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GUIDE FOR THE

**ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL
**

RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER

CARRIERS

SEPTEMBER 2004 (Updated June 2008 – see next page)

**American Bureau of Shipping
**

Incorporated by Act of Legislature of

the State of New York 1862

Copyright © 2004

American Bureau of Shipping

ABS Plaza

16855 Northchase Drive

Houston, TX 77060 USA

Updates

**June 2008 consolidation includes:
**

• September version plus Notice No. 1, Corrigenda/Editorials

Foreword

Foreword

The main purpose of this Guide is to supplement the Rules and the other design and analysis criteria

that ABS issues for the classification of container carriers in relation to parametric roll resonance

phenomenon.

The Guide contains a brief description of the physical phenomenon of parametric roll resonance,

which may cause an excessive roll of a containership in longitudinal (head and following) waves. The

Guide also contains a description of criteria used to determine if a particular vessel is vulnerable to

parametric roll (susceptibility criteria) and how large these roll motions might be (severity criteria).

Recommendations are given for further actions if a ship is found to be endangered by the possibility

of parametric roll, including numerical simulations and a model test. Means of mitigation of

consequences of the parametric roll are briefly considered.

If criteria and requirements included in this Guide are satisfied, ABS may assign an optional class

notation as recognition of safety performance in relation to parametric roll resonance.

ABS welcomes comments and suggestions for improvement of this Guide. Comments or suggestions

can be sent electronically to rdd@eagle.org.

ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004 iii

This Page Intentionally Left Blank .

.................1 General .....................7 FIGURE 10 Coordinate System for Hydrostatic Calculations ...............10 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS ...1 1 Parametric Roll Resonance in Longitudinal Waves..................4 Physics of Parametric Roll Resonance .... 1 1......................2 FIGURE 4 Parametric Roll Resonance ...........................2 FIGURE 3 Undamped Small Roll Motions in Calm Water.5 FIGURE 7 Successively Decreasing Roll Amplitudes due to Roll Damping in Calm Water...........................3 FIGURE 5 Development of Parametric Roll Resonance........................................................2 Stability in Longitudinal Waves ....................................................................................................................... 6 1...6 Amplitude of Parametric Roll.......10 FIGURE 12 Definition of the Offsets at i-th Station with j-th Position of the Wave Crest ......... Calm Water (Dotted) ................1 FIGURE 2 Profile of Waterline in Wave Crest (Solid) vs.................... 2 1....................... 8 FIGURE 1 Profile of Waterline in Wave Trough (Solid) vs......................................3 Roll Motions in Calm Water..........5 Influence of Roll Damping ..8 Definitions ......................4 FIGURE 6 Development of Parametric Roll Resonance.... Case 2: Ship Encounters Roll Disturbance when Stability is Decreasing .........................................................7 Influence of Ahead Speed and Wave Direction... Calm Water (Dotted) ........................ 1 1.............. Table of Contents GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS CONTENTS SECTION 1 Introduction ............ 5 1...............................................9 FIGURE 11 Definition of the Draft i-th Station with j-th Position of the Wave Crest .... 8 1..... 7 1.............5 FIGURE 8 Change of Instantaneous GM Value with Increasing Heel Angle.......................................................... 2004 v ....................................1 1........................................9 Nomenclature............................................ 3 1............................................................. Case 1: Ship Encounters Roll Disturbance when Stability is Increasing..............................7 FIGURE 9 Development of Parametric Roll ...........................................................................................

...............4 Application of Susceptibility Criteria .....................27 TABLE 2 Conditions for Sample Calculations .........................................31 TABLE 6 Sample Results for Forward Speed Calculations .....................19 FIGURE 5 Restoring Term as a Function of Time and Heel Angle ....23 2 Anti-Rolling Devices......................................................... 23 1 Operational Guidance .................................................................13 2.............................................17 TABLE 1 Wave Heights..............15 FIGURE 3 GM as a Function of Wave Crest Position..................................28 TABLE 4 Sample Results for Susceptibility Criteria..................24 SECTION 5 Optional Class Notation .........34 vi ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .13 2.............................. 21 SECTION 4 Mitigation of Parametric Roll Resonance ..................25 APPENDIX 1 Sample Calculations........................................................19 SECTION 3 Numerical Simulations ............2 Stability in Longitudinal Waves.................... SECTION 2 Parametric Roll Criteria .33 TABLE 8 Amplitude of Parametric Roll in Degrees.................23 FIGURE 1 Example of Polar Diagram and Color Scale .......3 Ahead Speed......................................... 11 1 General ......................................................13 2..................................................................................2) .......................................... 2004 ............................................16 2..............................1 Design Wave ..16 3 Severity Criterion for Parametric Roll Resonance in Head Seas .................................................................. 25 TABLE 1 Optional Class Notations .......................29 TABLE 5 GZ Curves for Different Positions of Wave Crest ...12 FIGURE 2 Change of Stability in Longitudinal Wave ............................................................................................................................................ 27 TABLE 1 Particulars of a Sample Container Carrier .................................11 2 Susceptibility Criteria ..................................................15 FIGURE 4 Restoring Moment as a Function of Wave Position and Heel Angle.................................................28 TABLE 3 Calculation of GM Value for Different Positions of Wave Crest along Ship Hull (Simplified Method – 2/2......................................................32 TABLE 7 Sample Input Data for Integration of Roll Equation ............................................................................................................13 FIGURE 1 Diagram Showing Selection of Wave Length and Ahead Speed .....................................

...... FIGURE 1 Lines of Sample Container Carrier ............ Sea State 8 ............................34 APPENDIX 2 Sample Polar Diagrams ....................................... Sea State 7 .........39 APPENDIX 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas .................35 FIGURE 1 Sample Polar Diagram................................................................. Sea State 9 ..29 FIGURE 3 GZ Curves for Different Positions of Wave Crest .......37 FIGURE 5 Sample Polar Diagram – Partial Load.......27 FIGURE 2 Calculation of GM Value for Different Positions of Wave Crest along Ship Hull (Simplified Method – 2/2............ Sea State 8 .30 FIGURE 4 Solution of the Roll Equation for V1 and μ = 0.............38 FIGURE 7 Sample Polar Diagram – Partial Load.............................................1.........................35 FIGURE 2 Sample Polar Diagram – Full Load............................................... 2004 vii ....41 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS ...............................36 FIGURE 3 Sample Polar Diagram – Full Load......... Sea State 9 ..............37 FIGURE 4 Sample Polar Diagram – Full Load............................................38 FIGURE 6 Sample Polar Diagram – Partial Load.................................... Sea State 7 .2)................

This Page Intentionally Left Blank .

Figure 2). Figure 1) FIGURE 1 Profile of Waterline in Wave Trough (Solid) vs. instantaneous waterplane wider than in calm water with the result that the metacentric height (GM) is increased over the calm water value. 1. ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . This phenomenon is related to the periodic change of stability as the ship moves in longitudinal waves at a speed when the ship’s wave encounter frequency is approximately twice the rolling natural frequency and the damping of the ship to dissipate the parametric roll energy is insufficient to avoid the onset of a resonant condition.2 Stability in Longitudinal Waves If a ship is located in a wave trough. 2004 1 . As a result. the roll restoring moment of the ship changes as a function of the wave’s longitudinal position along the ship. This makes the mean. Consequently. the average waterplane is narrower and the GM is correspondingly decreased in comparison to calm water (see Section 1. the waterplane at the immersed portions of the bow and stern are narrower than in calm water. Calm Water (Dotted) In contrast to the above. the average waterplane width is significantly greater than in calm water. which may become dangerous to the ship. The flared parts of the bow and stern are more deeply immersed than in calm water and the wall-sided midship is less deep. Section 1: Introduction SECTION 1 Introduction 1 Parametric Roll Resonance in Longitudinal Waves 1. when the wave crest is located amidships.1 General Parametric roll resonance in longitudinal (head and following) seas is observed as a significant amplification of roll motions. its cargo and crew. (See Section 1.

The restoring moment then again pushes the ship back to the equilibrium. the ship may experience a very small roll disturbance from some external or internal cause (in reality.3 Roll Motions in Calm Water When a ship is in calm water. Because of inertia. there would be no wave–induced heeling moment. s Roll. when the roll equilibrium is disturbed in the absence of a wave excitation moment.g. the ship does not stop at the instant when the equilibrium angle is reached but continues to roll at a progressively slower velocity until a maximum roll angle is reached. the ship cannot stop at the equilibrium point and the motion cycle is repeated. roll disturbances can always exist. the restoring moment works against further motion and it stops at some roll angle.5 Time. The period of such roll oscillations in calm water is known as the “natural roll period” and is related to ship stability and mass distribution. Figure 3 2 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . However. At this point. Figure 3.. and again. because of inertia. the excess roll restoring moment causes the ship to begin to right itself. As before.5 1 Period T If a ship sailed on a course exactly perpendicular to the crests of head or following seas. Normally. When the roll equilibrium is disturbed. deg 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0. A sample of such a free roll oscillation is shown in Section 1. the ship rolls with its natural roll frequency and the motion time history is similar to that shown in Section 1. wind). any disturbance in transversal (as from a wind gust) will lead to roll motions. the hydrostatic restoring moment acts to oppose the instantaneous roll angle and tends to return the ship back to the upright position. inertia causes the ship to continue to roll. e. The corresponding roll frequency is called the “natural frequency”. 2004 . Once upright. Calm Water (Dotted) 1. FIGURE 3 Undamped Small Roll Motions in Calm Water 1 0.Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 2 Profile of Waterline in Wave Crest (Solid) vs.

The restoring moment now resists further motion.Section 1 Introduction 1. the ship encounters a wave crest and its stability is decreased. consequently. but with a less-than-calm-water value since ship stability is lessened on the wave crest. In this situation. As a result.. i. the increase in roll angle is even greater than after the first quarter. this combination of restoring (with a larger-than-calm-water) and resisting the roll (with less-than-calm-water) can cause the roll angle to progressively increase to a large and possibly dangerous level. A typical sample time history is shown in Section 1.4 Physics of Parametric Roll Resonance As described earlier. the restoring moment tends to accelerate the ship back to equilibrium with a larger-than-calm-water moment because the ship is entering the wave trough where stability is improved. If this oscillatory change in stability occurs at approximately twice the natural roll period. During the second quarter of the period. the ship rolls more than it would in calm water with the same roll disturbance. angle as a result of parametric roll resonance. which is the upright equilibrium attitude. s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 10 20 The most rapid increase of parametric roll motion could be observed when the ship experiences an external roll disturbance at the time when the wave crest is moving away from amidships. the roll angle is slightly larger than it would be in calm water. This constitutes the parametric roll resonance phenomenon. As a result. ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004 3 . the ship reaches a zero-degree roll angle. when a ship is sailing in longitudinal (head or following) or nearly longitudinal seas. as shown in Section 1. Meanwhile. Figure 5. Figure 5. its stability increases in the wave trough and decreases on the wave crest. the condition of improving or increasing stability. Figure 5. but the roll motion does not stop there because of the roll inertia. See Section 1. in combination with an encounter frequency approximately twice that of the natural roll frequency. The situation is analogous to that observed during the first quarter. With no further change in wave amplitude and ship speed. the ship enters the wave trough and an increased restoring moment pushes it back with an increased force. the roll motion inertia makes the ship continue to roll. Figure 4. In the third quarter.e. possibly unacceptable. The observations in the fourth quarter are similar to those in the second quarter. at the end of the first quarter of the period T. FIGURE 4 Parametric Roll Resonance 20 Roll. roll motions may increase to a significant. At the end of the first quarter period of roll oscillation. deg 10 t. after the second quarter. This is shown in Section 1. and the roll angle continues to increase.

Figure 6. The real situation is usually somewhere in between. The changing stability leads to a slight change in the natural period. The same factors that were increasing roll in the first case now damp the roll motion. See Section 1. Once the ship reaches equilibrium. As can be seen from Section 1.5 Roll angle. i. This situation is similar to the conditions considered in the previous case. When the ship is just disturbed. Such a combination of decreasing and increasing roll restoring moments is capable of significantly decreasing roll. the evolution of parametric roll development is different. its stability starts to improve and it reaches a less-than-in-calm-water angle at the end of the first period. degrees Ship has amplitude roll angle and GM Tφ 1 Parametric Roll 0. the roll in waves lags behind in comparison with the roll in calm water. Figure 6.e. s 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 If the ship experiences the roll disturbance while approaching a wave crest. As a result. it approaches a wave crest with its stability decreased and the “push back” is made with a smaller moment than in calm water.5 t. this situation does not last long. Case 1: Ship Encounters Roll Disturbance when Stability is Increasing 1.. However. 2004 . when the stability is decreasing. 4 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . The two considered sample scenarios represent two extreme possibilities with the most and least favorable conditions for the development of parametric roll. the shifting phase leads to a situation where the ship reaches a peak value of roll angle and as its GM is just about to start to increase. Figure 6.5 Tφ Free Roll GM Mean Stability in Waves Change of GM in Waves t. See Section 1.Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 5 Development of Parametric Roll Resonance. s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0.5 Roll starts to rise 1 0.

A rolling ship generates waves and eddies. degrees Ship has amplitude roll angle and GM Tφ 1 Parametric Roll 0. s 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1. 2004 5 . See Section 1. Case 2: Ship Encounters Roll Disturbance when Stability is Decreasing 1. All of these processes contribute to roll damping.5 t. FIGURE 7 Successively Decreasing Roll Amplitudes due to Roll Damping in Calm Water Roll Decreasing roll amplitude during one roll period Roll disturbance 0 time ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . the roll amplitudes decrease successively due to roll damping. and experiences viscous drag.5 Roll starts to rise 1 0. Figure 7.5 Tφ Free Roll GM Mean Stability in Waves Change of GM in Waves t.Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 6 Development of Parametric Roll Resonance.5 Influence of Roll Damping When a ship rolls in calm water after being disturbed. s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0.5 Roll angle.

6 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004 .Section 1 Introduction Roll damping may play a critical role in the development of parametric roll resonance. If the roll damping moment is below the threshold. the roll angles will not increase and the parametric resonance will not develop. the roll natural frequency may no longer be close to twice the encounter frequency. The only other condition that has to be met is that the energy loss due to roll damping is not large enough to completely consume the increase of energy caused by parametric roll resonance – the roll damping is below the threshold value. While the GZ curve usually is practically linear in the first 10-12 degrees of heel angle. This causes the natural roll period and natural roll frequency to change as well. There is then a roll damping threshold for parametric roll resonance. Once the energy “gain” per cycle is more than the energy “loss” due to damping. Since the wave encounter frequency remains the same. then the parametric roll resonance can take place. There is a range of encounter wave frequencies around this value that is capable of causing parametric roll resonance. It is known that the instantaneous value of GM is a function of roll angle (see Section 1.4. As discussed in 1/1. parametric resonance conditions no longer exist and roll motions no longer receive additional energy at each cycle. If the “loss” of energy per cycle caused by damping is more than the energy “gain” caused by the changing stability in longitudinal seas. the development of parametric roll requires the encounter wave frequency to be approximately twice the roll natural frequency. It is also known that the natural roll period and natural roll frequency depend on GM value. which occur about twice during the roll period. Figure 9). Figure 8). As a result. makes the roll angle grow significantly. If the roll damping moment is higher than the threshold. Once the roll angle increases beyond the linear portion of the GZ curve. During the parametric roll resonance the combination of harder push-backs due to the increased stability on the wave trough and larger achieved roll angles due to the decreased stability on the wave crest.6 Amplitude of Parametric Roll The shape of the GZ curve is one of the most important factors determining the amplitude of parametric roll. Figure 8). the instantaneous GM value changes as the GZ curve bends (see Section 1. the GM does not change. then parametric roll resonance is not possible. so both natural roll period and frequency remain constant for small values of roll angle (up to about 10-12 degrees). the amplitude of the parametric roll starts to grow. This causes parametric roll to stop increasing and a certain amplitude of roll is established (see Section 1. 1.

deg -0. deg 0 20 40 60 80 100 -20 -40 1. as these situations potentially pose the greatest danger of development of parametric roll resonance.4 GM25 0. s Roll. create maximum parametric excitation. therefore. ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .1 1 rad FIGURE 9 Development of Parametric Roll 40 20 Time. A ship moving though the waves encounters them with a different frequency than a ship that is not moving. It is smaller for following seas (ship speed is subtracted from wave celerity) and larger for head seas (wave celerity is added to ship ahead speed). This Guide considers head and following seas only.3 GM0 0. This frequency is called “frequency of encounter” or “encounter frequency”.2 0.Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 8 Change of Instantaneous GM Value with Increasing Heel Angle GZ. 2004 7 .7 Influence of Ahead Speed and Wave Direction Longitudinal waves (head and following) cause the most change in ship’s intact stability and.1 0 10 20 30 40 φ. m 0.

Figure 10 B molded breadth dm a molded draft amidships Dm a molded depth amidships d(xi xCj) a molded draft of i-th station with j-th position of the wave crest.stability of a ship measured by conventional characteristics such as metacentric height (GM) and GZ curve. Wave length also has an influence because it is related to the wave frequency on which the frequency of encounter is dependent. The value of natural roll frequency mostly depends on GM value (transversal distribution of weight also may have an influence). Therefore. or from maximum roll angle to minimum roll angle Natural roll frequency – frequency corresponding to natural roll period 1. see Section 1. Despite the physical background of parametric roll resonance in following and head seas being identical. with wave crest amidships. stability characteristics are decreased in comparison with calm water Stability in the wave trough . the Guide does not consider such an influence. Wave period – time between two consecutive wave crests or wave troughs passing the fixed reference point. The encounter period (wave period corresponding to the wave frequency of encounter) is the time that passes while a ship encounters two adjacent wave crests or two adjacent wave troughs. Usually. which are more pronounced in head seas. provided that the ship is moving or is located in head or following waves Stability on the wave crest – stability of a ship measured by conventional characteristics such as metacentric height (GM) and GZ curve.time between two consecutive wave crests or wave troughs passing the moving reference point Frequency of encounter – frequency corresponding to Period of encounter Free roll oscillations – roll motion in calm water that take place if a ship was inclined on angle less than 10 degrees and then was set free to roll.Section 1 Introduction Frequency of encounter is a frequency with which a ship passes through wave crests and troughs. At this moment. with wave trough amidships. It is also a frequency of change of ship’s stability. Parametric roll resonance develops when the frequency of stability change is nearly twice that of natural roll frequency or when the frequency of encounter is nearly twice that of natural roll frequency.8 Definitions Parametric roll – roll motion in the regime of parametric resonance Parametric roll resonance – dynamic amplification of roll motions caused by periodic change of ship stability in longitudinal (head or following) waves Stability in longitudinal waves – improving ship stability in the wave trough and decreasing stability on the wave crest. 2004 . Figure 11 8 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Usually. 1. Natural roll period –period of free roll oscillations or time necessary for a ship to roll from minimum roll angle to maximum roll angle. the latter one may experience the influence of heave and pitch motions. whether parametric roll resonance may occur in following or head seas depends mostly on current GM value.9 Nomenclature All ship-related values are defined in the coordinate system shown in Section 1. Wave frequency – frequency corresponding to wave period Wave celerity – velocity of wave propagation Period of encounter . stability characteristics are increased in comparison with calm water.

Figure 12 BM(xCj) metacentric radius for calculated i-th position of the wave crest GM metacentric height (GM value) defined as a distance between transverse roll metacenter and center of gravity in calm water GMmin minimum metacentric height (GM value) in waves GMmax maximum metacentric height (GM value) in waves GMa magnitude of change of metacentric height (GM value) between wave trough and wave crest and is calculated as the difference between GMmin and GMmax GMm mean value of metacentric height (GM value) averaged between wave trough and wave crest: (GMmax + GMmin)/2 L length of a ship measured between perpendiculars Vs ahead speed. knots Vpr ahead speed. knots V ahead speed. see Section 1.Section 1 Introduction y(xi xCj) offsets – half-breadth of i-th station at draft dC i. m/s VCB(xCj) vertical position of buoyancy center calculated i-th position of the wave crest TW period of wave ω0 roll natural frequency in calm water ωm roll natural frequency corresponding to mean value of metacentric height ωa roll natural frequency corresponding to magnitude of change of metacentric height ωW frequency of wave λ length of wave μ roll damping expressed as fraction of critical roll damping FIGURE 10 Coordinate System for Hydrostatic Calculations z x y ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004 9 . corresponding to encounter frequency twice of roll natural frequency – “parametric roll speed”.

Section 1 Introduction

FIGURE 11

Definition of the Draft i-th Station with

j-th Position of the Wave Crest

z

xCj xi

x

ap d(xCj, xi) fp

FIGURE 12

Definition of the Offsets at i-th Station with

j-th Position of the Wave Crest

Calm water waterline

Station i

Wave profile

d(xCj, xi)

z(x i xCj)

y(x i xCj)

10 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004

Section 2: Parametric Roll Criteria

SECTION 2 Parametric Roll Criteria

1 General

Application of any criteria or performing any calculations related to parametric roll resonance requires

reliable data on roll damping. At this moment, the only robust method to obtain roll damping data is a

roll decay test. The roll decay test, performed by an ABS-recognized facility (normally, a towing tank

– member of ITTC – International Towing Tank Conference and possessing proper certification), is

required for an optional class notation (see Section 5). As an alternative, roll damping can be assumed

as recommended in 2/2.4.

The general sequence of calculations and checks is described below.

The calculations and checks are done for design wave and ahead speed which will most likely lead to

the development of parametric roll. These conditions are: wave length equals ship length and ahead

speed results in a frequency of encounter that is about twice the roll natural frequency. If such a speed

falls into the operational range of speeds, all further calculations are done for the above conditions.

If such speed does not fall into the operational range, the calculations are done for highest operational

speed (design speed) and wave length equal to ship length. Additionally, the calculations are to be

done for the wave length leading to encounter frequency about twice that of the roll natural frequency

and the design speed. See the diagram in Section 2, Figure 1 for the choice of wave and speed

conditions.

The calculations include the following steps. Stability in waves is to be computed for a number of

positions of wave crest along the hull, then maximal and minimal GM values are to be evaluated.

Maximal GM value is expected when the wave trough is close to amidships and the minimum GM

value is expected when the wave crest is close to (but not necessarily exactly at) amidships.

The difference between maximum and minimum values defines the amplitude of parametric excitation.

In order for the susceptibility criteria to be used, the parametric excitation is presented in the form of a

value oscillating as sinusoidal function about the mean value, which is obtained by averaging the GM

from the above-mentioned calculations. This averaged GM is used to evaluate ahead speed. The

procedure is illustrated in Section 2, Figure 1.

If any of these checks indicate susceptibly, the severity of parametric roll is to be checked with a

simplified numerical procedure described in Subsection 2/3. A sample of both susceptibility and

severity checks can be found in Appendix 1.

Indicated severity is to be considered as a warning of a possible problem with parametric roll, which

has to be addressed during further design. Sophisticated numerical simulations and model tests are to

be considered. General requirements for such numerical simulations and model tests are described in

Section 3. Based on the results of the numerical simulations and model tests, operational guidance is

to be developed. One of the possible formats of this guidance is presented in Appendix 2.

ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004 11

Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria

FIGURE 1

Diagram Showing Selection of Wave Length and Ahead Speed

**Set wave length equals to ship length for
**

maximum stability changes λ=L

**Calculate GM values while varying position of
**

wave crest along ship hull, calculate of amplitude

and averaged GM

**Calculate of roll natural frequency based on
**

averaged GM

**Set ahead speed Vp is to make encounter frequency
**

to be twice of roll natural frequency

**Yes Is the above ahead No
**

speed, Vp, within the

operating range?

**Check for susceptibility for Ahead speed is set to
**

parametric roll, subsection 2.2 maximum service speed

using Vp and λ=L Vs= Vmax

and

**Set wave length to make
**

encounter frequency to be Check for susceptibility for

about twice of roll natural parametric roll for

frequency for Vdesign Vdesign and λ=L

λ= λ Vdesign

**Check for susceptibility for
**

parametric roll, subsection 2.2

using Vdesign and λ= λ Vdesign

12 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004

2004 13 . ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . xCj ) = d m + 0. Figure 12 for the reference) for each wave crest position should be determined by linear interpolation at station drafts d(xi. the wave-induced pitch and heave motions are ignored.5hw cos⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ λ ⎠ The half beam y(xi.9 11. xCj) at each station (see Section 1.9 Linear interpolation may be used for intermediate wave lengths. it is acceptable to use the method described below (assumed coordinate system shown in Section 1. for L in meters g Wave frequency: 2π ωW = . is equal to the length between perpendiculars. calculated above. as measured relative to the mean wave surface. Where Dm is a molded depth amidships and dm is a molded draft amidships Period of wave TW corresponding to the accepted wave length should be calculated as: 2πλ TW = = 0. “Standard Wave Data” and represents waves of different lengths with the same probability of encounter. It is recommended to use offsets presented for at least 21 stations as well as at least 21 equally spaced wave crest positions.Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria 2 Susceptibility Criteria 2. Figure 10).1 Design Wave Stability in longitudinal seas and parametric roll susceptibility criteria is to be calculated for the design wave. seconds.6 12. m 5. Alternatively.8 λ .2 15. The wave height need not exceed 2(Dm – dm). The accuracy of the method is to be demonstrated to the satisfaction of ABS. The length of the design wave.0 9. λ. The draft at each station at xi for each wave crest position xCj (see Section 1.6 13. is the same as the still water draft. Therefore. Note: This method assumes that the draft of the ship in the wave. Table 1. Figure 11 for the reference) should be calculated as: ⎛ 2π( xi − xCj ) ⎞ d ( xi . 34. λ=L The wave height is specified from Section 2.1 15. xCj). m 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Wave height hW.2 Stability in Longitudinal Waves Stability in longitudinal waves is to be calculated by any appropriate method.2 14. TABLE 1 Wave Heights Wave length λ. L. which is based on the wave scatter table from IACS Recommendation No. rad/s TW 2.6 14.

The submerged area at each station for each position of wave crest can be calculated as: dC ( xi . xCj .5 L 2 ∇ −0∫. Figure 2). Figure 3 shows the GM value as a function of the wave crest position along the hull. xCj )dx −0.5 L The vertical static moment of the submerged area at each station for each wave crest position can be calculated as: dC ( xi ) M Ω ( xi . xCj ) Ω( xi .5 L 2 3 −0∫.5(GMmax + GMmin) Amplitude of stability change in longitudinal waves expressed in terms of frequency: 7. rad/s B 14 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .85 GM a ωa = . 2004 . Section 2. xCj )dx The metacentric radii for each position of wave crest can be calculated as: I X ( xCj ) BM ( xCj ) = ∇( xCj ) The metacentric height for each wave crest position can be calculated as: GM(xCj) = BM(xCj) – KG + VCB(xCj) It is expected that the value of GM for the wave crest near amidships is smaller than the value in calm water. xCi ) = ∫ y( xi . Minimum and maximum values of the function GM(xC) are to be evaluated as: GMmax = max[GM(xCj)] GMmin = min[GM(xCj)] Amplitude of stability change in longitudinal seas: GMa = 0.5(GMmax – GMmin) The criteria should be evaluated for the mean values of GM.5 L VCB( xCj ) = M Ω ( x. defined as: GMm = 0. xCj . z )dz 0 The volumetric displacement for each wave crest position can be calculated as: 0. xCj )]3 dx It is recommended that the trapezoid method be used for the integration. z )dz 0 The vertical position of the center of buoyancy for each wave crest position can be calculated as: 0. It is also expected that the value of GM for the wave trough near amidships is larger than the value in calm water (see Section 2. xCj ) = ∫ z ⋅ y( xi .5 L I X ( x Cj ) = [ y ( x.5 L ∇( xCj ) = 2 ∫ Ω( x.Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria The transverse moment of inertia of the waterline for each wave crest position is calculated as: 0 .

3 0. 2004 15 . deg -0.5L 0 0. xC /L ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .5L Relative position of wave crest in ship fixed coordinates.1 Near wave crest ( ) 0 10 20 30 40 φ.1 FIGURE 3 GM as a Function of Wave Crest Position GM GMmax Mean Amplitude Value GMm GMa Calm GMmin water -0. m Near wave trough amidships ( ) GM 0.Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria Mean value of stability change in longitudinal waves expressed in terms of frequency: 7.85 GM m ωm = . rad/s B FIGURE 2 Change of Stability in Longitudinal Wave GMmax GZ.4 Calm water ( ) 0.2 GMmin 0.

L....M and W. J.....R. the parametric roll may be expected in following seas The speed for parametric roll is calculated: 19. Rad/s.. If it is larger.. 2004 ....M...........06 ⋅ 2ω m − ω w V pr = ..... parametric roll resonance may be expected in head seas. if a ship is not capable of sustaining speed Vpr (condition 2)................0524 ⋅ VS ⋅ ωW2 ..... If the wave frequency... Technical background of these criteria can be found in ( 1)... it will be the maximum service speed. Paulling.m ωW2 2.. Vsr: VS = Vpr if Vpr < Vsr ...........48VS ω m ) − 9..html).... Frequency of encounter: Head seas: E = ω E = ωW + 0. Weems..... 16 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS ......... kn ωW2 The expression |2ωm – ωW| is to be taken as absolute value...eagle...................3 Ahead Speed Parametric roll is most likely when the encounter frequency is approximately twice the natural roll frequency... Y..4 Application of Susceptibility Criteria This Section describes criteria for determining whether a ship may be susceptible to parametric resonance...... the calculation is to be done for the achievable speed closest to that defined with the above equation.... V... ωW.........Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria 2... presented at SNAME Annual Meeting 2004 (available for download at http://www. is smaller than twice that of roll natural frequency in waves......................... rad/s Parameters of susceptibility criterion: ω m2 − ( μ ⋅ ω 0 ) 2 p= ω E2 ω a2 q= ω E2 1 Shin. Lin “Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Head Seas”...23 + 78... (2) In addition to the above.. K.. all of the calculations are to be repeated for the following wave frequency: (96....... where VS = Vsr 2V S The above wave frequency corresponds to the following wave length: 61.............. If speed Vpr is not within operational range.............807 ωw = ..... 2ωm............ Belenky. In most cases.........org/rules/downloads... (1) VS = Vsr if Vpr > Vsr .....0524 ⋅ VS ⋅ ωW2 .....61 λ= . rad/s Following seas: E = ω E = ωW − 0...

.. In the absence of available data..... the severity of parametric roll is to be checked by means of a simplified numerical procedure.03125 ⋅ q 3 − ≤ p ≤ 0.... is considered as the only reliable source of roll damping data.. k2 and k3 are to be calculated with the following formulae: k1 = 1 – 0.... performed by an ABS-recognized facility.......... ω0 can be calculated as: 7............. the ship’s susceptibility to parametric roll is unlikely....125 ⋅ q 2 + 0. Figure 4)..03 The ship may be susceptible to parametric roll if the following inequality is satisfied: q4 0..854 GM ω0 = .......5 ⋅ q − 0..Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria Here... rad/s B A roll decay test............. the following linear roll damping coefficient expressed as a fraction of critical damping can be assumed: μ = 0... the severity criterion in Subsection 2/3 is to be checked. (2) ωE Where coefficients k1....... If both inequalities (1) and (2) are satisfied...25 − 0........ 2004 17 .....759 q 2 − 16 + q 4 + 352q 2 + 1024 p k3 = 16q If k3 > 1. the ship may not be susceptible to parametric roll..25 + 0.......... 3 Severity Criterion for Parametric Roll Resonance in Head Seas Once the susceptibility to parametric roll has been determined in Subsection 2/2........ If inequality (1) is met. ω0 is the natural roll frequency in calm water.. As a result..1875q2 k2 = 1............ Such a procedure involves numerical integration of the roll equation with a nonlinear restoring term taking into account the change in stability in waves......002p + 0. It is recommended to use actual GZ curves calculated for different wave crest positions as the wave passes along the ship (15-18 wave positions and 12-15 roll angles are recommended).. If k3 < 1 and inequality (2) is not satisfied...16q + 0. t ) = 0 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Alternatively. Any commercially available software capable of numerical integration of ordinary differential equations may be used...... (1) 384 If the inequality (1) is not satisfied......... the restoring term is represented as a surface in coordinates: wave position and angle of roll (see Section 2.. the damping criterion is considered as not satisfied.... The following equation is to be solved numerically: φ&& + 2μω 0φ& + ω 02 f (φ ... the damping criterion of susceptibility is to be checked: ω0 μ < q ⋅ k1 ⋅ k 2 1 − k 32 .5 ⋅ q ...

calculations are to be performed for the following range of roll damping coefficients: μ = 0.05. covering the entire range of speeds leading to parametric roll within the service range of speed. 18 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . The following speeds must be included: 19. V is a speed of encounter that is to be calculated as: V = VS + 0.06 ⋅ 2ω 0 − ω w 19.03. In the absence of model test data. The calculations should be performed for a number of ahead speeds. Several combinations of initial roll angle and angular velocity should be used since the outcome may be dependent on initial conditions. 2004 . The following formula is to be used for the relationship between the time t and position x of the wave crest relative to amidships: ⎛V ⋅t ⎞ x = V ⋅ t − L ⋅ floor ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ λ ⎠ The numerical function floor is defined as the greatest integer number smaller than the argument (V · t/L).2. An initial roll angle in the range 5 degrees is recommended to speed up the possible development of parametric roll.1. which is caused by the geometric difference between bow and stern hull forms. t) should be based with two-dimensional interpolation of calculated values of the GZ curve. and with the GM values calculated with the same software as that used for the GZ curve.06 ⋅ 2ω m − ω w V1 = . The following formula is recommended: sign(φ ) f (φ .10 Wave conditions are to be taken as determined in 2/2. as illustrated in Section 2. Figure 5.159ωWλ For head seas V = VS – 0.159ωWλ For following seas As a result.Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria The restoring term f(φ. Symbol |φ| signifies absolute value. 0.075. t ) GM 0 Function sign(φ) is defined as –1 if the value of roll angle φ is negative and +1 if positive. the restoring term is a periodic odd function of two arguments. The numerical solution is to be calculated for the duration of at least 20 roll periods to achieve stabilization of the amplitude of parametric roll. Note that this function may have non-sinusoidal character along time axis. ωm is to be calculated as described in 2/2. At least seven values are to be used. V2 = ω w2 ω w2 Here. t ) = GZ (| φ |. 0. 0.

ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . If any of the time histories show that the amplitude at stabilization exceeds 15 degrees or if unlimited increase of roll angle is observed. the parametric roll should be regarded as “severe”. 2004 19 . If a time history contains oscillations reaching a steady state with their amplitude at stabilization less then 15 degrees. parametric roll at these particular conditions may be considered as posing no danger. the ship may not be susceptible to parametric roll. a model test and numerical simulations are required to actually evaluate the magnitude of the problem. xc) amidships GZ φ φ xc FIGURE 5 Restoring Term as a Function of Time and Heel Angle f(φ.t) t φ If all resulting time histories indicate decaying roll motions.Section 2 Parametric Roll Criteria FIGURE 4 Restoring Moment as a Function of Wave Position and Heel Angle Wave trough amidships Wave crest GZ(φ. in which case.

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it is recommended that a numerical simulation system based on potential hydrodynamic formulation be used. roll and pitch. numerical simulations are required.Lin. Numerical simulations are to be performed for representative loading conditions included in Stability and Trim Booklet and should include at least three degrees of freedom: heave. capable of calculation of hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces and moments over an instantaneous submerged body. The maximum roll angle is to be determined from all these runs. SNAME Annual Meeting 2003. Numerical simulations in irregular seas are to be performed for long-crested waves.M. The duration of each calculation is to be at least 12 minutes. rad/s TR where TR. San-Francisco. As guidance.Shin. so the total time for each condition is to be at least 3600 seconds. Bretschnieder or JONSWAP spectrum is to be used. Y. should be approved by ABS prior to conduction the simulations. The set of frequencies chosen for representation of irregular waves has to cover the entire spectral range where values of spectral density exceed 1% of maximum spectral density.Weems. Simulation for each loading condition.Belenky .S. Simulations are to be carried out for the range of wave directions from 0 degrees (following seas) to 180 degrees (head seas) in 15 degrees increments and for a number of sea states starting from sea state 6 and above. the frequency step is to be calculated as: 2π Δω = . ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2 Y. is duration of calculation in seconds. recommended increment is 5 knots. Hydrodynamic forces and moments can be calculated over the average waterline. Sample of such simulation technology is described in ( 2). Section 3: Numerical Simulations SECTION 3 Numerical Simulations (1 June 2008) If the susceptibility to parametric roll has been determined in Section 2. speed and wave direction should be repeated at least 5 times with the same spectrum but with the different set of initial phase angles.Engle “Nonlinear Time Domain Simulation Technology for Seakeeping and Wave Load Analysis for Modern Ship Design”. A. K. including loading conditions as well as wave characteristics. 2004 21 . sea state. V. The simulation system should be capable of taking into account viscous and eddy- making components of roll damping as external terms from the roll decay test.L. The plan for numerical simulations. If frequencies are evenly distributed. The set of frequencies must provide statistically representative restoration of time series of wave elevations. Numerical simulations are to be carried out for irregular seas for the entire range of service speeds.

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Operational Guidance is subject to ABS approval as a condition of optional class notation. and sea state where parametric roll may represent danger. Alternatively. 2 Anti-Rolling Devices If a ship is found to be susceptible to parametric roll resonance. If a ship is to be equipped with anti-rolling device. speed for each sea state and loading condition).5 degrees. if an installation of a general-purpose anti-rolling device is planned. the Master should be supplied with the operational guidance indicating dangerous regimes for the representative loading conditions. the operational guidance should be provided for all conditions with the anti-rolling device turned on and off. Anti-rolling device is considered to be effective if it is capable of illuminating dangerous rolling motion to not exceed the level defined in Subsection 4/1 with less than 10% change of speed and/or 10 degrees change of course. The operational guidance may be presented in the form of ‘polar diagram’ (wave heading angle vs. The anti-rolling device may be specifically designed to mitigate parametric roll resonance. Scale of angles and colors is to chosen as appropriate for practical use. If the ship is to be equipped with an anti-rolling device. Each polar diagram must be clearly marked with loading conditions and significant wave height and characteristic wave period. an electronic or computerized version of the guidance is acceptable in addition to the written guidance to enhance availability of information and reduce the chance of human error. Example of color scale along with the sample polar diagram is shown in Section 4. 2004 23 . ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Such operational guidance may be developed for use by the Master in the form of hard copy or electronic information. Figure 1. the installation of an anti-rolling device is to be considered. As the operational guidance may contain significant amount of information. additional numerical simulations are required: all the calculations described in the Section 3 are to be repeated with functioning anti-rolling device. Section 4: Mitigation of Parametric Roll Resonance SECTION 4 Mitigation of Parametric Roll Resonance 1 Operational Guidance (1 June 2008) If a ship is found to be susceptible to parametric roll resonance. based on numerical simulations in irregular seas as described in Section 3. The diagram shows area of different colors corresponding to maximum observed roll angles exceeding 22. consideration may be given to the possibility of using this device to mitigate parametric roll resonance.

2004 .Section 4 Mitigation of Parametric Roll Resonance FIGURE 1 Example of Polar Diagram and Color Scale (1 June 2008) 24 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .

Loading conditions: displacement. Numerical simulations performed. Section 5: Optional Class Notation SECTION 5 Optional Class Notation In recognition of demonstrated safety performance in relation to parametric roll resonance. Susceptibility and severity check (Section 2) 3. Results of roll decay test. 3. Roll decay test 2. (Section 3) 4. ABS may assign optional class notations. 3 and 4 of this Guide. draft molded at forward and aft perpendicular. or general-purpose anti-rolling devices are to be proven to be effective against parametric roll. and three radii of gyration. A summary of requirements and a brief description is given in Section 5. TABLE 1 Optional Class Notations Notation Description Requirements PARR-N No susceptibility to parametric roll Susceptibility criteria shows no susceptibility for parametric roll (Section 2) PARR-C1 Parametric roll under control 1. Figure 12. Table 1. Numerical simulations performed. Lines 2. 4. Susceptibility and severity check (Section 2) 3. Operational guidance is developed (Section 4) PARR-C2 Parametric roll under control 1. the following information is to be submitted along with the results of calculations: 1. (Section 3) 4. In order to perform these checks. 2004 25 . Number of points per station For each point: Z-coordinate and Y coordinate for the station as defined in Section 1. Anti-rolling device designed specifically to eliminate or mitigate parametric roll with proof of efficiency. ASCII file with offset data in the following format: Number of stations For each station: Distance from FP. Roll decay test 2. and are to be developed and verified with model tests (Section 4) To assign these optional notation ABS will perform limited check of the calculations described in Sections 2. Operational guidance is developed (Section 4) 5. ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . three coordinates of the center of gravity.

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m 17. m 40. and the results are shown in Appendix 1. Details of the ship are shown in Appendix 1. Figure 1. Table 3 and Appendix 1. m 27.. GM values are calculated for different positions of wave crest. Appendix 1: Sample Calculations APPENDIX 1 Sample Calculations Lines of a container carrier used in this sample are given in Appendix 1. Wave conditions were chosen as described in Section 2 and shown in Appendix 1.4 Design draft.P.0 Depth.55 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . FIGURE 1 Lines of Sample Container Carrier TABLE 1 Particulars of a Sample Container Carrier Length B. and results are given in Appendix 1. Figure 2. Table 2. Table 1. m 262 Breadth Molded. 2004 27 .36 KG. Table 4. m 12. Ahead speed has been calculated as described in Section 2.

46 8.00 61154 16.09 59838 17.30 -95.07 71.61 9.41 95.32 -23.37 7.06 Wave period.27 0.94 8.55 71592 10. m 15.57 4. 2004 .43 7.88 5.82 83761 9.09 9.02 9.00 61154 16.75 9.64 83858 9.32 8.83 0.20 1.18 9.485 TABLE 3 Calculation of GM Value for Different Positions of Wave Crest along Ship Hull (Simplified Method – 2/2.07 4.43 7.10 -83.22 47.31 2.14 107.36 62768 13.26 8.24 1.55 81115 10.2) Position of Volumetric wave crest Displacement BM KB GM m m3 m m m -131.12 9.18 59597 17.13 1.45 66619 11.26 0. s 12.13 -59.58 8.94 35.45 77748 10.20 3. m 262 Wave height (linear interpolation from Table 1).83 23.87 9.31 9.95 Circular wave frequency ωW.03 -11.28 2.32 1.21 -119.64 6.67 8.36 74074 11.20 -107.73 86053 9.30 0.79 -35.93 8.33 -47.29 0.73 80459 9.66 83.27 70242 12.00 119.82 87429 9.95 -71.Appendix 1 Sample Calculations TABLE 2 Conditions for Sample Calculations Wave length (equals to ship length).81 3.64 76336 10.03 131.45 9.27 60518 16.86 8.00 87545 9.66 9.21 9.91 87977 9.29 8.31 1.18 66580 13.21 28 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .80 9.09 63453 14.74 11.01 2.93 9.91 86137 9.32 8.34 9. rad/s 0.28 8.57 59.

209 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . m GMmax Table A-3 8. 2004 29 . m GMmin Table A-3 0.249 Parameter of susceptibility criterion: q q = ω a2 / ω E2 0. m GMa GMa = 0. m 10 5 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 Position of wave crest in ship fixed coordinates.74 Maximum GM value.854 GM a / B ) 0.2) GM. ωE ωE = ωW + 0. kn V pr = ω w2 Frequency of encounter.5(GMmax – GMmin) 3.0524 ⋅ VS ⋅ ωW2 0.5(GMmax + GMmin) 4.48 Natural roll frequency in calm water.417 Forward speed most likely for development of Vpr 19 .835 GM value in calm water m GM 2. m TABLE 4 Sample Results for Susceptibility Criteria Value Symbol Formula or data source Result Minimum GM value.77 Mean value of GM GMm GMm = 0.854 GM m / B ) 0.4 parametric roll. Rad/s ωa ( ω a = 7.Appendix 1 Sample Calculations FIGURE 2 Calculation of GM Value for Different Positions of Wave Crest along Ship Hull (Simplified Method – 2/2.382 Mean value of stability change in longitudinal waves expressed in terms of frequency. Rad/s ωm ( ω m = 7.309 Roll damping coefficient expressed as a μ 0.1 fraction of critical damping Parameter of susceptibility criterion: p ( ) p = ω m2 − ( μ ⋅ ω 0 ) 2 / ω E2 0.854 GM / B ) 0.30 Amplitude of parametric excitation.06 2ω m − ω w 28. Rad/sec.52 Amplitude of stability change in longitudinal waves expressed in terms of frequency. Rad/s ω0 ( ω 0 = 7.

042 Coefficient k3 of damping criterion 0. The results are shown in Appendix 1.002p + 0.037 Susceptibility inequality (2) outcome Positive As the susceptibility criteria check was positive. m 2. Table 6. Table 3 is due to assumptions employed in the simplified method in 2/2.1875 ⋅ q2 0. the severity check is to be applied. Table 5 and Appendix 1. Righting arms are then computed for a series of heel angles while preserving equilibrium of weight-buoyancy and trim moments at each heel angle.03125 ⋅ q3 0. The difference between these results and GM values shown in Appendix 1. The procedure first places the ship on the wave at the longitudinal position of wave crest specified in the input.759 1.0 Averaged 1. This is seen to be equivalent to the traditional longitudinal bending moment computed by poising the ship in static equilibrium on a wave.5 ⋅ q 0.0 Calm water GZ 0. Figure 3.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 φ.5 GZ 1. Calculation of the forward speed and other auxiliary values is given in Appendix 1.16q + 0.125 ⋅ q2 + 0. The pitch-heave attitude of the ship is then obtained using an assumption of pitch-heave static equilibrium.354 Susceptibility inequality (1) outcome Positive Coefficient k1 of damping criterion k1 = 1 – 0. FIGURE 3 GZ Curves for Different Positions of Wave Crest GZ.2.992 Coefficient k2 of damping criterion k2 = 1.140 Right boundary of inequality (1) 0.25 + 0. wave height and position of the wave crest) as an input and integrates hydrostatic pressure around the hull up to the actual wave waterline. GZ curves were calculated using the special software that includes the capability of computing stability in longitudinal waves.142 q 2 − 16 + q 4 + 352q 2 + 1024 p k3 = 16q Boundary of damping criterion inequality (2) 0.205 q ⋅ k1 ⋅ k 2 1 − k 32 – damping threshold value Effective damping μ ⋅ ω0/ωE 0. The program requires ship offset and wave characteristics (wave length. 2004 .25 – 0.Appendix 1 Sample Calculations TABLE 4 (continued) Sample Results for Susceptibility Criteria Value Symbol Formula or data source Result Left boundary of inequality (1) 0.5 ⋅ q – 0. deg 30 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .

816 1.86 0.18 0.324 0.67 1.28 2.83 1.485 0.951 1.0761 0.376 0.915 0.445 -0. m 1.629 0.987 0.48 -0.589 0.46 1.31 1.239 -0.433 0.96 2.112 10 1.29 0.08 0.74 1.39 1.511 0.51 1.32 2.05 45 2.38 1.21 0.194.42 1.26 2.656 0.903 0.987 0.43 1.16 2.03 3.181 0.785 GM.08 1. m Heel Angle 0 16.13 50 0.0769 0.5 2.119 -0.17 6.586 60 1.752 30 2.37 1.11 1.53 2.714 -0.2 1.069 0.94 2.235 15 1.398 0.201 65 0.953 0.52 4.31 30 0.91 1.49 20 0.12 0.491 10 0.462 -0.257 -0.46 1.18 0.5 1.34 45 0.72 2.28 2.902 35 2.379 20 2.21 2.392 0.03 5.703 0.262 0.73 1.743 0.03 65 -0.154 0.42 1 40 2.46 1.702 0.248 0.931 -0.02 1.3 115 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.06 2.444 0.839 55 1.43 2.53 1.706 0. 0.88 2.49 2.847 0.0846 0.719 0.222 0.556 0.46 2.2 2.42 2.4 2.539 0.77 7.03 1.15 1.127 0.354 0.84 55 0.257 70 -0.8 1.165 -0.324 0.77 1.283 0.523 70 -0.18 0.765 0.03 1.51 1.61 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .472 0.706 1.699 0.01 1.71 1.903 1.02 0.619 0.282 -0.81 1.09 1.38 1 50 1.091 0.194 0.8 49.894 0.09 1.826 0.07 2.3 2.669 0.771 0.989 15 0.405 0.166 0.67 1.0103 0.493 0.0465 -0.67 5.72 1.56 -0.97 25 0.252 0.432 0.41 1.5 81.46 1.711 1.13 2.944 1.456 0.24 2.4 2.4 32.0559 -0.34 1.Appendix 1 Sample Calculations TABLE 5 GZ Curves for Different Positions of Wave Crest Distance from FWD Perpendicular to Wave Crest.472 0.305 0. 2004 31 .01 1.82 1.03 1.95 5.0738 0.46 40 0.35 2.38 2.27 0.12 1.754 0.0878 -0.15 2.62 1.91 2.67 2.827 0.354 -0.928 1. m 6.431 0.589 0.69 1.79 1.419 0.05 1.361 0.697 0.14 0.317 0.498 0.58 0.442 0.13 -0.81 1.25 TABLE 5 (continued) GZ Curves for Different Positions of Wave Crest Distance from FWD Perpendicular to Wave Crest.509 0.1 2.721 0.918 -0.26 2.576 0.02 0.65 1.568 0.565 25 2.9 98.83 1.02 1.5 1.48 60 -0.0329 GM.0229 -0.296 0. m Heel Angle 131 147 164 180 197 213 229 246 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.46 35 0.911 1.618 0.1 65.621 0.17 1.74 1.766 1.638 0.36 1.00565 -0.

See Section 2. t ) Where Y& is a vector (array) of derivatives of state variables ⎛ Y&1 ⎞ ⎛ϑ& ⎞ Y& = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ Y& ⎟ ⎜ φ& ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ The first component (element) of this vector (array) is roll acceleration and the second is roll velocity. The roll equation in Subsection 2/2 is a second order ordinary differential equation.754 Maximum GM value.315 Forward speed 1. Most software for the solution of ordinary differential equations is meant to work with systems of 1st order ordinary differential equations.Appendix 1 Sample Calculations TABLE 6 Sample Results for Forward Speed Calculations Value Symbol Formula or data source Result Minimum GM value. m GMmax Appendix 1. kn V2 5. this equation is presented as a system of two first order differential equations. Y is another vector (array) containing state variables – roll velocity and roll angle: ⎛ Y1 ⎞ ⎛ϑ ⎞ Y = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ Y2 ⎠ ⎝ φ ⎠ 32 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Application of the formulae for restoring term f(φ.854 GM m / B ) 0. Figure 3 are presented in the form of the surface in coordinates: wave position and angle of roll are shown in Section 2.Table 5 0.676 Mean value of stability change in longitudinal waves expressed in terms of frequency.17 Mean value of GM GMm GMm = 0. In order to be solved numerically.040 2ω 0 − ω w 21. t) from Subsection 2/2 makes it a periodical function of time when waves pass the ship. Figure 5.040 2ω m − ω w 11.854 GM / B ) 0. kn V1 5. Table 4 and Appendix 1. 2004 .Table 5 7.376 Natural roll frequency in calm water. This can be done considering roll velocity as the second variable: ⎧⎪ϑ& + 2δϑ + f (φ .73 V2 = ω w2 GZ curves in Appendix 1.5(GMmax + GMmin) 3. Rad/s ωm ( ω m = 7.82 V1 = ω w2 Forward speed 2. Figure 5. m GMmin Appendix 1. t ) = 0 ⎨& ⎪⎩φ − ϑ = 0 Most of the commercially available software requires that the above system of differential equations be presented in matrix form: Y& = D (Y . Rad/s ω0 ( ω 0 = 7.

degree/s φ&0 0 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .05 ⋅ ω0 0. Figure 4 (one case). t ) = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ Y1 ⎠ Most of the commercially available software requires the user to put initial conditions for roll velocity and roll angle into the vector (array) Y and use it as input. s TR TR = 152. Results of integration are shown in Appendix 1.0158 Time step s Δt Δt = 0. Amplitudes of parametric roll are placed for all cases in Appendix 1. degree φ0 5 Initial roll velocity.58 Natural roll frequency in calm water. Table 8.314/ωm 0. t) is a vector valued function whose definition is based on the system of ordinary differential equations of the first order: ⎛ − 2δY1 − f (Y2 . Rad/s ω0 ( ) ω 0 = 7. t ) ⎞ D(Y . TABLE 7 Sample Input Data for Integration of Roll Equation Value Symbol Formula or data source Result GM value in calm water m GM 2. The following values for the above figures are recommended: Time step: Range: 0.2 Δt = TR = ωm ωm Parameters for these calculations are placed in Appendix 1. 2004 33 .2/ωm 332 Initial roll angle.854 GM / B 0. Table 7.314 125.Appendix 1 Sample Calculations D(Y.315 Roll damping coefficient δ δ = 0. Recommended values for initial condition are: ⎛Y ⎞ ⎛ rad / s ⎞ Y = ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ Y2 ⎠ ⎝ rad ⎠ The rest of the input data preparation includes the choice of a time step and a range of calculation.829 Time range.

5 35. s TABLE 8 Amplitude of Parametric Roll in Degrees μ V.2 15.7 1.0 38.05 0.7 30.6 39.73 36.2 None 8 19.0 25 31. These cases are marked as “unlimited”.5 V1 = 21.7 23.6 9 Unlimited 23.0 35.Appendix 1 Sample Calculations FIGURE 4 Solution of the Roll Equation for V1 and μ = 0.03 0.3 17 Unlimited Unlimited 41.6 28 25.9 V2 = 11.2 29.7 19.0 19 Unlimited 39.3 34. 34 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .1 5 None None None None 6 6.4 21.075 0.4 1.1 50 40 30 20 Roll angle. Figure 4. kn 0.0 30.4 18.5 17.6 25.8 In some cases. deg 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 10 20 30 40 50 Time.82 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited 47. As can be seen from both Appendix 1. so the parametric roll should be characterized as “Severe”.5 41. 2004 . Table 8 and Appendix 1. roll amplitudes were above 15 degrees in many cases. amplitude could not be defined from the numerical integration of the rolling equation because unlimited rise of roll angle was observed.3 24.

3 Shin. where roll motions exceed 20 degrees for a containership in long-crested sea state 8 conditions with a modal period of 16.. J. Figures 2-7.M and W. K. Figure 1 shows a sample operational polar diagram produced with sophisticated numerical simulation (see the reference in the footnote). ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS ..4 seconds and a significant wave height of 11. Paulling. More samples of polar diagrams are shown in Appendix 2. deg 40 20 270o To be avoided 0o – Head Seas To be avoided Safe operation Note: This diagram is given for visual illustration only. to be presented at SNAME Annual Meeting 2004. Belenky. Appendix 2: Sample Polar Diagrams APPENDIX 2 Sample Polar Diagrams 3 Appendix 2. calculated for different seas states and loading conditions. Weems. Lin “Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Head Seas”. FIGURE 1 Sample Polar Diagram Roll amplitude. Y.L.M. It does not necessarily meet all of the requirements of Sections 3 and 4.R.49 meters. V. 2004 35 ..

FIGURE 2 Sample Polar Diagram – Full Load. it should be noted that parametric roll is still possible at lower speeds. The maximum roll angle for this series of simulations is 48 degrees in the head sea 10-knot case. The regions of higher speed and following seas correspond to a resonant roll condition where the encounter frequency is near the roll natural frequency.Appendix 2 Sample Polar Diagrams The diagram is created from a series of numerical simulations from 5 through 20 knots in 5-knot increments at 15 degree heading increments. This type of diagram can be very useful in helping the shipmaster avoid the occurrence of parametric roll while the ship is operating in severe sea conditions. 2004 . While no simulations were performed for speeds lower than 5 knots. All speed/heading combinations inside of the shaded region exceed a 20-degree maximum roll angle during each 750-second simulation. while the head sea regions are strictly parametric roll. Sea State 9 36 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .induced motions.

Appendix 2 Sample Polar Diagrams FIGURE 3 Sample Polar Diagram – Full Load. Sea State 7 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Sea State 8 FIGURE 4 Sample Polar Diagram – Full Load. 2004 37 .

Sea State 8 38 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Sea State 9 FIGURE 6 Sample Polar Diagram – Partial Load.Appendix 2 Sample Polar Diagrams FIGURE 5 Sample Polar Diagram – Partial Load. 2004 .

2004 39 . Sea State 7 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .Appendix 2 Sample Polar Diagrams FIGURE 7 Sample Polar Diagram – Partial Load.

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wave trough. which follows the structure of the proposed Guide. Science Applications International Corporation ABSTRACT This paper discusses the technical background of the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) “Guide for the Assessment of Parametric Roll Resonance in the Design of Container Carriers. accompanied by significant pitch and yaw motion resulted from the periodic change of transverse stability in head Stability in Longitudinal Waves seas.S.M. Washington [France. The paper describes the verifications that were performed. Now. begins with an explanation of the physics of the parametric roll resonance phenomenon in longitudinal (head and following) waves. and examines methods of probabilistic treatments of parametric roll. Full-formed parts of the bow and stern are carriers. The problem is particularly important given half of a century [Paulling and Rosenberg. Y. roll has been known for many years. INTRODUCTION are present in this case.M. W. Science Applications International Corporation. characterized by a decrease of stability this is not necessarily the best practice for large container when the ship is in the wave crest and an increase in the carriers. Belenky. Verification of the both criteria has been done using the Large Amplitude Motions Program (LAMP).R. K. Member. The paper also discusses probabilistic aspects of numerical simulation of parametric roll in irregular waves. Life Fellow. The problem of parametric roll returned to prominence PHYSICS OF PARAMETRIC ROLL recently as a result of significant cargo loss and damage sustained by a Post-Panamax container carrier on a The material included in this section is primarily voyage from Taiwan to Seattle. a description of methods for calculating amplitude of parametric roll in longitudinal waves that serves as a Severity Criterion. et intended to explain the physical nature of parametric roll al. one of the most sophisticated general seakeeping simulation codes available. Shin. American Bureau of Shipping. several new elements ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . The paper has two main foci: first. Substantial bow flare the average waterplane width is significantly greater than and stern overhang. showing that without using a mathematical model.). 2004. This explanation does not use any mathematical models and was designed to be accessible to engineers with a variety of backgrounds. In the past. the establishment of Susceptibility Criteria that can be used to determine if there is danger of parametric roll and. Lin. 1959.” The paper. cause a dramatic difference in waterline form – more deeply immersed than in calm water and the wall- and therefore in transverse stability – between the crest sided midship is less deep. V. Paulling the long-standing heavy-weather maritime practice of 1961]. now typical of large container in calm water. on September 30. A detailed investigation followed. This makes the mean. It turns out that stability in waves. and trough of a large wave. University of California at Berkeley (Ret. the concern had been mostly for smaller ships in following seas. the The phenomenon of parametrically excited roll concern is for the vulnerability of large container carriers motion has been known to naval architects for almost a in head seas. The large change of stability in head seas was found If a typical containership is located on a wave trough. 2004 41 . J. It is caused by periodic changes of transverse sailing into head seas at reduced speed. to be a direct result of the hull form. Member. Associate Member. DC. American Bureau of Shipping. Member. second. Weems. which showed that the criteria provided a very reasonable means of predicting the likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon.L. Paulling. 2003]. instantaneous waterplane wider with the result that the Despite the fact that the physical nature of parametric GM is increased over the calm water value (see Figure 1).APPENDIX 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Note: This Appendix is reprinted from a paper presented at the SNAME Annual Meeting in Washington.. This information is a large roll motion with up to 35 degrees amplitude also included in the proposed Guide.

42 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . shown in Figure 6. however. its stability the mean waterplane is narrower and the GM is increases when the wave trough is near amidships and correspondingly decreased in comparison to calm water decreases on the wave crest. the rolling moment of the ship will change as a function of the ship’s motions may build up to quite large angles as a result of longitudinal position relative to the waves. the roll angle will be slightly larger than it When a ship is in calm water. or.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas 1 0. 2004 . Sample of parametric roll (parametric resonance) Wave trough amidships The most rapid increase of parametric roll can be observed when two conditions pertain: (1) the ship Calm water encounters the waves at a frequency near twice the natural frequency of roll. an impulsive would have been in calm water (Figure 6). in calm water Figure 5.. when the stability is Figure 3. The situation is analogous to When the roll equilibrium is disturbed in the absence of a that observed during the first quarter. The rolls back to the initial. Consequently. i. and is known as the “natural roll period. the ship a wind gust) can set up an oscillatory roll motion. is greater than the calm water moment. as noted. Form of waterline in wave crest and wave increasing. During the the ship’s stability or restoring moment properties and the second quarter of the period.” crest and the restoring moment now becomes less that the The corresponding frequency is called the “natural roll still water value. When a ship is sailing in head seas. the roll restoring occurs twice during one natural roll period. A sample of such a free roll oscillation is angle than it normally would in calm water with the same shown in Figure 4. and the observations wave excitation moment. when the ship is located with the wave crest amidships. there will be no wave-induced heeling In the third quarter. the ship rolls to a larger frequency”. waves in angle is increased to a larger value than that at the end of which the crests are exactly perpendicular to the ship’s the first quarter. in calm water to return the ship to its equilibrium position. and after the second quarter. in Figure 5 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 10 20 Figure 2. the ship rolls with its natural roll in the fourth quarter are similar to those in the second frequency and the initial behavior is similar to that shown quarter as well. As a result. the ship encounters a wave mass properties. Form of waterline in wave crest vs. and (2) the roll disturbance occurs in Wave crest amidships the time interval between the wave crest and trough amidships position. after the first Roll Motions in Calm Water quarter period. zero degree attitude and continues period of such roll oscillations in calm water depends on to roll to the other side because of its inertia. Form of waterline in wave trough vs. If this stability variation as shown in Figure 2. tending trough vs. the restoring moment. centerline. This is shown in Figure 6. As a result. the ship enters the wave trough moment.5 1 Figure 1. there will be small external and a restoring moment greater than the still water value disturbances such as might be caused by wind gusts. The roll angle continues to increase as in Figure 4. A typical sample record is shown in both waves and calm water are shown in Figure 3. the immersed portion the bow and stern Physics of Parametric Resonance sections are narrower than in calm water. In this situation. the roll If a ship sails in head or following seas. disturbance in roll or roll velocity (such as that caused by At the end of the first quarter of the period.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0. in calm water Figure 4. Sample of free roll motions In contrast. now opposes the motion. The waterlines parametric resonance. roll disturbance.e. In reality. As a result.

Influence of Roll Damping The value of natural roll frequency mostly depends on When a ship rolls in calm water after being disturbed. then that disturbance can time grow provided that the stability fluctuations occur at a 0 frequency approximately twice the natural frequency of roll and provided that the roll damping is less than some threshold value. While the development of parametric roll resonance. it is clear that a key threshold. This section exist. All of mostly on current GM value. If the “loss” of physical basis of parametric roll resonance in following amplitude per period caused by damping is more than the and head seas is essentially identical. head seas “gain” caused by the changing stability in longitudinal parametric roll is more likely coupled with. therefore. describes a relatively simple procedure for evaluating this change. This then parametric excitation. deg. the heave and pitch motion of the ship. whether parametric roll to roll damping (see Figure 7). Wave length also has an these processes contribute to roll damping influence because it is related to the wave frequency on Roll damping plays an important role in the which the frequency of encounter is dependent. the combination of restoring with a greater. In the preceding sections it is shown that a ship Roll Decreasing roll amplitude sailing in longitudinal seas experiences a time-varying during one roll period transverse stability characterized by increased stability when the ship has a wave trough amidships and decreased Roll disturbance stability in the wave crest. of natural roll frequency or when the frequency of encounter is nearly twice that of natural roll frequency. then parametric roll can change of stability in longitudinal seas.25 0. If the element in a ship’s susceptibility to parametric roll is the damping is below the threshold.75 T 2 Figure 6. If the damping is higher than the From the discussion above. more than the “loss”. Development of parametric roll Finally. create maximum to increase unless other factors come into play. GM. and experiences viscous drag. If the “gain” per period is these motions are typically more pronounced in head seas. parametric roll will grow in Summary amplitude. as resonance will not develop. Parametric roll resonance develops qualitatively describes the parametric roll resonance when the frequency of stability change is nearly twice that phenomenon. Successively decreasing roll amplitudes due to “parametric roll”.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Roll. can grow to quite large amplitudes and is referred to as “autoparametrically excited roll” or simply Figure 7. then no parametric roll is possible.5 0. Therefore. Influence of Forward Speed and Wave Direction than-calm-water moment and resisting the roll with less- Longitudinal waves (head and following) cause the than-calm-water moment causes the roll angle to continue most change in stability and. or at least seas. under certain circumstances. 2004 43 . This rolling motion. roll damping in calm water This implies that there is a damping threshold for STABILITY IN LONGITUDINAL SEAS parametric resonance. m 2 Mean GM Value in Waves Parametric Roll Changing of GM Value in Waves 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1 Free Roll 0. A rolling ship generates resonance may occur in following or head seas depends waves and eddies. the roll angles will not increase and parametric influenced by. ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . If such a ship experiences a small arbitrary roll disturbance. GM value (transversal distribution of weight also may the roll amplitudes decrease over successive periods due have an influence).

z ) dz (5) Spreadsheet Calculation Technique for Wave Influence on GM The vertical position of the center of buoyancy can be A spreadsheet computation has been devised that calculated as: provides the essential features of the varying stability as 0. calculated by (1). This simplified computation neglects the pitch-heave motions VCB ( x Cj ) = ∇ ∫M − 0.5 L ∇( xCj ) = 2 ∫Ω − 0.36 crest position are correspondingly calculated as: d C ( xi .5 L C ( x. et al. 0 . which are The assumed coordinate system is shown in Figure 9. x 0 i Cj . z ) dz (3) The displacement volume for each position of the wave crest is calculated as: 0.95 Circular wave frequency rad/s 0. x 0 i Cj . Wave Characteristics each station when the wave crest is located at xCj (amidships) can be calculated as: Wave length (equals to ship 262 length).485 44 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . each position of the wave crest is calculated as: Table 1. m 12. Lines of Post-Panamax C11 class d C ( xi ) container carrier M Ω ( xi .. For a given wave length L and a height hw. Metacentric radii for wave crest and trough conditions can now be calculated as: z I X ( xCj ) x BM ( xCj ) = (7) ∇( xCj ) Finally. d(xi xCj).P.5 L 2 ∫ [ y ( x.5 L 2 the ship moves through longitudinal waves. xCi ) = ∫ y( x .4 The submerged areas at each station for each wave Design draft. xCj ) = d m − 0.1 d C ( xi . Depth. Coordinate system for hydrostatic calculations calculation in longitudinal wave characteristics. given in Table 2.5 L Ω ( x. s 12. 2004 .5hw cos (1) λ Wave period. m 262 Breadth Molded. x Cj ) dx (6) of the ship but includes the effects of wave geometry. xCj )dx (4) The vertical static moment of submerged area at each station for each wave crest positions is calculated as: Figure 8.5 L Length B. are summarized in Table 3. the draft at Table 2. m 40. in [France. x 3 Panamax C11 class container carrier I X ( xCj ) = Cj )] dx (2) 3 −0. 2003]. Principal Dimensions of Post.. its principal characteristics are given in Table 1. xCj ) Ω( xi .Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Sample Ship Data The half beam yC at each station for the wave crest A Post-Panamax C11-class containership was chosen position at xCj is determined by interpolation of the offsets as a sample in this study and is the same as that described at the station’s draft. m 2π ( xi − xCj ) Wave height (1/20 L) 13. xCj ) = ∫ z ⋅ y( x . m 27. the metacentric heights for each position of y wave crest then expressed in the form: GM ( xCj ) = BM ( xCj ) − KG + VCB ( xCj ) (8) Results for the Sample Ship Intermediate and final results of the stability Figure 9. The body plan is shown in Figure The transverse moment of inertia of the waterline for 8.0 The trapezoid method may be used for the integration.

m 17. Ix is the each of these assumptions. displacement. ton take into account the “Smith effect” or dynamic pressure KG.78 9. The program EUREKA includes the capability of Table 4. SUSCEPTIBILITY CRITERIA This assumption of static equilibrium is considered Mathieu Equation suitable for representing the ship moving in following seas where the period of encounter is sufficiently low as Consider a single degree of freedom equation for roll to excite little dynamic response in pitch and heave. the roll wave trough at amidships and it is seen that there is a equation (9) must be transformed to the form of a Mathieu small difference between the two assumptions. and A44 is the added mass curves contain results obtained using the static pitch. Stability changes in waves calculated with computing stability in longitudinal waves. perpendiculars. I x + A44 Figure 10 contains righting arms computed for the Here. δ is the linear (or linearized) damping coefficient. in roll.270 85030 60. according to the approximate Volumetric 70. while the described a procedure would call for an iterative computation that is spreadsheet calculations use the waterplane limited by the best performed in a specialized hydrostatics code. Results are shown for the wave crest and parametric resonance. There is an option to salt water.950 8 displacement in salt water.29 4 KG. m 2.370 72.84 BM.24 8.58 1.59 2 The procedure first places the ship on the wave at the longitudinal position of wave crest specified in the input.370 as an input and integrates hydrostatic pressure around the Displacement in hull up to the actual wave waterline.030 87. 0 The pitch-heave attitude of the ship is then obtained using an assumption of pitch-heave static equilibrium. heave assumption.34 Table 3. GM (t ) = GM m + GM a cos(ωt ) (10) ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .55 17. A description EUREKA of the method is available in [Paulling 1961]. GM. m 12.55 gradient in the wave associated with the wave motion.55 17.160 62.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas As can be seen from Table 3.55 GM.47 0. m. To check if this is possible. The solid and fine dashed transversal moment of inertia. there is a noticeable The approximate calculations and EUREKA software difference in displacement in wave crest and wave trough. 2004 45 . C11 containership in L/20 head and following seas using W is the weight displacement of a ship.05 6. some computations have been performed in which the dynamic pitch-heave attitude of the ship has &φ& + 2δφ& + W ⋅ GM (t ) φ = 0 (9) been obtained by means of a linear ship motions code. yield a slight difference in calm water GM. m3 Weight 72. C11 Stability in waves by static approach equilibrium on a wave. taking into account the changing GM order to test the resulting error if this assumption is used due to wave encounter. we variation about the mean value than GZ obtained using first assume that GM changes sinusoidally with time in the dynamic attitude of the ship. m 17. Table 4 summarizes waves: these results as calculated by EUREKA. EUREKA gives smaller simplified (spreadsheet) method differences for GM values for the ship on the wave crest Value Calm Min Max and wave trough. In motion in head seas. This means that the parametric water GM GM excitation would be larger. m 2. which makes them more conservative. m 7.38 17.77 7.55 17. Such generates closures for bow and stern. The GZ by equation in order to use the Ince-Strutt diagram to the dynamic attitude computation displays somewhat less examine the properties of the solutions. The other two curves were computed using pitch-heave positions from a linear strip theory The variation of GM with time may result in computation. The Value Calm Wave Wave program requires ship offset and wave characteristics water Crest trough (wave length.55 17. m.581 calculation. wave height and position of the wave crest) Weight 72.370 72. This The simple spreadsheet computation described above difference is primarily due to the fact that EUREKA does not provide a search for equilibrium in waves. ton 6 VCB. This is seen to be equivalent to the traditional longitudinal bending moment computed by poising the ship in static Figure 10.93 7. To do this. for head seas. Stability changes in waves calculated with More significantly. Righting arms are then computed and dynamic assumptions (including heave and pitch) for a series of heel angles while preserving equilibrium of weight-buoyancy and trim moments at each heel angle.

q = 0. determined using any φ(τ) = x(τ) ⋅ exp(− µτ) (18) appropriate method.05 5 0. and its amplitude is larger. the minimum of the true curve is shallower.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Here.15 . m 5 Figure 11. including.1 GM. ωm = m .05 True 10 Sinusoidal value approximation 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0. the coefficients of equation (16) are the amplitude of the GM changes in waves. True GM values in waves vs. unbounded. respectively.1 . but these discrepancies are compensated by taking extreme values As is well known. m 0. ωa = (14) I x + A44 I x + A44 of p and q values that correspond to a bounded or unbounded solution can be graphed in a figure that is In order to transform (13) into the standard form of known as the Ince-Strutt diagram.2 Here: Whether a solution is bounded or unbounded depends on W ⋅ GM m W ⋅ GM a the combination of coefficients p and q. the approximation (10). the Mathieu equation. the Mathieu equation (19) may of the true curve of GM instead of GM calculated for in have two types of solutions: bounded (Figure 12) and wave crest and trough amidships.5(GM max − GM min ) (11) δ ω ω µ= . becomes wider. identified with Roman numbers If we now substitute (15) into equation (13) and in Figure 14. Unbounded solution of the Mathieu equation p = 0. GMmax and GMmin are maximal and minimal values The next substitution gets rid of damping: of metacentric height for a number of wave crest positions along the ship hull. Here: Figure 11 shows the changing values of the GM as the wave passes vs. dimensionless quantities: GM a = 0. depicted in Figure 14. d 2x but it is only an approximation. commonly referred as “unstable” (Figure 13). but not limited to.2 -150 10 Position of wave crest in ship fixed coordinates. we introduce dimensionless time: The shaded areas correspond to the bounded solution and τ the unshaded areas to the unbounded solution. with an increase of q. GMa is the Here. we have shapes of curved triangles.5(GM max + GM min ) (12) ω ω ω Here. 2004 . correspond to the unbounded solution and divide both parts by square of the wave frequency ω2. those described above. thus we see at the level q=2. while the maximum is sharper in comparison Bounded and Unbounded Solutions of the Mathieu with the approximation in (10). q = 0. ωa = a (17) GM m = 0. GMm is a mean value of the GM. As can be seen ( p = ωm2 − µ 2 . The areas with the smaller p-intercept grow in d 2φ dτ 2 + 2µ dφ dτ ( + ωm2 + ωa2 cos(τ) ⋅ φ = 0) (16) width faster. sinusoidal approximation 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Substitution of definition (10) into the roll equation 5 (9) yields: 10 ( &φ& + 2δφ& + ω2 + ω2 cos(ωt ) ⋅ φ = 0 m a ) (13) Figure 13. Each such triangle obtain the dimensionless form: touches the p-axis and. 0. 46 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Individual calculation of + ( p + q cos(τ) ) ⋅ x = 0 (19) dτ 2 the GM values for successive instantaneous wave positions along the ship gives a more realistic picture. τ = ωt ⇒ t = (15) ω The unshaded areas. the first unshaded area is the widest. q = ωa2 ) (20) from this figure. This finally expresses roll in the form of a Mathieu equation: The sinusoidal expression for changes of the GM value in waves permits the use of the Mathieu equation. The combinations ωm = .1 Calm water Figure 12. The true curve is also Equation (Ince-Strutt Diagram) shifted a bit. Bounded solution of the Mathieu equation -100 -50 0 50 100 150 p = 0.

As a result. Linear (solid) and high-order (dashed) 0 2 4 6 8 p approximations for the boundary of the first instability zone Figure 14. The problem is that solution of zone of the Ince-Strutt diagram: the Mathieu equation cannot be expressed in terms of 1 q 1 q elementary functions. the entire Ince-Strutt shown in Figure 15. 2004 47 . to this zone is commonly referred to as the principal An unbounded solution of the Mathieu equation x(τ) parametric resonance.e. roll is still first zone is wider. In addition. et al. diagram can be considered in terms of the amplitude of parametric excitation vs. expressed as the square of the frequency 1 q q 2 q3 1 q 4 pb 2 = + − − − ⋅ + .4 0. q V 0. it is C11 container carrier. 1990] than the unbounded as the solution of the Mathieu equation. It also means that there is a threshold value for roll damping for each pair of Mathieu parameters p and q..1 0. 4 2 8 32 3 128 Therefore. (as in Figure 13). there are known pb1 = − pb 2 = + (21) expansions for periodical solutions of the Mathieu 4 2 4 2 equation corresponding to the boundary between “stable” Higher order approximations are available from [Hayashi. Also. since the roll damping is larger than the threshold. known as Mathieu functions. The unbounded motion belonging Figure 12. according to [France. (23) ratio. If the range for the principal parametric resonance. the parameter q plays the role of an amplitude Both approximations for the first instability zone are of parametric excitation.25 .. Approximations to the Ince-Strutt Diagram To calculate this threshold. and “unstable” zones. in equations (17) and (20). decays with the damping decrement µ if x(τ) is a so the excitation frequency is twice the natural roll periodical solution of the Mathieu equation. the square of non-dimensional 0. i.2 0. the threshold value can be presented as: ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . even if the Mathieu equation is unbounded. (22) 4 2 8 32 3 128 frequencies.4 III IV q (-) 6 VI II 0. does not necessarily mean that rolling The second instability zone intersects the axis at will be unbounded because the exponential term exp(-µτ) p = 1 .3 0. it is necessary to find a [Stoker. It means that the corresponding roll φ(τ) p = 0.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas The parameter p is seen. Unbounded solutions belonging to solution back to a decaying form. 1953].2 4 I 2 0 0. this zone are defined as the fundamental parametric resonance. it does not touch the axis. as shown in frequency at this point..1 0 0. is narrower and requires some finite value of GM variations even at p=1/4. (15).. so we see that the unbounded solution shown in Figure 13 belongs to the first instability zone The Mathieu equation (19) has a periodic bounded solution since the damping was excluded by the The first instability zone intersects the axis exactly at substitution (18). roll will be resonance is smaller [Sanchez and Nayfeh. In the following. only the principal also means that with linear damping.. bounded. If The frequency range for the fundamental parametric roll damping is less than the threshold value. 1950] gives the following linear way to express the increment of the unbounded solution approximations for the boundaries of the first instability of the Mathieu equation. 1 q q2 q3 1 q4 to be equal to the square of ratio of natural and excitation pb1 = − − + − ⋅ + . the instability zone parametric resonance will be considered. The parameter q reflects the level of GM change in waves. However. (17) and (20). Ince-Strutt diagram It is also customary to refer to the unshaded areas as Threshold Problem instability zones. which corresponds to the frequency ratio of 2. only the principal parametric regimes were increment of the Mathieu solution is not enough to identified during analysis of extreme ship motion of the overcome decrement of roll damping. where the excitation frequency is equal to the might undo the effect of boundlessness by damping the natural roll frequency..5 p (-) Figure 15. as can be seen in equations (11). Based 1953] transformed for the Mathieu equation (19): on these functions and following [Hayashi. The 2003].6 frequency.

kn 22. s 19. the simplified method produces slightly more conservative results for the same hull speed and wave. the Susceptibility Criteria for parametric roll must consist of Figure 16.25 As can be seen in Figure 14. Ince-Strutt diagram for simplified method two conditions: (open) and EUREKA (solid) (approximations for the boundary of the first instability zone: linear – solid and Frequency condition: frequency of parametric high-order – dashed) excitation.8 and p with numerical solution of the roll equation (9) and Encounter frequency.47 the Ince-Strutt diagram. m 2. rad/s 0.2 0. the above Amplitude of parametric excitation.5 p (-) changing GM (9) and the Mathieu equation (19). rad/s 0. The points on the Ince- Strutt diagram are given in Figure 16. GM value in wave crest. rad/s 0. The frequency condition can then be formulated as: 1 q q2 q3 1 q4 1 q Table 6. Encounter period.14 The well known approximate formula was used for the relationship between GM value and roll natural Encounter frequency.332 calculations (see Table 4 for stability in waves) are given Natural period in calm water T0. rad/s 0.1 0. rad/s 0.29 2π 2π GM Accepted non-dimensional damping µ 0.05 ωφ = = (26) Mathieu parameter p 0. should be about twice the natural roll frequency.8 B Mathieu parameter q 0. the encounter wave frequency.1 0 0. respectively.25 If we compare results from applying the frequency criterion based on stability computed in longitudinal Frequency condition of Susceptibility Yes waves using the simplified method and computed using Criteria (24) EUREKA.2 then would be conservative.758 frequency where GM and B are in meters.. m 7.19 Tφ 0. Frequency condition of Susceptibility Criteria − − + − ⋅ ≤ p≤ + (25) (EUREKA) 4 2 8 32 3 128 4 2 The Mathieu parameters p and q are to be calculated with GM value in calm water.33 approximations assuming |q| is small.3 0.58 formulae (11). i.6 1 3 µT = q 1 − q × 2 16 2 (24) 0. kn 25. s 20. the nonlinear approximation slightly shifts both boundaries to the left.87 Numerical results based on the simplified method GM value in wave trough.363 conditions should be tested against the real values of q Accepted ship speed.58 (see Table 3 for stability in waves) and EUREKA Natural frequency in calm water ω0. and (29). (12).2 Structure of Susceptibility Criteria 0 Summarizing the consideration of roll equation with 0.922 in Tables 5 and 6.758 Damping threshold condition: roll damping should be Maximal GM value. (16). m 6.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas 0.4 q 2 − 16 + q 4 + 352q 2 + 1024 p 1 − q (-) 16q 0.59 below the damping threshold. Natural frequency in calm water.82 Frequency Condition of Susceptibility Criteria Accepted non-dimensional damping µ 0. Minimal GM value. s 8. It Mathieu parameter q 0. Amplitude of parametric excitation. Encounter period. s 7. m 0. 48 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .e. Frequency condition of Susceptibility Criteria parameters p and q: such that points defined by these (simplified method) parameters should belong to an instability zone on GM value in calm water. to use the nonlinear Frequency condition of Susceptibility Yes approximation for the left boundary and the linear Criteria (24) approximation for the right one. m 0. This condition can be formulated in terms of the Mathieu Table 5. m 2.803 the Mathieu equation (19).315 Accepted ship speed. rad/s 0. 2004 .05 Mathieu parameter p 0.309 Since both parts of the criteria are based on Natural period in calm water T0.4 0.

should be noted that the EUREKA–based calculation The error is probably caused by the assumption that q is yields a smaller value for the threshold.16 ωm − 0. and a3 are found by a three.558 ωa = 0.16 ωm − 0. The simplified method gives more conservative values. ωm ) = a1 ωa + a 2 ωm + a3 (27) ω2 Coefficients a1. Numerical solution of roll equation (9) with ωm = 0.16q + 0.609 . ωe = ω w + w V (34) g dimensional linear regression based on numerical integration results.759 (32) Time (-) Figure 17.574 ωa = 0.744 (29) damping threshold by 0. below.1559 (data are based on Sample numerical results based on both the simplified method) simplified method and EUREKA are summarized in 10 Table 7. The frequency. 5 Table 7.002 ωa + 0. The result is as follows: ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Equation (34) gives the encounter frequency in head seas.002 ωa + 0.276 (28) Criteria Formula (25) is supposed to yield a value for the dimpling In order to get the correction coefficient. the encounter increased until the solution became bounded. ωm ) = 1. 2004 49 . condition of the Susceptibility Criteria. see formulae (30) and (32) simplified method: to be ωm = 0. a2. ω0 µ < 0. The calibration procedure consisted of a series of numerical integrations of the roll equation (9) with different combinations of the dimensionless frequencies Choice of Forward Speed for Susceptibility Criteria ωm and ωa . ωe is another major factor in the development correction coefficient is searched in the form: of parametric roll.208 0.20 0.558 ωa = 0. The dimensionless frequencies ωm correct the error in the damping threshold and further to and ωa were set based on the calculation results with the appear as coefficient k3.19 Figure 18.220 threshold with formula (32) µT=0. it the threshold damping is underestimated by formula (24). unity should be added to (28).Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Damping Threshold Condition of Susceptibility f ( ωa .1875 ⋅ q 2 (31) 100 0 200 400 600 800 1000 k 2 = 1. This comparison small.581 and damping set to damping Damping threshold µT 0. longitudinal waves and on the program EUREKA.132 (data are based on Comparing numerical results for the damping threshold EUREKA) based on the simplified method for stability variation in As can be clearly seen from both Figures 17 and 18. f ( ωa .002 p + 0.5 ⋅ q ⋅ k1 ⋅ k 2 1 − k 32 (30) 100 ωE 50 Here the coefficients k1. Numerical solution of roll equation (9) with q 2 − 16 + q 4 + 352q 2 + 1024 p k3 = (33) ωm = 0. k2 and k3 are calculated with the Roll (rad) 0 following formulae: 50 k1 = 1 − 0. made on the frequency Mathieu parameter q that are typical of containerships.609 and damping set to damping 16q threshold with formula (32) µT=0. Damping was initially set equal to the While wave length affects stability changes for the threshold according to equation (24) and then was given ship geometry and wave height. so formula (24) needs calibration for values of the is in line with the previous one. Similar The final form of the damping threshold coefficient is results based on EUREKA calculations are shown in given in equation (30): Figure 18. included to reduce the error on the dangerous side: Here. the damping µ is set slightly greater than the k = 1.249 Time (-) Mathieu parameter q 0.5% in order to be just above the The coefficient k defined by formula (29) is intended to expected threshold. resulting in the time history shown in Figure 17.249 0. A safety margin of 2% also needs to be threshold of the Mathieu equation solution if |q| is sufficiently small. Damping threshold condition of Susceptibility Criteria Roll (rad) 0 Value Simplified EUREKA 5 method 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Mathieu parameter p 0.

we use just the plus sign. et al. and the scattering of the incident speed: wave (diffraction). it is possible (e. while the mean 2VS waterline was used for the computations of radiation and One solution is always positive and another is always diffraction forces.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas The relationship between wave frequency and wave VERIFICATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY CRITERIA length in deep water is Simulation Tools 2πg ωw = (35) Verification of the Susceptibility Criteria was carried λ out with the LAMP time-domain simulation software. 2 = − g ± g + 8VS ωm g (40) the instantaneous submerged body.. including an extensive series of calculation for stability but with a more critical encounter frequency. Basic Verification g (g + 8VS ω m ) − g The first set of verification was performed to make ωw = (41) sure that Susceptibility Criteria were capable of indicating 2VS parametric resonance. are computed at each time step and the average value of the GM differs somewhat from that in 6-DOF equations of motions are integrated in the time- calm water as may be seen in Figure 11. If a initial boundary value problem using a potential flow ship is not capable of the speed Vpr. In order to verify such capability. including the second-order velocity terms A negative susceptibility check with the speed (37). LAMP also computes main girder equation (36). loads using a rigid or elastic beam model and includes an g ( 2ω m − ω w ) interface for developing Finite-Element load data sets V pr = (36) ω 2w from the 3-D pressure distribution [Weems.44 rad/s was successfully reproduced in [Belenky.. The new wave length is: the criteria should be applied for the case when existence of parametric roll is certain. the check has to be “panel” method.. should be reconsidered since there might be A number of LAMP validation studies have been another wave length perhaps with a smaller change of performed. the time-domain [Lin and Yue. 1998]). 1998].. however. A 3-D susceptibility check should be carried out with this speed disturbance velocity potential is computed by solving an (36) and with the wave length equal to ship length. Navy CG-47 class cruiser in storm sea conditions Assuming the ship moves with the speed VS. Once the velocity potential is computed. Parametric roll is most likely to develop when the LAMP – the Large Amplitude Motions Program – encounter frequency is about twice the natural roll uses a time stepping approach in which all of the forces frequency while in a wave length about equal to the ship and moments acting on the ship. A ωw + VS − 2ω m = 0 (39) description of the latest development and most recent g LAMP applications can be found in [Shin. The ship speed domain using a 4th-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. LAMP-2 was used. Formula (47) is seen to be a quadratic equation. One such case involving the C11- λ= = 2 = (42) k ωW ( g (g + 8VS ωm ) − g ) 2 class container carrier at a speed of 10 knots in a wave height of 8. These studies have been to find a wave length meeting the condition ωe = 2ω m . 2003]. et al. In for this condition of parametric resonance is given by addition to motions. et al. [Weems. We note that the roll natural frequency in waves the wave-body interaction.S. A combined body boundary condition is done for the service speed VS. by (36).4 m and a wave circular frequency of 0. In most cases. Negative speed calculated with (36) means that The central part of the LAMP System is the 3-D parametric roll may be expected in following waves. this will be the maximum service ship motion (radiation).. 2003]. Bernoulli’s equation can V = V pr if V pr < VS (38) then be used to compute the hull pressure distribution. 50 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . appendages. may be different from that in calm water because the and green-water. negative. such as conditions from 2π 2πg 8πgVS2 [France. In this version of LAMP the 1 2 hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces were calculated on ω w 1.. et al.g. If a solution of the wave-body interaction problem in the ship is capable of the speed given by (36). closest to this speed given imposed that incorporates the effects of forward speed. The potential is computed using a hybrid singularity model that uses both transient Green V = Vs if V pr > VS (37) functions and Rankine sources [Lin et al.. 1993]. including those due to length. instrumental in validating both of LAMP’s “body- and this is given in equation (39): nonlinear” and “approximate body-nonlinear” approaches to predicting the nonlinear behavior of bending moments ω 2w for flared-bow ships in extreme sea conditions. For the purpose of validating the parametric roll having the following solutions: criteria. 2004 . Since only the head seas case is considered here. et al. 1990. the U. control systems. 1999].

213 20 Frequency condition of Susceptibility Satisfied Roll.6 q (-) 10 knots) 0.4 0.05 Figure 20.319 40 Mathieu parameter q 0.312 rad/s Figure 19. 0. a significant rise of roll amplitude is accompanied by a small decrease in heave (Figure 22) and a very small decrease in pitch 5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 (Figure 23).087 40 Damping threshold condition of Satisfied 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time.4 4 2 0. Pitch.30 GM value in wave trough. deg Figure 21 contains a typical picture of the 0 development of parametric resonance.2 0.5 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time. Development of parametric roll in regular waves (wave amplitude 4. ωa.2 Heave. speed 0. Geometry of C11 class container carrier Natural period in calm water T0. Heave motions accompanying parametric roll in regular waves ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .158 Amplitude of parametric excitation. rad/s 0.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas 2003].1 0. Table 8. The model geometry is shown in Figure 19 and 5 panelization in Figure 20. deg 0 Criteria (25) 20 Damping threshold value (30) 0.254 rad/s Accepted ship speed.52 GM value in wave crest. m 2.3 0.55 Encounter period. s 11. Panel model of C11 class container carrier Mathieu parameter p 0.44 s-1.2 m.43 Accepted non-dimensional damping µ 0. m 1. Basic verification of Susceptibility Criteria GM value in calm water. Basic verification of Susceptibility Criteria: (wave amplitude 4. Pitch motions accompanying to parametric roll Susceptibility Criteria are summarized in Table 8 and in regular waves shown in Figure 24. s 20. s Figure 24. kn 10 Encounter frequency.64 Natural frequency in calm water ω0. frequency 0. Time. s Numerical results of the application of the Figure 23. m 0 p (-) 2 0 0 0. s Susceptibility Criteria Figure 21. speed 10 kn) Figure 22.44 s-1. Time histories of the simulated motions are shown in Figures 21-23. 0. 2004 51 . m 4.2 m. frequency 0. Here.

98 5. Further verification involves testing if the deadweight tanker were next used. rad/s 0.12 0.05 0. while calculations are summarized in Tables 11 and q (-) 12 0.400 ton.029 0.478 0.456 0.6 26. Principal data for the tanker is summarized in Table 9 and shown in Figure 25.37 0.484 0.1 0.000-ton possible.1595 Mathieu parameter q 0.000-ton tanker parametric roll.98 5.0218 0. There is no evidence criteria are capable of correctly distinguishing whether that large tankers are susceptible to parametric resonance.13 0. parametric resonance is the Susceptibility Criteria.3 0.154 Damping threshold 0 0 0.424 0.00 1.0250 0.035 0. Here.55 0.00 1.00 GM / wave trough .00 1.5 Figure 25.98 5. data for a 300. m 1.789 Mathieu parameter p 0.0736 0 Damping parameter µ 0. Table 9.462 0. m 450 426 385 310 246 196 171 GM /wave crest.249 0.241 0.40 0.327 0. The results are unlikely for large tankers.033 0. Susceptibility Criteria provide reasonable boundaries for Figure 26.50 0.442 0.4 0. displacement 76..631 0.1 m.724 0.189 0.2 0.00 1.98 Encounter freq. rad/s 0. 2004 .98 5.98 5.38 0.1 m.00 1.60 Wave length. Boundary verification wave height 13. EUREKA calculations Wave freq.183 0.508 0. m 5.4 0.0200 Criteria satisfied No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Simulation indicates parametric No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No resonance 52 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .445 0. conditions that lead to the parametric resonance are despite the fact that tankers of similar size have been in possible from those that do not. Summary of numerical results for Boundary verification wave height 13. In order to facilitate such operation since the early 1970s. a series of LAMP simulations were carried out limited vertical shape changes in combination with with variations of wave length.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Boundary Verification Sensitivity Verification Susceptibility Criteria establish certain boundaries for In order to perform an overall check of sensitivity for Mathieu parameters. while keeping all other relatively slow speed makes parametric roll extremely characteristics exactly the same.036 0.98 5. The full form with testing.56 0. Lines of 300.338 0.491 0.410 0.2 0 p (-) 0 0.00 1. given in Table 10 and its body plan are shown in Figure 0. solid squares – no parametric roll As can be seen both from Table 9 and Figure 25.

3 0.751 Damping parameter µ (with accepted 0. Molded Breadth.0 Figure 28. m 4.318 0.4389 0. rad/s 0.4 Wave frequency.22 11.5 Amp. m 5.0 respectively. Geometry and panelization are presented in Figures 28 and 29.5 19. rad/s 0.1 12. Tanker data second check of the Susceptibility Criteria using stability Length BP. rad/s 0.0 enough to enter the zone of unbounded solution of the Displacement. m 4. m 52.33 Figure 27.6 resonance condition for encounter frequency) in Figure Param.5 roll damping 5% of critical) Mathieu parameter p 0. simulation results (roll.485 0. s 11.0 12. kn 12. rad/s 0. in calm water ω0.0 yields a negative frequency condition.6444 Encounter period. The first check of Susceptibility Criteria Depth.0 12.86 20.1268 0. of param.6 q (-) Natural freq.3891 4.of parametric excitation.3222 Natural period in calm water T0. Method of calculating stability in Simpl EUREKA the damping threshold condition was not satisfied by the waves second check. excitation.5 0. Param. The second check indicated a positive frequency condition of the Susceptibility Criteria.3222 Natural period in calm water T0.02 Frequency condition of Susceptibility Yes Yes Criteria (4.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Figure 27 shows Ince-Strutt diagrams for the first and Table 10. m 5.1 254. and simulation results waves for the 2nd check (speed is chosen to set parametric Param. rad/s 0. s 19.492 31.0 Accepted ship speed. Geometry of the 300. m 4. Table 12.0269 0. rad/r 0. GM value in wave crest.4 0.0288 0.0513 0.4 simply too slow and the stability in waves did not change Draft 21.25 Nat. which was expected because the speed was especially set up to Table 11.3891 4.49) Damping threshold 0.80 0.5 19. s 9.000 ton tanker ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . kn 12.0136 0.6329 0.55 parametric roll. m 4.0458 second check. (open– simplified method. roll wave height.0 computed by the simplified method and by EUREKA.01014 Damping threshold condition of No No Susceptibility Criteria Figure 29. (40). resonance ship speed. solid-EUREKA) Frequency condition (32) No No To confirm the absence of parametric roll for the tanker. However.928 9.4389 Amp.second check heave and pitch) for the 1st check condition (wave length Method of calculating of stability in Simpl. freq. ton 318950 Mathieu equation. Susceptibility Criteria for tanker. kn 19. s 19.4201 4. m 320.2 0. kn 12.22 0 p (-) Damping parameter µ (with accepted 0.0 0.7 GM value in calm water. Susceptibility Criteria for tanker.1199 Parametric resonance ship speed. rad/s 0.2 1st check Encounter frequency.025 roll damping 5% of critical) Mathieu parameter p 0. m 19. roll wave freq.2494 0.55 GM value in wave crest.0288 0 0. m 31.2494 Mathieu parameter q 0.3222 0.316 5.025 0. m 262.1 0. Damping threshold 0 0 LAMP simulations were carried out in conditions exactly Damping threshold condition (37) No No corresponding to those of the first and second susceptibility checks.3672 4. Ince-Strutt diagram for the tanker: first and Mathieu parameter q 0. m 13.8304 5.first check meet the frequency of parametric resonance.56 Encounter period.3222 0. roll wave length (50). The ship was KG.56 0.000 ton tanker Encounter frequency.34 2nd check Accepted ship speed. Panelization for the 300.52 GM value in wave trough.54 GM value in wave trough.104 0.0 12. rad/s 0. which ruled out the possibility of GM value in calm water. EUREKA equal to ship length) in Figure 30. in calm water ω0.0913 Param. 2004 53 .

It is also known (see. 1981]. amplitude. deg 0 on the GM-related term only. 1990] obtained by applying the method of multiple scales [Nayfeh. the system dissipates more Susceptibility Criteria. et al. effective spring constant with amplitude.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas These LAMP simulations confirmed the fact that itself at a certain amplitude provided that capsizing does large tankers are not susceptible to parametric roll – a not occur. see [Umeda. s retaining only the linearized damping coefficient δ: speed 12 kn st Figure 30. Other actions are different. as well as a Although the actions of both terms have similar sample application of the multiple scales method. ( m p e ) &φ& + 2δφ& + ω 2 1 + a cos(ω t ) ⋅ φ − a φ 3 = 0 3 (43) Here a3 is a third power coefficient used to 5 approximate the nonlinear GZ curve. In the real Formula (47) demonstrates how the nonlinearity world. affects the parametric roll amplitude since the amplitude though sometimes large.000-ton tanker... 2003]. which came up negative for the energy than is input from parametric excitation. therefore. The 5 solution is searched around a frequency that is about 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 twice the natural frequency: Time. of natural roll frequency. the steady-state Applicability of any solution based on the Mathieu amplitude and phase can be expressed as: equation is limited because it is linear: it can indicate conditions when parametric roll can be generated. its practical application for a real ship energy ceases once the roll achieves a certain angle. however. 2003] and [Neves. a p = ω 2a / ω 2m . et al. Nonlinearity of the GZ curve at large analytical methods also can be applied. that was well known from Nonlinear damping has a tendency to increase with operational experience. 2004 . s 1 2 nd Figure 31. Although the formula for the amplitude of parametric Strutt diagram.. The two major nonlinear terms in the one-degree-of-freedom rolling equation are lim φ a = ∞ (48) a3 →0 the restoring and damping terms. Then. so sooner or later it will grow above the simulations showed good agreement with the damping threshold. The solution is searched in the REGULAR WAVES form: φ(t ) = φ a sin(ωe t + β) (45) Influence of Nonlinearity Using the method of multiple scales. as shown in Figure tends to infinity as the third-power coefficient a3 21. deg 0 Asymptotic Methods Based on the above. contains an approximation 54 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . The latter completes the sensitivity also leads to stabilization of the roll amplitude. the solution of the Mathieu 3a3 equation is unbounded and grows indefinitely. Such an answer is not enough β= arcsin (46) 2 ωe ωa for engineering practice: the solution must determine how large the parametric roll might develop if conditions ωe2 − 4ω m 2 − 0. for example [Bulian. At the same time. As a encounters difficulties. ωe = ω 2m + ε ⋅ σ (44) speed 12 kn 4 Here ε is a small value (bookkeeping parameter) and AMPLITUDE OF PARAMETRIC ROLL IN σ is a tuning parameter. and. the physics of their available from [Belenky and Sevastianov. 2003]. which is a result. parametric roll is limited to a finite. but it is 1 8δ unable to predict amplitude. et angles of heel leads to a significant change of the al. Roll motion: 2 check wave length 254. check of the Susceptibility Criteria. 5 2003]) that the nonlinearity of the GZ curve is more important in the stabilization of parametric roll than nonlinear damping.5ωe ωe2 a 2p − 64δ 2 satisfy the Susceptibility Criteria (25) and (30). rolling equation (13) is re- 5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 written with only the restoring nonlinearity meanwhile Time. as noted before. fact. As an approximation we take into account the wave influence Roll. It is known that nonlinear terms in the rolling equation decreases: stabilize parametric rolling. A detailed description of the solution. The roll equation (43). Here we use the solution from [Sanchez and Nayfeh. Roll motion: 1 check wave length 320 m. Roll. these roll velocity. which 300. Once φa = (47) parametric roll is indicated.6 m. Change of the natural frequency Sample Calculations with Asymptotic Formula takes the system out of the instability zone of the Ince. is also results in limiting parametric roll. an energy balance is established and roll stabilizes background for formula (47). This means that the input of additional roll (47) is simple.

frequency 0. the transition is to be made from wave Figure 21 in the wave frequency.945 (amplitude of parametric excitation).2 m. deg formula. m 3. ωm rad /s of a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. First. This is significantly different compared with the result of the asymptotic 0 10 20 30 40 50 φ.482 &φ& + 2δφ& + ω 2 f (φ.604 dimensional interpolation in a table of calculated values Amplitude of parametric roll.0 10 knots) 0. the new Roll frequency based on approximated GZ 0. m 4. The roll time history is shown in V ⋅t Figure 34. but the wave length crest position to time variable: equals to ship length. expressed in terms of 0. the series of curves at Figure 32 have to be presented as a surface. and this may not be sufficiently Formula accurate. kn 10.997 m .393 formulae might be especially complex.2 and the formula for the amplitude could be derived from GM value based on approximated GZ curve.839 m 0 Other numerical results are given in Table 13.04 degrees. as shown in Figure 32. rad/s 0. ωe. As noted above. 1/s 2 preferable at this stage. This figure includes a GZ curve 0. t ) = 0 (50) m Forward speed.47 of the GZ curve.0 Averaged Time. However. deg the result of approximating the average GZ curve using -0. Amplitude of Parametric Roll with Asymptotic the first expansion.5 averaged over all wave positions and a calm water GZ Averaged GZ curve is also depicted for reference. the wave crest along ship length Another possible reason is that formula (48) is derived as Table 13.485 s-1. so the direct Third power coefficient.5 Figure 34.5 real ship.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas for the GZ curve using a third power polynomial.5 Calm water The amplitude of parametric roll obtained with the GZ LAMP simulation is 26. Then. Development of parametric roll in regular waves (wave amplitude 4. m predicting the parametric roll amplitude in the case of a 1. Approximation of the averaged GZ curve is shown in Figures 32 and 33: with third power polynomial GZ (φ) = A1φ − A3φ 3 (49) 40 The following values were obtained as a result of the Roll Angle. λ. A3 = 2. rad/s 0. requiring solution curve. Figure 33 contains 0 10 20 30 40 50 φ. m 40 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 2. Figure 32 shows a set of GZ curves calculated 1. Wave amplitude.109 numerical integration of the rolling equation seems to be angular accelerations a3. s GZ 1. see The case above is slightly different from that on Figure 35. m 262 The results might be improved by using a higher order polynomial for the approximation of the GZ curve.0 The restoring term f(φ. φa deg 56. this does not provide sufficient accuracy for GZ. GZ curves calculated for different positions of approximation may be the reason for the difference. However. The averaged GZ curve obtained in this way Figure 33. Degree mean square curve fitting: 20 A1 = 3.5 is responsible for stabilizing the parametric roll. 20 GZ.997 the second or higher order expansion. x = V ⋅ t − L ⋅ floor (51) λ ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . 2004 55 . and therefore the difference between the actual shape and the Figure 32. t) has to be obtained by two- Encounter wave frequency.487 The amplitude of parametric roll may be obtained by excitation. Wave length.5 the method of least squares together with a third order polynomial. Amplitude of GM value changes in wave 1.0 with EUREKA for a number of positions of the wave Approximated GZ crest along the ship hull. speed 1. the nonlinearity of the GZ curve -0. ap numerical integration of the following rolling equation: Incident wave frequency ω. m Numerical Methods Non-dimensional amplitude of parametric 0.

provided it is long enough. If the process is not ergodic. deg c= = 2πωW λ (53) Tw 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 GZ(φ. et from this solution equals 31 degrees. 2004 . another series of LAMP simulations were specifically aimed at studying the probabilistic Figure 35.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas The numerical function floor is defined as the greatest solution. Irregular waves in the open sea are known to be ergodic processes within the period of quasi-stationarity. GM m Nonlinearity of the dynamic system makes The function sign(φ) is defined as –1 if the value of description of its response to random excitation more roll angle φ is negative and defined as +1 if positive. The above procedure is the basis of the Severity integer number smaller than the argument (V ⋅ t / λ) . On the other hand the response of a nonlinear system might be Figure 36. which is much al. s Figure 37.stationary process. The main concern here is the righting arm by the averaged GM value and making it role that nonlinearity plays in the dynamics of parametric symmetrical with roll angles port and starboard for roll... its statistical characteristics can be evaluated from one realization. time in the form (51) permits the restoring term to be it must be clear as to what kind of stochastic process the presented as a periodic function of time. Restoring moment as a function of wave characteristics of irregular rolling in the regime of position and roll angle parametric resonance [Belenky.. If the process is ergodic. Here Criterion of parametric roll. that is. restoring term is shown in Figure 36. The complicated and the greatest concern is ergodicity and symbol |φ| signifies absolute value.t) Ergodicity is a quality of a stationary stochastic process that is not applicable to a non. The steady state amplitude obtained parametric roll in a C11 class containership [Belenky. et al. As the Using the relationship between wave crest position and ultimate goal is an estimate of the risk of parametric roll. It is mathematically proven that if a dynamical system is linear. Restoring term as a function of time and non-ergodic and several realizations would be needed to roll angle obtain reliable statistical estimates. The resulting distribution.x) 20 Wave trough amidships 40 Wave crest amidships Time. Result of numerical integration of rolling equation (50) PARAMETRIC ROLL IN IRREGULAR WAVES Influence of Nonlinearity Following successful parametric roll simulation with φ LAMP and FREDYN programs described in [France. since without nonlinearity the parametric oscillations symmetrical ship geometry and loading conditions. t ) (54) the parametric roll would be significantly nonlinear. yields are not bounded. Dividing the parametric roll constitutes. et Wave crest position x al.. 2003]. It would be logical to suggest that the sign(φ) dynamical system capable of an adequate description of f (φ. 2003]. The result of the integration of equation (50) is The second series of LAMP simulations for shown in Figure 37. et al. V is a ship speed relative to incident waves: V = VS + c (52) 40 Where c is wave celerity: 20 λ Roll. 56 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . the time when a sea t state could be considered constant. we have to consider a statistically significant number of realizations in order to get reliable statistical estimates. t ) = GZ (| φ |. 2003] was carried out using exactly the same closer to the LAMP result than was the asymptotic conditions as the first one series [France. 2003]. Ergodicity f(φ. then its φ response to ergodic excitation is also ergodic.

More details of this study are available from the same JONSWAP spectrum.73% confidence application to parametric roll. numerical simulations with LAMP between realization estimates is caused by the absence of and FREDYN successfully reproduced parametric roll in ergodicity and not by the random error from insufficient irregular seas. 2003]. Therefore. so any roll angles above 20 degrees are attributed to parametric 20 resonance and included in the statistics to evaluate risk. it seems logical to use these statistical data. are available for regular also normal while the response of a nonlinear system is waves. as indicated in Figure 39. which means that the difference As noted above. The Roll Variance. Probability distribution of roll motions 0 [Belenky. this approach involves significant Realization Number computational costs. deg 20 Figure 40. s -40 -20 0 20 40 Roll Motions. 20 The above results should be taken into account when 40 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 planning time domain simulations in irregular seas. the envelope approach is also a logical choice. normal distribution. for a large container ship. The distribution of parametric roll was found to be quite different from normal as may be ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .. which also adds to computational open sea is usually well described by a Gaussian or effort..08 Probability Density 40 Roll Angle. et al.. It is very clear that these confidence intervals do not overlie one another. 2003] realizations involves a large frequency set as frequency step determines the statistically representative length of realization. where results This section reviews different methods of treating for roll are shown. 2003]. Sample of two parametric realizations expensive. Realization variance estimates and needed for the voyage simulations require equally long confidence intervals for roll motion incident wave realizations. this is not a major consideration.. 2003] for Probability Distribution more details. Long roll response realizations Figure 39. 0. Further statistical analysis indicated the absence of ergodicity of roll. since Time.) Absence of ergodicity requires repeating The second problem is related to the probability the same simulation of a given set of environmental distribution. Each point there represents roll irregular nonlinear roll and examines them for possible variance estimates along with 99. e. et al. This makes time domain simulation more computationally Figure 38.1 response realizations are shown below in Figure 38. instruments for evaluation of the operational risk of 100 parametric roll [Leavdou and Palazzi. An assumption was used that.g. but with the present rapid growth in computing speed. With the evident advantage of using the most 0 10 20 30 40 50 sophisticated tools. Construction of long wave [Belenky. The difference between them is quite obvious. deg2 approach adopted in the referred paper uses voyage 80 simulation with several environmental conditions as the 60 ships sail from departure to destination ports. intervals. (See [Belenky and Sevastianov. 40 parametric roll is the only cause of excessive roll. Again. but with a different from [Belenky. deg 20 0 20 40 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Time. s several realizations for the same conditions are necessary. set of random phases for each realization. If a not necessarily normal. it is proven that the response Since most of the analytical tools to treat parametric of a linear dynamical system to a Gaussian distribution is roll. deg 40 Roll Angle. Two of the roll 0. 2003]. et al. 2004 57 . The probability distribution of waves in the conditions many times. the Mathieu equation. while heave and pitch still can be Review of Probabilistic Methods assumed ergodic.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas The second series consisted of 50 realizations generated seen in Figure 40.

several general solutions are available for a Markov If a process has a relatively narrow spectrum. This wave height has to be large enough to put parametric excitation above the threshold and still be realistic enough to be encountered during a severe storm. center of gravity. 1993] for Choice of Wave Height calculating probability of ship capsizing due to pure loss The review. 1988] and roll in beam seas [Francescutto 1991. an equivalent design wave can be Lpp used in order to assess parametric roll. see samples of application for several relatively small waves. 2003]. as shown value depends on all the previous values. 1982a] and [Bulian. also by [Belenky number of waves. Group Structure of irregular seas [Belenky and Sevastianov. shows that there is no well- of stability in quartering seas. et al. 1961] ways is to use a wave scatter table. 1990] and [Umeda and Yamakoshi.. with a group of relative high waves followed by deterministic excitation. 2003]. It was found that parametric roll is more likely to regular wave is to use the “effective wave concept. The effective wave concept was used by [Umeda. Recently. [Umeda. 2003]. 2003] time Statistics on wave groups are available that can be Figure 41. General problems and a review of applying Markov ensure that (56) has a desired spectrum. presentation (55) probability distribution at the given moment and the can be expressed as: previous moment. see future. 1990]. 2003] Degtyarev. as illustrated in Figure 43. a special filter processes for nonlinear roll can be found in [Roberts. the rolling equation together with the As is well known. spectrum is defined. Applications for parametric roll are described in roll equation. 1998]. The periods of waves in the group are and Sevastianov. which could be considered as slowly varying general concept of a stochastic process. differential equation is considered in conjunction with the 1982]. The probability of reaching x(t ) = A(t ) cos(ω a t + ϕ (t )) (56) the given level also could be solved analytically for many Where ωa is a frequency averaged over the spectrum. Another way to replace irregular waves with a 2000]). 1992. and a sequence of short Figure 42. where each combination of averaged zero-crossing wave period Tz 58 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . Duffing’s equation [Davies and Rajan. 2003]. A replaced by a regular one with the length equal to the brief review of these results is also available from length of a ship and its crest or trough situated at the [Belenky and Sevastianov. 1996] and [Degtyarev and Boukhanovsky. irregular waves at sea have a group filter equation can be solved with any method suitable for structure. To cases.. see [Bulian. this method worth pursuing in order to develop such a capability in was applied to the problem of parametric roll. et al. The method ζw was used for parametric roll and validated against model test. This is a simplification in comparison with the processes. known as the Fokker-Planck- Kolmogorov (FPK) equation. above. A comparison between established standard method to evaluate the probability of effective wave concept and direct stability calculations parametric roll. et al. The length of such heff a wave is already established as being equal to the ship length to maximize the effect of stability change in waves. In the meantime. 2003] t Envelope Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Figure 43. The idea is that an irregular wave should be groups with similar periods could be very dangerous. Concept of effective wave [Grim. As a result. it can be presented as: approach used for treatment of parametric roll in irregular x(t ) = A(t ) cos (Φ (t ) ) (55) seas. but there are available options that are has validated such an approach. One of the possible Figure 42. which is process: there is a known relationship between the acceptable for ocean waves surfaces. Once the compares the theoretical results with a model test.. Envelope of stochastic process [Belenky and used for treatment of parametric roll ([Boukhanovsky and Sevastianov. for which current functions in comparison with the process itself. [1961]. but the wave height has to be assigned. A occur when ships encounter a long group with a large description is given in [Grim. The concept is illustrated in more important than their height. Applications for typical sea spectra could be [Roberts. 2004 . A Markov process is defined as a stochastic process. The latter found in [Francescutto and Nabergoj.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas stochastic process is stationary and has a Gaussian Application of Markov processes is yet another distribution. in Figure 41. for which the current value depends only on the previous The amplitude A(t) and phase Φ(t) are stochastic one.

stress on the tank walls and energy losses in the elbows. m m 50 5. and [Belenky.6 Figure 44. Choice of Design Wave Height Wave Wave length λ. U-tube anti-rolling tank. Such statistical frequency in the wave cell was set up to 10-5 and the wave scatter table from [IACS 2001] was used. like all parametric oscillations. motion in the U-tube tank and determines the coupled nonlinear forces acting on a floating body in full six The diagram is created from a series of LAMP degrees of freedom. has an excitation threshold that must be overcome in order for the phenomenon to exist. Figure 45. 450 9. The theoretical description of the average zero-crossing period and design wave height is model can be found in [Yossef. the wave height should be limited by the freeboard. but does not account for “sloshing” in the vertical It is assumed that the design wave length defines the columns themselves.. or rudder deflection and it could be actively controlled or passive. 2003]. linear interpolation is expected to be used. it is possible to determine the height using equal statistical frequency. 2003 equal to significant wave height. Table 14.9 100 11.6 Figure 45 shows the predicted maximum roll angles for 350 13. Schematic of an anti-roll tank 150 14. a natural way to mitigate parametric roll would be to decrease the excitation below the threshold by creating an opposing roll moment. The opposing roll moment could be generated by anti-rolling fins.. These forces are added to LAMP’s simulations from 5 through 20 knots in 5-knot increments calculation of motion and loads as an external (non. but somewhat larger than. et al. water motion in tanks. at 15-degree heading increments. height hW. All speed/heading pressure) force. The system calculates fluid significant wave height of 11. et al.. operating at various speeds and headings in a short- the C11-class container ship studied above. 2004 59 .1 the effectiveness of the passive anti-roll tank system in 250 15. The regions of higher speed and following seas ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .9 CONTROL OF PARAMETRIC ROLL Since parametric roll.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas and significant wave height hs is mapped to statistical The tank model includes expressions for the shear frequency or probability estimate of observation. For practical reasons. 2003] considered a container To check the performance of the U-tube tank in ship fitted with a passive. [Shin. crested seaway. et al. 300 14. Parametric Roll Response with different volume of anti-roll tank The study [Lin and Weems. Figure 46 shows an operational polar diagram where roll motions exceed 20 degrees for the A method for approximating a U-tube type passive sample containership in long-crested sea state 8 anti-roll tank system has been implemented as an optional conditions with a modal period of 16. The extreme irregular seas.6 the C11 containership in regular head seas as a function of 400 12. A schematic of the anti-roll tank is shown combinations inside the shaded region exceed a 20-degree in Figure 44.49 meters. 2002]. For the lengths between those given in Table 14. The resulting dependency of the design wave height and wave length was placed in Table 13. Then. maximum roll angle during the 750-second simulation.0 encounter frequency.2 A series of calculations were performed to determine 200 15. simulations were made for the ship ship in this study is similar to.4 seconds and a “plug-in” module in LAMP. which is used in the ABS Guide to determine the height of the design wave for parametric roll assessment. moving mass systems.2 reducing the ship’s susceptibility to parametric roll.

Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas correspond to a resonant roll condition where the Overall. The tank natural period is equal to the ship’s roll natural period of 25 seconds. titled “wave direction” contains information on which Saturation is caused by a physical constraint on the height course the parametric roll was predicted. “Yes” or “No” roll angle shown in these four simulations is less than 22 means that susceptibility parametric roll regime was degrees. in the model tests in San-Francisco Bay. The verification procedure included: Calculation of GM change in wave with the Simplified method and application of the Susceptibility Criteria Calculation of GZ curve in wave with EUREKA and application of Severity Criteria LAMP Simulations in regular waves with the Figure 46. possible at lower speeds. Figure 47. The column comes about because saturation occurs in the tank system. The maximum roll angle for this series roll. and therefore the tank system is limited in the amount of roll opposing The cargo ship in the last line is the same as was used moment that it can produce. The maximum predicted by the Guide. See Table 15. 2004 . the fluid can move in the vertical columns. tank appear to have a great deal of promise in the while the head sea regions are strictly parametric roll. but still represents significant roll motions. et al 1974]. In contrast. it should be noted that parametric roll is still advanced probabilistic methods. where parametric roll in following seas was observed [Oakley. The seaway and run conditions for the simulations used to generate this figure are identical to the polar diagram in Figure 47. The operational polar diagram shown in Figure 45 represents the LAMP predictions for the same containership fitted with an anti-roll tank system. exceeded 20 degrees of maximum roll angle in only 4 Verification is considered to be successful if LAMP locations. the optimization of such a system for of simulations is 48 degrees in the head sea 10-knot case. In Table 15. However. corresponding to ±45 degrees at 5 knots and simulations reproduce parametric roll in the conditions ±30 degrees at 20 knots head oblique seas. Polar diagram of predicted roll motion for sample containership with anti-roll tanks system SUMMARY OF VERIFICATION OF THE GUIDE Verification of the criteria included in the Guide [ABS 2004] was carried out for nine vessels. and the tank mass is equal to 0. 60 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . maximum benefit at minimum cost will likely require a While no simulations were performed for speeds lower fairly sophisticated simulation system coupled to than 5 knots. The predicted or not by the Guide and correspondingly large roll motion in these four operational conditions confirmed or not by LAMP simulations. Polar diagram of predicted roll motion for conditions corresponding to Severity Criteria sample containership in SS-8 LAMP Simulations in irregular waves with the variance modal period corresponding to those of the The simulations used to generate the polar diagram above regular.71% of the ship’s displacement. mitigation of the large roll motions caused by parametric induced motions. This type of diagram can be very useful in helping the shipmaster avoid the occurrence of parametric roll while the ship is operating in severe sea conditions. this diagram shows the increased operability of this containership when a properly tuned anti-roll tank system is used. anti-rolling systems like the U-tube anti-roll encounter frequency is near the roll natural frequency.

to be published. model of parametric resonance. “An Investigation waves.6 The development of the LAMP System has been Containership Yes head Yes Yes supported by the U. of STAB’2000: 7th was found that the Guide correctly predicted the presence International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean or absence of parametric roll for the chosen vessels. Journal of Sound and Vibration. for “On the nonlinear modelling of parametric rolling in which a straightforward calculation method is presented. of CRF’96: 3rd International there is danger of parametric roll for a particular ship. (1990). ABS. “Guide for the L=275. G. Lin. pp. (1988). L. This paper summarizes the background and results Paulling (2003). No. calculations were done for nine different ships. B. B=47 Assessment of Parametric Roll Resonance in the Design Cargo ship L=161.R. Containership Yes head Yes Yes L=330. Paulling. A. and SAIC. Spain. S. and Sevastianov.B. Amsterdam. Patrick Purtell. ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS . A. N. Guide Wave LAMP: LAMP: length and breadth direction Regular Irregular The authors wish to express their appreciation and in meters waves waves gratitude to the management of the American Bureau of Containership Yes head Yes Yes Shipping and Science Applications International L=336. Vehicles. The evaluation of the resulting criteria is based principally on the evaluation of Bulian. Navy. It is shown that in order to obtain reliable results. 195-208. Proc. No head No No REFERENCES B=58 Bulkcarrier No head No No American Bureau of Shipping (2004). A. “A stochastic analysis of nonlinear rolling in narrow band The paper also summarizes a numerical study that sea”. 2 “Risk of capsizing”. B=29. No 2. R. 2. of 18th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. The paper discusses some of the probabilistic aspects France. Washington D. Launceston. V. 1. (2003). parametric roll response might be different from 40. To Degtyarev A. Vol. Vol.S. St. the U.8 Corporation.S. M. Containership Yes head Yes Yes L=195. has shown that U-tube passive anti-rolling might be a National Academy Press. The paper's main focus is the development of “Nonlinear stochastic ship motion stability in different Susceptibility Criteria that can be used to determine if wave regime”.9 Belenky. of Head-Sea Parametric Rolling and its Influence on one realization is not enough and that distribution of the Container Lashing Systems. and Rajan. Francescutto. vol.. pp.8 Tanker L=320. The Conference in Commemoration of the 300-th Anniversary development of these criteria is based upon the analysis of of Creating Russian Fleet by Peter the Great. Treakle. W. B=40. V.. numerical solution of the roll equation in longitudinal Davies. Gaussian. and Moore. Madrid. H. pp. W. and C.0 Dr.M. B=40.V.” Marine Technology¸ Vol. 296-306. B=32. Vol. LAMP development has been Containership Yes head Yes Yes supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) under L=275. Weems. T. C. A. (1996). 126. 2004].C. of numerical simulation of parametric roll in irregular J. B..0 Research Projects Agency (DARPA). K. 2. Francescutto. Madrid. Coast Containership Yes head Yes Yes L=281... B=22. and Nabergoj.3 Guard. Levadou. (2000) demonstrate adequacy of both criteria included in the “Peculiarities of motions of ship with low buoyancy on Guide. very effective technology to avoid the consequences of parametric resonance. Boukhanovsky. 1-19. and Degtyarev. regular and irregular waves”. Belenky. of STAB’03 8th Susceptibility Criteria are complemented with the International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Severity Criterion which is built on the basis of a Vehicles. K. Spain. pp 665-679. (2003). G. “Stability and safety of ships”. Yes following Yes Yes of Container Carriers”. “Probabilistic analysis of roll for a series of studies that have lead to the development of parametric resonance in head seas” Proc. “Random waves and is capable of evaluation of the parametric roll superharmonic and subharmonic response: multiple time amplitude. Australia. the ship’s change of stability in longitudinal waves. CONCLUDING REMARKS Elseveir. Texas.W. which is the simplest mathematical Petersburg. and J. of STAB’03 8th the ABS “Guide for the Assessment of Parametric Roll International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Resonance in the Design of Container Carriers” [ABS. Vehicles. the Defense Advanced L=262. Proc.L. Michel. B=45. Both criteria were verified through a series of numerical simulations using the LAMP program. the Mathieu equation. It asymmetrical random waves” Proc. scaling of a Duffing equation”. R. 2004 61 .M. Houston.M. V. B=42. Proc.Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Table 15 Summary of verification ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Type of vessel. Lugni (2003). and Boukhanovsky A.

Naples. Oakley.. The Hague. K. ONR. Soc. linear systems”.M. Guedes-Soares (Editor). Vol.. 36-46. Vol.30.M. rolling motions of ships in longitudinal waves”. and Yue. Keane (editors).” Proceedings of the Seventh Lin..M. A. D. P.. V. (1982). Zhang. (2003). London. Research Vol. J. “Forced oscillations in non. N. Newfoundland. N.H. (1993). 2003 SNAME Annual Meeting. “An enhanced Youssef. (1992). “Assessment of mechanical and electrical systems”. pp. Engineering Vol. A. (2003). Naval Arch. J.. No 4. Lin.M. Lin. W.H.247-272. J. (1993).. in “Risk and Journal of Ship Research Vol. Canada. (1959).. J. (1961). Weems (2002). pp. World Maritime Weems. “Nonlinear dynamics on parametric Ship-Motion and Wave-Load Simulations. Madrid. and Rosenberg R. H. Proc. Shin. A. Zhang. 4.K. and C. 3. Ya. Schiff und Hafen. (1999). A. N. No 1.S. San Francisco. Umeda. International Shipbuilding Progress. 111.. O. Osaka. Y. “The transverse stability of a 291-303. Cambridge. W. “On the statistical excitation on ship rolling motion in random waves” distribution of stochastic nonlinear rolling”. “Stochastic modelling of vol. Domain. of the Seventh International Conference on Numerical of STAB’03 8th International Conference on Stability of Ship Hydrodynamics. J. To appear IACS (2001) “Standard Wave Data”.A. and LAMP system for high speed vessels and motion Ragab.. No 4. D. K. A. (1990). N.M. R. “Introduction to perturbation Motion. Control.. (1991).S. Ships and Ocean Vehicles. (1998). “Beitrag zu dem Problem der Technology for Seakeeping and Wave-Load Analysis for Sicherheit des Schiffes im Seegang”. Francescutto. (1950). Paulling. San Bennett..R.M. Nayfeh.490-491. and Yue. Nantes. Proc. “Nonlinear vibrations in Leavdou.P.. S.3. 37. and Mobile Units. “Nonlinear Time Domain Simulation Grim. No 411. ship in a longitudinal seaway”. S. 26. “Hull design considerations for improved stability of fishing vessels in waves”. pp. Naval Architecture and Ocean Bodies. C. and L.T. The Netherlands..Appendix 3 Criteria for Parametric Roll of Large Containerships in Longitudinal Seas Francescutto.. Lorca. O. Hashimoto. 229-245. of 10th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. Wood (1974) “Ship motions and capsizing in astern seas”. “Probabilistic study on surf-riding Naval Hydrodynamics. Modern Ship Design” World Maritime Conference and Helft 6. J. New York. Nippon Printing and Publishing Company. B. K. (1961). Pérez. Mook.. and Yamakoshi.S. Hayashi. A. of STAB’03 8th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles.K. J. S. A. A. Okou (2003).” Proceedings of the Eighth of ship capsizing due to pure loss of stability in irregular International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating quartering seas”. Analysis for Floating Bodies in Mild-Slope Waves of Umeda. Ch.L. (1990). of a ship in irregular following seas”. Roberts. Proc. W. Rotterdam. pp. O. Japan. “Probability Large Amplitude. Urano. M. A. N. H.M. (1998). and Conference and 2003 SNAME Annual Meeting. To appear in SNAME Transactions Vol. The University of Michigan. D. reliability in marine technology”. D. B. Recommendation No 34. Vol. R. (1953). W. W.P. “Time-Domain Ocean Vehicles. in "Dynamics of unstable ship motions resulting from nonlinear coupling”. and Yue.. “Nonlinear 116. IACS in SNAME Transactions Vol.J.S. Operational Risk of Parametric Roll”.” Proceedings roll resonance with realistic numerical modeling”. Elsevier Science. Roll Tanks Using an Improved Model of the Tank-Liquid Nayfeh.G. Sanchez. 37-49.107. D. H.K.” submitted for publication. France. “On ships and structures in narrow band sea”. 245-253.A. Lin. Engle. pp.. 26. 62 ABS GUIDE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETRIC ROLL RESONANCE IN THE DESIGN OF CONTAINER CARRIERS .M. pp. Vibration and technique”. 111. San Francisco. J. of the 2nd International Offshore and nonlinear ship rolling in irregular seas” Journal of Ship Polar Engineering Conference. Neves. Shin. K. and K. Stoker. Y. Spain. 4. Journal of Ship Research. Lin. “A stochastic theory for excitation” Proc. Palazzi (2003). and P. (1990).. and Nayfeh. Weems. Marine vehicles and Structure in Waves" W. S. Journal of Ship Research.. pp. Rodriguez (2003). “Structural Dynamic Loadings Due to Francisco. E. nonlinear motions in the presence of narrow band Roberts.” Proceedings of the Eighteenth Symposium of Umeda. “Numerical International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships Solutions for Large-Amplitude Ship Motions in the Time. Proc. Madrid.554-558.. of STAB’90: U. pp.O.H. M. “Effect of parametric Francescutto. Balkema publishers. Wiley-Interscience. Spain. Massachusetts. pp. 2004 . “A Mixed Source Formulation for Nonlinear and K. (1982a). Paulling. Vassalos. “Roll Stabilization by Passive Anti- stabilization” SAIC Report 2002-16. Impact and Whipping. 4th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Lin. New York. Price. (1981). W. no.P. Weems. Belenky. Temarel and A. “On the nonlinear motion of Paulling J.

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