kN) the same area. calculate the unknown 10. Calculate the Area Moment of Inertia for different shapes like rectangular. circular.0 100 calculated hollow square section is even stiffer.0 EXTENSION ACTIVITY – 4: Limited to Maximum load to Area Moment of Inertia.e. but also EXTENSION ACTIVITY – 2: on the geometry of the beam’s cross-section. I . i. For a given term (deflection. If the section is symmetric and is not curved before the bend occurs then the neutral axis is at the geometric centroid.maximum deflection at the centre can be obtained EXTENSION ACTIVITY – 3: by combining the above two equations (2) and (4).0 15. the beam stiffness can be of the three design situations shown in the table maximised by maximising the value of I . while those on the opposite side are in compression).0 15.0 be calculated bending and deflection. All fibers on one side of the neutral axis are in a state of tension. For a simply supported steel beam carrying a uniformly distributed load and a point load at mid- 5 w1L3 1 w 2L3 span calculate the unknown term (deflection. also known as Second 10.0 span/250 be calculated Moment of Inertia. In all cases take E = 210 kN/mm2 and I = calculated 45730 cm4: Maximum Span L Distributed Load 50mm Span to be 15. The product EI is known as the “beam stiffness” and For a simply supported steel beam carrying a it measures how strongly the beam resists point load at mid-span calculate the unknown deflection under bending moments. A 10. You may find reference 5 useful. i.

Fifth Edition. published by Elsevier Ltd. Manos Adoniadis. Engineering Mathematics. http://www. and the way Civil Engineering can captivate and inspire drove me to pursue a career in engineering. Structural Mechanics.com/beam_calc_m 1. 3. components being used. http://en. Basic Engineering Mathematics. it’s critical to have a good understanding of the design process.WHERE TO FIND MORE 4.org/wiki/ 2.shtml 2007. method and equations. 2000. enu. John Bird. As far back as I can remember I’ve been inquisitive and had a desire to know the answer to the question – How? This.” . and the construction process. 2007. John List_of_area_moments_of_inertia Bird. Site Engineer – Laing O’Rourke He says: “I’ve recently graduated with a Masters in Civil Engineering from the University of Nottingham. This allows sound engineering decisions to be made on site with reference to standards of construction. Ray Hulse & Jack Cain. I am currently working as a Site Engineer on a wastewater treatment works for Laing O’Rourke who sponsored me through my degree. 2nd Edition. Although not directly involved in the design of the project.wikipedia.engineersedge. 5. published by Palgrave. published by Elsevier Ltd. as an Engineer on site.

184.g. . 90. bending moment.60kN.43kN. 13. etc.03mm.3: Construct extended arguments to handle substantial problems AC 10. logical deduction and inference AC 9. manipulation and simplification of algebraic expressions TOPICS COVERED FROM “MATHEMATICS FOR ENGINEERING” Topic 1: Mathematical Models in Engineering LEARNING OUTCOMES LO 01: Understand the idea of mathematical modelling LO 09: Construct rigorous mathematical arguments and proofs in engineering context LO 10: Comprehend translations of common realistic engineering contexts into mathematics ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AC 1.2: Describe and use the modelling cycle AC 9.510m EA4: Please check. Equipment and Systems Unit-6: Investigating Modern Manufacturing Techniques used in Engineering Unit-7: Innovative Design and Enterprise Unit-8: Mathematical Techniques and Applications for Engineers Unit-9: Principles and Application of Engineering Science ANSWERS TO EXTENSION ACTIVITIES EA1: 20.501 kN/m. 10.522m EA2: 21.1: State assumptions made in establishing a specific mathematical model AC 1.1: Use precise statements.1: Read critically and comprehend longer mathematical arguments or examples of applications LINKS TO OTHER UNITS OF THE ADVANCED DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING Unit-1: Investigating Engineering Business and the Environment Unit-3: Selection and Application of Engineering Materials Unit-5: Maintaining Engineering Plant. 12.210m EA3: 42. 29.). Substitution.2: Manipulate mathematical expressions AC 9.69mm.34mm.INFORMATION FOR TEACHERS The teachers should have some knowledge of Terminology related to structural design and construction (e. inertia.

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