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Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid


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Characteristics of Secondary Flow Induced by 90-
Degree Elbow in Turbulent Pipe Flow

Jongtae Kim, Mohan Yadav & Seungjin Kim

To cite this article: Jongtae Kim, Mohan Yadav & Seungjin Kim (2014) Characteristics of
Secondary Flow Induced by 90-Degree Elbow in Turbulent Pipe Flow, Engineering Applications of
Computational Fluid Mechanics, 8:2, 229-239, DOI: 10.1080/19942060.2014.11015509

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Published online: 19 Nov 2014.

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2013 229 . the flow becomes unsteady because of a turbulent flows in pipes with elbows by means of flow separation occurring immediately theoretical. In the of fluid in a pipe with elbow. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 2013. Accepted: 9 Dec. At the same time. The secondary flow distribution of the bubbles in the pipe with an is generated due to an imbalance between elbow is very different compared to that in a pipe centrifugal force and pressure gradient near the without an elbow. 2013. 2011). The CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software OpenFOAM is used to simulate the turbulent flow in pipes with elbow. the structure of the driven toward the centers of the two counter- secondary flow is dependent on the radius of the rotating swirls generated by the elbow (Yadav. INTRODUCTION cooling systems of nuclear power plants. This accumulation of bubbles can increase based on the pipe diameter (D) and bulk velocity the possibility of a bubble collision and (Ub). a secondary motion case of a bubbly two-phase flow which may occur of the flow is developed and it is superimposed on during an accident in a nuclear power plant. the gas bubbles are curvature. where many bends are used to interconnect the A 90-degree-bent elbow is commonly used in components. pp. Hellstrom Weske (1948) experimentally investigated the et al. No. fluctuating flow after the elbow.5. Various turbulence models are benchmarked with the existing experimental data and a comparative study is performed to select an appropriate turbulence model for the analysis. the its primary streamwise flow. and rectangular cross sections at Received: 22 Jul. Keywords: secondary flow. the of an elbow is small enough to create a secondary flow consisting of a pair of counter. velocity distribution at the outlet of elbows with The flow in the downstream region of a 90-degree various shapes of cross-sections including round. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. bend curvature (Rc) and Reynolds number (Re) 2013). Due to the inherent difference bent-pipe wall in the radial direction of the bend in density of the two phases. Additionally. It is found that the swirl intensity of the secondary flow is a strong function of the radius of curvature of the bend and a weak function of the Reynolds number.e. 2009). USA *E-Mail: ex-kjt@kaeri. Revised: 12 Oct.. 2. The Pennsylvania State University. 8. subsequently alter the interfacial heat and mass When the non-dimensional radius of curvature of transfers. 229–239 (2014) CHARACTERISTICS OF SECONDARY FLOW INDUCED BY 90- DEGREE ELBOW IN TURBULENT PIPE FLOW Jongtae Kim^*. In general. Furthermore. downstream of the bend ( (Corresponding Author) ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to characterize the swirling secondary flow in the downstream of a pipe bend using a numerical simulation of the flow. the velocity profile of the primary streamwise which can lead to structural fatigue in the piping flow is distorted and shifted away from the center system (Yamano et al. and numerical methods. it is found that the dissipation of the swirl intensity is exponential in nature. when the curvature radius the bend is greater than 1..5 (i.5). swirl intensity. Predictions made by the selected turbulence model are compared with the LDA (Laser Doppler anemometer) measurements from the experiments currently conducted to find the dependency of the flows on the Reynolds number. The distortion in the streamwise many piping systems to connect different velocity profile of the coolant by an elbow can components. square. 90-degree bent elbow. several researchers have investigated than 1. If Rc/D is smaller In the past. of the curvature of the elbow. 1948. and Seungjin Kim# ^Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division. Mohan Rc/D > 1. pipe can undergo oscillating mechanical stress. experimental. Republic of Korea # Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department. CFD 1. the downstream rotating vortices are generated. It is well known that during the flow affect the distribution of heat transfer rates. bend is important for the primary and secondary elliptical.

(2009) applied a measurement.132. 2013) and only vicinity of the elbow and only a limited number characteristic features of the test facility are of studies investigated the flow in the downstream presented here.4×105 to validate the Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) test conducted by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). No. Additionally. respectively. Homicz (2004) performed numerical simulations of the flow through a 90-degree elbow with a Rc/D =1. A laser the dissipation characteristics is important in leveling system and a digital level are employed evaluating the length required for the elbow to ensure the alignment of both the upstream and effects to be dissipated and in modeling the downstream sections within ±0. In this study. a quantitative assessment method based on Maximum Velocity 27 m/s hit rate using the experimental data of Sudo et al. it is necessary to choose an appropriate turbulence Measurement Length 300 mm model specifically for the turbulent flow in a pipe with an elbow. Al-Rafai et al. the objectives of the current electromagnetic flow meter. The elbow has a radius of curvature of dissipation characteristics of the secondary flow 152.6 mm/s.4mm (3D). The detailed Most of the above-mentioned studies focused description of the test facility is presented in only on the flow structure in the immediate previous studies (Yadav. An experiment is conducted to evaluate study of a turbulent air flow in circular pipe bends its dependency on the Reynolds number.8mm inner diameter (D) in the downstream region of the elbow is of acrylic pipes and interconnected by a 90° glass significant importance to understand the elbow.975 were used. 8. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. 1998.1m (L/D = 180).1°. with an accuracy of study are to perform experimental and numerical ±0. the flow structure after an with Reynolds number of 60.35m (L/D = 66) flow structure. for the experiments is measured by an In view of the above. is shown in Fig. The study used a hot-wire anemometer to MEASUREMENT measure streamwise velocity (Us) and circumferential velocity (Uc) for a turbulent flow As mentioned above. Fig. 1990). Al-Rafai of both upstream and downstream sections et Al. current study.7 μm/s to 4. 1 Experimental facility and locations of LDA More recently. 2 (2014) Reynolds numbers ranging from 0. and the flow had the Reynolds number of 34. to investigate the influence of Rc/D on the flow. large eddy simulation (LES) approach using a standard Smagorinsky model with a wall function A schematic diagram of the experimental setup. The flow rate effects associated with flow restrictions. The knowledge of the flow structure constructed from 50. Measurable Velocity Fluctuation From 0. law for flows in elbows with various Rc/D at as well as the co-ordinate system used for the several Reynolds number conditions.0 (mm) the turbulent pipe flow through an elbow.4 at a Reynolds number of 5.. Unexpectedly. (1998) is applied to choose an appropriate 230 . two bends with Rc/D = 3.6 × 106 turbulence model among the available turbulence for the design of an aircraft duct. elbow depends on the Reynolds number and bend (1990) performed an experimental and numerical curvature. 1.5% of the full-scale reading.49 and Rc/D = 6. an understanding of and 9. These simulations and FAC tests are used to better characterize the flow- accelerated corrosion/erosion in the pipe elbows. studies on turbulent pipe flows after 90-degree elbows and to characterize the secondary flows Table 1 Specifications of LDA employed for induced by the 90-degree elbows including the experiments. there are few Beam width 2.2 to 0.1 (mm)×0. In order for that. During the experiments. (1998) performed the experiments for turbulent flow in a 90-degree-bent pipe with Rc/D 2. and the lengths of the upstream and to accurately assess the development of the and downstream sections are 3. Tanaka et al. models in OpenFOAM CFD code.. The experimental facility consists region of the elbows (Sudo et al.1 (mm)×1.0 mm papers which are devoted to a numerical study of Measurement Volume 0.000. dissipation characteristics. Sudo et al. EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY AND = 2.

(1998) performed experiments for profiles. the LDA measurement volume inside curvature radius. the measurements are performed at 13D upstream of the elbow (53D 3. which is resolution of 1µm in both traversing directions. where a higher velocity gradient is turbulence models is very important. which has a complicated by the secondary flow. Along the flow difficult. No. the flow velocity was measured at a Reynolds The principal characteristics of the LDA are listed number of 60000 based on the pipe diameter and in Table 1. As indicated in Fig. the streamwise flow every 22.5D. To ensure the number with different curvature radii of 2D and statistical reliability of the measurements. are chosen by doubling the bulk local point and the validation of the burst signals velocity to scrutinize the effect of the Reynolds was above 98%. are investigated in the current study. As such.’s experiment A total of three flow conditions. and by 35 mW laser with a wavelength of 600 nm. To evaluate the which is capable of one-dimensional velocity dependencies.00 50800 used for evaluation of swirl characteristics in the Run2 2. and curvature radius of the bend. this study is equipped with an elbow of 3D and water. respectively.1 Numerical simulation of Sudo et al. The test condition of Run1 is the pipe is shifted by a finite amount. is distorted by the existence of adverse pressure the LDA along with the traversing system can be gradient along the convex wall of the pipe bend. the LDA is traversed to with high Reynolds number. is used to measure the axial water (1998) was referenced. These 3. validation of the numerical results from region. The similar Reynolds number.00 101600 downstream of an elbow. the experiments conducted by Sudo et al. These appropriate turbulence model for the numerical radial positions are selected such that a finer simulation of a turbulent flow in a pipe with an measurement mesh is obtained in the near wall elbow. A straight pipe-section with 100D of bend are dependent on Reynolds number of flow development length was installed in the upstream 231 . 1.1 Test conditions and numerical simulation flow conditions are selected to study the effect of increasing Reynolds number on the velocity Sudo et al. The selected turbulence model is then Run1 1. a velocity. especially for turbulent flows each azimuthal direction. generated by an imbalance of the centrifugal force This traversing system is further attached to a and pressure gradient in the radial direction of the plate. addition. In their experiment. and 50D BENT PIPE downstream of the elbow in the downstream section. It should be noted that due to the bulk velocity. which is designed with mounting holes at bend curvature. The experiment of tracking/seeding particles consist of Polyamide Sudo et al. This shift is chosen with a bulk velocity of 1 m/s to obtain a accounted for by employing Snell‘s law. To select an obtain measurements at 23 radial positions. The LDA is mounted on a two. acrylic. minimum of 5000 samples are measured at each Run 2 and Run 3. the selection criteria which involve a quantitative assessment are used to perform a Test No. 8.04. a 3D. Run3 4. 10D. (1998) on the turbulent flows in a bent pipe Table 2 List of flow conditions investigated in current are used to validate the turbulence models. The light beam in the LDA is generated bend with a curvature radius of 2D was used. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol.00 203200 3. It is expected that the swirl intensity and turbulent flow in a 90-degree-bent pipe with Rc/D its decay characteristic in a pipe with a 90-degree = 2.1. In the expected.5° in the azimuthal direction. attached to the mounting plate to measure the These make an accurate numerical simulation of velocity across entire pipe cross-section. number. the experiment of Sudo et al. The conditions of other tests. The experimental facility used in difference in the refractive index of air. measurements. In study. Additionally. as shown in Table 2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF from inlet) to figure out a fully-developed TURBULENT FLOWS IN 90-DEGREE- velocity profile and 3. Ub [m/s] Re comparative study among the tested turbulence models. current study. The turbulent flow in a 90-degree-bent pipe is dimensional traversing system. (1998) and Run1 in the present particles with a size distribution of around 20µm experiments were conducted at a similar Reynolds and specific gravity of 1. 2 (2014) An integrated Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA).

Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. (b) bent pipe flow. 3 Computational mesh near pipe exit. (1998): (a) streamwise velocity profiles. 4a is streamwise velocity shown in Fig. Numerical selected based on iterative grid-dependency tests. when a wall-function is used. the mesh size used in this study is depending correction method named SIMPLE algorithm. 3 where the surface Reynolds number Re = 60000. and Fig. +: The two-dimensional unstructured mesh of the Experimental data of Sudo et al. The mesh for the bent pipe is generated by Fig. solutions are iteratively sought by pressure So. 2 (2014) of the bend to provide a fully developed turbulent pipe cross-section is constructed with flow to the bend. 4 Numerical results for experiment of Sudo et al. Solid to minimize the non-orthogonality of the mesh. 2 Computational geometry for simulation of 90o. on the use of a wall function. But for a low-Re relaxation parameters of the discretized equations. The value of the velocity (US) and circumferential velocity (UC) at non-dimensional distance from the pipe wall several locations along the pipe. The boundary conditions at pipe profiles on cut-planes near the elbow.5. it can be expected that the primary the experimental data of Zagarola and Smits streamwise flow and secondary swirling flow are (1999) for fully developed turbulence pipe flow. The experiments were quadrilateral cells. 2. Fig. The computational domain is composed of an Fig. x/D=2. and x/D=5.‘s experiment by using the standard k-ε pipe with 50D length connected to an elbow as turbulence model. streamlines. 8. pipe cross-section along the streamwise direction x/D=0. 232 . Y+. The constructed mesh of the performed with air as the working fluid and flow bent pipe is shown in Fig. for a near-wall The open source CFD code OpenFOAM cell is strictly controlled to be in the range of 20 ~ (OpenCFD. 5 Comparisons of streamwise velocity stacking a two-dimensional unstructured mesh of components along symmetric lines at x/D=0. From the fully developed power-law profile which is from figures. x/D=1. No. (a) (b) Fig.080. the experiments. 152. OpenFOAM solves the Y+ value for a near-wall cell is set below 1 in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations case without a wall-function. Fig. the number of cells is 562. based on the friction velocity . Fig. 4 shows the numerical results of the Sudo et upstream pipe with 20D length and a downstream al. turbulence model. (1998). correlated in the elbow pipe flow. 2012) is used to simulate Sudo et al. The distribution of discretized in the context of the cell-centered mesh cells along the streamwise direction is finite volume method (FVM). 4b inlet are set as follows: Velocity is fixed with a is streamlines to show the swirling flow.150 hexahedral cells. The mesh used for a The standard k-ε turbulence model is applied to high-Re turbulence model is composed of choose a suitable convective scheme and under.‘s 50. line: standard k-ε turbulence model. The study used a mesh near the pipe exit is magnified to visualize hot-wire anemometer to measure the streamwise the orthogonality of the mesh. The values of the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate are calculated from the inlet turbulence intensity (5% of inlet bulk velocity in this study) and pipe diameter. However.

after selection of mesh size. x/D=1. Solid line: 10 LCLOW Lien cubic low-Re k-ε (Lien et al. x/D=3. 1996) standard k-ε turbulence model.1. The circumferential figure. No Abbr. components along cross lines at x/D=1. it is of great importance to select due to the adverse pressure gradient near the inner appropriate turbulence model that can simulate wall of the pipe bend. In the region of the bend pipe. and x/D=10.. Turbulence model 1 SKE Standard k-ε with wall function 2 EKE Extended k-ε with wall function (Chen and Kim. the measured data in Fig. 1995) 5 KMSST k-ω SST with wall function (Menter. +: Experimental 11 LLLOW Lien-Leschziner low-Re k-ε (Lien and Leschziner. x/D=2. In view of this. 2 (2014) A comparison between the calculated and Figs. 7 Comparisons of circumferential velocity 9 LBLOW Lam-Bremhorst low-Re k-ε (Lam and components along cross lines at x/D=0. 1996) 8 LSLOW Launder-sharma low-Re k-ε (Launder and Sharma.. 1981) x/D=0. 5 indicates a ±10% error range normalized by the bulk velocity. 5. Solid line: standard k-ε turbulence model. In this study. It is still challenging to apply LES for a high Reynolds number turbulent flow in a very long pipe. (1998). In Table 3. x/D=7.‘s experiment. No. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. These discrepancies may arise parameters. 1974) Fig. the positive and negative r/D indicates the velocity component means secondary or swirling outer and inner part from the center of the circular velocity component. 1987) 3 RNGKE RNG k-ε with wall function (Yakhot and Orszag. 6 Comparisons of streamwise velocity the assessment are listed. Reynolds stress transport model (RSTM). and remain as future work. θ=0°) in the downstream region of the elbow are shown in Fig. θ=90°) in the downstream along the cross lines (i. measured data in the inner region with negative suitable convective scheme and under-relaxation radii are observed. OpenFOAM contains various turbulence models. (1998). and x/D=5. respectively.. x/D=5. As such. only the linear and non-linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are considered.2 Assessment of turbulence models that the streamwise velocity components from the standard k-ε turbulence model agree very well The main objective of the present study is to with the measured data in the outer region with characterize the secondary flow in the positive radii. 6 and 7 show the streamwise and measured streamwise velocity profiles along the circumferential velocity components.e. It should be noted that the cross lines are predicted well at different the horizontal length of the legend ‗+‘ used for locations in the downstream region of the elbow. It is found 3. +: Experimental data of Table 3 Turbulence models used for simulation of Sudo et al. some downstream of the elbow through numerical discrepancies between the numerical and simulations.e. symmetric lines (i. For the assessment. the turbulence models to be used for Fig. 1986) 4 RKE Realizable k-ε with wall function (Shih et al. respectively. Bremhorst. 8. which include one-equation and two-equation models based on Boussinesq assumption. the RSTM turbulence models are excluded from the assessment because of numerical and turbulence model problems in obtaining an acceptable solution. 1993) 7 LCKE Lien cubic k-ε with wall function (Lien et al. The velocity profiles along pipe section. 1994)) 6 SNKE Shih‘s nonlinear k-ε with wall function (Shih and Zhu. the flow across the elbow accurately. 1993) data of Sudo et al. On the contrary. 233 . and large eddy simulation (LES).5. Sudo et al.

8. 1996. (74.-: average hit rate (92%). Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. . No..-: average hit rate hit rate (92. 11 Hit rates of turbulence models for Fig. Lien and Leschziner..‘s experiments and a LCKE and RKE.e. from different turbulence models along symmetric line at x/D = 0. The denote the three assessment objects. and 7 which profiles along the symmetric line at x/D = 0. Figs. Fig..‘s components on the cross lines.‘s bent pipe.-: average Sudo et al. Shih‘s model (No. streamwise velocity along the symmetric lines. 6 in Table 3) the measured value. In Table 3.‘s bent pipe. 10 in Table 3) (Lien et al. where the turbulence models are sorted by As such. model the near wall region and the remaining A comparison is called a ―hit‖ if the numerical models simulate the near-wall region without a result lies within ±10% of the bulk velocity from wall-function. 6. turbulence models measurements. The number of points within the numbered 1 through 7 utilize a wall-function to error bounds of the experimental data is counted..3%).‘s LES results. i. model. 9 Hit rates of turbulence models for streamwise circumferential velocity components on cross velocity components on symmetric lines of lines of Sudo et al. a quantitative assessment method is the number of hits. 9. In the assessment of applied to select an appropriate turbulence model. 1993) and Lein‘s models (Nos. 10 Hit rates of turbulence models for streamwise velocity components on cross lines of Sudo et Fig. points used in each assessment is 135. otherwise it is called a (Shih et al. 1993) are the non-linear models. The probing locations and measured data used for Fig. Each turbulence model is implemented to SNKE has the highest number of hits followed by simulate Sudo et al. numerical results from some of the turbulence streamwise velocity component on the symmetric models listed in Table 3 provide reasonable lines and streamwise and circumferential velocity agreement compared with Sudo et al. where eddy viscosity is related by more than second moment of velocity gradient. . it is difficult to choose an appropriate and 11 show the hit rates for each turbulence turbulence model from the qualitative comparison.. 5.‘s bent pipe. The number of experimental data and Tanaka et al. Fig.5%).. 8 shows the numerical results from different the quantitative assessment of the turbulence turbulence models for streamwise velocity models are plotted in Figs. 8 Comparison of streamwise velocity profiles al. However. It is found that along the cross 234 . 10. . 7 & ―miss‖. 2 (2014) Turbulence models can be grouped based on comparative study is performed between modeling of near wall flow and turbulent eddy numerical simulations and experimental viscosity.

In order to select a single turbulence model out of these four. each assessment and the second criterion considers the deviation from the maximum hit rate. Fig. Re=101. 13 Comparisons of streamwise velocity three velocity profiles. Therefore. LBLOW. 2 (2014) without wall functions. Re=50. and 50. Run 2 turbulence model gives very similar results to (Ub=2m/s. 2004).600). SNKE is not considered for the final calculations. circular spillways.5. the low-Re number turbulence models perform poorly and KMSST & RNGKE record the highest number of hits. which has shown that RNGKE turbulence model performs better than SKE for Fig. and N represent the hit rate for the ith turbulence model. 14 Dependency of streamwise velocity flow in bends. along the symmetric lines. 10. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. The above assessment shows that some of the turbulence models consistently perform below the average. Four turbulence models namely.200). in the assessment of circumferential velocity along the cross lines. and first step utilizes the average number of hits for 50. Also in the simulation of components on Reynolds number along cross Rahimzadeh et al. LLLOW. and KMSST satisfy the criterion based on the deviation from the maximum hit rate. RNGKE. the selection criterion is changed to reduce the range of deviation by 2/3 of σ. No. 12 Comparisons of streamwise velocity As such. 10. and LCLOW. Run 3 (Ub=4m/s. and 50.5. +: Exp. ■: Exp. ×: Exp. The low-Re number turbulence models a 90-degree-bent elbow conducted in this study is 235 . The deviation of each assessment. 8. it does not predict other velocity profiles satisfactorily. Re=203. maximum hit rate and the number of turbulence models used in the assessment. it is seen that RNGKE Run1 (Ub=1m/s. from the maximum hit rate is given by: N  x  xi  2 max σk = i=1 (1) N where xi. EKE.800). The symmetric (θ=90°) lines at x/D=3. two additional criteria are applied for the components for Run1 case (Ub=1m/s) along selection of an appropriate turbulence model. However.5. have a higher than average number of hits.2 Analysis of current experiment most of the turbulence models except SNKE and The experiment on a turbulent flow in a pipe with LCKE. the streamwise velocity is predicted well by 3. These turbulence models are eliminated from the future assessments. This is consistent with the previous study (Homicz. experiment and RSTM model. respectively It is found that RNGKE has consistently greater than average hit rates for the assessment of all the Fig. it is not likely to find a single turbulence model with maximum number of hits for all three assessments. σ k . Additionally. RKE. Although SNKE has components for Run1 case (Ub=1m/s) along highest number of hits for the streamwise velocity cross (θ=0°) lines at x/D=3. lines. (2012) of a turbulent flow over lines (θ=0°) at x/D=3. such as LSLOW. xmax. 10. Based on this quantitative assessment RNGKE turbulence model is selected for investigating the flow in the elbow.

200). 12 and 13 for the case of Run1 where the bulk velocity is 1 m/s and its Reynolds number is 50. it is found that the normalized velocity at the center of the pipe at Fig.800. The velocity profiles along the cross lines at three different locations downstream of the elbow coincide well with each other. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. increasing Reynolds number. Re=101. 12. 13 shows Fig. Re=203. the peaks near the pipe wall are diffused by turbulent dissipation at 10D. It is seen in the figure that the streamwise velocity is shifted upward just after the elbow. and Run3 are compared in Fig. 8. Furthermore.5D. and 50D in the horizontal pipe after the elbow are plotted in Fig. 15 Dependency of streamwise velocity the streamwise velocity distributions along the components on Reynolds number along cross horizontal cross lines at the same locations as in lines (θ=0°) at x/D=3. ··-··: Calc. Numerical and experimental results are shown in Figs. From a comparison of the velocity Fig. It looks like the calculated results by the currently used numerical schemes and turbulence model match well with the measured data. 10D. 17 Decay of swirl intensity along straight pipe 50D downstream of the elbow decreases with after elbow with Rc = 2D. and is redistributed downstream. It is also shown in the figure that the velocity near the center of the pipe at 50D downstream is flattened Fig. This observation is also consistent with the recent experiments in super-pipe flow facility (Zagarola and Smits. and 50. ━━: Fig. it can be thought that the turbulence domain to get area-averaged swirl intensities model used in this study gives mostly acceptable along pipe after elbow. Run1 (Ub=1m/s. This happens because in a fully developed turbulent pipe flow the flattening of the velocity profile increases with Re.600).5D. Streamwise velocity distributions along vertical symmetric lines at 3. It is shown that the velocity profiles from the three tests are coincident with each other. Run 2 (Ub=2m/s. 16 2-D planar meshes inserted in 3-D mesh profiles. observed from the figure. 236 . Run2. pipe after elbow with Rc = 3D. To evaluate the dependency of a flow after the elbow on the Reynolds number. the streamwise velocities normalized by the bulk velocity of each test are compared in Fig. 18 Decay of normalized swirl intensity along more as the Reynolds number increases. Fig. 14. 1997). which means that there exists a similarity in the structure of flows after a bend with the same curvature radius if the Reynolds number is in the range of 50000 and 200000. − −: Calc.5. 12. The streamwise Run 3 (Ub=4m/s.800). as do the measured data.‘s bend pipe. The streamwise velocities from a numerical simulation of the three test cases Run1. which was chosen through a quantitative evaluation of the simulation results of Sudo et al. results for the flow in a bend pipe. velocity near the pipe wall is a little augmented because of its reduction in the central region of the pipe section by swirls at 3. 15. No. The symmetry of the flow is easily Calc. However. 10. 2 (2014) numerically simulated with the RNGKE turbulence model. Re=50.

flow conditions can be expressed as an rotating vortices such as those created by the exponentially decreasing function as secondary flow in an elbow is not appropriate. measurement of Al-Rafai et al. 19. The normalized swirl computed results are introduced and compared intensity for elbow with Rc/D = 2 along the with other results. Fig.‘s experiment are meshes used for area-averaged swirl intensities. the strength of a cases (50800 ≤ Re ≤ 203200) are shown in Fig. In bent pipes with the same geometric and physical the figure. RC/D = 3. Run2. (1998) used the magnitude of velocity I s0 D tangential to a pipe section area. Turbulent flows in the 90-degree in the computational domain for a pipe flow. model reproduces well the decay characteristic of In Fig. only the swirl intensities from the at the exit of the elbow. numerical simulations of the flow the mapped solution are integrated on the 2-D were performed by using the commercial CFD mesh. In general.98. To investigate the effect of other geometric To obtain the area-averaged swirl intensity at each parameters. It is found that the dissipation of Is for all application of the swirl number to counter. simulated using the RNG k-ε turbulence model The intensity of secondary flow calculated from and it is found that the current numerical method Eq. downstream pipes of the elbows are shown for the In the same way.49D). Eq. they show (Chigier and Beer. No. which represents the smaller bend (3. 1964). the pipe section area. In the list. It can be seen that the swirl intensity intensity of secondary flow. The and the Reynolds number is from 30000 to numerical result by the RNG k-ε turbulence 200000. the flow solution is mapped to a two. and Run3) were calculated along The secondary flow generated during the flow the downstream horizontal pipe. Here. the radius generated by the elbow is exponentially of the elbow curvature is in the range of 2D to 7D. Is L To define the intensity of counter-rotating swirls. the decay characteristic of the cases listed in Table 4. is FLOW INDUCED BY 90-DEGREE BEND evaluated only based on the numerical solutions because the swirl components of the flow In this section. such as the radius of curvature. The swirl number is the similar trends of swirl intensity decay to the case area-averaged flux of angular momentum and it is of 2D curvature radius of elbow with a minor used to quantify the strength of a swirl around the dependency on the Reynolds numbers of the axis of the main flow. 8. the pipe section along the downstream pipe after the results are compared with the previous velocity elbow. 18. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. the swirl intensities show a 237 . swirl on a cut plane normal to the axial flow In the comparison of the swirl intensities among direction is represented by the swirl number the cases.21 to obtain a best fit 2 Is = (2) between the data and correlation presented in Eq. (3).  exp(   s ) (3) Sudo et al. the dissipation characteristics of velocities are not measured in the experiment. at Re = 34132. Based on Eq. (1990) with LDA dimensional mesh with the same area as the pipe in bent pipe flow with two different radii of section because of the use of unstructured meshes curvature. the swirl intensities along the the swirl obtained by Sudo et al. CHARACTERIZATION OF SECONDARY experimental facility used in this study. 17. 16 shows planar 2-D meshes inserted code Phoenics. In the cases of curvature secondary flow downstream of the elbow with radii lower than or equal to Al-Rafai et al. However. the dark-colored areas mean the 2-D conditions as in Al-Rafai et al. Transitions of across the elbows consists of two counter-rotating the swirl intensities along the pipe for the three vortices or swirls. a direct flows. I s dissipates to 10% of its where I s is the swirl intensity. secondary flow in the downstream region of the The swirl intensities for the three test conditions 90-degree elbow are discussed. U  dA 2 b  (3). U is the vector of initial value at approximately 11D downstream of the flow velocity and n̂ is a unit vector normal to the elbow. as shown in the figure. The numerical value  U  (U  nˆ)nˆ) dA   of  s is found to be 0. downstream of the elbow. (Run1. and the tangential velocities from Additionally. 2 (2014) 4. Table 4 shows the list of downstream pipe after the elbow is depicted in experiments used to characterize the swirl Fig.‘s experiment. (2) at different axial locations downstream of and the turbulence model give very acceptable the elbow is normalized by the value of intensity results. diminished along the downstream pipe. (2) shows the where the coefficient  s represents the rate at definition of the swirl intensity used for the elbow which the secondary flow intensity decreases flows in this study. in this study.49 and 6.‘s curvature radius of 3D.

dissipating quicker as the radius of the elbow curvature is larger. No.‘s study.49D. and two for Al-Rafai quickly compared to the other cases.‘s experimental data. in the case of Al. 6. elbow. three Rafai et al. However. In order to select an appropriate curvature. It was found that the swirl intensity defined in terms of area averaged tangential velocity Table 4 Tests and their conditions used for study of decreases exponentially along the flow after the swirl characterization.‘s larger bend (6. 19 Dependency of decay of normalized swirl a turbulent flow in a pipe with a 90-degree elbow intensity along pipe on radius of elbow was performed. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics Vol. As a future work. 2D 60000 the bend curvature. The swirl intensities at the Al-Rafai et al. et al. on radius of elbow curvature.‘s study) are compared in Figs. 3. a quantitative assessment method based on hit rate was applied by using Sudo et al. it is required to Fig. The non-linear turbulence models showed a good predictability for the streamwise velocity components but they gave poor results in secondary swirling velocity components. additional studies are necessary to provide a correlation between swirl intensity and the elbow radius of curvature.000 to 200. However. 2 (2014) very similar trend of decay even with different The swirl intensities at the exit of the elbows for Reynolds numbers. The experiments on turbulent flows in the pipe with an elbow with a curvature radius of 3D were conducted by varying the Reynolds number. 20 and 21. the five cases (one for Sudo et al. it decays very for the current experiments. 8.975D). turbulence model for the turbulent flow in the bent pipe. It was also found that Test Radius of elbow curvature (Rc) Reynolds number (Re) this dissipation characteristic depends weakly on Current 3D 50000 ∼200000 the Reynolds number in the range of Reynolds numbers investigated in this study and strongly on Sudo et al. the characteristics Fig. It was found from the experimental and numerical study that there is a strong similarity in streamwise velocity profiles in the range of Reynolds number from 50.000. turbulence models for complicated swirling flows. and numerically simulated using the RNG k-ε turbulence model to evaluate the dependency of a flow after the elbow on the Reynolds number. It is observed that the swirl intensity at the exit of the elbows has a weak dependence on the flow Reynolds number and a higher dependence on the radius of curvature of the bend.975D 34132 exit of the elbows also display similar characteristics. 21 Dependency of swirl intensity at exit of elbow of swirl intensity after an elbow were examined. 5. 238 . Using the numerical method and turbulence model selected from this study. experimental and numerical work on Fig. CONCLUSIONS In this study. 20 Reynolds number dependency of swirl study the applicability of the non-linear intensity at exit of elbow. The assessment showed that the RNG k-ε turbulence model gives good results for primary streamwise velocity and secondary swirling velocity profiles compared to other turbulence models.

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