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Heat and Mass Transfer

Tutorial Sheet 1
1. The inner and outer surfaces of a 0.5-cm-thick 2-m X 2-m window glass in winter are
10°C and 3°C, respectively. If the thermal conductivity of the glass is 0.78 W/m-°C,
determine the amount of heat loss, in kJ, through the glass over a period of 5 hours.
What would your answer be if the glass were 1 cm thick?
2. A heat flux meter attached to the inner surface of a 3 cm thick refrigerator door
indicates a heat flux of 25 W/m2 through the door. Also the temperatures of the inner
and outer surfaces of the door are measured to be 7oC and 15oC respectively.
Determine the average thermal conductivity of the door.
3. Consider a person standing in a room maintained at 20°C at all times. The inner
surfaces of the walls, floors, and ceiling of the house are observed to be at an average
temperature of 12°C in winter and 23°C in summer. Determine the rates of radiation
heat transfer between this person and the surrounding surfaces in both summer and
winter if the exposed surface area, emissivity, and the average outer surface
temperature of the person are 1.6 m2, 0.95, and 32°C, respectively.
4. Hot air at 80°C is blown over a 2-m X 4-m flat surface at 30°C. If the average
convection heat transfer coefficient is 55 W/m2 °C, determine the rate of heat transfer
from the air to the plate, in kW.
5. The heat generated in the circuitry on the surface of a silicon chip (k = 130 W/m°C) is
conducted to the ceramic substrate to which it is attached. The chip is 6 mm X 6 mm
in size and 0.5 mm thick and dissipates 3 W of power. Disregarding any heat transfer
through the 0.5-mm-high side surfaces, determine the temperature difference between
the front and back surfaces of the chip in steady operation.
6. An ice chest whose outer dimensions are 30 cm X 40 cm X 40 cm is made of 3-cm-
thick Styrofoam (k = 0.033 W/m · °C). Initially, the chest is filled with 40 kg of ice at
0°C, and the inner surface temperature of the ice chest can be taken to be 0°C at all
times. The heat of fusion of ice at 0°C is 333.7 kJ/kg, and the surrounding ambient air
is at 30°C. Disregarding any heat transfer from the 40-cm X 40-cm base of the ice
chest, determine how long it will take for the ice in the chest to melt completely if the
outer surfaces of the ice chest are at 8°C.
7. A glass window of width W = 1m and height H = 2m is 5 mm thick and has a thermal
conductivity kg = 1.4 W/mK. If the inner and outer surface temperatures of glass are
15oC and -20oC, respectively, on a cold winter day, what is the rate of heat loss
through the glass. To reduce heat loss through windows, it is customary to use a
double pane construction in which adjoining panes are separated by an air space. If
the spacing is 10 mm and the glass surfaces in contact with the air have temperatures
of 10oC and -15oC what is the rate of heat loss from a 1m X 2m window? kair = 0.024

Neglecting heat transfer from the ends of the heater.8. What is the corresponding surface temperature? What are the consequences of such an event? 10. the heater surface is exposed to air that is also at 20 deg. A cartridge electrical heater is shaped as a cylinder of length 200 mm and outer diameter 20 mm. a> If heat is rejected from the chips by radiation and natural convection. 9.2 W/m2K5/4. What is the thickness required of a masonry wall having thermal conductivity 0. C but h = 50 W/m2K. Under normal conditions. determine its surface temperature Ts. Chips of width L = 15 mm on a side are mounted to a substrate that is installed in an enclosure whose walls and air are maintained at Tsur=T∞= 25oC. The chips have an emissivity of 0. where C = 4.25 W/mK and thickness of 100 mm? Both walls are subjected to the same surface temperature difference. If the water flow is inadvertently terminated while the heater is still operating. b> If a fan is used to maintain air flow through the enclosure and heat transfer is by forced convection. what is the maximum operating power of each chip? The convection coefficient depends on the chip to air temperature difference and may be approximated as h = C(Ts. with h = 250 W/m2K.6 and a maximum allowable temperature Ts = 85oC. what is the maximum operating power? .T∞)1/4. the heater dissipates 2 kW while submerged in a water flow that is at 20 deg. C and provides a convection heat transfer coefficient h = 5000 W/m2K.75 W/mK if the heat rate is to be 80% of the heat rate through a composite structural wall having k = 0.