This chapter deals with background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the
study, significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study and operational
definition of key terms.
1.1. Background of the study
Unlike from previous world revolutions, Information Communication Technology (ICT) is
dynamically changing the livelihood of the society across the globe. It influences all aspects of
life with more reflection on education sector where both students and faculty have the
opportunity in adapting the knowledge transfer. Furthermore, the society is challenging the
sector aptly in responding to this ever changing innovation. Tinio (2002) states the potentials of
ICTs in increasing access to education and improving relevance and quality of education in
developing countries. Tinio further states that ICTs greatly facilitate the acquisition and
absorption of knowledge, unprecedented opportunities to enhance educational systems, improve
policy formulation, execution and widen the range of opportunities for business and the poor.
In Watson’s (2001) description, ICTs have revolutionized the way people work today and are
now transforming education systems. Moreover, he mentioned that if students trained using
traditional learning methodologies and technologies they may not be effective and fit in
tomorrow’s world. For instance, ICTs are dependable tools in facilitating the attainment of one
of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which is achievement of Universal Primary
Education (UPE) by the year 2015. This shows the growing demand and increasingly important
place that ICTs could receive in education.
The Ethiopian government has an ambitious electronic-government strategy in which various
sectors such as education, health, agriculture and public administration are covered (Dzidonu,
2006). When it comes to educational sector, there has been no definitive evidence to justify the
effectiveness of ICT investment than in provision of textbooks, teachers training and nutritional
supplement which may also improve educational situation indirectly (Cawthera, 2001). Also, the
amount of books, articles, and web-related resources available to teachers is rapidly increasing
almost from one day to the next (Damtew Wolde, 2005).
1.2. Statement of the Problem
In secondary school where the researcher used to learn introduction to computer (ICT) as a subject of
teaching starts at grade nine. It was a private school and the computer usage was one to three ratios
which is the same as now in government schools of Dire Dawa. Most of the time all the computers in
the laboratory were working and the response for computer failures were immediate as the researcher
can remember now. But from the researchers experience and observation, this is not the story what is
happening now in the government preparatory schools where ICT as a subject resources are
maintained. As any chemistry class needs chemicals to teach students learn their reactions and
effects, ICT as a subject needs working computer in laboratories and motivated teachers to enable
students acquire knowledge which they most benefit in their career. This motivated the researcher to
study giving ICT as a subject of teaching challenges and practices in government preparatory schools
of Dire Dawa administration council; problem related to management and leadership. 3

students textbooks. combination into existing curricula. Most of the problems may be related to the management and leadership in one or the other way. student’s perception as a subject may not be encouraging and students not taking serious of the ICT subject. From the researcher experience. capacity building and financing (Tinio. making it difficult for the ICT teachers to teach using computers and also Internet and lack of computer technicians. the researcher could understand that there was a lack of concern from management or leadership to face all challenges related to ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools. The responses for resource failures are different reasons. For example inconsistent supply of electricity. For instance. As the researcher get from preliminary interview from government ICT teachers and the principals. Although ICT is integrated in the curriculum. 2002). curricular changes related to its use. ICT has been given two periods per week in secondary schools grade levels 9-10 and three periods per week in grade levels 11-12. Since the researcher used informal interview and observed while in the school. Moreover as the subject has no Ethiopian Higher Education Entrance Qualification Certificate (EHEEQC) at the end. skill and academic achievements are all in danger (MoE. teachers guides and enough computers are also not available. changes in teacher role and on underpinning educational theories such as constructivism or student-centered learning. There is also an insufficient supply of digital learning materials. In Curriculum Framework for Ethiopian Education (CFEE). There might be different reasons for this to happen. learning content and language. there was also a knowledge gap between students from private and government school as their ICT acquaintances was far different. The introduction of advanced textbooks and ICT curriculum without enough training and inclusion to teachers while in development makes them to frustrate and ignore their targets easily. As we can saw from preliminary study the root cause of the problems seems 4 . 2002).ICT as a subject of teaching may face various challenges with respect to policy. 2010). the management itself had little idea about ICT and its use in helping them to systematize and organize their task in effective way. Watson (2001) states that many teachers are not in a position to make informed judgments on ICTs to support their teaching goals and targets. teachers need professional development to gain skills with particular applications of ICT. reference books. ICT enhanced education requires clearly stated objectives. planning. infrastructure. Students ICT knowledge. mobilization of resources and political commitment of the concerned bodies. one impeding factor of ICT education is the skill gap of people using and implementing it (Tinio. In fact.

availability of sustainable power. especially the “poorest of the poor” is associated with high cost and potential failure’. For instance. in the case of Information Communication Technology for Education (ICTE) projects. “Role of ICT in improving the quality of school education in Bihar”. With respect to language. problems to enhance the utilization of the technology and role of the management is not well understood. low skills for maintenance. Related to ICT many researchers have studied and unveiled their findings from different perspectives. 2008). ‘the positive impact of ICT use in education has not been proven’ and ‘the use of ICTs in education in many developing countries. ICTs in education programs require huge capital investment and developing countries need to predict the benefit of ICT use to balance the cost relative to the existing alternatives (Volman. studied “The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education”. International Growth Center (IGC) published (2012). According to the study. in the case of the School Net project in Ethiopia. challenges and function of the management towards the implementation of ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools. conducted research on “The impact of ICT’s on students’ performance in Higher Education”. similar problems such as poor infrastructure. Fisseha Mikre (2011). The school leadership can also play a key role in the practice of ICT as a subject in education. none of these studies dealt on the practice of ICT as a subject of teaching in preparatory school has many challenges from different corners. 2005). while English language proficiency is not high in many of the developing countries and this is one barrier in the practice of ICT as a subject to education. negative statements are found on the documents from World Bank (2008). the national ICT survey in the Netherlands shows that most primary school students use computers less than once a week and there are still many secondary school teachers who do not use ICT at all (Volman.managerial failures to respond to the current ICT giving as a subject in government preparatory schools. This research will give a clue with regard to the practices. In fact. Another great challenge is the financing. English is the dominant language in many of educational software. Most often. However. they use computers for drill and practice and word processing. 5 . lack of support from the school administration was also a big challenge. low motivation of teachers and language used in the contents are mentioned (World Bank. Adel Ben Youssef (2008). For example. 2005). Moreover.

provision of resources like internet access. There were number of factors that can affect ICT as a subject. the following four research questions were set up.4. Search the current practice of giving ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools. finance. existing promises. professional ICT teachers and the pedagogical constraints.6. Identify the ways to overcome the challenges faced by the school leaders. Research Questions The most fundamental questions of this study were: what were the practices of ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools. ICT teachers and school leaders towards giving ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools. 2. 6 1. Assess the challenges faced by the students and ICT teachers in giving ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools. In order to manage its scope. What were the means which enable overcome the challenges faced by the school leaders. 4. The specific objectives of the study were to: 1.Overcoming the mentioned challenges may help education systems benefit from this technology.1. such as lack of proper policies. educational planners and policy makers. 1. 1. Assess the perception of the students. 1. challenges and limitations? For these purposes. The research has focused on how ICT as a subject of teaching is practiced and the prevailing challenges in the schools for its implementation. What were the challenges faced by students and ICT teachers in giving ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools of Dire Dawa administration council? 4. ICT teachers and students in giving ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools of Dire Dawa administration council? 1. ICT teachers and students in giving ICT as a subject of teaching in the study schools. General objective The general objective of the study was to assess the current practices of the management and leadership in supporting giving ICT as a subject of teaching and prevailing challenges and opportunities in government preparatory schools of Dire Dawa administration council.4. 3. The study may also suggest successful methods utilized in ICT as a subject through computer laboratory and full facility. ICT teachers and students towards giving ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools of Dire Dawa administration council? 3. 2010). lastly. As stated in ESDP IV (2010) the quality improvement program integrates core priorities such as “teacher and leader development” and “Information and Communication Technologies’’ is one of the major priorities to provide quality education in Ethiopia (MoE. Hence the practice and challenges of ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools. Delimitation of the Study The focus of this study is to investigate the practices and challenges of giving ICT as a subject of teaching in the government preparatory schools in Dire Dawa. Objectives of the Study 1. Significance of the Study The findings of the study may create awareness among the school stakeholders about it provides possible mechanisms and suggestions which would help in ICT as a subject of teaching provision and curriculum development for school leaders. it serves as a reference for future studies in the field.3. the ratio of computers to students. in Dire Dawa administration council has been studied.4. What was the perception of the school leaders. What were the practices of giving ICT as a subject of teaching in government preparatory schools of Dire Dawa administration council? 2.5. number of ICT teachers and supporting staffs.2. 1. The factors. this research .

was delimited to the practices and challenges of giving ICT as a subject of teaching in Dire Dawa. Therefore the research was undertaken only in three preparatory schools of Dire Dawa administrative council. 7 .

unwillingness of a few respondents to fill the questioner and return back on time. Information Communication Technology: one of a subject included in Ethiopian curriculum and given in preparatory schools. the researcher was forced to depend much on foreign books and journals. Besides. business and other arms of government. Operational Definition of Terms In order to avoid ambiguity and to have clarity and consistency in the study. Electronic-learning: the information and communication systems.7. School stakeholders: include students. principals. material and human resources in order to meet human need or purpose. This often involves both out of classroom and in classroom educational experiences via technology. Practices: teaching and learning of ICT as a subject of teaching and adapting more practical and likely to lead to success in schools.1. teachers. Technology: is the process of using scientific. chemistry taught in the classrooms by ICT teachers. Subject: here the ICT course being taught in the preparatory schools. the following terms have been given with operational definition as follows: Challenges: problems that face ICT as a subject in the government preparatory schools of Dire Dawa administration council. However. 8 .8. ICT is a curricular subject like physics. serve as specific media to implement the learning process. Electronic-government: government’s use of information technology to exchange information and services with citizens. 1. whether networked learning or not. Hence. the researcher had done all the possible efforts to complete this study successfully. supervisors and parents. Limitation of the Study There were no literature references regarding local context of Ethiopia in the library of Haramaya University. Preparatory school: refers to grade 11-12.