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ANIMAL PRODUCTION

Housing Systems of Poultry

There are four systems of housing generally found to follow among the poultry keepers. The type of housing adopted
depends to a large extent on the amount of ground and the capital available.

1. Free-range or extensive system
2. Semi-intensive system
3. Folding unit system
4. Intensive system

A. Battery system
B. Deep litter system

Free range system: This method is oldest of all and has been used for centuries by general farmers, where there is no
shortage of land.

This system allows great but not unlimited, space to the birds on land where they can find an appreciable amount of food
in the form of herbage, seeds and insects, provided they are protected from predatory animals and infectious diseases
including parasitic infestation. At present due to advantages of intensive methods the system is almost absolute.

Semi-intensive system: This system is adopted where the amount of free spare available is limited, but it is necessary to
allow the birds 20-30 square yards per bird of outside run. Wherever possible, this space should be divided giving a run on
either side of the house of 10-15 square yards per bird, thus enabling the birds to move onto fresh ground.

Folding unit System: This system of housing is an innovation of recent years. In portable folding unit’s birds being
confined to one small run, the position is changed each day, giving them fresh ground and the birds find a considerable
proportion of food from the herbage are healthier and harder. For the farmer the beneficial effect of scratching and
manuring on the land is another side effect.

The disadvantages are that food and water must be carded out to the birds and eggs brought back and there is some extra
labor involved in the regular moving of the fold units. The most convenient folding unit to handle is that which is made
for 25 hens. A Floor space of 1 square fool should be allowed for each bird in the house, and 3 square feet in the run, so
that a total floor space to whole unit is 4 square feet per bird, as with the intensive system. A suitable measurement for a
folding house to take 25 birds is 5 feet wide and 20 feet long, the house being 5' X 5', one third of Ibis fun. The part
nearest the house is covered in and the remaining 10' open with wire netting sides and lop.

Intensive system:

In this system the birds are confined to the house entirely, with no access to land outside, and it is usually adopted where
land is limited and expensive.

This has only been made possible by admitting the direct rays of the sun on the floor of the house so that par to the
windows are removable, or either fold or slide down like windows of railway train to permit the ultraviolet rays to reach
the birds. Under the intensive system, Battery (cage system) and deep litter methods are most common.

A. Battery system: This appliance is the inventor's latest contribution to the commercial egg farmer. This is the most
intensive type of poultry production and is useful to those with only a small quantity of floor space at their disposal.
Nowadays in large cities hardly a poultry lover can spare open lands for rearing birds. For all such people this system will
prove worthy of keeping birds al minimum space.

In the battery system each hen is confined to a cage just large enough to permit very limited movement and allow her to
stand and sit comfortably. The usual floor space is 14 X 16 inches and the height, 17 inches. The floor is of standard
strong galvanized wire set at a slope from back to the front, so that the eggs as they are laid roll out of the cage to a
receiving gutter. Underneath is a tray for droppings. Both food and water receptacles are outside the cage. Many small
cages can be assembled together; if necessary It may be multistoried. The whole structure should be of metal so that no
parasites will be harbored and through disinfection can be carried out as often as required. Provided the batteries of cages
are set up in the place which is well ventilated and lighted, is not too hot and is vermin proof and that the food meets all
nutritional needs, this system has proved to be remarkably successful in [lie tropical countries. It may be that as it requires
a minimum expenditure of energy from the bird, which spends its entire item in the shade, it lessens the load of excess
body heat. The performance of each bird can be noted and culling easily carried out. Pullets, which are more often used
than birds of over one year, should be placed in the cages at least one month before they are expected to lay.

and easy to always keep your goats safe from all types of predators. The build-up has to be carried out correctly to give desired results. Both types are easily maintained. clear span pole shed The clear span provides more space for equipment to remove manure and thus any side of the building can be open to the environment. The gable end of the barn is recommended to be open so that the discharge of rain and snow is not over the open side of the building. Goat Housing Over Pole This type of houses are made over pole. You can construct the house over ground or over concrete poles. Diseases are less in this housing system. because it is very easy to clean. This is the least expensive of new structures and very easy to build. Pole barns of this design can be partitioned for groups of animals without complicated interior construction. But concrete houses have many advantages. In other words we can define deep litter. Deep litter resembles to dry compost. saw dust or leaves up to depth of 8-12 inches. The renovation costs are usually less than the cost of a new structure. This is the most common house for goats. But you must have to keep the house dry and clean always. The back end of the structure may be dark and damp and may need additional design attention for ventilation and lighting. yeast. cod liver oil. Manure removal is a major piece of the renovation plan. Types of Cattle House Open sided. When the gable end is open. Types of Goat House You can make your goat house by using various designs. which takes very little attention. The floor of the house heights about 1 to 1. goat housing. as the accumulation of the material used for litter with poultry manure until it reaches a depth of 8 to 12 inches. Deep litter system: In this system the poultry birds are kept in large pens up to 250 birds each. on floor covered with litters like straw. . B. hence the vegetative eggs will be there. as the birds are entirely dependent on the mash for maintenance and production. goat housing system Goat Housing Over Ground Generally this type of houses are made over the ground. Lighting and ventilation are usually adequate in former dairy facilities for use by beef cattle. the bays areas are usually deeper and provide more protection from the wind. You can make the floor of this type of goat house with brick and cement or simply with soil. Two types of house are most common for raising goats. and slightly expensive. Free stall barns are the ideal dairy facility for use with beef cattle since the manure handling is already set-up. One disadvantage is the heat and ventilation problems during the summer months. goat housing requirements. goat house. And specific goat housing design is suitable for specific production purpose. Hoop barns are similar to greenhouses. and balanced minerals and some form of grit must be made available. Hoop Barns One of the least expensive structures for housing cattle is the hoop barn. This type of housing is more practical for smaller sized herds (under 20 head of cattle). dried milk powder are useful/ and fish meal or other animal protein. This types of house is very suitable for goat farming. which can be preserved for a longer time than fertilized eggs at ordinary room temperature but can never be used for hatching purposes. And you can easily clean the closet and urine of goat form the house. Conventional tie stalls that are used on New England dairy farms with a gutter are not recommended. flood water etc. But it is very expensive method of goat housing. but this should not pose an issue if you are planning on grazing your cattle during the warmer climate months. Concrete House This types of goat houses are fully made with concrete. It will be better. Open sided.5 meters (3.5 to 5 ft) from the ground. single slope roof shed This type of housing is most typical of structures used and is suitable for all cattle on the farm. Open sheds should face the south for winter sun and block the prevailing winds. This type of house keeps the goat free from damping condition. Former Dairy Barns Today there are many unused dairy barns due to dairy farmers either retiring or dispersing. The poles and floor in this housing system are usually made with bamboo or wood. To supply vitamins A and D.The feeding of birds in cages has to be carefully considered. goat housing design. Diseases are also less in this housing system. As in each cage there will be only pullets so one can never expect fertilized eggs. It is very easy to clean the house. if you can spread some dry straw over the floor in this housing system. types of goat housing.

Ameraucanas tend to be hardy in both cold and hot climates and come in a variety of colors. The Boer goat is considered far superior to any other goat for meat. They are friendly and can sometimes be shy. where it is thought to have originated. which also makes them excellent meat birds. Buff Brahmas and Dark Brahmas lay medium size brown eggs and enjoy being around people. The gentle Brahma personality makes this chicken breed an excellent choice for children. but can be almost any color. For this reason the Leghorn is one of the most common commercial breeds in the U. gentle. They are prolific egg layers (200 – 280 per year). pendulous ears. docile. and a roman nose.” this breed originally came from Chile in South America. Toggenburgs The Toggenburg or Toggenburger is a Swiss breed of dairy goat. and dark brown. has long. They are also great brown egg layers – up to 280 per year. GOAT Nubian This is the most popular breed. . Brahma chickens are an excellent breed for backyard flocks. Most of the white eggs in grocery stores are laid by Leghorns. This breed of goats is generally all-white. It is among the most productive breeds of dairy goat. They reach a considerable size of up to 9. kind. Leghorn Leghorns are known for their hardiness and egg laying abundance. Nubian milk is therefore good for cheese making. around 300 per year. Holstein Fresian Holstein Friesian cows can be traced back more than 2000 years. Non-aggressive. friendly and not too noisy. They were first introduced to Australia in 1829 and spread throughout Australia with the Australian Jersey Herd Society being formed in the early 1900’s. Buff and Dark Brahmas also have a bantam (miniature) counterpart. Jersey cattle are generally characterised as being a hardy. including white and gray. They were first imported into Australia in the mid 1800’s. Saanens Saanens are another Swiss breed. They possess a single red or rose colored comb which needs to be protected from frostbite in the winter (a little Vaseline will do the trick). This breed is large. Ameraucana Also known as the “Easter Egg Chicken.JERSEY Jersey cows originated from English Channel Island of Jersey. to various shades of green and a few light brownish/pink eggs. These birds are one of the most popular breeds for backyard chicken keepers. The Boer Goat The Boer Goat was developed in South Africa as a breed meant solely for meat production. with forward-facing ears. Nubians have a high butterfat content in their milk.KINDS OF BREEDS Chicken The Plymouth Rock. Buff and Dark Brahma. Brahma chickens also have feathered legs. These birds make a striking presence in your backyard. These goats are large. The Nubian breed originated in the United Kingdom from British and Near-East descendants. and friendly. Cattle . They are characterized as being a versatile. Because of their copious feathers. a few kilometres from the coast of France. Its name derives from that of the Toggenburg region of the Canton of St. They are typically a light cream to dark brown in colour. buff. but enjoy human company. Ameraucanas also have a bantam (miniature) counterpart. Brahma The Brahma breed comes in several varieties: Light Brahma. The color of their egg shells vary from pale blue to dark blue. small breed with high milk composition (protein and butterfat percentage) and medium milk yield. Goats of this breed usually are brown.5 pounds. The name Holstein Friesian is derived from the province of Friesland in the Netherlands and Schleswig-Holstein in the Rhine delta region. They are hardy in cold weather. and large. Gallen.S. Brahma breeds tend to do better in colder climates. discovered by the Araucana Indians. Ameraucana chickens are wonderful backyard flock members. They are very adaptable and happy in a fenced coop or free-ranging outdoors. or Barred Rock was developed in New England. wide.

The type of feed you give to your chickens is dictated by the age: Chicks . The breed’s coat colour can vary greatly from any shade of red or brown with white or mahogany. and minerals. we have access to alfalfa/bermuda pellets & alfalfa hay. Hay can come in the form of actual bales. Coat colour is predominantly rich red. There is a slight boost in milk when I feed grain and I notice that my goats have more energy as well. This feed is called ‘growers pellets’ or ‘growers mash’. They are the most numerous dairy breed in Australia making up more than 60 % of commercial milking cows in Australia.  Minerals – (1-2% of their diet) – Minerals are an important part of a goat’s diet. Red Breeds & Illawarras Illawarra cows originated from cross breeding a number of breeds in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. They are characterized as an extremely hardy breed with medium too high milk yield and high milk protein content and medium milk fat content. Arizona friends – The grain I purchase is very similar to this brand here. Guensey’s. When they are pregnant or lactating. in fact. Other Breeds Numerous other pure breeds exist making up a minor proportion of the total commercial milk cows in Australia. This feed is typically 15-16% protein.  Forage – Foraging for food is something goats love to do. These are roughly 19% protein. The breed’s colour is typically black and white. don’t get around to it much. I’m not referring to that yellow straw from the feed store. then once they start lactating. I’m referring to a green hay like alfalfa. and suitable for chicks. chickens do lots of growing so will need a type of feed to help them do that. Protein is particularly important for growing chickens and for producing eggs. slugs and snails.From hatching to 5 weeks old chicks will need to be fed ‘chick crumbs’.large breed with medium milk composition and high milk yield.  Grain – (0-10% of their diet) – Goats don’t need grain to survive. ranging from almost totally white to totally black. Pullet . we give 1 cup of grain for every quart of milk they produce. It’s my opinion that because our soil is depleted of minerals. However. with the soil depletion of today. They have been recognized as an individual breed since 1910. It’s wise to only feed a small amount of grain and not overdo it. A free ranging hen will be good at finding protein by foraging for meaty insect such as worms. But lots of hens today don’t have the ability to find those insect on a daily basis so need a feed that has all nutrition she needs.  How I feed my goats: Here in Arizona. timothy. or in the form of compressed pellets. Goat and Cattle  Pasture or Hay (90-100% of their diet) – Pasture is fresh land that is filled with lots of various grasses & weeds. Some other breeds include milking shorthorns. as well as 12- 16% extra protein. or a combination of both. they can live happily on pasture or hay. grains can help provide extra vitamins & minerals.From 6 weeks to 18 weeks.  How I feed my goats: We like to “forage” for our goats by taking bags of weeds or grass from our neighbors and giving our goats some foraged treats for them. goats need grains in order to thrive. They were first imported into Australia in the 1850’s.  How I feed my goats: We do this mineral protocol here.When your chickens start to lay eggs they will needs to be fed ‘layers pellets’ or ‘layers mash’. They love it! . you need to make sure that your goats aren’t missing out on any essential elements. A good layer will stop producing as many eggs if she doesn’t have enough protein in her diet. Devons and Brown Swiss. though some cattle are either roam or red with a little white on the flanks.  How I feed my goats: At the end of our goats’ pregnancies. we feed a handful of grain each day. They are characterized as having a medium to high milk composition and medium to high milk yield. but in a domestic setting. Like I said before. This is usually 15-17% protein and will help them to regularly lay eggs. there is a large amount of commercial dairy cows in Australia that are a cross between any combinations of the breeds above. Laying hens . When I say “hay”. carbohydrate. Ayreshire Ayreshire cows originated from Ayr in the southwest of Scotland. FEEDING What Type Of Feed Do My Chickens Need? Chickens need a balanced diet of protein. I’ve put my goats on a 100% pasture and hay diet (also called grass-fed) and I’ve also fed them grain. or bermuda. There are only few whole Ayreshire herds being commercially milked in Australia. vitamins. We purchase both and feed it free choice to our goats.

then these must be relevant arrangements to handle unsold products to prolong shelf-life and avoid human does losses. This is mostly felt with chickens. Care must also be taken while transporting them since heak down of delivery trucks within immediate alternative will lead to condemnation of products. So provision must be made for their feeding otherwise they will lose condition before they are sold. Most of the livestock products such as meat. The are alive and transporting them from one place to another and involve a lot of stress which leads to reduction in weight or and value. pigs and small ruminants.MARKETING Livestock are alive must continue to feed even when they are in the market. eggs milk are perishable. . A lot of care is required in transporting them from distant places otherwise much don will be sustained due to loss of condition and morality.

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