You are on page 1of 6

Word Formation Processes and Adv.

Features of Conditionals and some verb lists


Rules of Word Formation Processes 1. Coinage

1) you dont talk about word formation processes 2. Borrowing

3. Compounding
a. Native speakers dont have problems with new
words 4. Blending
b. The way in which we form words follow a
pattern 5. Clipping
c. Language is shaped by the needs of its users
6. Backformation

7. Conversion

8. Acronyms

9. Derivation

10. Inflection



COINAGE A rare process in which a words is invented:
Mostly, a trade name of a companys product substitutes
de technical term of an object (e.g. aspirins, nylon )
BORROWING A common sources of new words by which we take words
from other languages such as French (croissant), Arabic
(alcohol), etc. A special type of borrowing is called loan-
translation in which there is a direct translation of the
elements of a word into the borrowing language
Word Formation Processes and Adv. Features of Conditionals and some verb lists

(hot dogs in English perros calientes in Spanish)

COMPOUNDING Process in which we join 2 different words (usually nouns),
and sometimes we hyphenate them. (book case)
BLENDING The process which involves the combinations of the parts
of separate words in order to reduce them and convey the
same meaning.
Breakfast and lunch Brunch
Smoke and fog Smog
Modulator/Demodulator Modem
CLIPPING A process used to reduce words which have more than
one syllable in order to convey the same meaning. It is
widely used in educational environments
Laboratory Lab
Examination Exam
Mathematics Maths
Typographical Typo
Facsimile Fax
BACKFORMATION A process in which a word (usually a noun) suffers a
reduction and a change in category (usually a verb).
Historically, the noun came first and from it the verb was
Television Televise
A special kind of Backformation, which mostly occurs in
Australia and British English, produces hypocorisms: A
longer word is reduced to a single syllable then y or ie is
added to the end:
Moving pictures Movie
Television Telly
CONVERSION One of the most accepted processes in which there is a
change in the function of a word, for example when a
noun, without any reduction, comes to be used as a verb.
To Spy (v) - A Spy (n)
Print out (v) - Printout (n)
Butter (n) Buttered(v)
Vacation (n) Vacationing (v)
ACRONYMS These are new words formed from the initial letters of
another set of words. These can remain essentially as
alphabetisms (Compact Disk CD)
More typically, they are pronounced as single words
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO)
Word Formation Processes and Adv. Features of Conditionals and some verb lists

Unlike the previous example, many acronyms dont make

use of the capital letters as they become everyday terms
(light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; or
laser for the pibes)
DERIVATION The most common way of creating new words is by
making use of morphemes (affixes:
prefixes/suffixes/infixes) to achieve a change in the
category of a word:
(Unfuckingbelievable!) infix
(Mislead) prefix
(Madness) suffix
(Foolishness) 2 suffixes
(Disrespectful) prefix + suffix

INFLECTION In this process we make use of inflectional morphemes

that dont change the category of the word but only its
grammatical behavior.
There are 8 inflections:
-S (plural) / s (genitive) For nouns
-ing /-ed (past)/-ed (participle)/ -s(3rd person) verbs
-er / -est For adjectives


(wew so useful)

TYPE 1 Present and future

Statements of universal truth (factual discussion/ explanatory


Highest degree of likeliness

(IF) present tense, (main) Future -or modal verb- or imperative

Word Formation Processes and Adv. Features of Conditionals and some verb lists

Variations: If we should miss the 10 oclock train, we shant get there before

Lessens the probability, thus remote possibility.

If you will reserve seats, we shall be sure of a comfortable journey

Not an aux. for the future: Its a modal verb (agreeing, being willing)

If she will play with the dog, she deserves to get bitten

The stress in will indicates the persistence of the action.


1. If we caught the 10 oclock train, we would get there by lunch time:

2. If I came into a fortune, I would give up smoking
3. If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do

1. Suppositional possibility (mild degree of likelihood)

2. Hypothetical (low degree of likelihood)
3. Imaginary (Not likely to occur)

(IF) past tense, (Main) conditional


If we were to miss the 10 oclock train, we wouldnt get there till after

Emphasize the suppositional nature of the condition

Word Formation Processes and Adv. Features of Conditionals and some verb lists

If you would reserve seats, we would be sure of a nice journey

A polite form to will (Would is widely used for politeness)

TYPE 3: Past

1) If we had caught the 10 oclock train, we would have got there by

2) If we had bought a map with us, we would know which road to take

1) Hypothetical past fact

2) Situation contrary to a past fact + situation contrary to the present fact


The inversion of the subject and verb instead of if in the conditional clause
of some type of sentences

1) Should you need my help a gain, just give me a ring.

(If you should need my help)

2) Were the government rise taxes, there would be riots

(If the government were to rise taxes)

3) Had I known you were ill

(If I had known you were ill..)
at this point you should know how it goes

The 1st and 3rd types occur in both written and (less commonly) spoken
language. The 2nd type is generally confined to written language. All occur
most commonly when It is the subject and be is the verb in the
conditional clause
Word Formation Processes and Adv. Features of Conditionals and some verb lists

Why not, some verb lists, and then good-bye.

VERBS + ING/TO Infinitive

Either gerund or
There are 3 types of these: infinitive dont change
The first case: Like and dislike their meaning

The second case: Verbs that go with either infinitive or gerund

The third case: Verbs that may go with both varying meaning:


-ing: sth happened long time ago (I remember laughing with you)
To inf: sth that didn't happened yet (Remember to be happy)


-ing: activity interrumpted ( He stopped dancing)

to inf: An activity stops, a new one begins ( He stopped to greet me)


-ing: Do sth for the 1st time to see what happens (I tried mixing it
to inf: An unsuccessful attempt (I tried to jump the fence)


-ing: sth you did or didn't do (I regret knowing you)

to inf: formulaic expressions about a incoming report (I regret to tell


-ing: Sth involves sth else (passing means working hard)

to inf: express unintentional action (didn't mean to do that)


-ing: an action not interrumpted for a period of time (go on being happy)
to inf: stop an action to start another (He went on to become a surgeon)

See you next term,

unless I die or quit.