Advanced Heat and Mass

Transfer 422



Teaching Schedule and Assessment
Module 1:
Distillation system: Binary and Multicomponent separations,
Adsorption and Ion Exchange
Test 1: Friday, 12th April – 30%
Module 2:
Evaporation and Crystallization
Test 2: Monday,13th May 2013 – 30%
Module 3:
Drying and Membrane Separation
Test 3: Friday, 7th June 2013 – 30%
Research report Submission – Due 3rd June 2013 – 10%

Introduction: Separation Process
• A physical process in Why?
which a mixture is • Product Specifications
separated into • Recovery
individual components
or group of components • Purification



Goals of Separation Process in
Chemical Industry
• 1sT: Obtain specific product with particular purity

• 2nd: Cost minimization for the equipment –
construction costs and problems (Equipment

• 3rd: Operating costs minimization (Separation
consumes a lot of energy often up to 50% of the
plant’s operating costs)


Role Of Separation in Chemical Industry 6 .

Role Of Separation in Chemical Industry 7 .

General Flowchart of Oil refining Process 8 .

evaporation • Separation by Phase addition E. crystallization. : Absorption.g. : Reverse osmosis. gas permeation 9 . Extraction • Separation by Barrier E.g.g. : Distillation. General Separation Technique • Separation by Phase creation E.

General Separation Technique • Separation by solid agent E.g. Adsorption.g. ion exchange • Separation by force field or gradient E. Electrolysis and centrifugation 10 .

distillation of wine and spirits Removal of Aromatics (benzene. tolene. and Xylene) from Liquid-Liquid Extraction Solvent gasoline reformate Recovery of Penicillin from Fermentation Broth Solid-Liquid exctraction Solvent Extraction of Caffeine from Coffee Extraction of herbal products from barks and leaves Drying Heat/Dryng gas Drying of fruits. Core of Separation Processes Separation Process Separating Agent Typical Applications Gas Absorption and desorption Solvent Removal of CO2 from synthesis gas Removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas Stripping of volatile organics from wastewater by steam Distillation Heat Fractionation of crude oil Air Separation. polymer beads and ceramic items before firing Adsorption Adsorbent solid Separation organics from a gas or an aqueous solution Drying of air Ion exchange Ion Exchange Resin Demineralization of water separation of salts Crystalization Heat(removal) Production of salt/sugar Membrane Separation Membranes Desalination preparation of absolute alcohol Concentration of fruit juices Air separation 11 .

Equilibrium Governed Process 12 .

Separation Principles Separation of components may depends on the following factors: • Boiling points • Concentration • Bubble point • Dew point • Vapour pressure 13 .

Definitions • Bubble point temperature The temperature at which the first vapour bubble is formed when liquid is heated slowly at constant pressure • Bubble point pressure The pressure at which the first bubble is formed when a liquid is expanded slowly at constant temperature • Dew point Temperature The temperature at which the first liquid droplets is formed when vapour is compressed slowly at constant pressure • Dew point Pressure The pressure at which the first liquid droplets is formed when vapour is compressed slowly at constant temperature 14 .

Mechanism of Separation • Take advantage of differences of chemical and physical properties of each component to enable separation (molecular. System condition can be altered to increase the magnitude of the differences 15 . thermodynamic and transport properties) • If the differences are not significant enough to enable separation at particular condition.

Mechanism of Separation • One of the most important properties for separation process is : • Thermodynamic properties can be altered by changing Operating Conditions (Temperature and Pressure) which usually easily varied for different process 16 .

• It indicates the ease or difficulty of using distillation to separate more volatile components from the less volatile components in a mixture 17 . Mechanism of Separation • One of the most important properties of Thermodynamic for separation : Ki value =yi/xi (vapour-liquid distribution ratio) • Ratio of K values at a particular temperature and pressure of 2 components called relative volatility (αi.j).

Equilibrium Governed Process • How to get equilibrium? • Place 2-component mixture (Binary system. A and B) in a closed container at a particular temperature and yA+yB=1 pressure • After a period of time it will reach equilibrium xA+xB = 1 18 .

At Equilibrium • Tliq=Tvap Thermal equilibrium – no net heat transfer and the temperature of the vapour and liquid phases are equal • Pliq=Pvap Mechanical Equilibrium – the forces between vapour and liquid are balanced and the pressure of vapour and liquid phases are equal • μiL=μiV Chemical Equilibrium – rate of vaporization of liquid and the condensation of vapour are equal and the chemical potentials between the vapour and liquid phases are equal. The compositions of the vapour and liquid phases don’t change at a given temperature and pressure 19 .

x (constant P) – Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium plot • Enthalpy vs.T) – Ponchon Savarit plot • Analytical Expressions: • Distribution coefficients. K values • DePriester charts • DePriester Equation • Mole fraction –Vapour pressure relationship/simplified model • Relative Volatility 20 . Equilibrium Data • Tabular data: • Generate graphical plots • Generate analytical expressions (curve fit) • Graphical: • y vs x (constant P) . Composition (Constant P.McCabe Thiele plot •T vs y.

Data that can be extracted from T vs x.y plot • It has 2 equilibrium curves – Saturated liquid line and Saturated vapour line • Single phase composition (sub- cooled liquid) below saturated liquid line • Single phase composition (Super heated vapour) above saturated vapour line • In between the equilibrium curves. both vapour and liquid exist in equilibrium (two phase region) 21 .

Class problem 1: VLE review • 40% mole ethanol. what is the fraction of liquid? d. 1atm is heated a. 60% mole water mixture at 75◦C. what is the temperature and what are the liquid and vapour composition? 22 . When 80% has been vaporized. At 82 ◦C. At what temperature would it stop boiling (assume no material is removed)? What is the composition of the last liquid droplet? c. At what temperature does it first begin to boil? What is the composition of the first bubble of vapour? b.

temperature and composition • Convenient source of K-values for hydrocarbons as a function of temperature and pressure is Depriester charts • Depriester charts are presented over 2 different temperature ranges (high and low) 23 . Analytical Expression for Equilibrium • Distribution coefficient (K-value) KA= yA/xA KB= yB/xB =(1-yA)/(1-xA) Which is a function of pressure.

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n-Heptane at 120 ◦C. Using DePriester Chart • Determine the boiling point of pure ethylene at 3000 kPa. P = 1500 kPa • Compare the boiling points. Hint: K pure component =1 • Determine the K value for: Ethylene. n- Pentane. which one more volatile? 26 .

Related background theories 27 .

Related background theories 28 .

Related background theories 29 .

D? • A+B H • Feed Location? • No. of Tray? B • A =light component • B= heavy component • TbpA < TbpB 30 .H? • Column Diameter. Binary Distillation A Key question: • Column height.

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McCabe-Thiele Diagram Slope =RD/(RD+1) Feed line 𝑞 𝑧𝑓 𝑦= 𝑥− 𝑞−1 1−𝑞 Where q = fraction of Intercept liquid XD/(RD+1) Stripping Line 53 .

What is the number of real trays if 0.5 0.915 b.958 0.418 methanol –water system is given in 0.95 0.825 trays and its feed location 0.3 0.87 0. The equilibrium for 0.06 0.7 0. Determine the number of ideal 0.8 0.365 is 101.3 kPa.02 0.08 0. Class Example 2: Distillation Review • A stream of aqueous methanol having 45 mole% CH3OH is to be x y separated into a top product having 0 0 96mole % methanol and a bottom 0.23 ratio of 1.779 a.134 liquid with 4 % methanol.729 0.4 0.665 0. Feed is at 0.5 is suggested.304 bubble point and operating pressure 0. A reflux 0.579 the table 0.979 tray efficiency is 40%? 1 1 54 .1 0.04 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.