What is Multimedia?
 Is a media that uses multiple forms of information content and information processing to inform
or entertain the (user) audience.
 refers to the integration of text, graphics, animation, sound, and video.
 similar to traditional mixed media in fine art, but with a broader scope.
 Newspapers were perhaps the first mass communication medium to employ Multimedia -- they
used mostly text, graphics, and images

Category of Multimedia
 Linear
 Linear active content progresses without any navigation control for the viewer such as a
cinema presentation.
 Non-linear
 Non-linear content offers user interactivity to control progress as used with a computer
game or used in self-paced computer based training. Hypermedia is an example of non-
linear content.

Major Characteristics of Multimedia
 Multimedia presentations
 may be viewed in person on stage, projected, transmitted, or played locally with a
media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation.
 Multimedia games and simulations
 may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an
online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
 Online multimedia
 is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with
collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over
Elements of Multimedia
 Text - the most fundamental element of any multimedia project. The primary vehicle for
communicating content.
 Graphics / Images - graphic, or graphical image, is a digital representation of non-text
information such as drawing, chart, or photograph
 Sound / Audio - includes music, speech, or any other sound.
 Video - consist of full-motion images that are played back at various speeds. Most video also has
accompanying audio.
 Animation - is the appearance of motion created by displaying a series of still image in
 Virtual Reality - is the use of computers to simulate a real or imagined environment that
appears as a three-dimensional (3-D) space


Digital Media encompasses digital technologies of all kinds that serve and support digital music,
video, and graphics. Desktop, notebook, handheld computer, digital music players, video game consoles,
DVD and CD players and cellphones are all devices that serve up digital media. MP3 music, DVD movies,
digital photos and artwork, cellphone ringtones and wallpaper, screen savers, motion picture special
effects, animated television and movies are example of digital media. Media player software such as
ITunes, Windows Media Player, and RealPlayer; paint and drawing software; photo-and video-editing
software; and voice and music recording software are examples of digital media software. A combination
of different digital media types, such as animation or video and audio, is called multimedia or sometimes
rich media. Digital media that can be controlled, manipulated, or in some way interacted with is called
interactive media.
Digital media is transforming the manner in which we access entertainment. Studies have
revealed that adults prefer the internet over television for information, news and entertainment. Today’s
consumer have preference for on-demand media. On-demand media refers to the ability to view or listen
to programming or music at any time rather than at a time dictated by television and radio schedules. On-
demand media is made possible by broadband internet access at home and by cellphone, digital video
recorders, portable digital music and video players, satellite radio, CDs and DVDs, and of course, the Web.
An important aspect of today’s digital media is they are empowering ordinary people. Digital
technologies have made it easy to capture professional quality images and video, to create music and
audio recordings, and most importantly, to share them over the internet. No longer is media production
solely for professionals. By posting a video on YouTube, a podcast to ITunes, or a collection of photos to
Flickr, everyone can use digital technologies and the Internet as the means of self expression.

Digital Graphics
Digital Graphics – refers to computer-based media applications that support creating, editing and viewing
2D and 3D images and animation. At first glance, digital graphics might appear to be the exclusive domain
of artists. In reality, many people artistic or non-artistic alike, are finding themselves called upon or
inspired to create digital artwork for personal and professional use

Digitizing Graphics
The simple fact that graphic images can be represented digitally with binary numbers has brought
us flatbed scanners, digital cameras, digital camcorders, digital cable TV, the DVD movie, and digital video
recorders, not to mention phenomenal advances in movie production techniques. The fundamental
technology behind all of these technologies rests on a small point of light or dot of ink called a pixel.
Digital images are made up of a grid of small points called pixels (short for picture element). Pixel
is a good term to remember, as it has a practical value when used to determine the quality of displays,
printers, scanners, ad digital cameras. Representing an image using bytes is simply a matter of storing
color of each pixel used in the image. Images stored on this manner are called bit-mapped graphics or
raster graphics. In bit-mapped graphics, colors are expressed using numbers that represents combinations
of intensities of red, green and blue (called the RGB color pallete). One or more bytes maybe used to
express the intensity of each red, green and blue. For example 0,0,255 would imply no red, no green and
full intensity of Blue, and the resulting color is blue. Whenever all three bytes are set to the same value,
the resulting color is a shade of gray. Often the hexadecimal number system is used to represent colors.
Hexadecimal uses 16 digits: 0 through 9, then A through F. (F is the highest value) Artists uses two
hexadecimal digits for each red, green and blue to express colors. So 00FF00 would indicate no red, full
green, no blue and the resulting color is green.
Bit mapped graphics are ideal for representing photo-realistic images as they are able to capture
minute details in an image. They do have some drawback, however, in that they are difficult to edit and
enlarge, Pixilation or fuzziness occurs when bit-mapped images are made larger than the size at which
they are captured.
Simpler images, such as those in clip art, can be represented using vector graphics. Vector graphics
use bytes to store geometric descriptions that define all the shapes in the image. Although vector graphics
are impractical for representing photo-quality images, they are preferred for creating and storing
drawings. Vector graphics are easier to edit and manipulate than bit-mapped graphics and use far fewer
bytes to store an image.
Animation and video (moving picture) are stored in the computer as a series of images called
frames. When shown in quick succession the frames create the illusion of movement. Television uses a
rate of 30 frames per second (fps)

Graphics file format
There are many graphics file format, most of which are proprietary; that is they depend on the
software with which they are created. For example, if you work on a photo in adobe Photoshop, the file
is saved by default as a .psd file that can be opened and manipulated only with adobe products.
Some graphics file format support different types of file compression to reduce the file size.
There are two types of compression: lossless compression allows the original data to be reconstructed
without loss, while lossy compression accepts some loss of date to achieve higher rate of compression.
The savings in file size can be considerable and is essential for fast-loading Wb pages. For example, a 7 mb
.tiff file can be reduced to 605kb compressed .jpg file with little noticeable loss in quality.
File sizes and image quality can also be controlled by adjusting the color depth.

Windows bitmap (.bmp) – used by the windows operating system and recognized by most graphics
software; not, however recommended for use in generating images for the Web because not all browsers
recognize it as a vaid web format.

Graphics interchange format (.gif) – the standard for web; Typically used for vector graphics and limited
in that it supports only 255 colors
Joint photographic experts group (.jpeg or .jpg) – the other standard for web and the default format on
most digital cameras; JPG is typically used for bit-mapped grahics and includes compression technology
that allow images to be stored in less space.

Portable networks group (.png) – developed to replace GIF on the Web but has so far been able to do so;
supports more colors than the GIF.

Tagged Image File Format (.tiff) – an industrial strength file format used by many professional
photographers and graphic artist.

Uses of Digital Graphics

Digital graphics provides personal and professional benefits in several ways. It is used as a form
of creative expression, as a means of visually presenting information, as a means to communicate and
explore ideas as a form of entertainment, as a tool to assist in the design of real-word objects, and as a
method to documenting file.

Creative expression – Digital art is a relatively new form of expression that uses computer software as at
brush and the computer display as the canvass. Digital art can employ real or abstract image.

Presenting Information – Commercial graphic designers depend on graphics software to create visually
appealing designs. Web designers are specialists in creating attractive web designs. They use graphics
software to design buttons, backgrounds and other stylistic elements that combine to make an Commented [je1]:
appealing web page. Desktop publishers use desktop publishing software to design page layouts for
magazines, newspapers, books and other publications. Other graphic designers use computers design
company logos, product packaging, television and printed advertisements, billboards and artwork for
other commercial needs.

Communicating ideas- pictures, photographs, illustrations, graphs, animation and video can
communicate ideas in a more powerful manner than the printed or spoken word alone. Professionals
from nearly every career area use graphic to make a point. Teachers and others who give educational
presentations may use graphics presentation software to provide visual accompaniment to their
presentations. Educators may incorporate video or animated simulations during presentations.

Exploring New Ideas – scientific visualization uses computer graphics to provide visual representations
that improve our understanding of some phenomenon. There is a wide range of applications of scientific
visualization, everything from presenting football team statistics to studying the interaction of
subatomic particles. Scientific visualization can be used to represent quantities of raw data as pictures.
Entertainment – artists in a variety of entertainment industries make use of digital graphics to create
products for the enjoyment of their audiences. Cartoonist and comic book artists can produce their Commented [je2]:
products much more quickly using graphics software than they can by sketching and coloring. Animators
no longer need to work with markers on transparent sheets, drawing hundreds of individual pictures
that take only a matter of seconds to play on the screen. Now animators draw cartoon characters on a
computer and program them to move across the screen.

Designing Real-World Objects – Computer aided design (CAD) software assists designers, engineers and
architects in designing three dimensional objects from the great mechanism in a watch to suspension
bridges. CAD software provides tools to construct 3D objects on the computer screen, examine them
from all angles and test their properties. CAD is able to turn designs on the computer into blueprint
specifications for manufacturing.

Documenting Life – Photos and home movies preserve visual memories and act as a witness to special
moments in our lives. Photojournalists as well as amateurs are moving to digital cameras and image Commented [je3]:
processing for collecting, managing and manipulating photographs and films for historical and Commented [je4R3]:
sentimental value. Once digitized, these images are easily copied and shared with others over the

Vector Graphics Software

Vector graphics software sometimes called drawing software provides tools to create, arrange
and layer graphical objects on the screen. Vector graphics uses an object-oriented approach that
recognizes pictures as being made up of layers of multiple objects, some in foreground and some in
background and some in between. Objects in a vector graphics image can be layered and grouped into
larger objects. Each object’s properties such as color and transparency can be altered.

Vector graphics software like Adobe Illustrator and Corell Draw provide tools to create and
manipulate vector graphics. Filter tools allow you to adjust the color of an object by altering the levels of
brightness, contrast, hue and saturation. Effect tools allow you to adjust subtle effects, such as changing
the sharpness and blurriness of edges within a drawing to dramatic effects. When finished vector
graphic images can be exported as GIF, BMP, PNG or other types of graphics file.