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Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal ■■ (2016) ■■–■■

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**Engineering Science and Technology,
**

an International Journal Press: Karabuk University, Press Unit

ISSN (Printed) : 1302-0056

ISSN (Online) : 2215-0986

ISSN (E-Mail) : 1308-2043

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : h t t p : / / w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / j e s t c h

H O S T E D BY

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Full Length Article

**Numerical study on ﬂow separation in 90° pipe bend under high
**

Reynolds number by k-ε modelling

Prasun Dutta *, Sumit Kumar Saha, Nityananda Nandi, Nairit Pal

Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, India

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: The present paper makes an effort to ﬁnd the ﬂow separation characteristics under high Reynolds number

Received 7 October 2015 in pipe bends. Single phase turbulent ﬂow through pipe bends is investigated using k-ε turbulence model.

Received in revised form After the validation of present model against existing experimental results, a detailed study has been

15 December 2015

performed to study the inﬂuence of Reynolds number on ﬂow separation and reattachment. The sepa-

Accepted 15 December 2015

Available online

ration region and the velocity ﬁeld of the primary and the secondary ﬂows in different sections have been

illustrated. Numerical results show that ﬂow separation can be clearly visualized for bend with low cur-

vature ratio. Distributions of the velocity vector show the secondary motion clearly induced by the

Keywords:

90° pipe bend movement of ﬂuid from inner to outer wall of the bend leading to ﬂow separation. This paper provides

k-ε turbulence model numerical results to understand the ﬂow characteristics of ﬂuid ﬂow in 90° bend pipe.

Turbulent ﬂow Copyright © 2015, The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Karabuk

Flow separation University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/

licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

**1. Introduction testimony to this fact. A number of researchers have investigated
**

turbulent ﬂows in pipe bends by means of theoretical, experimen-

Pipe bends are the most important part of any pipeline network tal and numerical methods [4–9]. To perform numerical simulation

system as these provide ﬂexibility in routing. Investigations of the of ﬂuid ﬂow in curved pipes, on the other hand, the Navier–Stokes

ﬂow through bends are of great signiﬁcance in understanding and equation has to be expressed in curvilinear or body ﬁtted coordi-

improving their performance and minimizing the losses. It is already nate system. A very useful database for direct numerical simulation

well known that the ﬂow of incompressible viscous ﬂuids through (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) on pipe bend is provided by

pipe bends is characterized by ﬂow separation, secondary ﬂow and two studies [10,11]. Recently, in the nuclear sector due to the fatigue

unsteadiness, which are dependent on Reynolds number as well as by the unsteady motion of the vortices, this has also attracted the

the radius of curvature of the bend. Whenever a ﬂuid ﬂows through interest of the researchers [2,12,13]. Hence, it is interesting to see

a bend, there is a radial pressure gradient developed by the cen- the ﬂow separation and reattachment under high Reynolds number.

trifugal force acting on the ﬂuid. Because of this, a double spiral ﬂow Micro and nano size particle erosion in 90° pipe bend and over the

ﬁeld and a pair of counter-rotating vortices can also be observed backward-facing steps were studied numerically [14–18]. Very re-

inside the bend i.e. because of the presence of pressure gradient, cently, studies on turbulent mixed convection heat transfer [19–25]

ﬂuid at the centre of pipe moves towards the outer side and comes attracted the interest of investigators; many researchers used Lattice

back along the wall towards the inner side. Now if the bend cur- Boltzmann methods to solve natural convection heat transfer problem

vature ratio is very small (Rc/D ≤ 1.5), the adverse pressure gradient [26,27]. Magneto hydrodynamic ﬂow (MHD) has attracted much in-

near the inner wall and immediately downstream of the bend may terest of researchers in recent years due to the effect of magnetic

lead to ﬂow separation, giving rise to a large increase in pressure ﬁeld on the boundary layer ﬂow control [28–33]. Different exact and

losses [1–3]. However, the ﬂow characteristics of incompressible ﬂows approximate techniques have also been used to solve the different

in pipe bends are not fully clariﬁed yet. Accurate estimation of mass problems in ﬂuid mechanics [34–38]. In this paper, the ﬂow sep-

ﬂow rate and losses is critical for most incompressible ﬂow systems. aration in the most common 90° pipe bend is studied by numerical

The applications of water-ﬂows through pipe bends are found in methods based on computational ﬂuid dynamics. The paper is struc-

many engineering applications. Some of the excellent reviews bear tured in the following fashion. Section 1 gives a brief idea on the

previous research works and motivation for the present work. Section

2 contains the necessary theoretical background. Problem deﬁni-

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 33 2668–4561 to 63 (Extn.: 277).

tion with validation is provided in section 3. Section 4 contains the

E-mail address: pd.iiest@gmail.com (P. Dutta). study on various parameters affecting the ﬂow pattern and is fol-

Peer review under responsibility of Karabuk University. lowed by summary bulletin of the study under section 5.

**http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2015.12.005
**

2215-0986/Copyright © 2015, The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Karabuk University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-

ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article in press as: Prasun Dutta, Sumit Kumar Saha, Nityananda Nandi, Nairit Pal, Numerical study on flow separation in 90° pipe bend under high Reynolds number

by k-ε modelling, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.jestch.2015.12.005

our model and simulation represents eddy viscosity. the accuracy needed.jestch. The turbulence model needs to be selected based on some considerations.09 σ κ = 1. The mean Please cite this article in press as: Prasun Dutta.85 million The problem that is considered here is the ﬂuid ﬂow through hexahedron elements. the attempt for the speciﬁc problem by other researchers.1..2015. For the validation of our present model. the capabilities and limitations of turbulence models. cases. the direction from inner core to outer core of the bend is y-coordinate and the perpendicular direction to x and y is ∂ ( p ε ) ∂ ( p εui ) ∂ ⎡ μt ∂k ⎤ ε ε2 + = ⎢ ⎥ + C 1ε 2μt E ij E ij − C 2ε ρ (4) z-coordinate. these are as follows geometrical conﬁguration is adopted. the physics of the ﬂow. Nairit Pal. Nityananda Nandi. The right choice of a turbulence model is critical when an industrial turbu- lent ﬂow problem is faced. The governing equations for incompressible ﬂuid ﬂow with con- stant properties are ∂u i =0 (1) ∂x i ∂u i ∂u i 1 ∂p ∂ 2ui +uj = fi − +υ (2) ∂t ∂x j ρ ∂x i ∂x j ∂x j Equations (1) and (2) are conservations of mass and momen. Numerical study on flow separation in 90° pipe bend under high Reynolds number by k-ε modelling. The bend geometry and mesh are shown in Fig. the turbulence density (ρ) of 990. Schematic diagram of the bend geometry and present model with compu- tational grid. the authors C μ = 0. an International Journal ■■ (2016) ■■–■■ 2.1.92 of the previously mentioned studies used a circular cross sec- tioned 90° bend with a curvature ratio (R c /D) of 2 and the measurements of velocities were performed at a Reynolds number 3.g.01 m with curvature ratio study. etc. The value of non-dimensional distance from wall (Rc/D) = 1 for different Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 × 105 to (Y+) is strictly controlled using standard wall treatment function 10 × 105.12. e. which needs an accurate mod- elling. It is deﬁned that the axial direction downstream the bend is x-coordinate. doi: 10. The default under relaxation factors were used to aid convergence for all models. with a pressure velocity coupling achieved using SIMPLE algorithm. Sumit Kumar Saha. Governing equations and numerical methodology (a) Three dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations are solved using the segregated implicit solver. In this model. the insight into Fig. 1a and b re- + = + 2μt E ij E ij − ρε (3) ∂t ∂x i ∂x j ⎢⎣ σ k ∂x j ⎥⎦ spectively. E ij represents component of rate of deformation. 1. set up 50D for all cases to save computational time. 1a.2 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity (μ) of 0. Turbulence model It is well known that turbulent ﬂows are basically designated by the ﬂuctuations of the velocity ﬁelds. Dutta et al. (b) tum. which was optimized via a grid-independence ∂ ( pk ) ∂ ( pkui ) ∂ ⎡ μt ∂k ⎤ study. The second order scheme is used for the U-RANS equations calculations. and μt At the very beginning of our study. 2. ∂t ∂x i ∂x j ⎣ σ ε ∂x j ⎦ k k 3. they are very diﬃcult and computationally crucial to analyse directly in industrial engineer- ing calculations. In their experiment.2647 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity turbulence model performs better for both single-phase and two- (μ) of 1. The ﬂuid medium The k-ε turbulence model is adopted for the present study as k-ε was air having density (ρ) of 1. see Fig.005 . Problem deﬁnition of 6 × 104.39–43]. The time step size used in the present study is 0. The inlet length of straight pipe in the calculations was (30 < Y+ < 90 for a near wall cell used for present study).001 s with 1000 time steps. which was optimized via a grid-independence 90° pipe bends having inner diameter of 0.7. the simulation is performed on a computational mesh containing total 2.44 C 2ε = 1. Three dimensional structured mesh was used containing hexa- Transport equation for k-epsilon hedron elements. fi is a vector representing external forces. For that intension. same [44]. Validation where ui represents velocity component in corresponding direc- tion. Different transported quan- tities such as momentum./Engineering Science and Technology. υ is the kinematic viscosity.0006 kg/m-s kinetic energy (k) and the turbulence dissipation rate (ε) are solved for the present study with working temperature of 300 K in both to determine the coeﬃcient of turbulent viscosity (μt).30 C 1ε = 1. also ﬂuctuate for this ﬂuctuation of velocity ﬁeld and these ﬂuctuations can be of very high frequency and small scale.00 σ κ = 1.45]. especially when this problem involves three dimensional ﬂow phenomena.1016/j. setup are ﬁrst validated against the existing experimental and nu- Equations (3) and (4) also consist of some adjustable constants merical data in References [3.983 × 10−5 kg/m-s for validation purpose and water having phase ﬂows in pipe bend [3. respectively.00 σ ε = 1. energy. the available computational resources. ARTICLE IN PRESS 2 P. Engineering Science and Technology. an International Journal (2016). and time.

It is found that with the increase of Reynolds number. Rc/D = 1. The Fig.45]. core of the bend was seen clearly. It is found that velocity ﬂuctuation is maximum in both x and y di- rections at the separation region. the peak position is almost Fig. In the tively. central plane and at the bend outlet (α = 90°) for Re = 1 × 105. the intensity of ﬂuctuation is higher in the x direction. 7 for bend with Rc/D = 1 at different Reynolds numbers. reattachment point. As mentioned above.2015.1016/j. another study has been made to under- stand the dependency of separation and reattachment points on Reynolds number. trifugal force with high velocity and pressure gradient on the ﬂow. It was found that the starting point of ﬂow sep- aration moves upstream in the bend as Reynolds number increases. Nairit Pal. Hence.13]. a ﬂow separation region was found at the inner core of bend outlet. This region is concluded to be Fig. bulent ﬂow in a 90° pipe bend through numerical simulation. axial velocity proﬁle normalized with inlet velocity along symme.005 . 5 shows the normalized velocity ﬁelds for two different Reyn- results of the mean velocity proﬁle. The negative r values represent the inner core of the bend and SP. this procedure of mesh generation and simulation set up has been Fig. Comparison of normalized axial velocity proﬁle of present analysis with published experimental and numerical results. 4 shows the normalized ﬂow velocity vector ﬁelds at the used for further analysis. Numerical study on flow separation in 90° pipe bend under high Reynolds number by k-ε modelling. The mean velocity is shifted upward due to the faster 4. Engineering Science and Technology. recent study [3]. ARTICLE IN PRESS P. velocity ﬂuctuation and sepa. Nityananda Nandi. Non-dimensional ﬂuctuating velocities Urms and Vrms. At the The main objective of the present study is to characterize the inner core of the bend. The Urms proﬁles do not show much Reynolds number dependency. two identical counter rotating Dean vortices were also found for both Reynolds numbers. the velocity proﬁle at the inner core of the pipe bend tries to recover This discrepancies may arise due to the adverse pressure gradient its fully developed shape by decelerating and accelerating effects near the inner wall of the bend and this is also consistent with a at the outer and the inner parts of the pipe bend respectively. The rms velocity ﬂuctuations at bend outlet in the x and y di- rections are depicted in Fig. Negative values of r represent the inner core of the bend. while the reattachment point moves downstream. doi: 10. 6 shows various starting points of ﬂow sep- aration from the bend inlet and corresponding reattachment points from the bend outlet. as expected.jestch. Normalized velocity proﬁles at different positions in the bend for different Re. Sumit Kumar Saha. try line at bend outlet (α = 90°) shows very good agreement with middle point between separation and reattachment points respec- both experimental and numerical results [3. see Fig. it has been seen that the it may be speculated for higher values of the Reynolds number that model is in close approximation with the published results. This trend corre- sponds to the dependency of Reynolds number on the total pressure loss [45] and consistent with experimental results in References [2. hence. and the ﬂow was highly unsteady and complex. 3. The low velocity region near the inner presented in this section. a region having very low velocity was found effect of Reynolds number on ﬂow separation of single phase tur. pipe curvature effects are reducing. Dutta et al. the separated region [46]. Sec- ondary ﬂow pattern can clearly be observed in this section. MP represent positions of separation point. an International Journal ■■ (2016) ■■–■■ 3 (a) (b) Fig./Engineering Science and Technology.7. The top ration reattachment points for different Reynolds numbers along of the each ﬁgure is the outer core of the bend and the bottom is the different positions of the bend in central symmetry plane are the inner core of the bend. an International Journal (2016). same for all measurements but the peak value is high for higher Please cite this article in press as: Prasun Dutta. Results and discussions moving ﬂuid near the outer core as expressed in Reference [7]. Because of the relation between the cen- locity (Uin) for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 1 × 105 to 10 × 105). RP. Velocity acceleration is depicted at the outer core of the bend inner core region of the bend (negative X-axis in Fig. 3 shows the mean velocity proﬁle normalized with inlet ve. From the validation part. normalized by the mean ﬂow velocity in x and y directions re- spectively.12. however. olds numbers (Re = 1 × 105 & 10 × 105) at the bend outlet. 2. 2b. some dis. crepancies between experimental and numerical data are observed.). Fig.

Please cite this article in press as: Prasun Dutta. doi: 10. (a) Separation points. ARTICLE IN PRESS 4 P.12.2015. Nairit Pal. Sumit Kumar Saha. (b) Cross section at bend outlet (∝ = 90°). (b) Re = 10 × 105. (b) Reattachment points. Numerical study on flow separation in 90° pipe bend under high Reynolds number by k-ε modelling. an International Journal (2016).005 . Normalized velocity vector ﬁeld. (a) (b) Fig. Dutta et al. (a) (b) Fig. Dependency of separation and reattachment points on Reynolds number. 4. 6. (a) Symmetry plane (centre cross section). 5.1016/j.jestch./Engineering Science and Technology. Engineering Science and Technology. Nityananda Nandi. an International Journal ■■ (2016) ■■–■■ (a) (b) Fig. (a) Re = 1 × 105. Normalized velocity vector ﬁeld for Re = 1 × 105 and Rc/D = 1.

a very complicated ﬂuid structure is formed pendency can be observed. (a) rms in x direction. an International Journal ■■ (2016) ■■–■■ 5 (a) (b) Fig. (a) Cross sectional planes for ﬂow visualization.12.1016/j. an International Journal (2016). As mentioned earlier. Dutta et al.005 . Nityananda Nandi. Nairit Pal. 8. Reynolds number./Engineering Science and Technology. ARTICLE IN PRESS P. (d) Circumfer- ential ﬂow from outer core to inner core. Complex ﬂow structure in the pipe bend. by the movement separation region and the acceleration of ﬂow ve- creasing Reynolds number. (b) Flow at symmetry plane. Numerical study on flow separation in 90° pipe bend under high Reynolds number by k-ε modelling. 8a (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. (b) rms in y direction. 8a–d shows the complex ﬂow motions in the bend. Please cite this article in press as: Prasun Dutta. For the Vrms proﬁles.2015. The peak value becomes larger and at the downstream of bend outlet due to the ﬂow ﬂuctuation induced shifted from the inner core towards the centre of the bend with in. locity. doi: 10. rms proﬁles of velocity ﬂuctuations at the bend outlet. a clear Reynolds number de. Fig. Sumit Kumar Saha.jestch. (c) Flow in separated region. Engineering Science and Technology. 7. Fig.

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